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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507512/changes-in-dopamine-transmission-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-and-core-during-ethanol-and-sucrose-self-administration
#1
Valentina Bassareo, Flavia Cucca, Roberto Frau, Gaetano Di Chiara
Ethanol, like other substances of abuse, preferentially increases dopamine (DA) transmission in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc) following passive administration. It remains unclear, however, whether ethanol also increases NAc DA transmission following operant oral self-administration (SA). The NAc is made-up of a ventro-medial compartment, the shell and a dorso-lateral one, the core, where DA transmission responds differentially following exposure to drugs of abuse. Previous studies from our laboratory investigated changes in dialysate DA in the NAc shell and core of rats responding for sucrose pellets and for drugs of abuse...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495976/optogenetic-inhibition-of-ventral-pallidum-neurons-impairs-context-driven-salt-seeking
#2
Stephen E Chang, Elizabeth B Smedley, Katherine J Stansfield, Jeffrey J Stott, Kyle S Smith
Salt appetite, in which animals can immediately seek out salt when under a novel state of sodium deprivation, is a classic example of how homeostatic systems interface with learned associations to produce an on-the-fly updating of motivated behavior. Neural activity in the ventral pallidum (VP) has been shown to encode changes in the value of salt under such conditions, both the value of salt itself (Tindell et al., 2006) and the motivational value of its predictive cues (Tindell et al., 2009; Robinson & Berridge, 2013)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493981/within-session-decrement-of-the-emission-of-licking-bursts-following-reward-devaluation-in-rats-licking-for-sucrose
#3
Paolo S D'Aquila, Adriana Galistu
We previously observed that dopamine D2-like receptor blockade in rats licking for sucrose produced a within-session decrement of the emission of licking bursts similar to the effect of either reward devaluation, or neuroleptics, on operant responding for different rewards, which, accordingly, we interpreted as an extinction-like effect. This implies that exposing animals to reward devaluation would result in a drop of burst number taking place only after the contact with the devalued reward. To test this prediction, we compared the difference in the within-session time course of burst number in response to high (10%) versus low (2%) concentration sucrose solutions, either in a condition of reward devaluation (exposure to 2% after daily 10%), or in a condition which does not involve changes in the reward value (two groups of subjects each repeatedly exposed to only one of the two concentrations)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477089/the-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-roflumilast-decreases-ethanol-consumption-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#4
Xin Liu, Pi-Da Hao, Ming-Feng Yang, Jing-Yi Sun, Lei-Lei Mao, Cun-Dong Fan, Zong-Yong Zhang, Da-Wei Li, Xiao-Yi Yang, Bao-Liang Sun, Han-Ting Zhang
RATIONALE: Alcohol use disorders have become one of the most damaging psychiatric disorders in the world; however, there are no ideal treatments in clinic. Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4), an enzyme that specifically hydrolyzes intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP), has been involved in alcohol use disorders. Roflumilast is the first PDE4 inhibitor approved for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in clinic. It was of particular interest to researchers to determine whether roflumilast altered ethanol consumption...
May 6, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436980/amygdala-inputs-to-prefrontal-cortex-guide-behavior-amid-conflicting-cues-of-reward-and-punishment
#5
Anthony Burgos-Robles, Eyal Y Kimchi, Ehsan M Izadmehr, Mary Jane Porzenheim, William A Ramos-Guasp, Edward H Nieh, Ada C Felix-Ortiz, Praneeth Namburi, Christopher A Leppla, Kara N Presbrey, Kavitha K Anandalingam, Pablo A Pagan-Rivera, Melodi Anahtar, Anna Beyeler, Kay M Tye
Orchestrating appropriate behavioral responses in the face of competing signals that predict either rewards or threats in the environment is crucial for survival. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) and prelimbic (PL) medial prefrontal cortex have been implicated in reward-seeking and fear-related responses, but how information flows between these reciprocally connected structures to coordinate behavior is unknown. We recorded neuronal activity from the BLA and PL while rats performed a task wherein competing shock- and sucrose-predictive cues were simultaneously presented...
April 24, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436446/opioid-self-administration-is-attenuated-by-early-life-experience-and-gene-therapy-for-anti-inflammatory-il-10-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-male-rats
#6
Michael J Lacagnina, Ashley M Kopec, Stewart S Cox, Richa Hanamsagar, Corinne Wells, Susan Slade, Peter M Grace, Linda R Watkins, Edward D Levin, Staci D Bilbo
Early-life conditions can contribute to the propensity for developing neuropsychiatric disease, including substance abuse disorders. However, the long-lasting mechanisms that shape risk or resilience for drug addiction remain unclear. Previous work has shown that a neonatal handling procedure in rats (which promotes enriched maternal care) attenuates morphine conditioning, reduces morphine-induced glial activation, and increases microglial expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10)...
