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Meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101670/recombination-correlates-with-synaptonemal-complex-length-and-chromatin-loop-size-in-bovids-insights-into-mammalian-meiotic-chromosomal-organization
#1
Aurora Ruiz-Herrera, Miluse Vozdova, Jonathan Fernández, Hana Sebestova, Laia Capilla, Jan Frohlich, Covadonga Vara, Adrià Hernández-Marsal, Jaroslav Sipek, Terence J Robinson, Jiri Rubes
Homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information through recombination during meiosis, a process that increases genetic diversity, and is fundamental to sexual reproduction. In an attempt to shed light on the dynamics of mammalian recombination and its implications for genome organization, we have studied the recombination characteristics of 112 individuals belonging to 28 different species in the family Bovidae. In particular, we analyzed the distribution of RAD51 and MLH1 foci during the meiotic prophase I that serve, respectively, as proxies for double-strand breaks (DSBs) which form in early stages of meiosis and for crossovers...
January 18, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100637/a-zip3-like-protein-plays-a-role-in-crossover-formation-in-the-sc-less-meiosis-of-the-protist-tetrahymena
#2
Anura Shodhan, Kensuke Kataoka, Kazufumi Mochizuki, Maria Novatchkova, Josef Loidl
When programmed meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) undergo recombinational repair, genetic crossovers (COs) may be formed. A certain level of these are required for the faithful segregation of chromosomes, but the majority of DSBs are processed toward a safer alternative, namely non-crossovers (NCOs), via non-reciprocal DNA exchange. At the crossroads between these two DSB fates are the Msh4-Msh5 (MutSγ) complex, which stabilizes CO-destined recombination intermediates, and members of the Zip3/RNF212 family of RING finger proteins, which in turn stabilize MutSγ...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100589/meiotic-consequences-of-genetic-divergence-across-the-murine-pseudoautosomal-region
#3
Beth L Dumont
The production of haploid gametes during meiosis is dependent on the homology-driven processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination. On the mammalian heterogametic sex chromosomes, these key meiotic activities are confined to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), a short region of near-perfect sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes. Despite its established importance for meiosis, the PAR is rapidly evolving, raising the question of how proper X/Y segregation is buffered against the accumulation of homology-disrupting mutations...
January 18, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099840/testis-specific-histone-variant-h3t-gene-is-essential-for-entry-into-spermatogenesis
#4
Jun Ueda, Akihito Harada, Takashi Urahama, Shinichi Machida, Kazumitsu Maehara, Masashi Hada, Yoshinori Makino, Jumpei Nogami, Naoki Horikoshi, Akihisa Osakabe, Hiroyuki Taguchi, Hiroki Tanaka, Hiroaki Tachiwana, Tatsuma Yao, Minami Yamada, Takashi Iwamoto, Ayako Isotani, Masahito Ikawa, Taro Tachibana, Yuki Okada, Hiroshi Kimura, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hitoshi Kurumizaka, Kazuo Yamagata
Cellular differentiation is associated with dynamic chromatin remodeling in establishing a cell-type-specific epigenomic landscape. Here, we find that mouse testis-specific and replication-dependent histone H3 variant H3t is essential for very early stages of spermatogenesis. H3t gene deficiency leads to azoospermia because of the loss of haploid germ cells. When differentiating spermatogonia emerge in normal spermatogenesis, H3t appears and replaces the canonical H3 proteins. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that H3t-containing nucleosomes are more flexible than the canonical nucleosomes...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099474/dna-double-strand-breaks-induce-the-nuclear-actin-filaments-formation-in-cumulus-enclosed-oocytes-but-not-in-denuded-oocytes
#5
Ming-Hong Sun, Mo Yang, Feng-Yun Xie, Wei Wang, Lili Zhang, Wei Shen, Shen Yin, Jun-Yu Ma
As a gamete, oocyte needs to maintain its genomic integrity and passes this haploid genome to the next generation. However, fully-grown mouse oocyte cannot respond to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) effectively and it is also unable to repair them before the meiosis resumption. To compensate for this disadvantage and control the DNA repair events, oocyte needs the cooperation with its surrounding cumulus cells. Recently, evidences have shown that nuclear actin filament formation plays roles in cellular DNA DSB repair...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095297/dual-estrogenic-regulation-of-the-nuclear-progestin-receptor-and-spermatogonial-renewal-during-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-spermatogenesis
#6
François Chauvigné, Janmejay Parhi, Judith Ollé, Joan Cerdà
Studies in teleosts suggest that progestins have crucial functions during early spermatogenesis. However, the role of the different progestin receptors in these mechanisms is poorly understood. In this work, we investigated the expression pattern and hormonal regulation of the classical nuclear progestin receptor (Pgr) in the gilthead seabream at three different stages of spermatogenesis: the resting (postspawning) phase, onset of spermatogenesis, and spermiation. Immunolocalization experiments using a seabream specific Pgr antibody revealed that the receptor was expressed in Sertoli and Leydig cells, and also in a subset of spermatogonia type A, throughout spermatogenesis...
