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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805091/a-comparison-of-two-low-calorie-sweeteners-and-sugar-in-dark-chocolate-on-sensory-attributes-and-emotional-conceptualisations
#1
Sofie Lagast, Hans De Steur, Joachim J Schouteten, Xavier Gellynck
Reducing sugar consumption is an important aspect in the prevention of and fight against obesity. A broader understanding of consumers' perceptions of low-calorie sweeteners is needed. This study examined two low-calorie sweeteners, tagatose and stevia, in comparison to sugar in dark chocolate. A total of 219 consumers participated in this study and rated overall liking and sensory attributes. Participants also listed their emotional conceptualisations upon consumption and were assessed on emotional eating behaviour and health and taste attitudes...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804807/plasma-cortisol-response-cannot-be-classically-conditioned-in-a-taste-endocrine-paradigm-in-humans
#2
Liubov Petrakova, Karoline Boy, Marisa Kügler, Sven Benson, Harald Engler, Lars Möller, Manfred Schedlowski
RATIONALE: Peripheral immune responses can be modified by associative learning procedures. Less is known, however, whether and to what extent neuroendocrine parameters can be classically conditioned. OBJECTIVES: In this randomized double-blind study, we modified an established paradigm to behaviorally condition endocrine responses in humans. METHODS: Thirty-one healthy male participants received a distinctively flavored green drink as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and intravenous injections of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) (CRH group, N = 17) or NaCl (placebo group, N = 14) as the unconditioned stimulus (US) during two subsequent acquisition trials...
August 13, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804439/association-between-the-number-of-fungiform-papillae-on-the-tip-of-the-tongue-and-sensory-taste-perception-in-children
#3
Hannah Jilani, Wohlfgang Ahrens, Kirsten Buchecker, Paola Russo, Antje Hebestreit
Background: To measure sensory taste perception in children with an accurate and reproducible method is challenging and objective measurement methods are scarce. Objective: Aim was to characterize sensory taste perception, by measuring the number of fungiform papillae (FP) and to investigate whether the number of FP is associated with sensitivity for bitter taste and with taste preferences for sweet, salty, fatty or umami in children between 8 and 11 years of age. Design: Number of FP was measured with a digital camera in 83 children in a German subsample of the IDEFICS study...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803978/intraperitoneal-injection-of-d-serine-inhibits-high-fat-diet-intake-and-preference-in-male-mice
#4
Tsutomu Sasaki, Yasunobu Yasoshima, Sho Matsui, Hiromi Yokota-Hashimoto, Masaki Kobayashi, Tadahiro Kitamura
d-serine is a co-agonist of the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an important modulator of glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that oral d-serine ingestion inhibited the intake of highly preferred food and promoted the intake of less preferred food in mice. Here, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) d-serine injections on feeding behavior in mice. We assessed the effects of d-serine during both the acquisition and maintenance of a preference for high-fat diets (HFDs)...
August 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803868/integration-of-sweet-taste-and-metabolism-determines-carbohydrate-reward
#5
Maria Geraldine Veldhuizen, Richard Keith Babbs, Barkha Patel, Wambura Fobbs, Nils B Kroemer, Elizabeth Garcia, Martin R Yeomans, Dana M Small
Post-ingestive signals related to nutrient metabolism are thought to be the primary drivers of reinforcement potency of energy sources. Here, in a series of neuroimaging and indirect calorimetry human studies, we examine the relative roles of caloric load and perceived sweetness in driving metabolic, perceptual, and brain responses to sugared beverages. Whereas caloric load was manipulated using the tasteless carbohydrate maltodextrin, sweetness levels were manipulated using the non-nutritive sweetener sucralose...
