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Sucrose reward

Ana María Jiménez-García, Leandro Ruíz-Leyva, Cruz Miguel Cendán, Carmen Torres, Mauricio R Papini, Ignacio Morón
Reduced sensitivity to physical pain (hypoalgesia) has been reported after events involving reward devaluation. Reward devaluation was implemented in a consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) task. Food-deprived Wistar rats had access to 32% sucrose during 16 sessions followed by access to 4% sucrose during 3 additional sessions. An unshifted control group had access to 4% sucrose throughout the 19 sessions. Pain sensitivity was measured using von Frey filaments (Experiment 1) and Hargreaves thermal stimuli (Experiment 2) in pretraining baseline, 5 min, and 300 min after either the first (session 17) or second (session 18) devaluation session in the cSNC situation...
2016: PloS One
Tracie A Paine, Nathan Swedlow, Lucien Swetschinski
INTRODUCTION: Decreased sociability is a symptom of psychiatric conditions including autism-spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Both of these conditions are associated with decreases in GABA function, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA); structures that are components of the social brain. Here, we determined if decreasing GABA transmission within either the PFC or the BLA decreases social behavior. METHODS: Rats were implanted with cannulae aimed at either the medial PFC or the BLA and then were tested on up to 4 behavioral tests following bilateral infusions of 0...
October 9, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Clint J Perry, Luigi Baciadonna, Lars Chittka
Whether invertebrates exhibit positive emotion-like states and what mechanisms underlie such states remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that bumblebees exhibit dopamine-dependent positive emotion-like states across behavioral contexts. After training with one rewarding and one unrewarding cue, bees that received pretest sucrose responded in a positive manner toward ambiguous cues. In a second experiment, pretest consumption of sucrose solution resulted in a shorter time to reinitiate foraging after a simulated predator attack...
September 30, 2016: Science
D Peleg-Raibstein, G Sarker, K Litwan, S D Krämer, S M Ametamey, R Schibli, C Wolfrum
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between maternal overnutrition and increased risk of the progeny for the development of obesity as well as psychiatric disorders. Animal studies have shown results regarding maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and a greater risk of the offspring to develop obesity. However, it still remains unknown whether maternal HFD can program the central reward system in such a way that it will imprint long-term changes that will predispose the offspring to addictive-like behaviors that may lead to obesity...
October 4, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Ellen Nacha Lesser, Aime Arroyo-Ramirez, Sarah Jingyi Mi, Mike James Ferrar Robinson
The global increase in obesity rates has been tied to the rise in junk-food availability and consumption. Increasingly, children are exposed to a junk-food diet during gestation and early development. Excessive consumption of junk-food during this period may negatively impact the development of brain motivation and reward pathways. In this study we investigated the effects of a chronic junk-food diet throughout development on cue-motivated behavior ('wanting'), hedonic 'liking' for sweet tastes, as well as anxiety and weight gain in male and female Long-Evans (LE) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
September 17, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Margot Perez, Thomas Nowotny, Patrizia d'Ettorre, Martin Giurfa
Perceptual similarity between stimuli is often assessed via generalization, the response to stimuli that are similar to the one which was previously conditioned. Although conditioning procedures are variable, studies on how this variation may affect perceptual similarity remain scarce. Here, we use a combination of behavioural and computational analyses to investigate the influence of olfactory conditioning procedures on odour generalization in ants. Insects were trained following either absolute conditioning, in which a single odour (an aldehyde) was rewarded with sucrose, or differential conditioning, in which one odour (the same aldehyde) was similarly rewarded and another odour (an aldehyde differing in carbon-chain length) was punished with quinine...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Jirawoot Srisontiyakul, Hanna E Kastman, Elena V Krstew, Piyarat Govitrapong, Andrew J Lawrence
Cigarettes and alcohol are the most abused substances in the world and are commonly co-abused. Nicotine primarily acts in the brain on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), which are also a target for alcohol. The alpha6 subunit of nAChR is expressed almost exclusively in the brain reward system and may modulate the rewarding properties of alcohol and nicotine. Recently, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI) was synthesized as a selective, brain penetrant α6 subunit antagonist that reduces nicotine self-administration...
