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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919319/chemogenetic-inhibition-of-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-reverses-the-effects-of-rem-sleep-loss-on-sucrose-consumption
#1
Kristopher McEown, Yohko Takata, Yoan Cherasse, Nanae Nagata, Kosuke Aritake, Michael Lazarus
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep loss is associated with increased consumption of weight-promoting foods. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to mediate reward anticipation. However, the precise role of the PFC in mediating reward responses to highly palatable foods (HPF) after REM sleep deprivation is unclear. We selectively reduced REM sleep in mice over a 25-48 hr period and chemogenetically inhibited the medial PFC (mPFC) by using an altered glutamate-gated and ivermectin-gated chloride channel that facilitated neuronal inhibition through hyperpolarizing infected neurons...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918270/interaction-of-inhibitory-and-facilitatory-effects-of-conditioning-trials-on-long-term-memory-formation
#2
Shouhei Hosono, Yukihisa Matsumoto, Makoto Mizunami
Animals learn through experience and consolidate the memories into long-time storage. Conditioning parameters to induce protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) have been the subject of extensive studies in many animals. Here we found a case in which a conditioning trial inhibits or facilitates LTM formation depending on the intervals from preceding trials. We studied the effects of conditioning parameters on LTM formation in olfactory conditioning of maxillary-palpi extension response with sucrose reward in the cockroach Periplaneta americana We found, at first, that translation- and transcription-dependent LTM forms 1 h after training, the fastest so far reported in insects...
December 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844094/attenuation-of-nicotine-taking-and-seeking-in-rats-by-the-stoichiometry-selective-alpha4beta2-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-ns9283
#3
John J Maurer, Karin Sandager-Nielsen, Heath D Schmidt
RATIONALE: The rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine are produced, in large part, by activation of neuronal α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), pentameric protein complexes comprised of different stoichiometries of α4 and β2 subunits. However, little is known about the functional role of distinct subtypes of α4β2* nAChRs in nicotine addiction. OBJECTIVES: NS9283 represents a new class of stoichiometry-selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) that selectively bind to α4β2 nAChRs containing three α4 and two β2 subunits (3(α4)2(β2) nAChRs)...
November 14, 2016: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814928/mouse-strain-differences-in-punished-ethanol-self-administration
#4
Lindsay R Halladay, Adrina Kocharian, Andrew Holmes
Determining the neural factors contributing to compulsive behaviors such as alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) has become a significant focus of current preclinical research. Comparison of phenotypic differences across genetically distinct mouse strains provides one approach to identify molecular and genetic factors contributing to compulsive-like behaviors. Here we examine a rodent assay for punished ethanol self-administration in four widely used inbred strains known to differ on ethanol-related behaviors: C57BL/6J (B6), DBA/2J (D2), 129S1/SvImJ (S1), and BALB/cJ (BALB)...
October 18, 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801897/altered-structural-and-effective-connectivity-in-anorexia-and-bulimia-nervosa-in-circuits-that-regulate-energy-and-reward-homeostasis
#5
G K W Frank, M E Shott, J Riederer, T L Pryor
Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are severe eating disorders that share many behaviors. Structural and functional brain circuits could provide biological links that those disorders have in common. We recruited 77 young adult women, 26 healthy controls, 26 women with anorexia and 25 women with bulimia nervosa. Probabilistic tractography was used to map white matter connectivity strength across taste and food intake regulating brain circuits. An independent multisample greedy equivalence search algorithm tested effective connectivity between those regions during sucrose tasting...