April 24, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432029/suppression-of-reward-induced-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-in-animal-models-of-depression-differential-responses-to-drug-treatment
#7
Saki Minami, Hiroshi Satoyoshi, Soichiro Ide, Takeshi Inoue, Mitsuhiro Yoshioka, Masabumi Minami
Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in previously enjoyable activities, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder, suggesting that the brain reward system may be dysfunctional in this condition. Neurochemical changes in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system are not fully understood in animal models of depression. We investigated reward (30% sucrose intake)-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the effect of chronic treatment with the antidepressant escitalopram (5mg/kg, intraperitoneally twice daily for 3 weeks) in two animal models of depression...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426970/thalamic-regulation-of-sucrose-seeking-during-unexpected-reward-omission
#8
Fabricio H Do-Monte, Angélica Minier-Toribio, Kelvin Quiñones-Laracuente, Estefanía M Medina-Colón, Gregory J Quirk
The paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) is thought to regulate behavioral responses under emotionally arousing conditions. Reward-associated cues activate PVT neurons; however, the specific PVT efferents regulating reward seeking remain elusive. Using a cued sucrose-seeking task, we manipulated PVT activity under two emotionally distinct conditions: (1) when reward was available during the cue as expected or (2) when reward was unexpectedly omitted during the cue. Pharmacological inactivation of the anterior PVT (aPVT), but not the posterior PVT, increased sucrose seeking only when reward was omitted...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426670/mice-expressing-a-hyper-sensitive-form-of-the-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-show-modestly-enhanced-alcohol-preference-and-consumption
#9
David J Marcus, Angela N Henderson-Redmond, Maciej Gonek, Michael L Zee, Jill C Farnsworth, Randa A Amin, Mary-Jeanette Andrews, Brian J Davis, Ken Mackie, Daniel J Morgan
We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a "hyper-sensitive" form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6%) but not higher concentrations of ethanol...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408300/%C3%AE-9-nachr-knockout-mice-exhibit-dysregulation-of-stress-responses-affect-and-reward-related-behaviour
#10
Sarasa A Mohammadi, Thomas J Burton, MacDonald J Christie
The α9α10-subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has recently garnered interest in biomedicine and is being pursued as an analgesic target. However, the receptor exhibits diverse tissue distribution, the function of which is known to varying degrees, and targeting this receptor for clinical treatments without a broad understanding of its function may have adverse consequences. The α9α10-nAChR is expressed in the adrenal and pituitary glands, suggesting a potential role in the stress response, but little is known about its function in this tissue...
April 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401284/targeting-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-a-preclinical-model-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#11
Yann Pelloux, Christelle Baunez
BACKGROUND: The subthalamic nucleus (STN) has only recently been considered to have a role in reward processing. In rats, inactivation of the STN by lesion or high-frequency stimulation (HFS) decreases motivation for cocaine but increases motivation for sucrose. For ethanol, the effect of STN lesion depends on the individual's baseline intake; decreasing motivation for ethanol in rats with lower ethanol intake, while increasing motivation for ethanol in rats with higher-but still limited-ethanol intake...
April 11, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389340/genetic-predisposition-to-obesity-affects-behavioural-traits-including-food-reward-and-anxiety-like-behaviour-in-rats
#12
Heike Vogel, Maria Kraemer, Cristina Rabasa, Kaisa Askevik, Roger A H Adan, Suzanne L Dickson
Here we sought to define behavioural traits linked to anxiety, reward, and exploration in different strains of rats commonly used in obesity research. We hypothesized that genetic variance may contribute not only to their metabolic phenotype (that is well documented) but also to the expression of these behavioural traits. Rat strains that differ in their susceptibility to develop an obese phenotype (Sprague-Dawley, Obese Prone, Obese Resistant, and Zucker rats) were exposed to a number of behavioural tests starting at the age of 8 weeks...
April 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374264/bumblebees-at-work-in-an-emotion-like-state
#13
C M S Plowright
Pretest sucrose affects a dopamine-modulated response of bumblebees to an ambiguous cue to reward as well as a response to a simulated attack (Perry, Baciadonna, & Chittka, Science, 353(6307), 1529-1531, 2016). The contribution of the study lies in opening the door to research on the inner experience of insects, the learning and motivational mechanisms of their behavior, and the evolutionary analysis of emotions.