August 2, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803023/consumer-acceptance-of-dairy-products-with-a-saturated-fatty-acid-reduced-monounsaturated-fatty-acid-enriched-content
#6
Oonagh Markey, Kallis Souroullas, Colette C Fagan, Kirsty E Kliem, Dafni Vasilopoulou, Kim G Jackson, David J Humphries, Alistair S Grandison, David I Givens, Julie A Lovegrove, Lisa Methven
Agriculture-based reformulation initiatives, including oleic acid-rich lipid supplementation of the dairy cow diet, provide a novel means for reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) at a population level. In a blinded manner, this study evaluated the consumer acceptance of SFA-reduced, monounsaturated fatty acid-enriched (modified) milk, Cheddar cheese, and butter when compared with control and commercially available comparative samples. The effect of providing nutritional information about the modified cheese was also evaluated...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802932/anosmia-and-ageusia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Arjun Tarakad, Joseph Jankovic
Anosmia, the loss of sense of smell, is a common nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ageusia, the loss of sense of taste, is additionally an underappreciated nonmotor feature of PD. The olfactory tract is involved early in PD as indicated by frequent occurrence of hyposmia or anosmia years or decades before motor symptoms and by autopsy studies showing early synuclein pathology in the olfactory tract and anterior olfactory nucleus even in the early stages of PD. Testing for olfaction consists of evaluation of olfactory thresholds, smell identification and discrimination, and olfactory memory...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802795/atomic-layer-deposition-a-novel-method-for-the-ultrathin-coating-of-minitablets
#8
Jaana Hautala, Tommi Kääriäinen, Pekka Hoppu, Marianna Kemell, Jyrki Heinämäki, David Cameron, Steven George, Anne Mari Juppo
We introduce atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a novel method for the ultrathin coating (nanolayering) of minitablets. The effects of ALD coating on the tablet characteristics and taste masking were investigated and compared with the established coating method. Minitablets containing bitter tasting denatonium benzoate were coated by ALD using three different TiO2 nanolayer thicknesses (number of deposition cycles). The established coating of minitablets was performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed apparatus using four concentration levels of aqueous Eudragit(®) E coating polymer...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802299/child-and-parental-perspectives-on-diet-and-physical-activity-decisions-implications-for-childhood-obesity-prevention-in-china
#9
Youfa Wang, Alice Fang Yan, Xinyu Shi, Huijun Wang, Zhiyong Wang, Joel Gittelsohn, Fei Xu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obesity has become a global epidemic. In China, 42% of adults and about onefifth of children are overweight or obese. In major cities, about one-third of boys are overweight or obese. This study aimed to understand how children and parents in China make eating and physical activity (PA) decisions, considering individual, family, community, social, and environmental factors, and to collect parents' recommendations for interventions to promote healthy eating and physical activity...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802295/food-acceptance-and-anthropometry-in-relation-to-6-n-propylthiouracil-sensitivity-in-japanese-college-women
#10
Ayako Nagai, Masaru Kubota, Kanako Morinaga, Yukie Higashiyama
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Differences in anthropometry and food acceptance among tasters and non-tasters of 6-n-propylthiouracil has been well studied in Western countries. However, reports on this issue from Asian countries are still limited. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Healthy Japanese students attending Nara Women's University (n=153) were recruited and classified into 3 groups based on taste sensitivity to a 0.32 mM 6-npropylthiouracil solution as scored on a labeled magnitude scale...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801840/tobacco-related-carcinogenesis-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#11
Ashok R Jethwa, Samir S Khariwala
Head and neck cancer (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)) is a devastating disease. Patients require intensive treatment that is often disfiguring and debilitating. Those who survive are often left with poor speech articulation, difficulties in chewing and swallowing, and cosmetic disfigurement, as well as loss of taste. Furthermore, given that HNSCC survivors are frequently disabled and unable to return to work, the economic and societal costs associated with HNSCC are massive. HNSCC is one of many cancers that are strongly associated with tobacco use...
August 12, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801754/expression-profiling-of-tas2r-genes-reveals-a-complex-pattern-along-the-mouse-gi-tract-and-the-presence-of-tas2r131-in-a-subset-of-intestinal-paneth-cells
#12
Simone Prandi, Anja Voigt, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Maik Behrens
The chemical variability of the intestinal lumen requires the presence of molecular receptors detecting the various substances naturally occurring in the diet and as a result of the activity of the microbiota. Despite their early discovery, intestinal bitter taste receptors (Tas2r) have not yet been assigned an unambiguous physiological function. Recently, using a CRE-recombinant approach we showed that the Tas2r131 gene is expressed in a subset of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon of mice. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the expression of the Tas2r131 locus is not restricted to this region...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801107/nanoprecipitation-process-from-encapsulation-to-drug-delivery
#13
REVIEW
Claudia Janeth Martínez Rivas, Mohamad Tarhini, Waisudin Badri, Karim Miladi, Hélène Greige-Gerges, Qand Agha Nazari, Sergio Arturo Galindo Rodríguez, Rocío Álvarez Román, Hatem Fessi, Abdelhamid Elaissari
Drugs encapsulation is a suitable strategy in order to cope with the limitations of conventional dosage forms such as unsuitable bioavailability, stability, taste, and odor. Nanoprecipitation technique has been used in the pharmaceutical and agricultural research as clean alternative for other drug carrier formulations. This technique is based on precipitation mechanism. Polymer precipitation occurs after the addition of a non-solvent to a polymer solution in four steps mechanism: supersaturation, nucleation, growth by condensation, and growth by coagulation that leads to the formation of polymer nanoparticles or aggregates...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800385/in-vivo-and-in-vitro-palatability-testing-of-a-new-paediatric-formulation-of-valaciclovir
#14
Diane E T Bastiaans, Laura I Immohr, Gertrude G Zeinstra, Riet Strik-Albers, Miriam Pein-Hackelbusch, Michiel van der Flier, Anton F J de Haan, Jaap Jan Boelens, Arjan C Lankester, David M Burger, Adilia Warris
AIM: The palatability of a new paediatric formulation of valaciclovir was assessed in children and their parents: non-inferiority of the new paediatric formulation (test formulation) compared to the reference formulation was investigated. METHODS: In vivo palatability testing was performed in a randomized, two-period, multicentre, cross-over study. Children and their parents scored the liking of the new paediatric valaciclovir formulation and the reference formulation on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS)...
