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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342245/structure-function-relationships-of-olfactory-and-taste-receptors
#1
Maik Behrens, Loïc Briand, Claire A de March, Hiroaki Matsunami, Atsuko Yamashita, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Simone Weyand
The field of chemical senses has made major progress in understanding the cellular mechanisms of olfaction and taste in the past two decades. However, the molecular understanding of odour and taste recognition is still lagging far behind and will require solving multiple structures of the relevant full-length receptors in complex with native ligands to achieve this goal. However, the development of multiple complimentary strategies for the structure determination of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) makes this goal realistic...
January 12, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342174/preference-evaluation-of-ground-beef-by-untrained-subjects-with-three-levels-of-finely-textured-beef
#2
Sandra Molly Depue, Morgan Marie Neilson, Jayson L Lusk, Gretchen Mafi, F Bailey Norwood, Ranjith Ramanathan, Deborah VanOverbeke
After receiving bad publicity in 2012 and being removed from many ground beef products, finely textured beef (referred to as 'pink slime' by some) is making a comeback. Some of its proponents argue that consumers prefer ground beef containing finely textured beef, but no objective scientific party has tested this claim-that is the purpose of the present study. Over 200 untrained subjects participated in a sensory analysis in which they tasted one ground beef sample with no finely textured beef, another with 15% finely textured beef (by weight), and another with more than 15%...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342128/the-effect-of-emulsion-intensity-on-selected-sensory-and-instrumental-texture-properties-of-full-fat-mayonnaise
#3
Viktoria Olsson, Andreas Håkansson, Jeanette Purhagen, Karin Wendin
Varying processing conditions can strongly affect the microstructure of mayonnaise, opening up new applications for the creation of products tailored to meet different consumer preferences. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of emulsification intensity on sensory and instrumental characteristics of full-fat mayonnaise. Mayonnaise, based on a standard recipe, was processed at low and high emulsification intensities, with selected sensory and instrumental properties then evaluated using an analytical panel and a back extrusion method...
January 17, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338343/molecular-analysis-of-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-pathway-genes-and-their-differential-expression-in-mango-peel
#4
Anju Bajpai, Kasim Khan, M Muthukumar, S Rajan, Nagendra Kumar Singh
Mango fruit is cherished by masses for its taste and nutrition, contributed by color, flavor and aroma. Among these, peel color is an important trait contributing to fruit quality and market value. We attempted to elucidate the role of key genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway related to fruit peel color from the leaf transcriptome of cv. Amrapali. A total of 108 mined transcript sequences were assigned to phenylpropanoid flavonoid pathway from which 15 contigs representing anthocyanin biosynthesis genes were annotated...
January 16, 2018: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338336/changes-in-microbial-growth-carotenoids-and-water-soluble-tannin-content-of-ripe-persimmon-beverage-after-ultra-high-pressure-treatment
#5
Gi-Chang Kim, Sang-Bum Kim, Jin-Sook Kim, Kyung-Mi Kim, Song-Yi Choi
To avoid the loss of carotenoids and increasing the tannin content associated with pasteurization, we tested ultra-high pressure treatment of ripe persimmon beverage. We compared microbial counts (aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and mould), carotenoid contents, and water-soluble tannin contents between heat- and ultra-high pressure-treated beverages. No microbial contamination was detected after pasteurization or ultra-high pressure treatment at 400 MPa for more than 5 min. Ultra-high pressure treatment significantly prevented the reduction in carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, β-carotene, lycopene), with losses of 3...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337353/consumer-acceptance-comparison-between-seasoned-and-unseasoned-vegetables
#6
Yiming Feng, Marta Albiol Tapia, Kyle Okada, Nuria Blanca Castaneda Lazo, Karen Chapman-Novakofski, Carter Phillips, Soo-Yeun Lee
