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Eisuke Chikayama, Ryo Yamashina, Keiko Komatsu, Yuuri Tsuboi, Kenji Sakata, Jun Kikuchi, Yasuyo Sekiyama
Foods from agriculture and fishery products are processed using various technologies. Molecular mixture analysis during food processing has the potential to help us understand the molecular mechanisms involved, thus enabling better cooking of the analyzed foods. To date, there has been no web-based tool focusing on accumulating Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectra from various types of food processing. Therefore, we have developed a novel web-based tool, FoodPro, that includes a food NMR spectrum database and computes covariance and correlation spectra to tasting and hardness...
October 19, 2016: Metabolites
J Graham Thomas, Andrew Seiden, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Warren K Bickel, Rena R Wing
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine how sensitivity to short-term reward and long-term goal perseverance are related to body mass index (BMI; kg m(2)) in a large sample of men and women with and without obesity. METHODS: A total of 450 participants (56.2% male; 73.1% non-Hispanic White) with mean ± standard deviation age of 30.7 ± 10.4 years and BMI of 29.3 ± 8.2 completed online versions of the Delayed Reward Discounting task to measure sensitivity to short-term reward and the Grit Scale to measure long-term goal perseverance...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
Giovanna Squintani, Francesco Donato, Mara Turri, Luciano Deotto, Francesco Teatini, Giuseppe Moretto, Roberto Erro
BACKGROUND: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®) has been recently approved for the management of treatment-resistant multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity. Although the symptomatic relief of Sativex® on MS-spasticity has been consistently demonstrated, the pathogenetic implications remain unclear and the few electrophysiological studies performed to address this topic yielded controversial results. We therefore aimed to investigate the mechanisms underpinning the modulation of spastic hypertonia by Sativex®, at both central and spinal levels, through an extensive neurophysiological battery in patients with MS...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Michaela L Sundqvist, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function...
October 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Daniel J Peart, Andy Hensby, Matthew P Shaw
The purpose of this study was to compare markers of hydration during sub-maximal exercise and subsequent time trial performance when consuming water (PW) or coconut water (CW). There was also a secondary aim to assess the palatability of CW during exercise and voluntary intake during intense exercise. 10 males (age 27.9 + 4.9 years, body mass 78.1 + 10.1kg, average max minute power 300.2 + 28.2W) completed 60-min of sub-maximal cycling followed by a 10-km time trial on two occasions. During these trials participants consumed either PW or CW in a randomised manner, drinking a 250 ml of the assigned drink between 10-15 min, 25-30 min and 40-45 min, and then drinking ad libitum from 55-min until the end of the time trial...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Sylvia Spivakovsky
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Pravin M Rathi, Pinakin S Patel
We present the case of a young woman who presented to us with multiple episodes of vomiting, followed by hematemesis and abdominal pain after consuming bottle gourd juice. The patient was resuscitated and stabilized with fluids, proton pump inhibitors and antiemetics and discharged in stable condition. As a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, bottle gourd contains toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste and toxicity. There is no known antidote for this toxicity, and clinicians treat such patients symptomatically only...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Julia Y Q Low, Robert L McBride, Kathleen E Lacy, Russell S J Keast
Sweetness is one of the 5 prototypical tastes and is activated by sugars and non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). The aim of this study was to investigate measures of sweet taste function [detection threshold (DT), recognition threshold (RT), and suprathreshold intensity ratings] across multiple sweeteners. Sixty participants, 18-52 years of age (mean age in years = 26, SD = ±7.8), were recruited to participate in the study. DT and RT were collected for caloric sweeteners (glucose, fructose, sucrose, erythritol) and NNS (sucralose, rebaudioside A)...
October 20, 2016: Chemical Senses
Yuuki Kasashima, Shinya Uchida, Keiichi Yoshihara, Takehiko Yasuji, Kazuhiro Sako, Noriyuki Namiki
The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of lauryl sulfate (LS) salt/complex as a novel carrier in oral sustained-release suspensions. Mirabegron, which has a pH-dependent solubility, was selected as the model drug. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) was bound to mirabegron in a stoichiometric manner to form a LS salt/complex. LS salt/complex formulation significantly reduced the solubility of mirabegron and helped mirabegron achieve sustained-release over a wide range of pH conditions. Microparticles containing the LS salt/complex were prepared by spray drying with the aqueous dispersion of ethylcellulose (Aquacoat(®) ECD)...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Ida Steen, Sandra S Waehrens, Mikael A Petersen, Morten Münchow, Wender L P Bredie
The present study aimed to investigate coffee flavour perception and release as function of serving temperature to support standardisation in the specialty coffee branch. The coffee cultivar Bourbon Caturra was evaluated at six serving temperatures ranging from 31°C to 62°C. Coffee samples were analysed by dynamic headspace sampling gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and descriptive analyses using sip-and-spit tasting. The release of volatiles followed mostly the van't Hoff principle and was exuberated at temperatures above 40°C...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Diane Whalley, Tanaz Petigara, Lawrence Rasouliyan, Keisuke Tobe, Kaan Tunceli
OBJECTIVE: Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) offer a valuable treatment option, particularly when swallowing solid tablets with water is difficult or inconvenient. Montelukast is an effective treatment for asthma and allergic rhinitis (AR), and an ODT formulation became available in Japan in 2015. This study investigated levels of satisfaction with this new formulation among adults with asthma and/or AR in Japan. METHODS: Patients aged 20 years or older who were refilling a prescription for montelukast ODT in pharmacies across Japan completed questions on satisfaction with key features of montelukast ODT and the 9-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9)...