January 14, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093265/developmental-tracing-of-oocyte-development-in-gonadal-soma-derived-factor-deficiency-medaka-oryzias-latipes-using-a-transgenic-approach
#7
Guijun Guan, Kaiqing Sun, Xi Zhang, Xiaomiao Zha, Mingyou Li, Yan Yan, Yunzhi Wang, Jianbin Chen, Meisheng Yi, Yunhan Hong
Gonadal soma-derived factor (gsdf) is reported to be a male initiator in medaka based on loss- and gain- of function via targeted disruption, or transgenic over-expression. However, little is known about how gsdf promotes undifferentiated gonad entry into male pathways or prevents entry into the female pathway. We utilized a visible folliculogenesis system with a reporter cassette of dual-color fluorescence expression to identify difference between oocyte development from wildtype and gsdf deficiency medaka...
January 13, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092805/circumstantial-evidence-of-life-history-events-in-loricate-choanoflagellates
#8
Helge Abildhauge Thomsen, Jette Buch Østergaard
Sex is found in all major eukaryotic groups of organisms. It has been known for some time that the choanoflagellates also possess the genes involved in meiosis and a full sexual cycle was also recently accounted for in Salpingoeca rosetta. With reference to the loricate choanoflagellates the current status is that only circumstantial evidence, from wild material of Bicosta spinifera, exists in favour of documenting division patterns that go beyond plain asexual division, and that has the potential to represent stages in a sexual life cycle...
December 27, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087686/amoebozoans-are-secretly-but-ancestrally-sexual-evidence-for-sex-genes-and-potential-novel-crossover-pathways-in-diverse-groups-of-amoebae
#9
Yonas I Tekle, Fiona C Wood, Laura A Katz, Mario A Cerón-Romero, Lydia A Gorfu
Sex is beneficial in eukaryotes as it can increase genetic diversity, reshuffle their genomes, and purge deleterious mutations. Yet, its evolution remains a mystery. The eukaryotic clade supergroup Amoebozoa encompasses diverse lineages of polymorphic amoeboid forms, including both free-living and parasitic lineages. The group is generally believed to be asexual, though recent studies show that some of its members are implicated in cryptic forms of sexual cycles. In this study we conduct a comprehensive inventory and analysis of genes involved in meiosis and related processes, in order to investigate the evolutionary history of sex in the clade...
January 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086821/a-transcriptome-profile-in-hepatocellular-carcinomas-based-on-integrated-analysis-of-microarray-studies
#10
Feifei Wang, Ruliang Wang, Qiuwen Li, Xueling Qu, Yixin Hao, Jingwen Yang, Huixia Zhao, Qian Wang, Guanghui Li, Fengyun Zhang, He Zhang, Xuan Zhou, Xioumei Peng, Yang Bian, Wenhua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Despite new treatment options for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) recently, 5-year survival remains poor, ranging from 50 to 70%, which may attribute to the lack of early diagnostic biomarkers. Thus, developing new biomarkers for early diagnosis of HCC, is extremely urgent, aiming to decrease HCC-related deaths. METHODS: In the study, we conducted a comprehensive characterization of gene expression data of HCC based on a bioinformatics method. The results were confirmed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and TCGA database to prove the credibility of this integrated analysis...
January 13, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079247/dynamic-location-changes-of-bub1-phosphorylated-h2athr133-with-cenh3-nucleosome-in-maize-centromeric-regions
#11
Handong Su, Yalin Liu, Qianhua Dong, Chao Feng, Jing Zhang, Yang Liu, James A Birchler, Fangpu Han
The genomic stability of all organisms requires precise cell division with proper chromosome orientation. The Bub1-H2Aph-Sgo1 pathway and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) components have been identified in yeast and mammals that are important for sister centromere orientation and chromosome segregation. However, their roles in plants are not clear. Maize meiotic mutants and minichromosomes were used to study the role of H2AThr133 phosphorylation and SAC components in sister centromere orientation and chromosome segregation...
January 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075662/centriolin-a-centriole-appendage-protein-regulates-peripheral-spindle-migration-and-asymmetric-division-in-mouse-meiotic-oocytes
#12
Tian-Yi Sun, Hai-Yang Wang, Jung-Woo Kwon, Bao Yuan, In-Won Lee, Xiang-Shun Cui, Nam-Hyung Kim
Unlike somatic cells mitosis, germ cell meiosis consists of two consecutive rounds of division that segregate homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids, respectively. The meiotic oocyte is characterized by an absence of centrioles and asymmetric division. Centriolin is a relatively novel centriolar protein that functions in mitotic cell cycle progression and cytokinesis. Here, we explored the function of centriolin in meiosis and showed that it is localized to meiotic spindles and concentrated at the spindle poles and midbody during oocyte meiotic maturation...