Recent findings show that approximately 87% of the U.S. population fail to meet the vegetable intake recommendations, with unpleasant taste of vegetables being listed as the primary reason for this shortfall. In this study, spice and herb seasoning was used to enhance palatability of vegetables, in order to increase consumer acceptance. In total, 749 panelists were screened and recruited as specific vegetable likers of the vegetable being tested or general vegetable likers. Four sessions were designed to evaluate the effect of seasoning within each type of vegetable, including broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, and green bean...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333392/enhancing-sensory-perception-of-plant-based-nutraceutical-drinks-by-combining-plants-from-different-sources-a-preliminary-study-of-tea-and-ginger-blend
#7
Solomon Akinremi Makanjuola, Victor Ndigwe Enujiugha
Tea-ginger drink was selected for evaluation due to its nutraceutical potential. Panelists rated preference for drinks prepared from tea, ginger, and tea+ginger powder for colour, taste, and aroma. The obtained data were evaluated using analysis of variance, principal component analysis, and agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Also the colour preference scores were evaluated against instrumental colour measurements. The ginger drink had lower rating for colour preference and the tea drink had lower ratings for aroma and taste preference...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331463/discriminating-aging-and-protein-to-fat-ratio-in-cheddar-cheese-using-sensory-analysis-and-a-potentiometric-electronic-tongue
#8
Jackie B Lipkowitz, Carolyn F Ross, Charles Diako, Denise M Smith
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the flavor and taste attributes of full-fat Cheddar cheeses with different protein-to-fat ratios (PFR) over aging time using a descriptive sensory analysis panel and a consumer panel, and to correlate these attributes with instrumental parameters obtained by the potentiometric electronic tongue. Three Cheddar cheese formulations (PFR of 0.74, 0.85, and 1.01) were produced in triplicate and composition was verified. Cheese was aged at 7.2°C and evaluated at 2, 5, 8, 10, 11, and 12 mo by a trained panel (n = 10) for 8 flavor and 5 taste attributes and using an electronic tongue for 7 nonvolatile taste attributes...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331459/garlic-allium-sativum-l-fed-to-dairy-cows-does-not-modify-the-cheese-making-properties-of-milk-but-affects-the-color-texture-and-flavor-of-ripened-cheese
#9
Giulia Rossi, Stefano Schiavon, Giovanna Lomolino, Claudio Cipolat-Gotet, Alberto Simonetto, Giovanni Bittante, Franco Tagliapietra
Garlic and garlic components have recently been proposed as ruminal activity modulators to reduce the enteric methane emissions of ruminants, but little is known of their influence on milk coagulation properties, nutrient recovery, cheese yield, and sensorial and rheological characteristics of milk and cheese. The present study assessed the effects of garlic and diallyl sulfide supplements on dry matter intake (DMI), productive performance, milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, milk and cheese sensory profiles, and rheological characteristics...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331089/modification-of-chrysanthemum-odour-and-taste-with-chrysanthemol-synthase-induces-strong-dual-resistance-against-cotton-aphids
#10
Hao Hu, Jinjin Li, Thierry Delatte, Jacques Vervoort, Liping Gao, Francel Verstappen, Wei Xiong, Jianping Gan, Maarten A Jongsma, Caiyun Wang
Aphids are pests of chrysanthemum that employ plant volatiles to select host plants and ingest cell contents to probe host quality before engaging in prolonged feeding and reproduction. Changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles can disrupt aphid-plant interactions and provide new methods of pest control. Chrysanthemol synthase (CHS) from Tanacetum cinerariifolium, represents the first committed step in the biosynthesis of pyrethrin ester insecticides, but no biological role for the chrysanthemol product alone has yet been documented...
January 13, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330076/frontoethmoidal-schwannoma-with-exertional-cerebrospinal-fluid-rhinorrhea-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Yuichiro Yoneoka, Katsuhiko Akiyama, Yasuhiro Seki, Go Hasegawa, Akiyoshi Kakita
BACKGROUND: Frontoethmoidal schwannomas are rare. No case manifesting exertional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea has ever been reported to the best of our knowledge. CASE DESCRIPTION: In this report, we describe an extremely rare case of frontoethmoidal schwannoma extending through the olfactory groove (OG) with exertional CSF rhinorrhea as the initial symptom. A 50-year-old woman was presented to our clinic for frequent nasal discharge on exertion. A postcontrast computed tomographic scan demonstrated heterogeneously enhanced tumor from the anterior cranial fossa to the anterior ethmoid sinus...
