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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813426/sexual-reproduction-in-plagiogrammacean-diatoms-first-insights-into-the-early-pennates
#1
Irena Kaczmarska, Benjamin S Gray, James M Ehrman, Mary Thaler
The genera Plagiogramma and Dimeregramma are members of a small, but evolutionarily important group of diatoms, the "basal" araphids. They are sister to all other pennates, both araphid and raphid taxa. Thus, their phylogenetic position carries the potential for providing insights into the earliest pennates. We documented sexual reproduction, mating system and sex cell development in the first members of the "basal" araphid clade ever investigated. The mating system in all these species involved heterothally...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809393/ythdc2-is-an-n-6-methyladenosine-binding-protein-that-regulates-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#2
Phillip J Hsu, Yunfei Zhu, Honghui Ma, Yueshuai Guo, Xiaodan Shi, Yuanyuan Liu, Meijie Qi, Zhike Lu, Hailing Shi, Jianying Wang, Yiwei Cheng, Guanzheng Luo, Qing Dai, Mingxi Liu, Xuejiang Guo, Jiahao Sha, Bin Shen, Chuan He
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most common internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA. It is dynamically installed and removed, and acts as a new layer of mRNA metabolism, regulating biological processes including stem cell pluripotency, cell differentiation, and energy homeostasis. m(6)A is recognized by selective binding proteins; YTHDF1 and YTHDF3 work in concert to affect the translation of m(6)A-containing mRNAs, YTHDF2 expedites mRNA decay, and YTHDC1 affects the nuclear processing of its targets. The biological function of YTHDC2, the final member of the YTH protein family, remains unknown...
August 15, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809392/mettl3-mediated-m-6-a-regulates-spermatogonial-differentiation-and-meiosis-initiation
#3
Kai Xu, Ying Yang, Gui-Hai Feng, Bao-Fa Sun, Jun-Qing Chen, Yu-Fei Li, Yu-Sheng Chen, Xin-Xin Zhang, Chen-Xin Wang, Li-Yuan Jiang, Chao Liu, Ze-Yu Zhang, Xiu-Jie Wang, Qi Zhou, Yun-Gui Yang, Wei Li
METTL3 catalyzes the formation of N(6)-methyl-adenosine (m(6)A) which has important roles in regulating various biological processes. However, the in vivo function of Mettl3 remains largely unknown in mammals. Here we generated germ cell-specific Mettl3 knockout mice and demonstrated that Mettl3 was essential for male fertility and spermatogenesis. The ablation of Mettl3 in germ cells severely inhibited spermatogonial differentiation and blocked the initiation of meiosis. Transcriptome and m(6)A profiling analysis revealed that genes functioning in spermatogenesis had altered profiles of expression and alternative splicing...
August 15, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808767/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-micrornas-during-ovule-development-in-rice-oryza-sativa-by-deep-sequencing
#4
Ya Wu, Liyu Yang, Meiling Yu, Jianbo Wang
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles during rice ovule development revealed the possible miRNA-mediated regulation between ovule sporophytic tissue and female gametophyte and the involvement of miRNAs in programmed cell death. MiRNAs are 20-24-nucleotide small RNAs that play key roles in the regulation of many growth and developmental processes in plants. Rice ovule development comprises a series of biological events, which are regulated by complex molecular mechanisms. To gain insight into miRNA-mediated regulation of rice ovule development, Illumina sequencing was used to examine the expression of miRNAs from the megaspore mother cell meiosis stage to the fertilized ovule stage...
August 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808066/maternal-mrnas-with-distinct-3-utrs-define-the-temporal-pattern-of-ccnb1-synthesis-during-mouse-oocyte-meiotic-maturation
#5
Ye Yang, Cai-Rong Yang, Seung Jin Han, Enrico Maria Daldello, Ara Cho, Joao P Sousa Martins, Guoliang Xia, Marco Conti
The final stages of female gamete maturation occur in the virtual absence of transcription, with gene expression driven by a program of selective unmasking, translation, and degradation of maternal mRNAs. Here we demonstrate that the timing of Ccnb1 mRNA translation in mouse oocytes is dependent on the presence of transcripts with different 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). This 3' UTR heterogeneity directs distinct temporal patterns of translational activation or repression. Inclusion or exclusion of cis-acting elements is responsible for these divergent regulations...