November 1, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798138/a-gabaergic-projection-from-the-centromedial-nuclei-of-the-amygdala-to-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-modulates-reward-behavior
#6
Dong-Oh Seo, Samuel C Funderburk, Dionnet L Bhatti, Laura E Motard, Dillan Newbold, Kasey S Girven, Jordan G McCall, Michael Krashes, Dennis R Sparta, Michael R Bruchas
: The neural circuitry underlying mammalian reward behaviors involves several distinct nuclei throughout the brain. It is widely accepted that the midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are critical for the reward-related behaviors. Recent studies have shown that the centromedial nucleus of the amygdala (CeMA) has a distinct role in regulating reward-related behaviors. However, the CeMA and ventromedial PFC (vmPFC) interaction in reward regulation remains poorly understood. Here, we identify and dissect a GABAergic projection that originates in the CeMA and terminates in the vmPFC (VGat-Cre(CeMA-vmPFC)) using viral-vector-mediated, cell-type-specific optogenetic techniques in mice...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777560/changes-in-the-influence-of-alcohol-paired-stimuli-on-alcohol-seeking-across-extended-training
#7
Laura H Corbit, Patricia H Janak
Previous work has demonstrated that goal-directed control of alcohol-seeking and other drug-related behaviors is reduced following extended self-administration and drug exposure. Here, we examined how the magnitude of stimulus influences on responding changes across similar training and drug exposure. Rats self-administered alcohol or sucrose for 2 or 8 weeks. Previous work has shown that 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks of self-administration produces habitual alcohol seeking. Next, all animals received equivalent Pavlovian conditioning sessions where a discrete stimulus predicted the delivery of alcohol or sucrose...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764142/hypoalgesia-induced-by-reward-devaluation-in-rats
#8
Ana María Jiménez-García, Leandro Ruíz-Leyva, Cruz Miguel Cendán, Carmen Torres, Mauricio R Papini, Ignacio Morón
Reduced sensitivity to physical pain (hypoalgesia) has been reported after events involving reward devaluation. Reward devaluation was implemented in a consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) task. Food-deprived Wistar rats had access to 32% sucrose during 16 sessions followed by access to 4% sucrose during 3 additional sessions. An unshifted control group had access to 4% sucrose throughout the 19 sessions. Pain sensitivity was measured using von Frey filaments (Experiment 1) and Hargreaves thermal stimuli (Experiment 2) in pretraining baseline, 5 min, and 300 min after either the first (session 17) or second (session 18) devaluation session in the cSNC situation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732892/decreasing-gaba-function-within-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-or-basolateral-amygdala-decreases-sociability
#9
Tracie A Paine, Nathan Swedlow, Lucien Swetschinski
INTRODUCTION: Decreased sociability is a symptom of psychiatric conditions including autism-spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. Both of these conditions are associated with decreases in GABA function, particularly in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA); structures that are components of the social brain. Here, we determined if decreasing GABA transmission within either the PFC or the BLA decreases social behavior. METHODS: Rats were implanted with cannulae aimed at either the medial PFC or the BLA and then were tested on up to 4 behavioral tests following bilateral infusions of 0...
January 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708101/unexpected-rewards-induce-dopamine-dependent-positive-emotion-like-state-changes-in-bumblebees
#10
Clint J Perry, Luigi Baciadonna, Lars Chittka
Whether invertebrates exhibit positive emotion-like states and what mechanisms underlie such states remain poorly understood. We demonstrate that bumblebees exhibit dopamine-dependent positive emotion-like states across behavioral contexts. After training with one rewarding and one unrewarding cue, bees that received pretest sucrose responded in a positive manner toward ambiguous cues. In a second experiment, pretest consumption of sucrose solution resulted in a shorter time to reinitiate foraging after a simulated predator attack...
September 30, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701408/enhanced-sensitivity-to-drugs-of-abuse-and-palatable-foods-following-maternal-overnutrition
#11
D Peleg-Raibstein, G Sarker, K Litwan, S D Krämer, S M Ametamey, R Schibli, C Wolfrum
Epidemiological studies have shown an association between maternal overnutrition and increased risk of the progeny for the development of obesity as well as psychiatric disorders. Animal studies have shown results regarding maternal high-fat diet (HFD) and a greater risk of the offspring to develop obesity. However, it still remains unknown whether maternal HFD can program the central reward system in such a way that it will imprint long-term changes that will predispose the offspring to addictive-like behaviors that may lead to obesity...
October 4, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650100/the-impact-of-a-junk-food-diet-during-development-on-wanting-and-liking
#12
Ellen Nacha Lesser, Aime Arroyo-Ramirez, Sarah Jingyi Mi, Mike James Ferrar Robinson
The global increase in obesity rates has been tied to the rise in junk-food availability and consumption. Increasingly, children are exposed to a junk-food diet during gestation and early development. Excessive consumption of junk-food during this period may negatively impact the development of brain motivation and reward pathways. In this study we investigated the effects of a chronic junk-food diet throughout development on cue-motivated behavior ('wanting'), hedonic 'liking' for sweet tastes, as well as anxiety and weight gain in male and female Long-Evans (LE) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
September 17, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581883/olfactory-experience-shapes-the-evaluation-of-odour-similarity-in-ants-a-behavioural-and-computational-analysis
#13
Margot Perez, Thomas Nowotny, Patrizia d'Ettorre, Martin Giurfa
Perceptual similarity between stimuli is often assessed via generalization, the response to stimuli that are similar to the one which was previously conditioned. Although conditioning procedures are variable, studies on how this variation may affect perceptual similarity remain scarce. Here, we use a combination of behavioural and computational analyses to investigate the influence of olfactory conditioning procedures on odour generalization in ants. Insects were trained following either absolute conditioning, in which a single odour (an aldehyde) was rewarded with sucrose, or differential conditioning, in which one odour (the same aldehyde) was similarly rewarded and another odour (an aldehyde differing in carbon-chain length) was punished with quinine...
