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Meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726634/birth-and-death-of-a-protein
#1
Julie Clément, Bernard de Massy
The ways in which recombination sites are determined during meiosis are becoming clearer following a phylogenomic analysis for 225 different species.
July 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724397/partial-uniparental-isodisomy-of-chromosome-16-unmasks-a-deleterious-biallelic-mutation-in-ift140-that-causes-mainzer-saldino-syndrome
#2
Benjamin M Helm, Jason R Willer, Azita Sadeghpour, Christelle Golzio, Eric Crouch, Samantha Schrier Vergano, Nicholas Katsanis, Erica E Davis
BACKGROUND: The ciliopathies represent an umbrella group of >50 clinical entities that share both clinical features and molecular etiology underscored by structural and functional defects of the primary cilium. Despite the advances in gene discovery, this group of entities continues to pose a diagnostic challenge, in part due to significant genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity and variability. We consulted a pediatric case from asymptomatic, non-consanguineous parents who presented as a suspected ciliopathy due to a constellation of retinal, renal, and skeletal findings...
July 19, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723680/meiotic-recombination-in-the-giraffe-g-reticulata
#3
Miluse Vozdova, Jan Fröhlich, Svatava Kubickova, Hana Sebestova, Jiri Rubes
Recently, the reticulated giraffe (G. reticulata) was identified as a distinct species, which emphasized the need for intensive research in this interesting animal. To shed light on the meiotic process as a source of biodiversity, we analysed the frequency and distribution of meiotic recombination in 2 reticulated giraffe males. We used immunofluorescence detection of synaptonemal complex protein (SYCP3), meiotic double strand breaks (DSB, marked as RAD51 foci) in leptonema, and crossovers (COs, as MLH1 foci) in pachynema...
July 20, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723571/emi2-is-essential-for-mouse-spermatogenesis
#4
Lakshmi Gopinathan, Radoslaw Szmyd, Diana Low, M Kasim Diril, Heng-Yu Chang, Vincenzo Coppola, Kui Liu, Lino Tessarollo, Ernesto Guccione, Ans M M van Pelt, Philipp Kaldis
The meiotic functions of Emi2, an inhibitor of the APC/C complex, have been best characterized in oocytes where it mediates metaphase II arrest as a component of the cytostatic factor. We generated knockout mice to determine the in vivo functions of Emi2-in particular, its functions in the testis, where Emi2 is expressed at high levels. Male and female Emi2 knockout mice are viable but sterile, indicating that Emi2 is essential for meiosis but dispensable for embryonic development and mitotic cell divisions...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722544/the-greatwall-kinase-is-dominant-over-pka-in-controlling-the-antagonistic-function-of-arpp19-in-xenopus-oocytes
#5
Aude-Isabelle Dupré, Olivier Haccard, Catherine Jessus
The small protein ARPP19 plays a dual role during oocyte meiosis resumption. In Xenopus, ARPP19 phosphorylation at S109 by PKA is necessary for maintaining oocytes arrested in prophase of the first meiotic division. Progesterone downregulates PKA, leading to the dephosphorylation of ARPP19 at S109. This initiates a transduction pathway ending with the activation of the universal inducer of M-phase, the kinase Cdk1. This last step depends on ARPP19 phosphorylation at S67 by the kinase Greatwall. Hence, phosphorylated by PKA at S109, ARPP19 restrains Cdk1 activation while when phosphorylated by Greatwall at S67, ARPP19 becomes an inducer of Cdk1 activation...
July 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714992/musashi-1-regulates-the-timing-and-extent-of-meiotic-mrna-translational-activation-by-promoting-the-use-of-specific-cpes
#6
Laure Weill, Eulàlia Belloc, Chiara Lara Castellazzi, Raúl Méndez
The translational reactivation of maternal mRNAs encoding meiotic drivers in vertebrates is accomplished mainly by cytoplasmic polyadenylation. The cytoplasmic polyadenylation elements (CPEs) present in the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) of these transcripts, together with their cognate CPE-binding proteins (CPEBs), define a combinatorial code that determines the timing and extent of translational activation upon meiosis resumption. In addition, the RNA-binding protein Musashi1 (Msi1) regulates polyadenylation of CPE-containing mRNAs by a yet undefined CPEB-dependent or CPEB-independent mechanism...