April 3, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365197/high-sucrose-diets-in-male-rats-disrupt-aspects-of-decision-making-tasks-motivation-and-spatial-memory-but-not-impulsivity-measured-by-operant-delay-discounting
#14
Alanna Wong, Vimi R Dogra, Amy C Reichelt
Excessive consumption of sugar sweetened drinks is proposed to produce functional changes in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, leading to perturbations in behavioural control. Impairments in behavioural control have been observed in obese people on tasks that involve making choices, including delay-discounting, indicative of increased impulsivity. In this study we examined the impact of 2h daily access to 10% sucrose (or no sucrose in controls) in young male rats on behavioural tasks reliant on hippocampal function including delay-discounting, T-maze forced choice alternation and place recognition memory, as well as progressive ratio to measure motivation...
June 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363812/changes-in-sucrose-and-quinine-taste-reactivity-patterns-in-infant-rat%C3%A2-pups-after-exposure-to-the-other-tastant
#15
A B Suárez, M C Ifrán, R M Pautassi, G V Kamenetzky
The taste reactivity test is considered as an objective measure to assess the hedonic impact of tastes. Both the appetitive and aversive pattern of responses are plastic and can change based on previous experience. The present study assessed the repertoire of taste responses elicited by sucrose and quinine in preweanling rats, and described changes in these taste reactivity patterns after exposure to the other tastant. We exposed infant rats (17 days old at the start of training) to sweet (2% sucrose) or bitter (0...
March 29, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322980/role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-the-anterior-dorsal-lateral-hypothalamic-area-in-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-self-administration
#16
Jordan M Blacktop, Ryan P Todd, Barbara A Sorg
Addiction involves drug-induced neuroplasticity in the circuitry of motivated behavior, which includes the medial forebrain bundle and the lateral hypothalamic area. Emerging at the forefront of neuroplasticity regulation are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that form perineuronal nets (PNNs) around certain neurons, mainly parvalbumin positive (PV(+)), fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs), making them a promising target for the regulation of drug-induced neuroplasticity. Despite the emerging significance of PNNs in drug-induced neuroplasticity and the well-established role of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in reward, reinforcement, and motivation, very little is known about how PNN-expressing neurons control drug-seeking behavior...
May 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301188/effects-of-inference-on-dopaminergic-prediction-errors-depend-on-orbitofrontal-processing
#17
Yuji K Takahashi, Thomas A Stalnaker, Matthew R Roesch, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
Dopaminergic reward prediction errors in monkeys reflect inferential reward predictions that well-trained animals can make when associative rules change. Here, in a new analysis of previously described data, we test whether dopaminergic error signals in rats are influenced by inferential predictions and whether such effects depend on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Dopamine neurons were recorded from controls or rats with ipsilateral OFC lesions during performance of a choice task in which odor cues signaled the availability of sucrose reward in 2 wells...
April 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286126/circadian-rhythms-of-hedonic-drinking-behavior-in-mice
#18
Claire Bainier, Maria Mateo, Marie-Paule Felder-Schmittbuhl, Jorge Mendoza
In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the site of the main circadian clock, synchronized by the light-dark cycle, which generates behavioral rhythms like feeding, drinking and activity. Notwithstanding, the main role of the SCN clock on the control of all circadian rhythms has been questioned due to the presence of clock activity in many brain areas, including those implicated in the regulation of feeding and reward. Moreover, whether circadian rhythms of particular motivated behaviors exist is unknown...
March 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279753/partial-lesion-of-dopamine-neurons-of-rat-substantia-nigra-impairs-conditioned-place-aversion-but-spares-conditioned-place-preference
#19
Bernardo F C Lima, Daniele C Ramos, Janaína K Barbiero, Laura Pulido, Peter Redgrave, Donita L Robinson, Alexander Gómez-A, Claudio Da Cunha
Midbrain dopamine neurons play critical roles in reward- and aversion-driven associative learning. However, it is not clear whether they do this by a common mechanism or by separate mechanisms that can be dissociated. In the present study we addressed this question by testing whether a partial lesion of the dopamine neurons of the rat SNc has comparable effects on conditioned place preference (CPP) learning and conditioned place aversion (CPA) learning. Partial lesions of dopamine neurons in the rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) induced by bilateral intranigral infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 3μg/side) or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 200μg/side) impaired learning of conditioned place aversion (CPA) without affecting conditioned place preference (CPP) learning...
March 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274821/the-galanin-3-receptor-antagonist-snap-37889-suppresses-alcohol-drinking-and-morphine-self-administration-in-mice
#20
Karlene J Scheller, Spencer J Williams, Andrew J Lawrence, Elvan Djouma
The neuropeptide, galanin, is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is involved in a range of different functions including nociception, neurogenesis, hormone release, reproduction, cognitive function and appetite. Given the overlap between galanin expression and reward circuitry in the brain, galanin has been targeted for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid dependency. Furthermore, the galanin-3 receptor (GAL3) specifically regulates emotional states and plays a role in motivation, reward and drug-seeking behaviour...
May 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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