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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038598/male-specific-deficits-in-natural-reward-learning-in-a-mouse-model-of-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#1
N M Grissom, S E McKee, H Schoch, N Bowman, R Havekes, W T O'Brien, E Mahrt, S Siegel, K Commons, C Portfors, T Nickl-Jockschat, T M Reyes, T Abel
Neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, are highly male biased, but the underpinnings of this are unknown. Striatal dysfunction has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders, raising the question of whether there are sex differences in how the striatum is impacted by genetic risk factors linked to neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we report male-specific deficits in striatal function important to reward learning in a mouse model of 16p11.2 hemideletion, a genetic mutation that is strongly associated with the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder...
October 17, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037599/neural-basis-of-ventromedial-hypothalamic-oxytocin-driven-decrease-in-appetite
#2
Oscar A Klockars, Joseph R Waas, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
OBJECTIVES: Oxytocin (OT) administration in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) reduces chow intake. The nature of VMH OT's anorexigenic action remains unclear. Here we provide insight into neural mechanisms underlying VMH OT-driven anorexia by (a) identifying feeding-related brain sites activated by VMH OT injection; (b) measuring VMH OT receptor (OTr) mRNA changes in response to hunger and palatability; and (c) examining how VMH OT affects episodic sweet solution intake in sated and hungry rats...
October 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033027/anhedonia-following-early-life-adversity-involves-aberrant-interaction-of-reward-and-anxiety-circuits-and-is-reversed-by-partial-silencing-of-amygdala-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-gene
#3
Jessica L Bolton, Jenny Molet, Limor Regev, Yuncai Chen, Neggy Rismanchi, Elizabeth Haddad, Derek Z Yang, Andre Obenaus, Tallie Z Baram
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia, the diminished ability to experience pleasure, is an important dimensional entity linked to depression, schizophrenia, and other emotional disorders, but its origins and mechanisms are poorly understood. We have previously identified anhedonia, manifest as decreased sucrose preference and social play, in adolescent male rats that experienced chronic early-life adversity/stress (CES). Here we probed the molecular, cellular, and circuit processes underlying CES-induced anhedonia and tested them mechanistically...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022083/adolescent-cannabinoid-exposure-effects-on-natural-reward-seeking-and-learning-in-rats
#4
H Schoch, M Y Huerta, C M Ruiz, M R Farrell, K M Jung, J J Huang, R R Campbell, D Piomelli, S V Mahler
RATIONALE: Adolescence is characterized by endocannabinoid (ECB)-dependent refinement of neural circuits underlying emotion, learning, and motivation. As a result, adolescent cannabinoid receptor stimulation (ACRS) with phytocannabinoids or synthetic agonists like "Spice" cause robust and persistent changes in both behavior and circuit architecture in rodents, including in reward-related regions like medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens (NAc). OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Here, we examine persistent effects of ACRS with the cannabinoid receptor 1/2 specific agonist WIN55-212,2 (WIN; 1...
October 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021748/binge-like-sucrose-self-administration-experience-inhibits-cocaine-and-sucrose-seeking-behavior-in-offspring
#5
Qiumin Le, Yanqing Li, Weiqing Hou, Biao Yan, Xiangchen Yu, Haikun Song, Feifei Wang, Lan Ma
Recent studies show that emotional and environmental stimuli promote epigenetic inheritance and influence behavioral development in the subsequent generations. Caloric mal- and under-nutrition has been shown to cause metabolic disturbances in the subsequent generation, but the incentive properties of paternal binge-like eating in offspring is still unknown. Here we show that paternal sucrose self-administration experience could induce inter-generational decrease in both sucrose and cocaine-seeking behavior, and sucrose responding in F1 rats, but not F2, correlated with the performance of F0 rats in sucrose self-administration...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021746/lever-insertion-as-a-salient-stimulus-promoting-insensitivity-to-outcome-devaluation
#6
Youna Vandaele, Heather J Pribut, Patricia H Janak
Flexible and efficient decision-making in complex environments can be achieved through constant interactions between the goal-directed and habitual systems. While goal-directed behavior is considered dependent upon Response-Outcome (R-O) associations, habits instead rely on Stimulus-Response (S-R) associations. However, the stimuli that support the S-R association underlying habitual responding in typical instrumental procedures are poorly defined. To resolve this issue, we designed a discrete-trials procedure, in which rats must wait for lever insertion and complete a sequence of five lever presses to obtain a reward (20% sucrose or grain-based pellets)...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990593/riluzole-impairs-cocaine-reinstatement-and-restores-adaptations-in-intrinsic-excitability-and-glt-1-expression
#7
Marian T Sepulveda-Orengo, Kati L Healey, Ronald Kim, Alyson C Auriemma, Jennifer Rojas, Nicholas Woronoff, Rachel Hyppolite, Kathryn J Reissner
Adaptations in glutamate signaling within the brain's reward circuitry are observed following withdrawal from several abused drugs, including cocaine. These include changes in intrinsic cellular excitability, glutamate release, and glutamate uptake. Pharmacological or optogenetic reversal of these adaptations have been shown to reduce measures of cocaine craving and seeking, raising the hypothesis that regulation of glutamatergic signaling represents a viable target for the treatment of substance use disorders...