July 17, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711872/cell-scientist-to-watch-kevin-corbett
#7
(no author information available yet)
Kevin Corbett graduated in biology and biochemistry from the University of Virginia. He then went to the University of California, Berkeley, to work on the structure and function of DNA topoisomerases in bacteria and archaea for his PhD with James Berger. In 2005, he moved to the laboratory of Stephen Harrison at Harvard Medical School for his postdoctoral work on kinetochore structure and function, particularly the yeast monopolin complex, which promotes proper chromosome segregation in the first meiotic division...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710131/gene-regulatory-networks-for-the-haploid-to-diploid-transition-of-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#8
Sunjoo Joo, Yoshiki Nishimura, Evan Cronmiller, Ran Ha Hong, Thamali Kariyawasam, Ming Hsiu Wang, Nai Chun Shao, Saif-El-Din El Akkad, Takamasa Suzuki, Tetsuya Higashiyama, EonSeon Jin, Jae-Hyeok Lee
The sexual cycle of the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii culminates in the formation of diploid zygotes which differentiate into dormant spores that eventually undergo meiosis. Mating between gametes induces rapid cell wall shedding via the enzyme g-lysin; cell fusion is followed by heterodimerization of sex-specific homeobox transcription factors, GSM1 and GSP1, and initiation of zygote-specific gene expression. To investigate the genetic underpinnings of the zygote developmental pathway, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis of both pre- and post-fertilization samples...
July 14, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710064/time-course-analysis-of-early-meiotic-prophase-events-informs-mechanisms-of-homolog-pairing-and-synapsis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#9
Susanna Mlynarczyk-Evans, Anne M Villeneuve
Segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis depends on their ability to reorganize within the nucleus, discriminate among potential partners, and stabilize pairwise associations through assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC). Here we report a high-resolution time-course analysis of these key early events during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis. Labeled nucleotides are incorporated specifically into the X chromosomes during the last two hours of S phase, a property we exploit to identify a highly synchronous cohort of nuclei...
July 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708824/tex19-1-promotes-spo11-dependent-meiotic-recombination-in-mouse-spermatocytes
#10
James H Crichton, Christopher J Playfoot, Marie MacLennan, David Read, Howard J Cooke, Ian R Adams
Meiosis relies on the SPO11 endonuclease to generate the recombinogenic DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) required for homologous chromosome synapsis and segregation. The number of meiotic DSBs needs to be sufficient to allow chromosomes to search for and find their homologs, but not excessive to the point of causing genome instability. Here we report that the mammal-specific gene Tex19.1 promotes Spo11-dependent recombination in mouse spermatocytes. We show that the chromosome asynapsis previously reported in Tex19...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708515/stage-specific-expression-of-sal-like-protein-4-in-boar-testicular-germ-cells
#11
Hyun-Jung Park, Ran Lee, Won-Young Lee, Jin-Hoi Kim, Jeong Tae Do, Chankyu Park, Hyuk Song
Spermatogenesis, the complex process of sperm cell development including mitotic cell division and meiosis, relies on spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). While markers for developing germ cells have been well investigated in mice, developmental stage-specific markers of germ cells in domestic animals have not been identified. Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4) is known as a putative marker for undifferentiated spermatogonia in rodents; however, its expression in domestic animals has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to characterize the expression of SALL4 in the developmental stages of boar testes and SSCs...
June 16, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708500/reversible-meiotic-arrest-of-bovine-oocytes-by-egfr-inhibition-and-follicular-hemisections
#12
Paulo Roberto Antunes da Rosa, Matheus Pedrotti De Cesaro, Andressa Minussi Pereira Dau, Raj Duggavathi, Vilceu Bordignon, Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway on meiosis blockage and resumption, mRNA expression of genes involved in oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion, and embryo development. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured for 15 h in the presence of the EGFR inhibitor (AG1478) and follicular hemisections (FHS). Most of the oocytes (89.3%) remained at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage when cultured in the presence of FHS and 5 μM AG1478...
May 23, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708292/fhod1-regulates-cytoplasmic-actin-based-spindle-migration-for-mouse-oocyte-asymmetric-cell-division
#13
Meng-Hao Pan, Fei Wang, Yujie Lu, Feng Tang, Xing Duan, Yu Zhang, Bo Xiong, Shao-Chen Sun
FHOD1 is a member of Diaphanous related formins (DRFs) which belongs to the Formin family. Previous studies have shown that the DFRs might affect several cellular functions such as morphogenesis, cytokinesis, cell polarity and embryonic differentiation. However, there is no evidence showing the functions of FHOD1 during oocyte meiosis. This study is aimed at exploring the roles of FHOD1 during the mammalian oocyte maturation. Immunofluorescent staining showed that FHOD1 was restricted to the nucleus in germinal vesicle (GV) stage of the oocytes, after the GV breakdown FHOD1 was primarily located at two poles of the spindle at both metaphase I and metaphase II stages...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701347/a-casein-kinase-1-prevents-expulsion-of-the-oocyte-meiotic-spindle-into-a-polar-body-by-regulating-cortical-contractility
#14
Jonathan R Flynn, Francis J McNally
During female meiosis, haploid eggs are generated from diploid oocytes. This reduction in chromosome number occurs through two highly asymmetric cell divisions resulting in one large egg and two small polar bodies. Unlike mitosis, where an actomyosin contractile ring forms between the sets of segregating chromosomes, the meiotic contractile ring forms on the cortex adjacent to one spindle pole, then ingresses down the length of the spindle to position itself at the exact midpoint between the two sets of segregating chromosomes...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696245/the-histone-codes-for-meiosis
#15
REVIEW
Lina Wang, Zhiliang Xu, Muhammad Babar Khawar, Chao Liu, Wei Li
Meiosis is a specialized process that produces haploid gametes from diploid cells by a single round of DNA replication followed by two successive cell divisions. It contains many special events, such as programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation, homologous recombination, crossover formation and resolution. These events are associated with dynamically regulated chromosomal structures, the dynamic transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling are mainly modulated by histone modifications, termed 'histone codes'...