August 31, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573375/the-nicotinic-%C3%AE-6-subunit-selective-antagonist-bpidi-reduces-alcohol-self-administration-in-alcohol-preferring-rats
#14
Jirawoot Srisontiyakul, Hanna E Kastman, Elena V Krstew, Piyarat Govitrapong, Andrew J Lawrence
Cigarettes and alcohol are the most abused substances in the world and are commonly co-abused. Nicotine primarily acts in the brain on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR), which are also a target for alcohol. The alpha6 subunit of nAChR is expressed almost exclusively in the brain reward system and may modulate the rewarding properties of alcohol and nicotine. Recently, N,N-decane-1,10-diyl-bis-3-picolinium diiodide (bPiDI) was synthesized as a selective, brain penetrant α6 subunit antagonist that reduces nicotine self-administration...
December 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565749/adolescent-intake-of-caffeinated-energy-drinks-does-not-affect-adult-alcohol-consumption-in-c57bl-6-and-balb-c-mice
#15
Meridith T Robins, Julia N DeFriel, Richard M van Rijn
The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse...
August 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548047/hedonic-and-motivational-responses-to-food-reward-are-unchanged-in-rats-with-neuropathic-pain
#16
Alec Okun, David L McKinzie, Jeffrey M Witkin, Bethany Remeniuk, Omar Husein, Scott D Gleason, Janice Oyarzo, Edita Navratilova, Brian McElroy, Stephen Cowen, Jeffrey D Kennedy, Frank Porreca
Rewards influence responses to acute painful stimuli, but the relationship of chronic pain to hedonic or motivational aspects of reward is not well understood. We independently evaluated hedonic qualities of sweet or bitter tastants and motivation to seek food reward in rats with experimental neuropathic pain induced by L5/6 spinal nerve ligation. Hedonic response was measured by implantation of intraoral catheters to allow passive delivery of liquid solutions, and "liking/disliking" responses were scored according to a facial reactivity scale...
December 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27535915/prelimbic-to-accumbens-core-pathway-is-recruited-in-a-dopamine-dependent-manner-to-drive-cued-reinstatement-of-cocaine-seeking
#17
Ellen M McGlinchey, Morgan H James, Stephen V Mahler, Caroline Pantazis, Gary Aston-Jones
UNLABELLED: Glutamate inputs to nucleus accumbens (NAc) facilitate conditioned drug-seeking behavior and primarily originate from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and ventral subiculum of the hippocampus (vSub). These regions express Fos (a marker of neural activity) during cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, but only subpopulations of neurons within these regions drive drug seeking. One way to identify and functionally distinguish neural subpopulations activated during drug-seeking is to examine their projection targets...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487416/behavioral-consequences-of-exposure-to-a-high-fat-diet-during-the-post-weaning-period-in-rats
#18
Cristina Rabasa, Julia Winsa-Jörnulf, Heike Vogel, Carina S Babaei, Kaisa Askevik, Suzanne L Dickson
We explored the impact of exposure to an obesogenic diet (High Fat-High Sucrose; HFS) during the post-weaning period on sweet preference and behaviors linked to reward and anxiety. All rats were fed chow. In addition a HFS-transient group had access to this diet for 10days from post-natal (PN) day 22 and a HFS-continuous group continued access until adult. Behavioral tests were conducted immediately after PN 32 (adolescence) or after PN 60 (adult) and included: the condition place preference (CPP) test for chocolate, sugar and saccharin preference (anhedonia), the elevated plus maze (anxiety-like behavior) and the locomotor response to quinpirole in the open field...
September 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478879/cocaine-self-administration-elevates-glun2b-within-dmpfc-mediating-heightened-cue-elicited-operant-responding
#19
Karen K Szumlinski, Melissa G Wroten, Bailey W Miller, Arianne D Sacramento, Matan Cohen, Osnat Ben-Shahar, Tod E Kippin
Cue-elicited drug-craving correlates with hyperactivity within prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is theorized to result from dysregulated excitatory neurotransmission. The NMDA glutamate receptor is highly implicated in addiction-related neuroplasticity. As NMDA receptor function is regulated critically by its GluN2 subunits, herein, we assayed the relation between incubated cue-elicited cocaine-seeking following extended access to intravenous cocaine (6 h/d; 0.25 mg/infusion for 10 d) and the expression of GluN2A/B receptor subunits within PFC sub regions during early versus late withdrawal (respectively, 3 vs...
2016: Journal of Drug Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471453/activation-of-dopamine-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-promotes-sucrose-reinforced-cued-approach-behavior
#20
Johann du Hoffmann, Saleem M Nicola
Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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