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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210437/oral-manifestation-and-salivary-changes-in-renal-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#1
Marieh Honarmand, Leila Farhad-Mollashahi, Alireza Nakhaee, Fahimeh Sargolzaie
BACKGROUND: Salivary changes in hemodialysis patients may result in various oral manifestations. This research intended to determine oral manifestations and some salivary markers in hemodialysis patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 hemodialysis patients (the patient group) and 30 healthy individuals (the control group). Saliva urea and calcium levels and pH values of the participants were measured, and oral manifestations such as pale mucosa, xerostomia, halitosis, changes in the sense of taste, increased calculus formation, gingival bleeding, etc...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208813/perceptions-of-improved-biomass-and-liquefied-petroleum-gas-stoves-in-puno-peru-implications-for-promoting-sustained-and-exclusive-adoption-of-clean-cooking-technologies
#2
Jacqueline Hollada, Kendra N Williams, Catherine H Miele, David Danz, Steven A Harvey, William Checkley
Many households in low- and middle-income countries cook with inefficient biomass-burning stoves, which cause high levels of household air pollution and threaten long-term health. Although clean stoves and fuels are available, uptake and consistent use has been low. Using observations and in-depth interviews, we assessed the attitudes, preferences, and beliefs about traditional versus liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stoves in rural Puno, Peru. A total of 31 in-depth interviews were conducted with primary cooks and their families, health workers, community leaders, and improved stove contractors...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207878/attitudes-to-in-vitro-meat-a-survey-of-potential-consumers-in-the-united-states
#3
Matti Wilks, Clive J C Phillips
Positivity towards meat consumption remains strong, despite evidence of negative environmental and ethical outcomes. Although awareness of these repercussions is rising, there is still public resistance to removing meat from our diets. One potential method to alleviate these effects is to produce in vitro meat: meat grown in a laboratory that does not carry the same environmental or ethical concerns. However, there is limited research examining public attitudes towards in vitro meat, thus we know little about the capacity for it be accepted by consumers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207751/flavor-pleasantness-processing-in-the-ventral-emotion-network
#4
Jelle R Dalenberg, Liselore Weitkamp, Remco J Renken, Luca Nanetti, Gert J Ter Horst
The ventral emotion network-encompassing the amygdala, insula, ventral striatum, and ventral regions of the prefrontal cortex-has been associated with the identification of emotional significance of perceived external stimuli and the production of affective states. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating chemosensory stimuli have associated parts of this network with pleasantness coding. In the current study, we independently analyzed two datasets in which we measured brain responses to flavor stimuli in young adult men...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207305/heavy-metal-presence-in-two-different-types-of-ice-cream-artisanal-ice-cream-italian-gelato-and-industrial-ice-cream
#5
D Conficoni, L Alberghini, E Bissacco, M Ferioli, V Giaccone
Ice cream, a popular product worldwide, is usually a milk-based product with other types of ingredients (fruit, eggs, cocoa, dried fruit, additives, and others). Different materials are used to obtain the desired taste, texture, consistency, and appearance of the final product. This study surveyed ice cream products available in Italy for heavy metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, tin, and arsenic). The differences between artisanal and industrial ice cream were also investigated because of the importance in the Italian diet and the diffusion of this ready-to-eat food...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205335/a-sweet-taste-receptor-dependent-mechanism-of-glucosensing-in-hypothalamic-tanycytes
#6
Heather Benford, Matei Bolborea, Eric Pollatzek, Kristina Lossow, Irm Hermans-Borgmeyer, Beihui Liu, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Sergey Kasparov, Nicholas Dale
Hypothalamic tanycytes are glial-like glucosensitive cells that contact the cerebrospinal fluid of the third ventricle, and send processes into the hypothalamic nuclei that control food intake and body weight. The mechanism of tanycyte glucosensing remains undetermined. While tanycytes express the components associated with the glucosensing of the pancreatic β cell, they respond to nonmetabolisable glucose analogues via an ATP receptor-dependent mechanism. Here, we show that tanycytes in rodents respond to non-nutritive sweeteners known to be ligands of the sweet taste (Tas1r2/Tas1r3) receptor...
February 16, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205158/understanding-food-fussiness-and-its-implications-for-food-choice-health-weight-and-interventions-in-young-children-the-impact-of-professor-jane-wardle
#7
REVIEW
E Leigh Gibson, Lucy Cooke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the concepts of fussy eating and food neophobia in the context of key determinants of the development of children's food preferences. We discuss the evidence for genetic versus parental and other environmental influences on the ontogeny of these behavioural traits and the implications of current knowledge for interventions that attempt to lessen the impact of these traits on children's diets. Finally, we consider whether these traits increase the risk of a child becoming obese, or alternatively, underweight and malnourished...
