keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Meiosis

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339470/meiotic-recombination-modulates-the-structure-and-dynamics-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-during-c-elegans-meiosis
#1
Divya Pattabiraman, Baptiste Roelens, Alexander Woglar, Anne M Villeneuve
During meiotic prophase, a structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC) assembles at the interface between aligned pairs of homologous chromosomes, and crossover recombination events occur between their DNA molecules. Here we investigate the inter-relationships between these two hallmark features of the meiotic program in the nematode C. elegans, revealing dynamic properties of the SC that are modulated by recombination. We demonstrate that the SC incorporates new subunits and switches from a more highly dynamic/labile state to a more stable state as germ cells progress through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase...
March 24, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335590/roles-of-budding-yeast-hrr25-in-recombination-and-sporulation
#2
Min-Su Lee, Jeong Hwan Joo, Keunpil Kim
Hrr25, a casein kinase 1 δ/ε homolog in budding yeast, is essential to set up mono-orientation of sister kinetochores during meiosis. Hrr25 kinase activity coordinates sister chromatid cohesion via cohesin phosphorylation. Here, we investigated the prophase roles of Hrr25 using the auxin-inducible degron system and by ectopic expression of Hrr25 during yeast meiosis. Hrr25 mediates nuclear division in meiosis I but does not affect DNA replication. We also found that initiation of meiotic double-strand breaks as well as joint molecule formation were normal in HRR25-deficient cells...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335524/roles-of-cdk-and-ddk-in-genome-duplication-and-maintenance-meiotic-singularities
#3
REVIEW
Blanca Gómez-Escoda, Pei-Yun Jenny Wu
Cells reproduce using two types of divisions: mitosis, which generates two daughter cells each with the same genomic content as the mother cell, and meiosis, which reduces the number of chromosomes of the parent cell by half and gives rise to four gametes. The mechanisms that promote the proper progression of the mitotic and meiotic cycles are highly conserved and controlled. They require the activities of two types of serine-threonine kinases, the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and the Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK)...
March 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330257/generation-of-an-inducible-system-to-express-polo-like-kinase-cdc5-as-tap-fusion-protein-during-meiosis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#4
Rajni Vaid, Kamal Dev, Michael Lichten, Anuradha Sourirajan
Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is a highly efficient method for isolation of protein complexes from endogenous biological macromolecules. TAP system consists of dual affinity tags that facilitates the sequential purification of the desired proteins expressed at their low levels in vivo. Polo-like kinases (PLK) are serine/threonine protein kinases that are the crucial regulators of cell cycle. Cdc5, the solitary PLK in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has diverse array of targets in cell cycle. The present study was undertaken to construct an estrogen-inducible system for expression of Cdc5-TAP to isolate the substrates of Cdc5 during meiosis, particularly, pachytene stage of meiosis I...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329743/multicolor-spectral-analyses-of-mitotic-and-meiotic-mouse-chromosomes-involved-in-multiple-robertsonian-translocations-ii-the-nmri-cd-and-cd-ta-hybrid-strains
#5
Michael Schmid, Claus Steinlein, Heinz Winking
Multicolor spectral analyses (spectral karyotyping) were performed on mitotic chromosomes of NMRI, CD, and TA mice and on male meiotic chromosomes (diakineses) of NMRI/CD and CD/TA hybrids. All chromosomes, including the various centric (robertsonian) fusions, could be unequivocally identified. Apart from the robertsonian translocations, which were previously detected by conventional banding analyses, no other interchromosomal rearrangements were found in these mice. In both the CD and TA mice, the autosomes 19 and the XY sex chromosomes are not involved in robertsonian translocations...