August 29, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Meridith T Robins, Julia N DeFriel, Richard M van Rijn
The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse...
August 2016: Alcohol
Alec Okun, David L McKinzie, Jeffrey M Witkin, Bethany Remeniuk, Omar Husein, Scott D Gleason, Janice Oyarzo, Edita Navratilova, Brian McElroy, Stephen Cowen, Jeffrey D Kennedy, Frank Porreca
Rewards influence responses to acute painful stimuli, but the relationship of chronic pain to hedonic or motivational aspects of reward is not well understood. Here, we independently evaluated hedonic qualities of sweet or bitter tastants as well as motivation to seek food reward in rats with experimental neuropathic pain induced by L5/6 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Hedonic response was measured by implantation of intraoral catheters to allow passive delivery of liquid solutions and "liking/disliking" responses were scored according to a facial reactivity scale...
August 19, 2016: Pain
Ellen M McGlinchey, Morgan H James, Stephen V Mahler, Caroline Pantazis, Gary Aston-Jones
UNLABELLED: Glutamate inputs to nucleus accumbens (NAc) facilitate conditioned drug-seeking behavior and primarily originate from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and ventral subiculum of the hippocampus (vSub). These regions express Fos (a marker of neural activity) during cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, but only subpopulations of neurons within these regions drive drug seeking. One way to identify and functionally distinguish neural subpopulations activated during drug-seeking is to examine their projection targets...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Cristina Rabasa, Julia Winsa-Jörnulf, Heike Vogel, Carina S Babaei, Kaisa Askevik, Suzanne L Dickson
We explored the impact of exposure to an obesogenic diet (High Fat-High Sucrose; HFS) during the post-weaning period on sweet preference and behaviors linked to reward and anxiety. All rats were fed chow. In addition a HFS-transient group had access to this diet for 10days from post-natal (PN) day 22 and a HFS-continuous group continued access until adult. Behavioral tests were conducted immediately after PN 32 (adolescence) or after PN 60 (adult) and included: the condition place preference (CPP) test for chocolate, sugar and saccharin preference (anhedonia), the elevated plus maze (anxiety-like behavior) and the locomotor response to quinpirole in the open field...
September 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Karen K Szumlinski, Melissa G Wroten, Bailey W Miller, Arianne D Sacramento, Matan Cohen, Osnat Ben-Shahar, Tod E Kippin
Cue-elicited drug-craving correlates with hyperactivity within prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is theorized to result from dysregulated excitatory neurotransmission. The NMDA glutamate receptor is highly implicated in addiction-related neuroplasticity. As NMDA receptor function is regulated critically by its GluN2 subunits, herein, we assayed the relation between incubated cue-elicited cocaine-seeking following extended access to intravenous cocaine (6 h/d; 0.25 mg/infusion for 10 d) and the expression of GluN2A/B receptor subunits within PFC sub regions during early versus late withdrawal (respectively, 3 vs...
2016: Journal of Drug Abuse
Johann du Hoffmann, Saleem M Nicola
Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Zheng Liu, Yao Wang, Li Cai, Yizhi Li, Bo Chen, Yan Dong, Yanhua H Huang
UNLABELLED: Sleep profoundly affects the emotional and motivational state. In humans and animals, loss of sleep often results in enhanced motivation for reward, which has direct implications for health risks as well as potential benefits. Current study aims at understanding the mechanisms underlying sleep deprivation (SDe)-induced enhancement of reward seeking. We found that after acute SDe, mice had an increase in sucrose seeking and consumption but not food intake, suggesting a selective enhancement of motivation for reward...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Bruna M Santos, Carina A F de Andrade, José V Menani, Laurival A De Luca
History of sodium depletion cross-sensitizes the effects of drugs of abuse. The objective of the present study was to find out if history of sodium depletion also cross-sensitizes a natural reward such as sugar intake in the rat. Sodium depletion was induced by furosemide combined with removal of ambient sodium for 24 h; it was repeated seven days later. The depletion was immediately followed by 0.3 M NaCl intake in a sodium appetite test (active sodium repletion). Seven days after the last depletion, hydrated and fed (need-free) sucrose-naïve animals were offered 10% sucrose in a first 2-h sucrose test...