September 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696221/meica-1-meiotic-chromosome-association-1-interacts-with-top3%C3%AE-and-regulates-meiotic-recombination-in-rice
#16
Qing Hu, Yafei Li, Hongjun Wang, Yi Shen, Chao Zhang, Guijie Du, Ding Tang, Zhukuan Cheng
Homologous recombination plays a central role in guaranteeing chromosome segregation during meiosis. The precise regulation of the resolution of recombination intermediates is critical for the success of meiosis. Many proteins, including the RECQ DNA helicases (Sgs1/BLM) and Topoisomerase 3α (TOP3α), have essential functions in managing recombination intermediates. However, many other factors involved in this process remain to be defined. Here we report the isolation of meiotic chromosome association 1 (MEICA1), a novel protein participating in meiotic recombination in rice (Oryza sativa)...
July 10, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696215/a-model-for-epigenetic-inhibition-via-transvection-in-the-mouse
#17
Juan D Rodriguez, Dexter A Myrick, Ilaria Falciatori, Michael A Christopher, Teresa W Lee, Gregory J Hannon, David J Katz
Transvection is broadly defined as the ability of one locus to affect its homologous locus in trans Although it was first discovered in the 1950s, there are only two known cases in mammals. Here, we report another instance of mammalian transvection induced by the Cre/LoxP system, which is widely used for conditional gene targeting in the mouse. We attempted to use the germline expressed Vasa-Cre transgene to engineer a mouse mutation, but observe a dramatic reduction of LoxP recombination in mice that inherit an already deleted LoxP allele in trans A similar phenomenon has previously been observed with another Cre that is expressed during meiosis, Sycp-1-Cre This second example of LoxP inhibition in trans reinforces the conclusion that certain meiotically expressed Cre alleles can initiate transvection in mammals...
July 10, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696027/atz-1-influences-meiosis-to-maintain-germline-chromosomal-stability-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Joseph A Dawson, Caitlin Methven-Kelley, Gregory M Davis
Exchange of genetic information during meiosis occurs in all sexually reproducing species to produce haploid gametes from diploid cells. This process involves tight coordination of a meiotic specific cohesin complex, the synaptonemal complex, and DNA damage repair mechanisms. In this study, we describe a putative myosin heavy chain protein orthologous to human myosin 1, F28D1.2, which we named atz-1 (Abnormal Transition Zone). Deletion of atz-1 results in embryonic lethality and a depleted transition zone, accompanied by reduced expression of the meiotic cohesin protein, REC-8...
July 11, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694245/fundamental-cell-cycle-kinases-collaborate-to-ensure-timely-destruction-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-during-meiosis
#19
Bilge Argunhan, Wing-Kit Leung, Negar Afshar, Yaroslav Terentyev, Vijayalakshmi V Subramanian, Yasuto Murayama, Andreas Hochwagen, Hiroshi Iwasaki, Tomomi Tsubouchi, Hideo Tsubouchi
The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a proteinaceous macromolecular assembly that forms during meiotic prophase I and mediates adhesion of paired homologous chromosomes along their entire lengths. Although prompt disassembly of the SC during exit from prophase I is a landmark event of meiosis, the underlying mechanism regulating SC destruction has remained elusive. Here, we show that DDK (Dbf4-dependent Cdc7 kinase) is central to SC destruction. Upon exit from prophase I, Dbf4, the regulatory subunit of DDK, directly associates with and is phosphorylated by the Polo-like kinase Cdc5...
July 10, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693746/so-similar-yet-so-different-the-two-ends-of-a-double-strand-break
#20
REVIEW
Keun P Kim, Ekaterina V Mirkin
Homologous recombination (HR) is essential for ensuring proper segregation of chromosomes in the first round of meiotic division. HR is also crucial for preserving genomic integrity of somatic cells due to its ability to rescue collapsed replication forks and eliminate deleterious DNA lesions, such as double-strand breaks (DSBs), interstrand crosslinks, and single-strand DNA gaps. Here, we review the early steps of HR (homology search and strand exchange), focusing on the roles of the two ends of a DSB. A detailed overview of the basic HR machinery and its mechanism for template selection and capture of duplex DNA via strand exchange is provided...
June 27, 2017: Mutation Research
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