July 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803373/th2a-is-phosphorylated-at-meiotic-centromere-by-haspin
#6
Masashi Hada, Jihye Kim, Erina Inoue, Yuko Fukuda, Hiromitsu Tanaka, Yoshinori Watanabe, Yuki Okada
Histone phosphorylation is sometimes associated with mitosis and meiosis. We have recently identified a phosphorylation of the 127th threonine on TH2A (pTH2A), a germ cell-specific H2A variant, in condensed spermatids and mitotic early preimplantation embryos of mice. Here, we further report the existence of pTH2A at the centromeres in metaphase I spermatocytes and oocytes. Moreover, we identified Haspin, a known kinase for the 3rd threonine on H3, is responsible for pTH2A in vivo. In contrast to the severe meiotic defect in oocytes treated with a Haspin inhibitor, pTH2A-deficient mice, in which the 127th threonine was replaced by alanine, maintained the fertility and exhibited no obvious defect in both oocytes and spermatogenesis...
August 12, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803330/bime2-a-novel-gene-required-for-interhomolog-meiotic-recombination-in-the-protist-model-organism-tetrahymena
#7
Anura Shodhan, Maria Novatchkova, Josef Loidl
Meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Most DSBs are converted into nonreciprocal exchanges (gene conversions) or crossovers (COs) between sister chromatids. Only a minority of DSBs are processed toward interhomolog COs, the precursors of the chiasmata that connect homologous chromosomes. Dmc1, the meiosis-specific paralog of the universal recombination protein Rad51, is required for interhomolog COs; in its absence, univalents are primarily formed. Here, we report a ciliate-specific novel meiotic gene, BIME2, which also promotes interhomolog crossing over...
August 12, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800596/fungal-genome-and-mating-system-transitions-facilitated-by-chromosomal-translocations-involving-intercentromeric-recombination
#8
Sheng Sun, Vikas Yadav, R Blake Billmyre, Christina A Cuomo, Minou Nowrousian, Liuyang Wang, Jean-Luc Souciet, Teun Boekhout, Betina Porcel, Patrick Wincker, Joshua A Granek, Kaustuv Sanyal, Joseph Heitman
Species within the human pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex are major threats to public health, causing approximately 1 million infections globally annually. Cryptococcus amylolentus is the most closely known related species of the pathogenic Cryptococcus species complex, and it is non-pathogenic. Additionally, while pathogenic Cryptococcus species have bipolar mating systems with a single large mating type (MAT) locus that represents a derived state in Basidiomycetes, C. amylolentus has a tetrapolar mating system with 2 MAT loci (P/R and HD) located on different chromosomes...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798212/the-dna-triangle-and-its-application-to-learning-meiosis
#9
L Kate Wright, Christina M Catavero, Dina L Newman
Although instruction on meiosis is repeated many times during the undergraduate curriculum, many students show poor comprehension even as upper-level biology majors. We propose that the difficulty lies in the complexity of understanding DNA, which we explain through a new model, the DNA triangle The DNA triangle integrates three distinct scales at which one can think about DNA: chromosomal, molecular, and informational Through analysis of interview and survey data from biology faculty and students through the lens of the DNA triangle, we illustrate important differences in how novices and experts are able to explain the concepts of ploidy, homology, and mechanism of homologous pairing Similarly, analysis of passages from 16 different biology textbooks shows a large divide between introductory and advanced material, with introductory books omitting explanations of meiosis-linked concepts at the molecular level of DNA...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797117/analysis-of-the-impact-of-the-absence-of-rad51-strand-exchange-activity-in-arabidopsis-meiosis
#10