July 23, 2016: Appetite
Simona Scheggi, Miriam Melis, Marta De Felice, Sonia Aroni, Anna Lisa Muntoni, Teresa Pelliccia, Carla Gambarana, Maria Graziella De Montis, Marco Pistis
Depressive disorders cause a substantial burden for the individual and the society. Key depressive symptoms can be modeled in animals and enable the development of novel therapeutic interventions. Chronic unavoidable stress disrupts rats' competence to escape noxious stimuli and self-administer sucrose, configuring a depression model characterized by escape deficit and motivational anhedonia associated to impaired dopaminergic responses to sucrose in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS). Repeated treatments that restore these responses also relieve behavioral symptoms...
November 2016: Neuropharmacology
James M Doherty, Christina J Schier, Ashley A Vena, Geoffrey A Dilly, Rueben A Gonzales
BACKGROUND: Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dysfunction is present in heavy alcohol consumers. Dopamine signaling in mPFC is associated with executive functioning and affects drinking behavior; however, direct measurement of extracellular mPFC dopamine during appetitive and consummatory ethanol (EtOH) self-administration behavior has not been reported. METHODS: We used in vivo microdialysis in freely behaving, adult, male, Long Evans rats to determine extracellular dopamine concentration in the mPFC during operant self-administration of an EtOH-plus-sucrose or sucrose solution...
August 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Giorgio Bergamini, Flurin Cathomas, Sandra Auer, Hannes Sigrist, Erich Seifritz, Michael Patterson, Cecilia Gabriel, Christopher R Pryce
A major domain of depression is decreased motivation for reward. Translational automated tests can be applied in humans and animals to study operant reward behaviour, aetio-pathophysiology underlying deficits therein, and effects of antidepressant treatment. Three inter-related experiments were conducted to investigate depression-relevant effects of chronic psychosocial stress on operant behaviour in mice. (A) Non-manipulated mice were trained on a complex reversal learning (CRL) test with sucrose reinforcement; relative to vehicle (VEH), acute antidepressant agomelatine (AGO, 25mg/kg p...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Shani Ross, Emily Lehmann Levin, Christy Itoga, Chelsea Schoen, Romeissa Selmane, J Wayne Aldridge
We investigated the potential of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in rats to modulate functional reward mechanisms. The CeA is the major output of the amygdala with direct connections to the hypothalamus and gustatory brainstem, and indirect connections with the nucleus accumbens. Further, CeA has been shown to be involved in learning, emotional integration, reward processing, and regulation of feeding. We hypothesized that DBS, which is used to treat movement disorders and other brain dysfunctions, might block reward motivation...
July 16, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Maria A Mikhailova, Caroline E Bass, Valentina P Grinevich, Ann M Chappell, Alex L Deal, Keith D Bonin, Jeff L Weiner, Raul R Gainetdinov, Evgeny A Budygin
Recent optogenetic studies demonstrated that phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens may play a causal role in multiple aspects of natural and drug reward-related behaviors. The role of tonic dopamine release in reward consummatory behavior remains unclear. The current study used a combinatorial viral-mediated gene delivery approach to express ChR2 on mesolimbic dopamine neurons in rats. We used optical activation of this dopamine circuit to mimic tonic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and to explore the causal relationship between this form of dopamine signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens projection and consumption of a natural reward...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
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