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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776966/loss-of-tigar-induces-oxidative-stress-and-meiotic-defects-in-oocytes-from-obese-mice
#1
Haichao Wang, Qing Cheng, Xiaoyan Li, Feifei Hu, Longsen Han, Hao Zhang, Ling Li, Juan Ge, Xiaoyan Ying, Xuejiang Guo, Qiang Wang
Maternal obesity has been reported to impair oocyte quality in mice, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, by conducting a comparative proteomic analysis, we identified a reduced expression of TIGAR protein in ovulated oocytes from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Specific depletion of TIGAR in mouse oocytes results in the marked elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the failure of meiotic apparatus assembly. Importantly, forced expression of TIGAR in HFD oocytes not only attenuates ROS production, but also partly prevents spindle disorganization and chromosome misalignment during meiosis...
May 18, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775928/tributyltin-impaired-reproductive-success-in-female-zebrafish-through-disrupting-oogenesis-reproductive-behaviors-and-serotonin-synthesis
#2
Wei-Yang Xiao, Ying-Wen Li, Qi-Liang Chen, Zhi-Hao Liu
Tributyltin (TBT), an organotin acting as aromatase (Cyp19a1) inhibitor, has been found to disrupt gametogenesis and reproductive behaviors in several fish species. However, few studies addressing the mechanisms underlying the impaired gametogenesis and reproduction have been reported. In this study, female adults of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were continuously exposed to two nominal concentrations of TBT (100 and 500 ng/L, actual concentrations: 90.8 ± 1.3 ng/L and 470.3 ± 2.7 ng/L, respectively) for 28 days...
May 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775237/yolk-accumulation-in-an-insect-oocyte
#3
Isabela Ramos
Oocytes are remarkable cells in the matter of accumulating macronutrients. Oviparous animals have evolved to produce germline cells that not only enter meiosis to generate a gamete, but also differentiate into a giant cell designed to support embryo growth. To accomplish that, an oocyte typically grows up to 5,000x its original size by accumulating macromolecules, which are collectively referred to as yolk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
May 18, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771908/elevated-temperature-increases-meiotic-crossover-frequency-via-the-interfering-type-i-pathway-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#4
Jennifer L Modliszewski, Hongkuan Wang, Ashley R Albright, Scott M Lewis, Alexander R Bennett, Jiyue Huang, Hong Ma, Yingxiang Wang, Gregory P Copenhaver
For most eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is a fundamental process that requires meiosis. In turn, meiosis typically depends on a reciprocal exchange of DNA between each pair of homologous chromosomes, known as a crossover (CO), to ensure proper chromosome segregation. The frequency and distribution of COs are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors, but much more is known about the molecular mechanisms governing the former compared to the latter. Here we show that elevated temperature induces meiotic hyper-recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana and we use genetic analysis with mutants in different recombination pathways to demonstrate that the extra COs are derived from the major Type I interference sensitive pathway...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770509/molecular-characteristics-of-granulosa-and-cumulus-cells-and-oocyte-competence-in-nelore-cows-with-low-and-high-numbers-of-antral-follicles
#5
C O Rosa, Lsr Marinho, Pra da Rosa, M P De Cesaro, P A Lunardelli, K C Silva-Santos, A C Basso, V Bordignon, M M Seneda
The aims of this study were to investigate whether the number of antral follicles (AF) in the ovaries of Nelore cows is influenced with the developmental competence of oocytes to reach the blastocyst stage and to quantify the mRNA abundance of genes associated with folliculogenesis and oogenesis in granulosa and cumulus cells. A total of 168 cows were distributed into two experimental groups according to the number of AF, low (≤31) and high AF (≥92), which were determined based on the mean number of AF (61...