March 23, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329024/toward-developing-recombinant-gonadotropin-based-hormone-therapies-for-increasing-fertility-in-the-flatfish-senegalese-sole
#6
François Chauvigné, Judith Ollé, Wendy González, Neil Duncan, Ignacio Giménez, Joan Cerdà
Captive flatfishes, such as the Senegalese sole, typically produce very low volumes of sperm. This situation is particularly prevalent in the first generation (F1) of reared sole males, which limits the development of artificial fertilization methods and the implementation of selective breeding programs. In this study, we investigated whether combined treatments with homologous recombinant follicle-stimulating (rFsh) and luteinizing (rLh) hormones, produced in a mammalian host system, could stimulate spermatogenesis and enhance sperm production in Senegalese sole F1 males...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328127/partial-tetrasomy-11q-resulting-from-an-intrachromosomal-triplication-of-a-22-mb-region-of-chromosome-11
#7
Mariana Kekis, Carol Deeg, Sayaka Hashimoto, Aimee McKinney, Linda Erdman, Cecelia Green-Geer, Christine Shuss, Scott Hickey, Caroline Astbury, Robert E Pyatt
Intrachromosomal triplications are complex chromosomal rearrangements which arise during meiosis or mitosis and lead to a tetrasomic dose of the affected genomic regions. We describe a female patient harboring an intrachromosomal triplication who presented to the Genetics clinic with dysmorphic features, including telecanthus, flat facial profile, and prognathism, short stature, widely spaced nipples, multiple allergy complaints, loose bowel movements, and mild speech delay. Microarray analysis showed a copy number gain of a 22...
April 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326696/history-of-research-on-c-elegans-and-other-free-living-nematodes-as-model-organisms
#8
Victor Marc Nigon, Marie-Anne Félix
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is now a major model organism in biology. The choice of Sydney Brenner to adopt this species in the mid-1960s and the success of his team in raising it to a model organism status have been told (http://www.wormbook.org/toc_wormhistory.html; Brenner, 2001; Ankeny, 2001). Here we review the pre-Brenner history of the use of free-living nematodes as models for general questions in biology. We focus on the period that started in 1899 with the first publication of Emile Maupas mentioning Rhabditis elegans and ended in 1974 with the first publications by Brenner...
March 21, 2017: WormBook: the Online Review of C. Elegans Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324683/thermal-stress-impacts-reproductive-development-and-grain-yield-in-rice
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Shakeel Arshad, Muhammad Farooq, Folkard Asch, Jagadish S V Krishna, P V Vara Prasad, Kadambot H M Siddique
Rice is highly sensitive to temperature stress (cold and heat), particularly during the reproductive and grain-filling stages. In this review, we discuss the effects of low- and high-temperature sensitivity in rice at various reproductive stages (from meiosis to grain development) and propose strategies for improving the tolerance of rice to terminal thermal stress. Cold stress impacts reproductive development through (i) delayed heading, due to its effect on anther respiration, which increases sucrose accumulation, protein denaturation and asparagine levels, and decreases proline accumulation, (ii) pollen sterility owing to tapetal hypertrophy and related nutrient imbalances, (iii) reduced activity of cell wall bound invertase in the tapetum of rice anthers, (iv) impaired fertilization due to inhibited anther dehiscence, stigma receptivity and ability of the pollen tube to germinate through the style towards the ovary, and (v) floret sterility, which increases grain abortion, restricts grain size, and thus reduces grain yield...
March 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324667/gtpase-activating-protein-elmod2-is-essential-for-meiotic-progression-in-mouse-oocytes
#10
Chun-Xiang Zhou, Li-Ya Shi, Rui-Chao Li, Ya-Hong Liu, Bo-Qun Xu, Jin-Wei Liu, Bo Yuan, Zhi-Xia Yang, Xiao-Yan Ying, Dong Zhang
Meiotic failure in oocytes is the major determinant of human zygote-originated reproductive diseases, the successful accomplishment of meiosis largely relay on the normal functions of many female fertility factors. Elmod2 is a member of the Elmod family with the strongest GAP (GTPase-activating protein) activity; although it was identified as a possible maternal protein, its actual physiologic role in mammalian oocytes has not been elucidated. Herein we reported that among Elmod family proteins, Elmod2 is the most abundant in mouse oocytes, and that inhibition of Elmod2 by specific siRNA caused severe meiotic delay and abnormal chromosomal segregation during anaphase...