August 11, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800204/comparison-of-robotic-and-coblation-tongue-base-resection-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#15
Chi Sang Hwang, Jin Won Kim, Jin Woong Kim, Eun Jung Lee, Chang-Hoon Kim, Joo-Heon Yoon, Hyung-Ju Cho
OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) with endoscope-guided coblation tongue base resection. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. SETTING: University-based tertiary care medical center. PARTICIPANTS: OSA patients who underwent endoscope-guided tongue base coblation resection or TORS in combination with lateral pharyngoplasty at a single institution in South Korea between April 2013 and December 2016 were investigated...
August 11, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798951/histomorphological-description-of-the-digestive-system-of-pebbly-fish-alestes-baremoze-joannis-1835
#16
Nasser Kasozi, Gerald Iwe Degu, Julius Mukalazi, Charles Drago Kato, Majid Kisekka, Akisoferi Owori Wadunde, Godfrey Kityo, Victoria Tibenda Namulawa
Histomorphological studies of the digestive system of Alestes baremoze captured from Lake Albert, Uganda, were done using standard procedures. These revealed that A. baremoze has a fleshy-lipped terminal small mouth, large molar, short oesophagus, a three-lobed liver, pouch-like stomach, a nine-fingered caeca, and a long tubular intestine. A stratified squamous epithelium with numerous mucus-secreting cells lined the lips with no taste buds. Stratified squamous epithelia lined the oesophagus in the anterior portion which turned into a columnar epithelium towards the stomach...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798468/the-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r16-achieves-high-specificity-and-accommodates-diverse-glycoside-ligands-by-using-a-two-faced-binding-pocket
#17
Anu Thomas, Chidananda Sulli, Edgar Davidson, Eli Berdougo, Morganne Phillips, Bridget A Puffer, Cheryl Paes, Benjamin J Doranz, Joseph B Rucker
Although bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are important for human health, little is known of the determinants of ligand specificity. TAS2Rs such as TAS2R16 help define gustatory perception and dietary preferences that ultimately influence human health and disease. Each TAS2R must accommodate a broad diversity of chemical structures while simultaneously achieving high specificity so that diverse bitter toxins can be detected without all foods tasting bitter. However, how these G protein-coupled receptors achieve this balance is poorly understood...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794101/modulation-of-taste-processing-by-temperature
#18
Christian H Lemon
Taste stimuli have a temperature that can stimulate thermosensitive neural machinery in the mouth during gustatory experience. Although taste and oral temperature are sometimes discussed as different oral sensory modalities, there is a body of literature that demonstrates temperature is an important component and modulator of the intensity of gustatory neural and perceptual responses. Available data indicate that the influence of temperature on taste, herein referred to as "thermogustation", can vary across taste qualities, can also vary among stimuli presumed to share a common taste quality, and is conditioned on taste stimulus concentration, with neuronal and psychophysical data revealing larger modulatory effects of temperature on gustatory responding to weakened taste solutions compared to concentrated...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792937/rewiring-the-taste-system
#19
Hojoon Lee, Lindsey J Macpherson, Camilo A Parada, Charles S Zuker, Nicholas J P Ryba
In mammals, taste buds typically contain 50-100 tightly packed taste-receptor cells (TRCs), representing all five basic qualities: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Notably, mature taste cells have life spans of only 5-20 days and, consequently, are constantly replenished by differentiation of taste stem cells. Given the importance of establishing and maintaining appropriate connectivity between TRCs and their partner ganglion neurons (that is, ensuring that a labelled line from sweet TRCs connects to sweet neurons, bitter TRCs to bitter neurons, sour to sour, and so on), we examined how new connections are specified to retain fidelity of signal transmission...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791790/salty-taste-thresholds-and-preference-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-according-to-disease-stage-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Tae Hee Kim, Young Hoon Kim, Na Yeong Bae, Shin Sook Kang, Jung Bok Lee, Soon Bae Kim
AIM: The present study was performed to evaluate the differences in salty taste thresholds among normal controls and non-dialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients according to disease stage and to evaluate the relationship between salty taste thresholds or preferences and mean spot urine sodium concentrations. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 436 patients with non-dialysis CKD and 74 normal controls. We evaluated detection and recognition thresholds, salty taste preferences and salt usage behaviours (through a questionnaire) in CKD patients and normal controls...
August 9, 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
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