January 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329874/a-survey-of-free-glutamic-acid-in-foods-using-a-robust-lc-ms-ms-method
#12
Nur Cebi, Canan Ekinci Dogan, Elmas Oktem Olgun, Osman Sagdic
An effective and simultaneous liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used with the aim of quantifying monosodium glutamate (MSG) in foodstuffs, such as chips, taste cubes, sauces and soups. The results were linear (R2 = 1), with very low LOD and LOQ values, 1.0 µg/kg, 5.0 µg/kg, respectively. Excellent repeatability and reproducibility were also achieved. This highly sensitive and robust LC-MS/MS technique was applied successfully for the detection and quantification of MSG in a wide variety of foodstuffs...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329838/effect-of-extraction-methods-on-the-chemical-components-and-taste-quality-of-green-tea-extract
#13
Yong-Quan Xu, Wei-Bin Ji, Peigen Yu, Jian-Xin Chen, Fang Wang, Jun-Feng Yin
The physicochemical properties of tea extracts are significantly affected by the extraction method. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of static and dynamic extractions on the concentrations of chemical components and taste quality of green tea extracts. Our results show that extraction of chemical components using static extraction follows a pseudo-second-order reaction, while that of dynamic extraction follows a first-order reaction. The concentrations of the solids, polyphenols, and free amino acids in green tea extract prepared by dynamic extraction were much higher, although the overall yields were not significantly different between the two extraction methods...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329812/synergistic-effect-of-polysaccharides-betalain-pigment-and-phenolic-compounds-of-red-prickly-pear-opuntia-stricta-in-the-stabilization-of-salami
#14
Nadia Kharrat, Hedia Salem, Aicha Mrabet, Fatma Aloui, Soumaya Triki, Ahmed Fendri, Youssef Gargouri
The aim of this work is to try to substitute some synthetic additives by a natural extract from red prickly pear (Opuntia stricta) which known by its richness on bioactive polysaccharides mainly consisting of galactose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. This natural fruit has a high content of carbohydrates above 18.81% FM. It contains also a high level of polyphenols 152.25 ± 0.26 μg QE/mg PPE and flavonoids about 370.60 ± 0.12 μg GAE/mg of PPE. In addition, prickly pear extract (PPE) displayed a strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328505/substance-p-as-a-putative-efferent-transmitter-mediates-gabaergic-inhibition-in-mouse-taste-buds
#15
Anthony Y Huang, Sandy Y Wu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Capsaicin-mediated modulation on taste nerve responses is thought to be produced indirectly by actions of neuropeptides, e.g., calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), onto taste cells implying playing a role in taste sensitivity. During processing gustatory information in taste buds, CGRP shapes peripheral taste signals via serotonergic signaling. The underlying assumption has been that SP exerts its effects on taste transmitter secretion in taste buds of mice...
January 12, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327676/physiological-responses-to-taste-signals-of-functional-food-components
#16
Masataka Narukawa
The functions of food have three categories: nutrition, palatability, and bioregulation. As the onset of lifestyle-related diseases has increased, many people have shown interest in functional foods that are beneficial to bioregulation. We believe that functional foods should be highly palatable for increased acceptance from consumers. In order to design functional foods with a high palatability, we have investigated about the palatability, especially in relation to the taste of food. In this review, we discuss (1) the identification of taste receptors that respond to functional food components; (2) an analysis of the peripheral taste transduction system; and (3) the investigation of the relationship between physiological functions and taste signals...
January 12, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326059/differential-requirement-of-de-novo-arc-protein-synthesis-in-the-insular-cortex-and-the-amygdala-for-safe-and-aversive-taste-long-term-memory-formation
#17
Guzmán-Ramos Kioko, Venkataraman Archana, Morin Jean-Pascal, Osorio-Gómez Daniel, Bermúdez-Rattoni Federico
Several immediate early genes products are known to be involved in the facilitation of structural and functional modifications at distinct synapses activated through experience. The IEG-encoded protein Arc (activity regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein) has been widely implicated in long-term memory formation and stabilization. In this study, we sought to evaluate a possible role for de novo Arc protein synthesis in the insular cortex (IC) and in the amygdala (AMY) during long-term taste memory formation...
January 8, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324426/a-sweet-solution-the-use-of-medical-grade-honey-on-oral-mucositis-in-the-pediatric-oncology-patient
#18
Ferne T Elsass
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric patients develop mucositis when receiving treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation; the most common and sensitive is oral mucositis. Mouth rinses containing antimicrobial, antihistamine, and analgesic medications are the mainstay for pediatric patients; however, patients often refuse these rinses due to the taste or texture. Also, patients under 1 year of age are unable to use these products. OBJECTIVE: Herein, the improvement of oral mucositis with standard oral care and additional use of active Leptospermum honey in pediatric oncology patients after chemotherapy is demonstrated...
December 2017: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324046/gustatory-processing-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Kristin Scott
The ability to identify nutrient-rich food and avoid toxic substances is essential for an animal's survival. Although olfaction and vision contribute to food detection, the gustatory system acts as a final checkpoint control for food acceptance or rejection. The vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster tastes many of the same stimuli as mammals and provides an excellent model system for comparative studies of taste detection. The relative simplicity of the fly brain and behaviors, along with the molecular genetic and functional approaches available in this system, allow the examination of gustatory neural circuits from sensory input to motor output...
January 7, 2018: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323774/obesity-impairs-oligopeptide-amino-acid-induced-ghrelin-release-and-smooth-muscle-contractions-in-the-human-proximal-stomach
#20
L Vancleef, T Thijs, F Baert, L J Ceulemans, E Canovai, Q Wang, S Steensels, A Segers, R Farré, J Pirenne, M Lannoo, J Tack, I Depoortere
SCOPE: The satiation properties of proteins involve effects on gut peptide release and gastrointestinal motility which may be altered during obesity. This study compared the in vitro response and role of amino acid (AA) taste receptors (TASR) in the effect of AAs and a casein hydrolysate on ghrelin release and smooth muscle (SM) contractions in the proximal gut of lean and obese patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Basal ghrelin release, measured from mucosal segments, was maximal in the fundus and decreased distally...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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