March 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315832/modulating-crossover-frequency-and-interference-for-obligate-crossovers-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-meiosis
#11
Parijat Chakraborty, Ajith V Pankajam, Gen Lin, Abhishek Dutta, Krishnaprasad G Nandanan, Manu M Tekkedil, Akira Shinohara, Lars M Steinmetz, Nishant K Thazath
Meiotic crossover frequencies show wide variation among organisms. But most organisms maintain at least one crossover per homolog pair (obligate crossover). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, previous studies have shown crossover frequencies are reduced in the mismatch repair related mutant mlh3Δ and enhanced in a meiotic checkpoint mutant pch2Δ by up to two-fold at specific chromosomal loci, but both mutants maintain high spore viability. We analyzed meiotic recombination events genome-wide in mlh3Δ, pch2Δ and mlh3Δ pch2Δ mutants to test the effect of variation in crossover frequency on obligate crossovers...
March 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315713/maternal-senp7-programs-meiosis-architecture-and-embryo-survival-in-mouse
#12
ChunJie Huang, Di Wu, XiaoFei Jiao, Faheem Ahmed Khan, ChengLiang Xiong, XiaoMing Liu, Jing Yang, TaiLang Yin, LiJun Huo
Understanding the mechanisms underlying abnormal egg production and pregnancy loss is significant for human fertility. SENP7, a SUMO poly-chain editing enzyme, has been regarded as a mitotic regulator of heterochromatin integrity and DNA repair. Herein, we report the roles of SENP7 in mammalian reproductive scenario. Mouse oocytes deficient in SENP7 experienced meiotic arrest at prophase I and metaphase I stages, causing substantial decrease of mature eggs. Hyperaceylation and hypomethylation of histone H3 and up-regulation of Cdc14B/C accompanied by down-regulation of CyclinB1 and CyclinB2 were further recognized as contributors to defective M-phase entry and spindle assembly in oocytes...
March 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302748/smc5-6-is-required-for-the-formation-of-segregation-competent-bivalent-chromosomes-during-meiosis-i-in-mouse-oocytes
#13
Grace Hwang, Fengyun Sun, Marilyn O'Brien, John J Eppig, Mary Ann Handel, Philip W Jordan
SMC complexes include three major classes: cohesin, condensin, and SMC5/6. However, the localization pattern and genetic requirements for the SMC5/6 complex during mammalian oogenesis had not previously been examined. In mouse oocytes, the SMC5/6 complex is enriched at the pericentromeric heterochromatin, and also localizes along chromosome arms during meiosis. The infertility phenotypes of females with a Zp3-Cre-driven conditional knockout (cKO) of Smc5 demonstrated that maternally expressed SMC5 protein is essential for early embryogenesis...
March 16, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301465/an-smc-like-protein-binds-and-regulates-caenorhabditis-elegans-condensins
#14
Lucy Fang-I Chao, Meha Singh, James Thompson, John R Yates, Kirsten A Hagstrom
Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) family proteins participate in multisubunit complexes that govern chromosome structure and dynamics. SMC-containing condensin complexes create chromosome topologies essential for mitosis/meiosis, gene expression, recombination, and repair. Many eukaryotes have two condensin complexes (I and II); C. elegans has three (I, II, and the X-chromosome specialized condensin IDC) and their regulation is poorly understood. Here we identify a novel SMC-like protein, SMCL-1, that binds to C...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300828/ncaph-plays-important-roles-in-human-colon-cancer
#15
Liang Yin, Li-Ping Jiang, Qiu-Shuo Shen, Qiu-Xia Xiong, Xiao Zhuo, Long-Long Zhang, Hai-Jing Yu, Xiang Guo, Ying Luo, Jian Dong, Qing-Peng Kong, Cui-Ping Yang, Yong-Bin Chen
Colon cancer (CC) is one of the major malignancies worldwide, whose pathogenesis is complex and requires the accumulated alteration of multiple genes and signaling pathways. Condensins are multi-protein complexes that play pivotal roles in chromosome assembly and segregation during mitosis, meiosis and even tumorigenesis. Using tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin-eosin staining, we found that non-SMC condensin I complex subunit H (NCAPH) in colon cancerous tissues was higher than that in all corresponding adjacent non-cancerous tissues...
