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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938744/an-improved-ivm-method-for-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-from-small-follicles-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients-enhances-oocyte-competence-and-embryo-yield
#1
F Sánchez, F Lolicato, S Romero, M De Vos, H Van Ranst, G Verheyen, E Anckaert, J E J Smitz
STUDY QUESTION: Are meiotic and developmental competence of human oocytes from small (2-8 mm) antral follicles improved by applying an optimized IVM method involving a prematuration step in presence of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) followed by a maturation step in presence of FSH and Amphiregulin (AREG)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A strategy involving prematuration culture (PMC) in the presence of CNP followed by IVM using FSH + AREG increases oocyte maturation potential leading to a higher availability of Day 3 embryos and good-quality blastocysts for single embryo transfer...
October 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936645/an-introduction-to-male-germline-development
#2
Hannes Vogler, Ueli Grossniklaus, Afif Hedhly
In this introductory chapter, we describe male germline development in plants taking Arabidopsis thaliana as a reference species. We first describe the transition from sporophytic to germline development, then microsporogenesis including meiosis, followed by male gametophyte development prior to pollination, and finally the progamic phase culminating in double fertilization, which leads to the formation of the embryo and the endosperm. For detailed information on some of these processes or on the molecular underpinning of certain fate transitions, we refer the reader to recent reviews...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936205/homologous-recombination-in-protozoan-parasites-and-recombinase-inhibitors
#3
REVIEW
Andrew A Kelso, Sarah M Waldvogel, Adam J Luthman, Michael G Sehorn
Homologous recombination (HR) is a DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that utilizes a homologous template to fully repair the damaged DNA. HR is critical to maintain genome stability and to ensure genetic diversity during meiosis. A specialized class of enzymes known as recombinases facilitate the exchange of genetic information between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes with the help of numerous protein accessory factors. The majority of the HR machinery is highly conserved among eukaryotes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935703/hdac3-promotes-meiotic-apparatus-assembly-in-mouse-oocytes-via-modulating-tubulin-acetylation
#4
Xiaoyan Li, Xiaohui Liu, Min Gao, Longsen Han, Danhong Qiu, Haichao Wang, Bo Xiong, Shao-Chen Sun, Honglin Liu, Ling Gu
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) have been shown to deacetylate numerous cellular substrates that govern a wide array of biological processes. HDAC3, a member of the Class I HDACs, is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein. However, its roles in meiotic oocytes are currently unknown. In the present study, we find that mouse oocytes depleted of HDAC3 are unable to completely progress through meiosis, blocking at metaphase I. These HDAC3-knockdown (HDAC3-KD) oocytes show spindle/chromosome organization failure, with severely impaired kinetochore-microtubule attachments...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935242/supplementation-of-cilostazol-during-in-vitro-maturation-enhances-the-meiosis-and-developmental-competence-of-yak-oocytes-by-influencing-camp-content-and-mrna-expression
#5
Xian-Rong Xiong, Dao-Liang Lan, Jian Li, Ya-Qiu Lin, Ming-Yang Li
The efficiency of in vitro embryo production remains low compared with that observed in vivo. Recent studies have independently shown that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) modulation prior to in vitro maturation (IVM) supplementation improves oocyte developmental competence. In this context, special cAMP modulators have been applied during IVM as promising alternatives to improve this biotechnology. Accordingly, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with cilostazol, a PDE3 inhibitor, during pre-IVM culture on oocyte meiotic maturation in yak...