February 16, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202574/action-potentials-and-ion-conductances-in-wild-type-and-calhm1-knockout-type-ii-taste-cells
#8
Zhongming Ma, Wint Thu Saung, J Kevin Foskett
Taste bud type II cells fire action potentials in response to tastants, triggering non-vesicular ATP release to gustatory neurons via voltage-gated CALHM1-associated ion channels. Whereas CALHM1 regulates mouse cortical neuron excitability, its roles in regulating type II cell excitability are unknown. Here, we compared membrane conductances and action potentials in single identified TRPM5-GFP-expressing circumvallate papillae type II cells acutely isolated from wild-type (WT) and Calhm1-knockout (KO) mice...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202412/play-with-your-food-sensory-play-is-associated-with-tasting-of-fruits-and-vegetables-in-preschool-children
#9
Helen Coulthard, Anne-Marie Sealy
The objective of the current study was to ascertain whether taking part in a sensory play activity with real fruits and vegetables (FV) can encourage tasting in preschool children, compared to a non-food activity or visual exposure to the activity. Three to four year old pre-school children (N = 62) were recruited from three preschool nursery classes from a school in Northamptonshire, UK. A between participants experimental study was conducted with each class assigned to one of three conditions; sensory FV play, sensory non-food play and visual FV exposure...
February 12, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202096/potential-in-class-strategies-to-increase-children-s-vegetable-consumption
#10
Gemma Sharp, Simone Pettigrew, Shannon Wright, Iain S Pratt, Sally Blane, Nicole Biagioni
OBJECTIVE: The Crunch&Sip programme is a school-based nutrition initiative designed to increase the fruit, vegetable and water intakes of primary-school children. In recognition of the notable deficits in children's vegetable consumption, the present study explored the receptivity of school staff to a realignment of the Crunch&Sip programme to feature a primary focus on vegetable consumption. This involved investigating school staff members' perceptions of relevant barriers, motivators and facilitators...
February 16, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199919/relationships-between-oral-muc1-expression-and-salivary-hormones-in-burning-mouth-syndrome
#11
Jeong-Hyun Kang, Yoon-Young Kim, Ji-Youn Chang, Hong-Seop Kho
OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible relationships among oral mucosal epithelial MUC1 expression, salivary female gonadal hormones and stress markers, and clinical characteristics in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS). DESIGN: Thirty post-menopausal female patients with BMS (60.0±5.0 years) were included. Clinical and psychological evaluations were performed and the expression level of oral mucosal epithelial MUC1 was analyzed. The levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 17β-estradiol, progesterone, chromogranin A, and blood contamination were determined from unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) samples...
February 4, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199551/suppression-of-oral-sweet-taste-sensation-with-gymnema-sylvestre-affects-postprandial-gastrointestinal-blood-flow-and-gastric-emptying-in-humans
#12
Hideaki Kashima, Kohei Eguchi, Kanae Miyamoto, Masaki Fujimoto, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Nami Aso-Someya, Toshio Kobayashi, Naoyuki Hayashi, Yoshiyuki Fukuba
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198526/tongue-and-lingual-salivary-glands-of-the-canary-sem-and-histochemical-study
#13
Feyza Basak, Sukru Hakan Atalgin, Emine Umran Bozkurt
In this study, morphological characteristics of the canary tongue were examined macroscopically and histologically besides using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, histochemical features of the lingual salivary glands of the canary were also examined. The results suggest that the tongue of the canary has an equilateral quadrangle shape is sloped towards the apex on its dorsal surface; where its sides are bounded by tall epithelial extensions. Additionally, histological examination showed that salivary glands were only present on the body of the tongue and there were no taste buds...
February 15, 2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197867/ultramorphological-changes-in-gill-rakers-of-astyanax-altiparanae-characidae-kept-in-contaminated-environments
#14
F P Lopes, B F Pereira, R M S Alves, J R T Valim, F A T Figueiredo, D L Pitol, F H Caetano
Most water bodies in Brazil, and in the world, are contaminated by some types of pollutants, ranging from sewage to metal/chemicals, carcinogenic products, and biodegradable detergents. Despite the extensive knowledge on their effects on fish biology and especially on gill morphology, research that concerns their impacts on gill rakers and implications in parameters such as food consumption cannot be found in the literature. Gill rakers are vital because, together with gills, they are responsible for the defense and protection of the organism and for selecting appropriate food for survival...