March 16, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297694/immunocytological-analysis-of-meiotic-recombination-in-the-gray-goose-anser-anser
#16
Anna A Torgasheva, Pavel M Borodin
Studies on mammals demonstrate wide interspecific variation in the number and distribution of recombination events along chromosomes. Birds represent an interesting model group for comparative analysis of cytological and ecological drivers of recombination rate evolution. Yet, data on variation in recombination rates in birds are limited to a dozen of species. In this study, we used immunolocalization of MLH1, a mismatch repair protein marking mature recombination nodules, to estimate the overall recombination rate and distribution of crossovers along macrochromosomes in female and male meiosis of the gray goose (Anser anser)...
March 16, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297563/spermatogenesis-associated-22-is-required-for-dna-repair-and-synapsis-of-homologous-chromosomes-in-mouse-germ-cells
#17
E Hays, N Majchrzak, V Daniel, Z Ferguson, S Brown, K Hathorne, S La Salle
Analysis of the N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced repro42 mutation previously identified spermatogenesis associated 22 (Spata22) as a gene required for meiotic progression and fertility in both male and female mice, but its specific contribution to the process was unclear. Here, we report on a novel, null allele of Spata22 (Spata22(Gt) ) and confirm its requirement for germ cell development. Similar to repro42 mutant mice, histological and mating analyses indicate that gametogenesis is profoundly affected in Spata22(Gt/Gt) males and females, resulting in infertility...
March 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296169/pyrrole-based-macrocyclic-small-molecule-inhibitors-targeting-oocyte-maturation
#18
Jeong Kyu Bang, Pethaiah Gunasekaran, So Rim Lee, Seung-Min Jeong, Jeong-Woo Kwon, Toshiki Takei, Yuya Asahina, Geul Bang, Seongnyeon Kim, Mija Ahn, Eun Kyung Ryu, Hak Nam Kim, Ki-Yub Nam, Song Yub Shin, Hironobu Hojo, Suk Namgoong, Nam-Hyung Kim
Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) plays crucial roles in various stages of oocyte maturation. Recently, we reported that the peptidomimetic AB103-8 that targets polo box domain (PBD) of PLK1 affected oocyte meiotic maturation and meiosis resumption. However, to overcome the peptidic drawbacks, we designed and synthesized a series of pyrrole-based small-molecule inhibitors and screened against porcine oocyte maturation rates. Among them, compound 4 showed the highest inhibitory activity with enhanced inhibition against the embryos blastocyst formation...
March 12, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296084/de-novo-loss-of-function-variants-in-stag2-are-associated-with-developmental-delay-microcephaly-and-congenital-anomalies
#19
Sureni V Mullegama, Steven D Klein, Milene V Mulatinho, Tharanga Niroshini Senaratne, Kathryn Singh, Dzung C Nguyen, Natalie M Gallant, Samuel P Strom, Shahnaz Ghahremani, Nagesh P Rao, Julian A Martinez-Agosto
The cohesin complex is an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit protein complex which regulates sister chromatid cohesion during mitosis and meiosis. Additionally, the cohesin complex regulates DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. The core of the complex consists of four subunits: SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21, and STAG1/2. Loss-of-function mutations in many of these proteins have been implicated in human developmental disorders collectively termed "cohesinopathies." Through clinical exome sequencing (CES) of an 8-year-old girl with a clinical history of global developmental delay, microcephaly, microtia with hearing loss, language delay, ADHD, and dysmorphic features, we describe a heterozygous de novo variant (c...
March 11, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296067/rna-binding-proteins-of-the-nxf-nuclear-export-factor-family-and-their-connection-with-the-cytoskeleton
#20
REVIEW
L A Mamon, V R Ginanova, S F Kliver, A O Yakimova, A A Atsapkina, E V Golubkova
The mutual relationship between mRNA and the cytoskeleton can be seen from two points of view. On the one hand, the cytoskeleton is necessary for mRNA trafficking and anchoring to subcellular domains. On the other hand, cytoskeletal growth and rearrangement require the translation of mRNAs that are connected to the cytoskeleton. β-actin mRNA localization may influence dynamic changes in the actin cytoskeleton. In the cytoplasm, long-lived mRNAs exist in the form of RNP (ribonucleoprotein) complexes, where they interact with RNA-binding proteins, including NXF (Nuclear eXport Factor)...
March 13, 2017: Cytoskeleton
keyword
keyword
5205
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"