August 24, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934466/cohesin-acetyltransferase-esco2-regulates-sac-and-kinetochore-functions-via-maintaining-h4k16-acetylation-during-mouse-oocyte-meiosis
#6
Yajuan Lu, Xiaoxin Dai, Mianqun Zhang, Yilong Miao, Changyin Zhou, Zhaokang Cui, Bo Xiong
Sister chromatid cohesion, mediated by cohesin complex and established by the acetyltransferases Esco1 and Esco2, is essential for faithful chromosome segregation. Mutations in Esco2 cause Roberts syndrome, a developmental disease characterized by severe prenatal retardation as well as limb and facial abnormalities. However, its exact roles during oocyte meiosis have not clearly defined. Here, we report that Esco2 localizes to the chromosomes during oocyte meiotic maturation. Depletion of Esco2 by morpholino microinjection leads to the precocious polar body extrusion, the escape of metaphase I arrest induced by nocodazole treatment and the loss of BubR1 from kinetochores, indicative of inactivated SAC...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934224/identification-and-analysis-of-differentially-expressed-long-non-coding-rnas-between-multiparous-and-uniparous-goat-capra-hircus-ovaries
#7
Yinghui Ling, Lina Xu, Long Zhu, Menghua Sui, Qi Zheng, Wenyong Li, Yong Liu, Fugui Fang, Xiaorong Zhang
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in almost all biological processes. However, there is little information on the effects of lncRNAs on ovulation and lambing rates. In the present study, we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs between the ovaries of multiparous (Mul) and uniparous (Uni) Anhui White goats. Among the 107,255,422 clean reads, 183,754 lncRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between the Uni and Mul. Among them, 455 lncRNAs were co-expressed between the two samples, whereas, 157,523 lncRNAs were uniquely expressed in the Uni, and 25,776 uniquely lncRNAs were expressed in the Mul...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933593/dynein-promotes-porcine-oocyte-meiotic-progression-by-maintaining-cytoskeletal-structures-and-cortical-granule-arrangement
#8
Yilong Miao, Changyin Zhou, Zhaokang Cui, Liansheng Tang, Xiayan ShiYang, Yajuan Lu, Mianqun Zhang, Xiaoxin Dai, Bo Xiong
Cytoplasmic dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move towards the minus-end of the microtubules to perform functions in a variety of mitotic processes such as cargo transport, organelle positioning, chromosome movement and centrosome assembly. However, its specific roles during mammalian oocyte meiosis have not been fully defined. Herein, we investigated the critical events during porcine oocyte meiotic maturation after inhibition of dynein by Ciliobrevin D treatment. We found that oocyte meiotic progression was arrested when inhibited of dynein by showing the poor expansion of cumulus cells and decreased rate of polar body extrusion...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929627/strategies-and-challenges-in-identifying-function-for-thousands-of-sorf-encoded-peptides-in-meiosis
#9
Ina Hollerer, Andrea Higdon, Gloria A Brar
Recent genomic analyses have revealed pervasive translation from formerly unrecognized short Open Reading Frames (sORFs) during yeast meiosis. Despite their short length, which has caused these regions to be systematically overlooked by traditional gene annotation approaches, meiotic sORFs share many features with classical genes, implying the potential for similar types of cellular functions. We found that sORF expression accounts for ∼10-20% of the cellular translation capacity in yeast during meiotic differentiation and occurs within well-defined time windows, suggesting the production of relatively abundant peptides with stage-specific meiotic roles from these regions...
September 20, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929370/a-termite-symbiotic-mushroom-maximizing-sexual-activity-at-growing-tips-of-vegetative-hyphae
#10
Huei-Mei Hsieh, Mei-Chu Chung, Pao-Yang Chen, Fei-Man Hsu, Wen-Wei Liao, Ai-Ning Sung, Chun-Ru Lin, Chung-Ju Rachel Wang, Yu-Hsin Kao, Mei-Jane Fang, Chi-Yung Lai, Chieh-Chen Huang, Jyh-Ching Chou, Wen-Neng Chou, Bill Chia-Han Chang, Yu-Ming Ju
BACKGROUND: Termitomyces mushrooms are mutualistically associated with fungus-growing termites, which are widely considered to cultivate a monogenotypic Termitomyces symbiont within a colony. Termitomyces cultures isolated directly from termite colonies are heterokaryotic, likely through mating between compatible homokaryons. RESULTS: After pairing homokaryons carrying different haplotypes at marker gene loci MIP and RCB from a Termitomyces fruiting body associated with Odontotermes formosanus, we observed nuclear fusion and division, which greatly resembled meiosis, during each hyphal cell division and conidial formation in the resulting heterokaryons...