October 9, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978665/medial-frontal-theta-is-entrained-to-rewarded-actions
#8
Linda M Amarante, Marcelo S Caetano, Mark Laubach
Rodents lick to consume fluids. The reward value of ingested fluids is likely to be encoded by neuronal activity entrained to the lick cycle. Here, we investigated relationships between licking and reward signaling by the medial frontal cortex [MFC], a key cortical region for reward-guided learning and decision-making. Multi-electrode recordings of spike activity and field potentials were made in male rats as they performed an incentive contrast licking task. Rats received access to higher and lower value sucrose rewards over alternating 30 sec periods...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964912/functional-coding-variation-in-the-presynaptic-dopamine-transporter-associated-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders-drives-enhanced-motivation-and-context-dependent-impulsivity-in-mice
#9
Gwynne L Davis, Adele Stewart, Gregg D Stanwood, Raajaram Gowrishankar, Maureen K Hahn, Randy D Blakely
Recent genetic analyses have provided evidence that clinical commonalities associated with different psychiatric diagnoses often have shared mechanistic underpinnings. The development of animal models expressing functional genetic variation attributed to multiple disorders offers a salient opportunity to capture molecular, circuit and behavioral alterations underlying this hypothesis. In keeping with studies suggesting dopaminergic contributions to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), subjects with these diagnoses have been found to express a rare, functional coding substitution in the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT), Ala559Val...
January 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935479/progressive-ratio-pr-schedules-and-the-sipometer-do-they-measure-wanting-liking-and-or-reward-a-tribute-to-anthony-sclafani-and-karen-ackroff
#10
H R Kissileff, M Herzog
This paper honors the contributions made by Anthony (Tony) Sclafani and Karen Ackroff to both the Columbia University Seminar on Appetitive Behavior and to the field of ingestive behavior in general. We review their use of the progressive ratio (PR) licking paradigm, to determine whether the taste of sucrose, independent of its post-ingestive effects, is always positively reinforcing in animals. They demonstrated a monotonic increase in licking as concentration increased, and obtained results identical to those obtained with a lever-pressing paradigm, but licking was easier and more natural than lever pressing...
September 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919371/perinatal-deficiency-in-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-potentiates-sucrose-reward-and-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice
#11
Stéphanie Auguste, Sandeep Sharma, Alexandre Fisette, Maria F Fernandes, Caroline Daneault, Christine Des Rosiers, Stephanie Fulton
Insufficient dietary intake of essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (N-3), especially during critical stages of development, is well-associated with negative neurological and metabolic consequences. The increased availability and intake of foods rich in saturated fat coincides with reduced N-3 consumption, yet how N-3 dietary deficiency during perinatal development modulates motivation for palatable food and interacts with a high-fat diet to affect body weight and emotional states is not clear. Pregnant C57Bl6 mice and pups were subjected to diets either deficient or adequate (control) in N-3 until postnatal day 21...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895569/the-effects-of-the-monoamine-stabilizer-osu6162-on-binge-like-eating-and-cue-controlled-food-seeking-behavior-in-rats
#12
K Feltmann, C Giuliano, B J Everitt, P Steensland, J Alsiö
Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by recurring episodes of excessive consumption of palatable food and an increased sensitivity to food cues. Patients with BED display an addiction-like symptomatology and the dopamine system might be a potential treatment target. The clinically safe monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 (OSU6162) restores dopaminergic dysfunction in long-term alcohol drinking rats and shows promise as a novel treatment for alcohol use disorder. Here, the effects of OSU6162 on consummatory (binge-like eating) and appetitive (cue-controlled seeking) behavior motivated by chocolate-flavored sucrose pellets were evaluated in non-food-restricted male Lister Hooded rats...
