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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427080/amphetamine-primes-enhanced-motivation-toward-uncertain-choices-in-rats-with-genetic-alcohol-preference
#1
Ville Oinio, Mikko Sundström, Pia Bäckström, Johanna Uhari-Väänänen, Kalervo Kiianmaa, Atso Raasmaja, Petteri Piepponen
RATIONALE: Comorbidity with gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is well documented. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of genetic alcohol drinking tendency on reward-guided decision making behavior of rats and the impact of dopamine releaser D-amphetamine on this behavior. METHODS: In this study, Alko alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through long periods of operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the profitable of two options...
February 9, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402923/handling-method-alters-the-hedonic-value-of-reward-in-laboratory-mice
#2
Jasmine M Clarkson, Dominic M Dwyer, Paul A Flecknell, Matthew C Leach, Candy Rowe
Mice are the most widely used model species for drug discovery and scientific research. Consequently, it is important to refine laboratory procedures and practices to ensure high standards of welfare and scientific data quality. Recent studies have identified that the standard practice of handling laboratory mice by their tails increases behaviours indicative of anxiety, which can be overcome by handling mice using a tunnel. However, despite clear negative effects on mice's behaviour, tunnel handling has yet to be widely implemented...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355692/pregabalin-induces-conditioned-place-preference-in-the-rat-during-the-early-but-not-late-stage-of-neuropathic-pain
#3
Yuta Asaoka, Takahiro Kato, Soichiro Ide, Taiju Amano, Masabumi Minami
The present study aimed to examine the rewarding effects of pain relief during the early and late stages of neuropathic pain using a conditioned place preference (CPP) test. Animal models of neuropathic pain were prepared by spinal nerve ligation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Intraperitoneal and intrathecal injections of pregabalin (300 mg/kg and 100 μg/10 μL, respectively) suppressed allodynia in the von Frey test both 2 weeks (early stage) and 4 weeks (late stage) after nerve injury. Intraperitoneal and intrathecal injections of pregabalin induced CPP during the early stage of neuropathic pain, suggesting that the CPP test serves as an objective and quantifiable behavioral assay to assess the emotional aspect of pain relief...
January 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349037/family-history-of-alcoholism-and-the-human-brain-response-to-oral-sucrose
#4
William J A Eiler, Mario Dzemidzic, Christina M Soeurt, Claire R Carron, Brandon G Oberlin, Robert V Considine, Jaroslaw Harezlak, David A Kareken
A heightened hedonic response to sweet tastes has been associated with increased alcohol preference and alcohol consumption in both humans and animals. The principal goal of this study was to examine blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation to high- and low-concentration sweet solutions in subjects who are either positive (FHP) or negative (FHN) for a family history of alcoholism. Seventy-four non-treatment seeking, community-recruited, healthy volunteers (22.8 ± 1.6 SD years; 43% men) rated a range of sucrose concentrations in a taste test and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during oral delivery of water, 0...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273854/imidacloprid-slows-the-development-of-preference-for-rewarding-food-sources-in-bumblebees-bombus-impatiens
#5
Jordan D Phelps, Caroline G Strang, Malgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Tomasz Sniegocki, Andrzej Posyniak, David F Sherry
Bee pollination is economically and ecologically vital and recent declines in bee populations are therefore a concern. One possible cause of bee declines is pesticide use. Bumblebees exposed to imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid pesticide, have been shown to be less efficient foragers and collect less pollen on foraging trips than unexposed bees. We investigated whether bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) chronically exposed to imidacloprid at field-realistic levels of 2.6 and 10 ppb showed learning deficits that could affect foraging...
December 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239088/quantitative-evaluation-of-cue-induced-reinstatement-model-for-evidence-based-experimental-optimization
#6
Julia Oberhofer, Hamid R Noori
Cue-induced reinstatement is a widely used model for investigating relapse of reward-seeking behavior with high face validity in relation to clinical observations. Yet, face validity is not sufficient to evaluate an animal model, and quantitative, evidence-based analysis is required to estimate the ultimate applicability of this paradigm. Furthermore, such analysis would allow an accurate and reproducible design of future experiments. Here, we conducted meta-analysis and cluster analysis to characterize the impact of cue type (visual, auditory, olfactory or combinations thereof), intensity (e...
December 14, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214467/different-functional-domains-measured-by-cocaine-self-administration-under-the-progressive-ratio-and-punishment-schedules-in-male-wistar-rats
#7
Udita Datta, Mariangela Martini, WenLin Sun
BACKGROUND: Current diagnosis of drug addiction like other mental disorders is based on clinical symptoms not on neural pathophysiology and consequently, does not provide useful information on the underlying pathophysiology and may impede the efforts to identify the underlying mechanisms. Identifying the functional deficits that are relevant to addiction and can be traced to the neural systems will greatly facilitate our understanding of the heterogeneity of the condition and improve future diagnosis and treatment...