February 14, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196787/current-forms-of-inhibitory-training-produce-no-greater-reduction-in-drinking-than-simple-assessment-a-preliminary-study
#15
Janette L Smith, Nicole J Dash, Stuart J Johnstone, Katrijn Houben, Matt Field
BACKGROUND: Disinhibition is apparent in users of many substances, including heavy drinkers. Previous research has shown that brief training to improve inhibitory control is associated with reduced alcohol consumption. We investigated whether a new form of inhibitory training would produce greater reductions, relative to a carefully designed control condition and a proven method of reducing consumption, the Brief Alcohol Intervention (BAI). METHODS: One hundred and fourteen regular drinkers were assigned randomly to one of five training conditions: Control (no inhibitory training); Beer-NoGo (inhibit responses linked to task-irrelevant pictures of beer); Restrained-Stop (requiring more urgent inhibition but without pictures of beer); Combined (a previously untested form of training requiring urgent inhibition to pictures of beer); or BAI...
January 31, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196498/children-s-sugar-sweetened-beverages-consumption-associations-with-family-and-home-related-factors-differences-within-ethnic-groups-explored
#16
V M van de Gaar, A van Grieken, W Jansen, H Raat
BACKGROUND: The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) may contribute to the development of overweight among children. The present study aimed to evaluate associations between family and home-related factors and children's SSB consumption. We explored associations within ethnic background of the child. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n = 644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, family and home-related factors and child's SSB intake...
February 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193416/chemical-sensory-properties-and-consumer-preference-of-hibiscus-beverages-produced-by-improved-industrial-processes
#17
Maria João P Monteiro, Ana Isabel A Costa, Geneviève Fliedel, Mady Cissé, Aurélie Bechoff, Dominique Pallet, Keith Tomlins, Maria Manuela E Pintado
The need to increase sustainability and add value to traditional foods claiming health benefits led to the introduction of key improvements in the production of hibiscus beverages in Senegal. The physicochemical and sensory properties of three resulting products (an under-vacuum concentrate, a dilute-to-taste syrup and a ready-to-drink infusion) were assessed, vis-à-vis those of conventionally manufactured beverages, and their impact on local consumer preference determined (n=146). New beverages had more intense, redder colour and higher monomeric anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193257/bell-s-palsy-in-children-bellpic-protocol-for-a-multicentre-placebo-controlled-randomized-trial
#18
Franz E Babl, Mark T Mackay, Meredith L Borland, David W Herd, Amit Kochar, Jason Hort, Arjun Rao, John A Cheek, Jeremy Furyk, Lisa Barrow, Shane George, Michael Zhang, Kaya Gardiner, Katherine J Lee, Andrew Davidson, Robert Berkowitz, Frank Sullivan, Emily Porrello, Kim Marie Dalziel, Vicki Anderson, Ed Oakley, Sandy Hopper, Fiona Williams, Catherine Wilson, Amanda Williams, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Bell's palsy or acute idiopathic lower motor neurone facial paralysis is characterized by sudden onset paralysis or weakness of the muscles to one side of the face controlled by the facial nerve. While there is high level evidence in adults demonstrating an improvement in the rate of complete recovery of facial nerve function when treated with steroids compared with placebo, similar high level studies on the use of steroids in Bell's palsy in children are not available. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of steroids in Bell's palsy in children in a randomised placebo-controlled trial...
February 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192441/cyclic-amp-regulates-postnatal-development-of-neural-and-behavioral-responses-to-nacl-in-rats
#19
Jie Qian, Shobha Mummalaneni, Tam-Hao T Phan, Gerard L Heck, John A DeSimone, David West, Sunila Mahavadi, Deanna Hojati, Karnam S Murthy, Mee-Ra Rhyu, Andrew I Spielman, Mehmet Hakan Özdener, Vijay Lyall
During postnatal development rats demonstrate an age-dependent increase in NaCl chorda tympani (CT) responses and the number of functional apical amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) in salt sensing fungiform (FF) taste receptor cells (TRCs). Currently, the intracellular signals that regulate the postnatal development of salt taste have not been identified. We investigated the effect of cAMP, a downstream signal for arginine vasopressin (AVP) action, on the postnatal development of NaCl responses in 19-23 day old rats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192132/flavor-preferences-conditioned-by-nutritive-and-non-nutritive-sweeteners-in-mice
#20
Anthony Sclafani, Karen Ackroff
Recent studies suggest that preferences are conditioned by nutritive (sucrose) but not by non-nutritive (sucralose) sweeteners in mice. Here we compared the effectiveness of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners to condition flavor preferences in three mouse strains. Isopreferred sucrose and sucralose solutions both conditioned flavor preferences in C57BL/6J (B6) mice but sucrose was more effective, consistent with its post-oral appetition action. Subsequent experiments compared flavor conditioning by fructose, which has no post-oral appetition effect in B6 mice, and a sucralose+saccharin mixture (SS) which is highly preferred to fructose in 24-h choice tests...
February 9, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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