September 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894301/lateral-hypothalamic-glp-1-receptors-are-critical-for-the-control-of-food-reinforcement-ingestive-behavior-and-body-weight
#13
L López-Ferreras, J E Richard, E E Noble, K Eerola, R H Anderberg, K Olandersson, L Taing, S E Kanoski, M R Hayes, K P Skibicka
Increased motivation for highly rewarding food is a major contributing factor to obesity. Most of the literature focuses on the mesolimbic nuclei as the core of reward behavior regulation. However, the lateral hypothalamus (LH) is also a key reward-control locus in the brain. Here we hypothesize that manipulating glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activity selectively in the LH can profoundly affect food reward behavior, ultimately leading to obesity. Progressive ratio operant responding for sucrose was examined in male and female rats, following GLP-1R activation and pharmacological or genetic GLP-1R blockade in the LH...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880427/stigmatic-exudate-in-the-annonaceae-pollinator-reward-pollen-germination-medium-or-extragynoecial-compitum
#14
Jenny Y Y Lau, Chun-Chiu Pang, Lawrence Ramsden, Richard M K Saunders
Although 'dry-type' stigmas are widely regarded as ancestral in angiosperms, the early-divergent family Annonaceae has copious stigmatic exudate. We evaluate three putative functions for this exudate: as a nutritive reward for pollinators; as a pollen germination medium; and as an extragynoecial compitum that enables pollen tube growth between carpels. Stigmatic exudate is fructose dominated (72.2%), but with high levels of glucose and sucrose; the dominance of hexose sugars and the diversity of amino acids observed, including many that are essential for insects, supports a nutritive role for pollinators...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878636/do-insects-have-emotions-some-insights-from-bumble-bees
#15
David Baracchi, Mathieu Lihoreau, Martin Giurfa
While our conceptual understanding of emotions is largely based on human subjective experiences, research in comparative cognition has shown growing interest in the existence and identification of "emotion-like" states in non-human animals. There is still ongoing debate about the nature of emotions in animals (especially invertebrates), and certainly their existence and the existence of certain expressive behaviors displaying internal emotional states raise a number of exciting and challenging questions. Interestingly, at least superficially, insects (bees and flies) seem to fulfill the basic requirements of emotional behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861882/sucrose-enriched-diet-during-maturation-increases-ethanol-preference-in-rats
#16
M V Dorofeikova, A Yu Egorov, E V Filatova, A A Orlov
In the present study we used a diet enriched with 10% sucrose, which was consumed by adolescent animals of the experimental group for one month. We found that consumption of sweet food during sexual maturation affected alcohol preference, anxiety, and locomotor and exploratory activity in the adult rats. Our data show that easily available tasty food during adolescence probably impairs the reward system and serves as a trigger of future alcohol preference.
July 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859110/junk-food-diet-induced-obesity-increases-d2-receptor-autoinhibition-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-and-reduces-ethanol-drinking
#17
Jason B Cook, Linzy M Hendrickson, Grant M Garwood, Kelsey M Toungate, Christina V Nania, Hitoshi Morikawa
Similar to drugs of abuse, the hedonic value of food is mediated, at least in part, by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Prolonged intake of either high calorie diets or drugs of abuse both lead to a blunting of the DA system. Most studies have focused on DAergic alterations in the striatum, but little is known about the effects of high calorie diets on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Since high calorie diets produce addictive-like DAergic adaptations, it is possible these diets may increase addiction susceptibility...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858406/chemogenetic-activation-of-the-lateral-hypothalamus-reverses-early-life-stress-induced-deficits-in-motivational-drive
#18
Erin J Campbell, Caitlin S Mitchell, Cameron D Adams, Jiann Wei Yeoh, Deborah M Hodgson, Brett A Graham, Christopher V Dayas
Altered motivated behaviour is a cardinal feature of several neuropsychiatric conditions including mood disorders. One well-characterized antecedent to the development of mood disorders is exposure to early life stress (ELS). A key brain substrate controlling motivated behaviour is the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Here, we examined the effect of ELS on LH activation and the motivation to self-administer sucrose. We tested whether chemogenetic activation of LH circuits could modify sucrose responding in ELS rats and examined the impact on LH cell populations...
October 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852036/pheromones-modulate-reward-responsiveness-and-non-associative-learning-in-honey-bees
#19
David Baracchi, Jean-Marc Devaud, Patrizia d'Ettorre, Martin Giurfa
Pheromones are chemical messengers that trigger stereotyped behaviors and/or physiological processes in individuals of the same species. Recent reports suggest that pheromones can modulate behaviors not directly related to the pheromonal message itself and contribute, in this way, to behavioral plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by studying the effect of pheromones on sucrose responsiveness and habituation in honey bees. We exposed workers to three pheromone components: geraniol, which in nature is used in an appetitive context, and isopentyl acetate (IPA) and 2-heptanone (2H), which signal aversive situations...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851601/reduced-brain-response-to-a-sweet-taste-in-hispanic-young-adults
#20
Jacquelyn Szajer, Aaron Jacobson, Erin Green, Claire Murphy
Hispanics have an increased risk for metabolic disorders, which evidence suggests may be due to interactions between lifespan biological, genetic, and lifestyle factors. Studies show the diet of many U.S. Hispanic groups have high sugar consumption, which has been shown to influence future preference for and consumption of high-sugar foods, and is associated with increased risk for insulin-related disorders and obesity. Taste is a primary determinant of food preference and selection. Differences in neural response to taste have been associated with obesity...
November 1, 2017: Brain Research
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