January 11, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074843/sexy-males-and-sexless-females-the-origin-of-triploid-apomicts
#13
P Muralidhar, D Haig
Apomixis and polyploidy are closely associated in angiosperms, but the evolutionary reason for this association is unknown. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion, exists both as diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Here, in the context of T. officinale, we provide a model of the evolution of triploid apomicts from diploid sexuals. We posit an apomictic allele that arrests female meiosis in diploids, so that the plant produces diploid egg cells that can develop without fertilization, but haploid pollen...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073973/human-foetal-ovary-shares-meiotic-preventing-factors-with-the-developing-testis
#14
Nelly Frydman, Marine Poulain, Brahim Arkoun, Clotilde Duquenne, Sophie Tourpin, Sébastien Messiaen, René Habert, Virginie Rouiller-Fabre, Alexandra Benachi, Gabriel Livera
STUDY QUESTION: How can pre-meiotic germ cells persist in the human foetal ovary? SUMMARY ANSWER: Numerous oogonia escaping meiotic entry were retrieved throughout human ovarian development simultaneously with the expression of signalling pathways preventing meiosis, typically described in the rodent embryonic testis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The transition from mitosis to meiosis is a key event in female germ cells that remains poorly documented in research on the human ovary...
January 9, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073018/meiotic-recombination-taking-the-path-less-traveled
#15
Danny E Miller, R Scott Hawley
The proper distribution of crossovers during meiosis I ensures accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division. A new study reveals both the consequences of improper crossover patterning in Drosophila and the role of Blm helicase in controlling this patterning.
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073009/how-meiosis-creates-the-single-copy-genome
#16
Mary Herbert, Attila Toth
Genome haploidization involves two meiotic divisions following a single round of DNA replication. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Argüello-Miranda et al. (2017) show that production and packaging of the single-copy genome into gametes during the second meiotic division is coordinated by a conserved casein kinase 1.
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071676/transcriptome-analysis-of-neo-tetraploid-rice-reveals-specific-differential-gene-expressions-associated-with-fertility-and-heterosis
#17
Haibin Guo, Jean Nestor Mendrikahy, Lei Xie, Junfeng Deng, Zijun Lu, Jinwen Wu, Xiang Li, Muhammad Qasim Shahid, Xiangdong Liu
Polyploid rice hybrids have a powerful biological and yield potential that may become a new way for rice breeding; however, low fertility is major hindrance in commercial utilization. Here, we developed a neo-tetraploid rice that could overcome the sterility of autotetraploid rice and produce high heterosis. Transcriptome analysis of F1 hybrid developed by crossing neo-tetraploid with autotetraploid rice displayed 807, 663 and 866 differentially expressed genes that uniquely associated with F1 and specific to (DEGFu-sp) anther, ovary and leaf, respectively...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068333/bdf1-bromodomains-are-essential-for-meiosis-and-the-expression-of-meiotic-specific-genes
#18
Encar García-Oliver, Claire Ramus, Jonathan Perot, Marie Arlotto, Morgane Champleboux, Flore Mietton, Christophe Battail, Anne Boland, Jean-François Deleuze, Myriam Ferro, Yohann Couté, Jérôme Govin
Bromodomain and Extra-terminal motif (BET) proteins play a central role in transcription regulation and chromatin signalling pathways. They are present in unicellular eukaryotes and in this study, the role of the BET protein Bdf1 has been explored in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mutation of Bdf1 bromodomains revealed defects on both the formation of spores and the meiotic progression, blocking cells at the exit from prophase, before the first meiotic division. This phenotype is associated with a massive deregulation of the transcription of meiotic genes and Bdf1 bromodomains are required for appropriate expression of the key meiotic transcription factor NDT80 and almost all the Ndt80-inducible genes, including APC complex components...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067447/importance-of-eif2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-as-a-protective-mechanism-against-heat-stress-in-mouse-male-germ-cells
#19
Jungbin Yoon, Kyosun Park, Deog Su Hwang, Kunsoo Rhee
Mammalian male germ cells are exceptionally labile to heat stress. A temporal arrest of translation is one immediate response to heat, which involves heat-induced phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) to block the formation of the translational initiation complex. Here, we investigated the protective mechanisms against heat stress in mouse male germ cells. All known eIF2α kinases were expressed in lineage- and developmental stage-specific manners in the testis; noteworthy was the presence of Gcn2 (General control nonderepressible 2 kinase) in spermatocytes of all seminiferous tubules...
January 9, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065322/visualization-of-cleavage-furrow-proteins-in-fixed-dividing-spermatocytes
#20
A Frappaolo, S Sechi, G Belloni, R Piergentili, M G Giansanti
Cytokinesis separates the cytoplasmic organelles and the duplicated genome into two daughter cells at the end of cell division. In animal cell cytokinesis, assembly and constriction of the contractile apparatus must be finely coordinated with plasma membrane remodeling and vesicle trafficking at the cleavage furrow. Accurate control of these events during cell cleavage is a fundamental task in all organisms and is also essential for maintaining ploidy and preventing neoplastic transformation. Drosophila male meiosis provides a well-suited cell system for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying cytokinesis, combining the powerful tools of Drosophila genetics with unique cytological characteristics...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
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