October 21, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Satoshi Izumi, Guang Hong, Koh Iwasaki, Masayuki Izumi, Yusuke Matsuyama, Mirei Chiba, Takashi Toda, Tada-Aki Kudo
The taste detection system for oral fatty acid may be related to obesity. In addition, sleep is intrinsically and closely related to food intake and metabolism. However, the association of gustatory salivation with body mass index (BMI), daytime sleepiness, or sleep habits is largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between gustatory salivation and BMI, Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS, a daytime sleepiness scale) or sleep habits among 26 healthy young individuals (20 males and 6 females; mean age: 26...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Cristina M Crava, Sukania Ramasamy, Lino Ometto, Gianfranco Anfora, Omar Rota-Stabelli
Chemosensory perception allows insects to interact with the environment by perceiving odorant or tastant molecules; genes encoding chemoreceptors are the molecular interface between the environment and the insect, and play a central role in mediating its chemosensory behavior. Here we explore how the evolution of these genes in the emerging pest Drosophila suzukii correlates with the peculiar ecology of this species. We annotated approximately 130 genes coding for gustatory receptors (GRs) and divergent ionotropic receptors (dIRs) in D...
October 19, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Minan Y Al-Ezzi, Neha Pathak, Anwar R Tappuni, Khalid S Khan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the impact of dryness caused by primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) on smell, taste and sexual function in female patients, and its influence on quality of life. METHODS: Electronic databases including MEDLINE via Ovid, Web of Science, SCOUPUS, EMBASE and COCHRANE LIBRARY were searched until April 2016. Studies that assessed the function of smell, taste and sexuality in pSS patients, defined by the American European Consensus Group (AECG) criteria...
October 20, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
Vendula Bartáková, Katarína Kuricová, Filip Zlámal, Jana Bělobrádková, Katetřina Kaňková
PURPOSE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents the most frequent metabolic disorder in pregnancy. Since dietary intake plays an important role in obesity and type 2 diabetes development, it is likely to be for the susceptibility to GDM too. Food preferences, driving partly the diet composition, are changing during pregnancy. Taste and genetic variability in taste receptors is an important factor in determining food preferences. Aims of our study were (1) to characterize dietary habits of pregnant women and to find possible differences in food preferences between healthy pregnant women and those with GDM and (2) to ascertain possible association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in taste receptor (TR) genes with GDM...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Lovish Marwaha, Yashika Bansal, Raghunath Singh, Priyanka Saroj, Ranjana Bhandari, Anurag Kuhad
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating disease which affects central as well as peripheral nervous system. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are ligand-gated ion channels that detect physical and chemical stimuli and promote painful sensations via nociceptor activation. TRP channels have physiological role in the mechanisms controlling several physiological responses like temperature and mechanical sensations, response to painful stimuli, taste, and pheromones. TRP channel family involves six different TRPs (TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPV3, TRPV4, TRPM8, and TRPA1) which are expressed in pain sensing neurons and primary afferent nociceptors...
October 18, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Krishnendu Ray
The sociology of food consumption has emerged as a robust field with rich empirical material and engaged theorization about taste, omnivorousness, distinction, and practice theory. Nevertheless there are continuing empirical and conceptual lacunae. For instance, although transnational and rural-to-urban migrants play a crucial role in food businesses in many global cities, they are mostly unaccounted for in the sociology of taste. Taking the American case, in particular based on data from New York City, this article provides reasons for that gap and shows what might be gained if migrants were accounted for in the urban sociology of taste...
October 15, 2016: Appetite
A Rosi, M Dall'Asta, F Brighenti, D Del Rio, E Volta, I Baroni, M Nalin, M Coti Zelati, A Sanna, F Scazzina
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was evaluating if the presence of a humanoid robot could improve the efficacy of a game-based, nutritional education intervention. STUDY DESIGN: This was a controlled, school-based pilot intervention carried out on fourth-grade school children (8-10 years old). A total of 112 children underwent a game-based nutritional educational lesson on the importance of carbohydrates. For one group (n = 58), the lesson was carried out by a nutritional educator, the Master of Taste (MT), whereas for another group, (n = 54) the Master of Taste was supported by a humanoid robot (MT + NAO)...
October 15, 2016: Public Health
Daniel A Nidzgorski, Sarah E Hobbie
Many urban waterways suffer from excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), feeding algal blooms, which cause lower water clarity and oxygen levels, bad odor and taste, and the loss of desirable species. Nutrient movement from land to water is likely to be influenced by urban vegetation, but there are few empirical studies addressing this. In this study, we examined whether or not urban trees can reduce nutrient leaching to groundwater, an important nutrient export pathway that has received less attention than stormwater...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Pengfei Liu, Wenxiang Zhong, Chenlong Liao, Min Yang, Wenchuan Zhang
Therapeutic strategy is controversial and not yet uniform for patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and persistent or recurrent facial pain after microvascular decompression, percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation (PRT), or Gamma Knife surgery. The outcomes and risks of PRT for these patients are not clearly understood. The authors performed a retrospective study of 84 patients with persistent or recurrent TN after surgery who then underwent PRT between 2007 and 2013. Data were obtained with chart review and telephone interviews...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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