May 16, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769606/malonylation-of-histone-h2a-at-lysine-119-inhibits-bub1-dependent-h2a-phosphorylation-and-chromosomal-localization-of-shugoshin-proteins
#6
Tadashi Ishiguro, Kana Tanabe, Yuki Kobayashi, Shinsuke Mizumoto, Motomu Kanai, Shigehiro A Kawashima
Post-translational modifications of histones, such as acetylation and phosphorylation, are highly conserved in eukaryotes and their combination enables precise regulation of many cellular functions. Recent studies using mass spectrometry have revealed various non-acetyl acylations in histones, including malonylation and succinylation, which change the positive charge of lysine into a negative one. However, the molecular function of histone malonylation or succinylation is poorly understood. Here, we discovered the functions of malonylation in histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2A-K119) in chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768402/condensin-i-protects-meiotic-cohesin-from-wapl-1-mediated-removal
#7
Margarita R Hernandez, Michael B Davis, Jianhao Jiang, Elizabeth A Brouhard, Aaron F Severson, Györgyi Csankovszki
Condensin complexes are key determinants of higher-order chromatin structure and are required for mitotic and meiotic chromosome compaction and segregation. We identified a new role for condensin in the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion during C. elegans meiosis. Using conventional and stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy we show that levels of chromosomally-bound cohesin were significantly reduced in dpy-28 mutants, which lack a subunit of condensin I. SYP-1, a component of the synaptonemal complex central region, was also diminished, but no decrease in the axial element protein HTP-3 was observed...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768205/c-elegans-blastomeres-clear-the-corpse-of-the-second-polar-body-by-lc3-associated-phagocytosis
#8
Gholamreza Fazeli, Maurice Stetter, Jaime N Lisack, Ann M Wehman
To understand how undifferentiated pluripotent cells cope with cell corpses, we examined the clearance of polar bodies born during female meiosis. We found that polar bodies lose membrane integrity and expose phosphatidylserine in Caenorhabditis elegans. Polar body signaling recruits engulfment receptors to the plasma membrane of embryonic blastomeres using the PI3K VPS-34, RAB-5 GTPase and the sorting nexin SNX-6. The second polar body is then phagocytosed using receptor-mediated engulfment pathways dependent on the Rac1 ortholog CED-10 but undergoes non-apoptotic programmed cell death independent of engulfment...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765389/homoeologous-chromosomes-from-two-hordeum-species-can-recognize-and-associate-during-meiosis-in-wheat-in-the-presence-of-the-ph1-locus
#9
María C Calderón, María-Dolores Rey, Antonio Martín, Pilar Prieto
Understanding the system of a basic eukaryotic cellular mechanism like meiosis is of fundamental importance in plant biology. Moreover, it is also of great strategic interest in plant breeding since unzipping the mechanism of chromosome specificity/pairing during meiosis will allow its manipulation to introduce genetic variability from related species into a crop. The success of meiosis in a polyploid like wheat strongly depends on regular pairing of homologous (identical) chromosomes and recombination, processes mainly controlled by the Ph1 locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760424/parental-haplotype-specific-single-cell-transcriptomics-reveal-incomplete-epigenetic-reprogramming-in-human-female-germ-cells
#10
Ábel Vértesy, Wibowo Arindrarto, Matthias S Roost, Björn Reinius, Vanessa Torrens-Juaneda, Monika Bialecka, Ioannis Moustakas, Yavuz Ariyurek, Ewart Kuijk, Hailiang Mei, Rickard Sandberg, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
In contrast to mouse, human female germ cells develop asynchronously. Germ cells transition to meiosis, erase genomic imprints, and reactivate the X chromosome. It is unknown if these events all appear asynchronously, and how they relate to each other. Here we combine exome sequencing of human fetal and maternal tissues with single-cell RNA-sequencing of five donors. We reconstruct full parental haplotypes and quantify changes in parental allele-specific expression, genome-wide. First we distinguish primordial germ cells (PGC), pre-meiotic, and meiotic transcriptional stages...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760201/a-high-resolution-genetic-map-for-the-laboratory-rat
#11
John Littrell, Shirng-Wern Tsaih, Amelie Baud, Pasi Rastas, Leah Solberg-Woods, Michael J Flister
An accurate and high-resolution genetic map is critical for mapping complex traits, yet the resolution of the current rat genetic map is far lower than human and mouse, and has not been updated since the original Jensen-Seaman map in 2004. For the first time, we have refined the rat genetic map to sub-centimorgan (cM) resolution (<0.02 cM) by using 95,769 genetic markers and 870 informative meiosis from a cohort of 528 heterogeneous stock (HS) rats. Global recombination rates in the revised sex-averaged map (0...
May 14, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757461/accumulation-of-transposable-elements-in-selfing-populations-of-arabidopsis-lyrata-supports-the-ectopic-recombination-model-of-transposon-evolution
#12
Georgi Bonchev, Yvonne Willi
Transposable elements (TE) can constitute a large fraction of plant genomes, yet our understanding of their evolution and fitness effect is still limited. Here we tested several models of evolution that make specific predictions about differences in TE abundance between selfing and outcrossing taxa, and between small and large populations. We estimated TE abundance in multiple populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata differing in mating system and long-term size, using transposon insertion display on several TE families...
May 14, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755732/recent-advances-in-understanding-oogenesis-interactions-with-the-cytoskeleton-microtubule-organization-and-meiotic-spindle-assembly-in-oocytes
#13
REVIEW
Florence L Marlow
Maternal control of development begins with production of the oocyte during oogenesis. All of the factors necessary to complete oocyte maturation, meiosis, fertilization, and early development are produced in the transcriptionally active early oocyte. Active transcription of the maternal genome is a mechanism to ensure that the oocyte and development of the early embryo begin with all of the factors needed for successful embryonic development. To achieve the maximum maternal store, only one functional cell is produced from the meiotic divisions that produce the oocyte...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754905/the-post-anaphase-sumo-pathway-ensures-the-maintenance-of-centromeric-cohesion-through-meiosis-i-ii-transition-in-mammalian-oocytes
#14
Yi Ding, Masako Kaido, Elena Llano, Alberto M Pendas, Tomoya S Kitajima
The production of haploid gametes requires the maintenance of centromeric cohesion between sister chromatids through the transition between two successive meiotic divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. One mechanism for the cohesion maintenance is shugoshin-dependent protection of centromeric cohesin at anaphase I onset [1-3]. However, how centromeric cohesion is maintained during late anaphase I and telophase I, when centromeric shugoshin is undetectable [1-3], remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the centromeric small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) pathway is critical for the maintenance of centromeric cohesion during post-anaphase-I periods in mouse oocytes...