December 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197982/dissociation-of-place-preference-and-tolerance-responses-to-sucrose-using-a-dopamine-antagonist-in-the-planarian
#8
Rafat A Mohammed Jawad, Claire V Hutchinson, Jose Prados
In rodents, sucrose has been found to elicit addictive-like behaviours like the development of tolerance and the association with cues present at the time of consumption. Furthermore, the neurochemical response to sucrose binges is equivalent to the one observed in response to the abuse of addictive substances like cocaine. The experiments reported here address the effects of sucrose on an invertebrate model, the Platyhelminth brown planarian. The animals exposed to a 10% sucrose solution in one context developed a conditioned place preference (CPP) which was subsequently extinguished in the absence of the rewarding agent...
December 2, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175512/altering-d1-receptor-activity-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-impairs-fear-suppression-during-a-safety-cue
#9
Ka H Ng, Michael W Pollock, Phillip J Urbanczyk, Susan Sangha
Accurate discrimination among cues signifying reward, danger or safety initiates the proper emotional response in order to guide behavior. Appropriate conditioned inhibition of fear in the presence of a safety cue would allow an organism to engage in reward seeking behaviors. There is currently little known about the mechanisms of reward, fear and safety cue discrimination and how a safety cue can inhibit fear and release reward seeking from inhibition. Here we assess reward, fear and safety cue learning together using a behavioral paradigm that has identified neurons that discriminate among these cues in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) (Sangha, Chadick, & Janak, 2013)...
November 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168193/the-effects-of-long-term-varenicline-administration-on-ethanol-and-sucrose-seeking-and-self-administration-in-male-p-rats
#10
Cristine L Czachowski, Janice C Froehlich, Michael DeLory
BACKGROUND: Varenicline, a partial agonist at α4β2 and full agonist at α7 nicotinic cholinergic receptors, is FDA approved for treatment of smoking cessation and has been found to reduce alcohol craving in clinical populations. In rodents, varenicline decreases free-choice ethanol intake with somewhat mixed findings in operant paradigms that utilize a combined appetitive/consummatory response. METHODS: The present experiment utilized an operant paradigm that procedurally separates appetitive from consummatory responding and a "reward blocking" approach (i...
November 23, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153928/enhancing-excitability-of-dopamine-neurons-promotes-motivational-behaviour-through-increased-action-initiation
#11
Linde Boekhoudt, Ellen C Wijbrans, Jodie H K Man, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Johannes W de Jong, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Roger A H Adan
Motivational deficits are a key symptom in multiple psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, schizophrenia and addiction. A likely neural substrate for these motivational deficits is the brain dopamine (DA) system. In particular, DA signalling in the nucleus accumbens, which originates from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been identified as a crucial substrate for effort-related and activational aspects of motivation. Unravelling how VTA DA neuronal activity relates to motivational behaviours is required to understand how motivational deficits in psychiatry can be specifically targeted...
November 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146502/protracted-motivational-dopamine-related-deficits-following-adolescence-sugar-overconsumption
#12
Fabien Naneix, Florence Darlot, Véronique De Smedt-Peyrusse, Jean-Rémi Pape, Etienne Coutureau, Martine Cador
Adolescence represents a critical period characterized by major neurobiological changes. Chronic stimulation of the reward system during adolescence might constitute an important factor of vulnerability to pathological development. Increasing evidences suggest that adolescent overconsumption of sweet palatable foods impact reward-based processes. However, the neurobiological bases of these deficits remain poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated motivational deficits for palatable foods after sweet diet exposure during adolescence that might involve the dopamine (DA) system, a central actor in incentive processes...
February 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141007/escitalopram-and-nht-normalized-stress-induced-anhedonia-and-molecular-neuroadaptations-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression
#13
Or Burstein, Motty Franko, Eyal Gale, Assaf Handelsman, Segev Barak, Shai Motsan, Alon Shamir, Roni Toledano, Omri Simhon, Yafit Hirshler, Gang Chen, Ravid Doron
Anhedonia is defined as a diminished ability to obtain pleasure from otherwise positive stimuli. Anxiety and mood disorders have been previously associated with dysregulation of the reward system, with anhedonia as a core element of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether stress-induced anhedonia could be prevented by treatments with escitalopram or novel herbal treatment (NHT) in an animal model of depression. Unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) was administered for 4 weeks on ICR outbred mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127070/an-early-experience-of-mild-adversity-involving-temporary-denial-of-maternal-contact-affects-the-serotonergic-system-of-adult-male-rats-and-leads-to-a-depressive-like-phenotype-and-inability-to-adapt-to-a-chronic-social-stress
#14
Anastasia Diamantopoulou, Theodora Kalpachidou, Georgios Aspiotis, Ioannis Gampierakis, Fotini Stylianopoulou, Antonios Stamatakis
Adverse early life experiences can affect adaptability to chronic stressors and lead to depressive-like behaviors in animal models. We employed an early experience model in which rat pups during postnatal days 10-13 are exposed to a T-maze in which they learn the location of their mother motivated by the rewarding stimulus of maternal contact; one group of rats receives the expected reward, by being allowed contact with the mother upon finding her, while the other group is temporarily denied this contact (Denied Expected Reward, DER), thus experiencing mild adversity...