Gunjita Singh, Olivier Da Ines, Maria Eugenia Gallego, Charles I White
The ploidy of eukaryote gametes must be halved to avoid doubling of numbers of chromosomes with each generation and this is carried out by meiosis, a specialized cell division in which a single chromosomal replication phase is followed by two successive nuclear divisions. With some exceptions, programmed recombination ensures the proper pairing and distribution of homologous pairs of chromosomes in meiosis and recombination defects thus lead to sterility. Two highly related recombinases are required to catalyse the key strand-invasion step of meiotic recombination and it is the meiosis-specific DMC1 which is generally believed to catalyse the essential non-sister chromatid crossing-over, with RAD51 catalysing sister-chromatid and non-cross-over events...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794219/dodging-silver-bullets-good-crispr-gene-drive-design-is-critical-for-eradicating-exotic-vertebrates
#11
Thomas A A Prowse, Phillip Cassey, Joshua V Ross, Chandran Pfitzner, Talia A Wittmann, Paul Thomas
Self-replicating gene drives that can spread deleterious alleles through animal populations have been promoted as a much needed but controversial 'silver bullet' for controlling invasive alien species. Homing-based drives comprise an endonuclease and a guide RNA (gRNA) that are replicated during meiosis via homologous recombination. However, their efficacy for controlling wild populations is threatened by inherent polymorphic resistance and the creation of resistance alleles via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ)-mediated DNA repair...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794107/variation-in-recombination-rate-and-its-genetic-determinism-in-sheep-populations
#12
Morgane Petit, Jean-Michel Astruc, Julien Sarry, Laurence Drouilhet, Stéphane Fabre, Carole Moreno, Bertrand Servin
Recombination is a complex biological process that results from a cascade of multiple events during meiosis. Understanding the genetic determinism of recombination can help to understand if and how these events are interacting. To tackle this question, we studied the patterns of recombination in sheep, using multiple approaches and datasets. We constructed male recombination maps in a dairy breed from the south of France (the Lacaune breed) at a fine scale by combining meiotic recombination rates from a large pedigree genotyped with a 50K SNP array and historical recombination rates from a sample of unrelated individuals genotyped with a 600K SNP array...
August 9, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792069/bloom-syndrome-helicase-in-meiosis-pro-crossover-functions-of-an-anti-crossover-protein
#13
REVIEW
Talia Hatkevich, Jeff Sekelsky
The functions of the Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) and its orthologs are well characterized in mitotic DNA damage repair, but their roles within the context of meiotic recombination are less clear. In meiotic recombination, multiple repair pathways are used to repair meiotic DSBs, and current studies suggest that BLM may regulate the use of these pathways. Based on literature from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans, we present a unified model for a critical meiotic role of BLM and its orthologs...
August 9, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791484/loss-of-gcs1-hap2-does-not-affect-the-ovule-targeting-behavior-of-pollen-tubes
#14
Taro Takahashi, Ken Honda, Toshiyuki Mori, Tomoko Igawa
KEY MESSAGE : hap2-1 pollen tube ovule targeting. Upon pollination, a pollen grain germinates to produce a pollen tube, which grows through the style to deliver two immobile sperm cells to the female gametophyte. Double fertilization is completed after the pollen tube enters an ovule. GENERATIVE CELL SPECIFIC 1 (GCS1)/HAPLESS 2 (HAP2) contributes to the fusion of gametes at fertilization and has been suggested to affect pollen tube guidance. However, there is controversy over the role of GCS1/HAP2 in pollen tube guidance because of conflicting results from different studies...