September 19, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928476/bisphenol-a-affects-on-the-functional-properties-and-proteome-of-testicular-germ-cells-and-spermatogonial-stem-cells-in-vitro-culture-model
#11
Polash Chandra Karmakar, Hyun-Gu Kang, Yong-Hee Kim, Sang-Eun Jung, Md Saidur Rahman, Hee-Seok Lee, Young-Hyun Kim, Myung-Geol Pang, Buom-Yong Ryu
The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is well known for its adverse effect on male fertility. Growing evidence suggests that BPA may interact with testicular germ cells and cause infertility as a result of its estrogenic activity. Objective of current in vitro study was to investigate the proliferation, survivability and stemness properties of mouse testicular germ cells exposed to BPA, and to evaluate possible expression of cellular proteome. Our results showed that germ cell viability and proliferation were not affected by low concentrations (0...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928401/metabolic-shift-in-sugars-and-amino-acids-regulates-sprouting-in-saffron-corm
#12
Jayram Bagri, Anupama Yadav, Khalid Anwar, Jeremy Dkhar, Sneh Lata Singla-Pareek, Ashwani Pareek
Saffron is one of the most expensive spices of the world. Since this spice is triploid and meiosis is unusual, it cannot reproduce sexually like other plants; rather, it is propagated vegetatively via an underground corm, which can withstand a long dry dormant period before sprouting. Thus, corms are indispensable to saffron propagation. To identify and analyse signature metabolites associated with the 'dormancy-sprouting' process, non-targeted GC-MS was performed at different stages of corm development. Comparative metabolite profiling reflected dissimilar profiles among the stages as portrayed by differential cluster patterns of metabolites in the PCA and PLS-DA analysis...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922773/crop-model-assisted-phenomics-and-genome-wide-association-study-for-climate-adaptation-of-indica-rice-2-thermal-stress-and-spikelet-sterility
#13
Michael Dingkuhn, Richard Pasco, Julie Mae Pasuquin, Jean Damo, Jean-Christophe Soulié, Louis-Marie Raboin, Julie Dusserre, Abdoulaye Sow, Baboucarr Manneh, Suchit Shrestha, Tobias Kretzschmar
Low night and high day temperatures during sensitive reproductive stages cause spikelet sterility in rice. Phenotyping of tolerance traits in the field is difficult because of temporal interactions with phenology and organ temperature differing from ambient. Physiological models can be used to separate these effects. A 203-accession indica rice diversity panel was phenotyped for sterility in ten environments in Senegal and Madagascar and climate data were recorded. Here we report on sterility responses while a companion study reported on phenology...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922756/the-meiotic-regulator-jason-utilizes-alternative-translation-initiation-sites-to-produce-differentially-localized-forms
#14
Simon Cabout, Megan P Leask, Shiny Varghese, Jun Yi, Benjamin Peters, Lei Liu Conze, Claudia Köhler, Lynette Brownfield
The JASON (JAS) protein plays an important role in maintaining an organelle band across the equator of male meiotic cells during the second division, with its loss leading to unreduced pollen in Arabidopsis. In roots cells, JAS localizes to the Golgi, tonoplast and plasma membrane. Here we explore the mechanism underlying the localization of JAS. Overall, our data show that leaky ribosom scanning and alternative translation initiation sites (TISs) likely leads to the formation of two forms of JAS: a long version with an N-terminal Golgi localization signal and a short version with a different N-terminal signal targeting the protein to the plasma membrane...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920413/functional-role-of-forskolin-and-pd166285-in-the-development-of-denuded-mouse-oocytes
#15
Hongguo Cao, Yani Bian, Fei Zhang, Yunshu Tang, Caixia Li, Jiemei Chen, Xiaorong Zhang
Objective: cAMP and MPF play critical roles during the maturation of mammalian oocytes. The aim of this study was to produce the offspring from denuded oocytes in mice by regulating cAMP and MPF. Methods: In this study, we used DOs at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage in mice and regulated levels of cAMP and MPF in DOs by adding Forskolin and PD166285 during in vitro maturation (IVM) without FSH and LH respectively. Results: Combined use of 50 μM Forskolin for 3 h and 2...