November 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126998/high-runner-mice-have-reduced-incentive-salience-for-a-sweet-taste-reward-when-housed-with-wheel-access
#15
Zoe Thompson, Erik M Kolb, Theodore Garland
To explore reward substitution in the context of voluntary exercise, female mice from four replicate high-runner (HR) lines (bred for wheel running) and four non-selected control (C) lines were given simultaneous access to wheels and palatable solutions as competing rewards (two doses of saccharin [0.1, 0.2% w/v]; two doses of common artificial sweetener blends containing saccharin [Sweet 'N Low(®): 0.1, 0.2% w/v], aspartame [Equal(®): 0.04, 0.08% w/v], or sucralose [Splenda(®): 0.08, 0.16% w/v]; or two doses of sucrose [3...
November 7, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109253/a-transient-dopamine-signal-encodes-subjective-value-and-causally-influences-demand-in-an-economic-context
#16
Scott A Schelp, Katherine J Pultorak, Dylan R Rakowski, Devan M Gomez, Gregory Krzystyniak, Raibatak Das, Erik B Oleson
The mesolimbic dopamine system is strongly implicated in motivational processes. Currently accepted theories suggest that transient mesolimbic dopamine release events energize reward seeking and encode reward value. During the pursuit of reward, critical associations are formed between the reward and cues that predict its availability. Conditioned by these experiences, dopamine neurons begin to fire upon the earliest presentation of a cue, and again at the receipt of reward. The resulting dopamine concentration scales proportionally to the value of the reward...
November 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100991/cue-induced-reinstatement-of-alcohol-seeking-behavior-is-associated-with-increased-camkii-t286-phosphorylation-in-the-reward-pathway-of-mice
#17
Michael C Salling, Christopher J Hodge, Kelly E Psilos, Vallari R Eastman, Sara P Faccidomo, Clyde W Hodge
Cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking is a hallmark behavioral pathology of addiction. Evidence suggests that reinstatement (e.g., relapse), may be regulated by cell signaling systems that underlie neuroplasticity. A variety of plasticity events require activation of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in components of the reward pathway, such as the nucleus accumbens and amygdala. We sought to determine if cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior is associated with changes in the activation state (e...
October 31, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100151/aripiprazole-relieves-motivational-anhedonia-in-rats
#18
Simona Scheggi, Teresa Pelliccia, Carla Gambarana, Maria Graziella De Montis
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is considered a relevant feature in depression and psychosis, characterized by poor treatment outcome, and associated with deficits in mesolimbic dopaminergic responsiveness. Clinical studies suggest the potential utility of aripiprazole as adjunctive therapy for resistant depression. Since aripiprazole can stabilize the dopaminergic system, in search of tailored therapeutic strategies for reward dysfunctions, we investigated whether the drug restored motivation toward positive stimuli in a rat model...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075568/divergent-anomaly-in-mesocorticolimbic-dopaminergic-circuits-might-be-associated-with-different-depressive-behaviors-an-animal-study
#19
Mei Bai, Xiongzhao Zhu, Li Zhang, Yi Zhang, Liang Xue, Yuting Wang, Mingtian Zhong, Xiuwu Zhang
BACKGROUND: The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which originates from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projects primarily to the prefrontal cortex (PFC), olfactory tubercle (OT), nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (ST), and the amygdala (AMy), plays a pivotal role in determining individual motivation and sensitivity to rewards, namely, anhedonia. Not all depressive individuals exhibited anhedonia, thus, it is natural to speculate that the heterogenous manifestations of depression might be related to the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073109/opioid-and-orexin-hedonic-hotspots-in-rat-orbitofrontal-cortex-and-insula
#20
Daniel C Castro, Kent C Berridge
Hedonic hotspots are brain sites where particular neurochemical stimulations causally amplify the hedonic impact of sensory rewards, such as "liking" for sweetness. Here, we report the mapping of two hedonic hotspots in cortex, where mu opioid or orexin stimulations enhance the hedonic impact of sucrose taste. One hedonic hotspot was found in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and another was found in posterior insula. A suppressive hedonic coldspot was also found in the form of an intervening strip stretching from the posterior OFC through the anterior and middle insula, bracketed by the two cortical hotspots...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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