August 8, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791037/adaptation-of-the-pivotal-differential-genome-pattern-for-the-induction-of-intergenomic-chromosome-recombination-in-hybrids-of-synthetic-amphidiploids-within-triticeae-tribe
#15
Michal T Kwiatek, Joanna Majka, Maciej Majka, Jolanta Belter, Halina Wisniewska
A pivotal-differential evolution pattern is when two allopolyploids share a common genome, which is called pivotal, and differ with respect to the other genome or genomes, called differential. This feature induces the intergenomic recombination between chromosomes of differential genomes, which can lead to speciation. Our study is a cytomolecular insight into this mechanism which was adapted for the induction of intergenomic chromosome recombination in hybrids of synthetic amphidiploids Aegilops biuncialis × S...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777437/double-sex-and-mab-3-related-transcription-factor-1-regulates-differentiation-and-proliferation-in-dairy-goat-male-germline-stem-cells
#16
Yudong Wei, Shufang Cai, Fanglin Ma, Ying Zhang, Zhe Zhou, Shuanshuan Xu, Mengfei Zhang, Sha Peng, Jinlian Hua
The protein encoded by double sex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1)gene contains a double sex/mab-3 domain, which was considered as one of the most conservative structures in sex determination. However, its effect on spermatogenesis of dairy goat spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) remains to be clarified. For the first time, the roles of Dmrt1 in spermatogenesis of livestock are highlighted. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of Dmrt1 in the testes of dairy goats. Dmrt1 primarily located in undifferentiated SSCs...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774758/dmrt-proteins-and-coordination-of-mammalian-spermatogenesis
#17
Teng Zhang, David Zarkower
DMRT genes encode a deeply conserved family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA binding motif, the DM domain. DMRTs regulate development in a broad variety of metazoans and they appear to have controlled sexual differentiation for hundreds of millions of years. In mice, starting during embryonic development, three Dmrt genes act sequentially to help establish and maintain spermatogenesis. Dmrt1 has notably diverse functions that include repressing pluripotency genes and promoting mitotic arrest in embryonic germ cells, reactivating prospermatogonia perinatally, establishing and maintaining spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), promoting spermatogonial differentiation, and controlling the mitosis/meiosis switch...
July 25, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772266/evolution-of-the-sex-chromosomes-in-beetles-i-the-loss-of-the-y-chromosome
#18
Anne-Marie Dutrillaux, Bernard Dutrillaux
In the males of Coleoptera, the most frequent sex chromosome constitution is XY. At metaphase I of meiosis, the X and Y are linked by nucleolar proteins, forming the so-called parachute bivalent (Xyp), which is assumed to allow the non-synapsed X and Y to segregate correctly at anaphase I. However, X0 males are not exceptional, and we explored the relationships between the X and nucleolar proteins in the absence of the Y chromosome in 6 species belonging to different families/subfamilies. Using C-banding and silver staining, we show that nucleolar proteins always remain in contact with the X until anaphase I...
August 4, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771232/di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-impairs-meiotic-progression-and-dna-damage-repair-in-fetal-mouse-oocytes-in-vitro
#19
Jing-Cai Liu, Fang-Nong Lai, Ling Li, Xiao-Feng Sun, Shun-Feng Cheng, Wei Ge, Yu-Feng Wang, Lan Li, Xi-Feng Zhang, Massimo De Felici, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), is the most common member of the class of phthalates that are used as plasticizers and have become common environmental contaminants. A number of studies have shown that DEHP exposure impacts reproductive health in both male and female mammals by acting as an estrogen analog. Here, we investigated the effects of DEHP on meiotic progression of fetal mouse oocytes by using an in vitro model of ovarian tissue culture. The results showed that 10 or 100 μM DEHP exposure inhibited the progression of oocytes throughout meiotic prophase I, specifically from the pachytene to diplotene stages...
August 3, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769959/introgression-of-black-rot-resistance-from-brassica-carinata-to-cauliflower-brassica-oleracea-botrytis-group-through-embryo-rescue
#20
Brij B Sharma, Pritam Kalia, Dinesh Singh, Tilak R Sharma
Black rot caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) is a very important disease of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea botrytis group) resulting into 10-50% yield losses every year. Since there is a dearth of availability of resistance to black rot disease in B. oleracea (C genome), therefore exploration of A and B genomes was inevitable as they have been reported to be potential reservoirs of gene(s) for resistance to black rot. To utilize these sources, interspecific hybrid and backcross progeny (B1) were generated between cauliflower "Pusa Sharad" and Ethiopian mustard "NPC-9" employing in vitro embryo rescue technique...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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