September 18, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919973/study-of-male-mediated-gene-flow-across-a-hybrid-zone-in-the-common-shrew-sorex-araneus-using-y-chromosome
#16
Andrei V Polyakov, Viktor V Panov
Despite many studies, the impact of chromosome rearrangements on gene flow between chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758) remains unclear. Interracial hybrids form meiotic chromosome complexes that are associated with reduced fertility. Nevertheless comprehensive investigations of autosomal and mitochondrial markers revealed weak or no barrier to gene flow between chromosomally divergent populations. In a narrow zone of contact between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races hybrids are produced with extraordinarily complex configurations at meiosis I...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919949/first-report-of-b-chromosomes-in-three-neotropical-thorny-catfishes-siluriformes-doradidae
#17
Fábio Hiroshi Takagui, Ana Lucia Dias, José Luís Olivan Birindelli, Ana Claudia Swarça, Renata da Rosa, Roberto Laridondo Lui, Alberto Sergio Fenocchio, Lucia Giuliano-Caetano
The family Doradidae (Siluriformes) is an important group of fishes endemic to freshwater ecosystems in South America. Some cytogenetic studies have been conducted focused on the group; however, there are no reports on the occurrence of B chromosomes for the family. In this paper the chromosomal characteristics of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes, 1840), Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, 1821) and Ossancora punctata (Kner, 1855) were investigated through classical cytogenetics approaches. The conventional staining reveals 2n=58 in Platydoras armatulus and Pterodoras granulosus, however with distinct karyotypic formulae, possibly originated by pericentric inversions...
2017: Comparative Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915715/epigenetic-regulation-during-the-differentiation-of-stem-cells-to-germ-cells
#18
REVIEW
Yuan-Chao Sun, Yong-Yong Wang, Wei Ge, Shun-Feng Cheng, Paul W Dyce, Wei Shen
Gametogenesis is an essential process to ensure the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the next. It also provides a mechanism by which genetic evolution can take place. Although the genome of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is exactly the same with somatic cells within an organism, there are significant differences between their developments. For example, PGCs eventually undergo meiosis to become functional haploid gametes, and prior to that they undergo epigenetic imprinting which greatly alter their genetic regulation...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913952/new-age-ideas-about-age-old-sex-separating-meiosis-from-mating-could-solve-a-century-old-conundrum
#19
Michael Brandeis
Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. I argue that the obstacle for comprehending the role of sex stems from the conceptual entanglement of two distinct processes - gamete production by meiosis and gamete fusion by mating (mixis)...
September 14, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910277/interplay-between-microtubule-bundling-and-sorting-factors-ensures-acentriolar-spindle-stability-during-c-elegans-oocyte-meiosis
#20
Timothy J Mullen, Sarah M Wignall
In many species, oocyte meiosis is carried out in the absence of centrioles. As a result, microtubule organization, spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation proceed by unique mechanisms. Here, we report insights into the principles underlying this specialized form of cell division, through studies of C. elegans KLP-15 and KLP-16, two highly homologous members of the kinesin-14 family of minus-end-directed kinesins. These proteins localize to the acentriolar oocyte spindle and promote microtubule bundling during spindle assembly; following klp-15/16 depletion, microtubule bundles form but then collapse into a disorganized array...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
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