May 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752405/structural-basis-for-disassembly-of-katanin-heterododecamers
#15
Stanley Nithianantham, Francis J McNally, Jawdat Al-Bassam
The reorganization of microtubules in mitosis, meiosis and development requires the microtubule-severing activity of katanin.  Katanin is a heterodimer composed of an ATPase Associated with diverse cellular Activities (AAA) subunit and a regulatory subunit. Microtubule severing requires ATP hydrolysis by katanin's conserved AAA ATPase domains. Whereas other AAA ATPases form stable hexamers, we show that katanin only forms monomer or dimers of heterodimers in solution.  Katanin oligomers consistent with hexamers of heterodimers or heterododecamers were only observed for an ATP hydrolysis deficient mutant in the presence of ATP...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743337/oocyte-quality-control-causes-mechanisms-and-consequences
#16
Neil Hunter
Oocyte quality and number are key determinants of reproductive life span and success. These variables are shaped in part by the elimination of oocytes that experience problems during the early stages of meiosis. Meiotic prophase-I marks an extended period of genome vulnerability in which epigenetic reprogramming unleashes retroelements and hundreds of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are inflicted to initiate the programmed recombination required for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division...
May 9, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743196/comprehensive-discovery-of-cell-cycle-essential-pathways-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#17
Michal Breker, Kristi Lieberman, Frederick Cross
We generated a large collection of temperature-sensitive lethal mutants in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, focusing on mutations specifically affecting cell cycle regulation. We used UV mutagenesis and robotically assisted phenotypic screening to isolate candidates. To overcome the bottleneck at the critical step of molecular identification of the causative mutation ('driver'), we developed MAPS-SEQ (Meiosis-Assisted Purifying Selection Sequencing), a multiplexed genetic/bioinformatics strategy...
May 9, 2018: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743192/prolonged-cyclin-dependent-kinase-inhibition-results-in-septin-perturbations-during-return-to-growth-and-mitosis
#18
Gabriel M Gihana, Tiffany R Musser, Oscar Thompson, Soni Lacefield
We investigated how Saccharomyces cerevisiae coordinate polarization, budding, and anaphase during a unique developmental program called return to growth (RTG) in which cells in meiosis return to mitosis upon nutrient shift. Cells reentering mitosis from prophase I deviate from the normal cell cycle by budding in G2 instead of G1. We found that cells do not maintain the bipolar budding pattern, a characteristic of diploid cells. Furthermore, strict temporal regulation of M-phase cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK; M-CDK) is important for polarity establishment and morphogenesis...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742103/shoc1-is-a-ercc4-hhh-2-like-protein-integral-to-the-formation-of-crossover-recombination-intermediates-during-mammalian-meiosis
#19
Michel F Guiraldelli, Anna Felberg, Luciana P Almeida, Aniruddha Parikh, Rodrigo O de Castro, Roberto J Pezza
Chromosome segregation errors during meiosis result in the formation of aneuploid gametes and are the leading cause of pregnancy loss and birth defects in humans. Proper chromosome segregation requires pairwise associations of maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes. Chiasmata, which are the cytological manifestations of crossovers (COs), provide a physical link that holds the homologs together as a pair, facilitating their orientation on the spindle at meiosis I. Although CO-promoting activities ensure a balanced number and position of COs, their identity and mechanism of action in mammals remain understudied...
May 9, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739989/haplotypic-polymorphisms-and-mutation-rate-estimates-of-22-y-chromosome-strs-in-the-northern-chinese-han-father-son-pairs
#20
Yaran Yang, Weini Wang, Feng Cheng, Man Chen, Tong Chen, Jing Zhao, Chong Chen, Yan Shi, Chen Li, Chuguang Chen, Yacheng Liu, Jiangwei Yan
Y chromosome Short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) analysis has been widely used in forensic identification, kinship testing, and population evolution. An accurate understanding of haplotype and mutation rate will benefit these applications. In this work, we analyzed 1123 male samples from Northern Chinese Han population which including 578 DNA-confirmed father-son pairs at 22 Y-STRs loci. A total of 537 haplotypes were observed and the overall haplotype diversity was calculated as 1.0000 ± 0.0001. Except that only two haplotypes were observed twice, all the rest of the 535 were unique...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
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