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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445878/differential-allelic-expression-of-htr1b-in-suicide-victims-genetic-and-epigenetic-effect-of-the-cis-acting-variants
#1
Ali Bani-Fatemi, Aaron Howe, Clement Zai, James L Kennedy, John Vincent, John Strauss, Albert Wong, Vincenzo De Luca
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we tested the allelic imbalance of the C861G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of HTR1B in the frontal cortex of suicide victims. METHODS: The study was conducted using 3 sets of samples. First, C861G allele-specific mRNA levels in the frontal cortex were compared between suicide (n = 13) and nonsuicide controls (n = 13) from the Stanley Medical Research postmortem brain collection. Second, we tested common variants in the HTR1B promoter for linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the C861G variant in an unrelated sample of suicide attempters (SA; n = 38) and non-SA (NSA; n = 42)...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444387/meiotic-genes-are-enriched-in-regions-of-reduced-archaic-ancestry
#2
B Jégou, S Sankararaman, A D Rolland, D Reich, F Chalmel
About 1-6% of the genetic ancestry of modern humans today originates from admixture with archaic humans. It has recently been shown that autosomal genomic regions with a reduced proportion of Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestries are significantly enriched in genes that are more expressed in testis than in other tissues. To determine whether a cellular segregation pattern would exist, we combined maps of archaic introgression with a cross-analysis of three transcriptomic datasets deciphering the transcriptional landscape of human gonadal cell types...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443296/data-of-sperm-entry-inability-in-drosophila-melanogaster-ovarian-follicles-that-are-depleted-of-s36-chorionic-protein
#3
Athanassios D Velentzas, Panagiotis D Velentzas, Stamatia Katarachia, Vassiliki E Mpakou, Issidora S Papassideri, Dimitrios J Stravopodis
This paper presents data associated with the research article entitled "Targeted downregulation of s36 protein unearths its cardinal role in chorion biogenesis and architecture during Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis" [1]. Drosophila chorion is produced by epithelial follicle cells and one of its functional serving role is egg fertilization through the micropyle, a specialized narrow channel at the anterior tip of the egg [2]. Sperm entry during fertilization is necessary for the egg to complete meiosis [3]...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442784/the-rna-binding-protein-marf1-promotes-cortical-neurogenesis-through-its-rnase-activity-domain
#4
Yoshitaka Kanemitsu, Masashi Fujitani, Yuki Fujita, Suxiang Zhang, You-Qiang Su, Yukio Kawahara, Toshihide Yamashita
Cortical neurogenesis is a fundamental process of brain development that is spatiotemporally regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic cues. Although recent evidence has highlighted the significance of transcription factors in cortical neurogenesis, little is known regarding the role of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) in the post-transcriptional regulation of cortical neurogenesis. Here, we report that meiosis arrest female 1 (MARF1) is an RBP that is expressed during neuronal differentiation. Cortical neurons expressed the somatic form of MARF1 (sMARF1) but not the oocyte form (oMARF1)...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442596/tissue-specific-transcriptomics-reveals-an-important-role-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-maintaining-fertility-upon-heat-stress-in-arabidopsis
#5
Shuang-Shuang Zhang, Hongxing Yang, Lan Ding, Ze-Ting Song, Hong Ma, Fang Chang, Jian-Xiang Liu
Elevated temperatures have a great impact on plant reproductive development and subsequent fruit and seed set, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We used transcriptome profiling to investigate the effect of heat stress on reproductive development of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings and observed distinct response patterns in vegetative vs. reproductive tissues. Exposure to heat stress affected reproductive developmental programs including early phases of anther/ovule development and meiosis, Also, genes participating in the unfolded protein response (UPR) were enriched in the reproductive tissue-specific genes that were up-regulated by heat...
April 24, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442047/increased-frequency-of-chromosome-congression-defects-and-aneuploidy-in-mouse-oocytes-cultured-at-lower-temperature
#6
Jitka Danadova, Natalie Matijescukova, Anna Mac Gillavry Danylevska, Martin Anger
Optimal culture conditions are essential for successful IVM of mammalian oocytes and for their further development into an embryo. In the present study we used live cell imaging microscopy to assess the effects of suboptimal culture temperature on various aspects of IVM, including duration of meiosis I, dynamics of polar body extrusion, chromosome congression, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activation and aneuploidy. The data showed that even a small deviation from the optimal incubation temperature causes marked changes in the duration and synchronicity of meiosis, APC/C activity and the frequency of chromosome congression and segregation errors...
April 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439046/protein-phosphatase-2a-regulatory-subunit-b55%C3%AE-functions-in-mouse-oocyte-maturation-and-early-embryonic-development
#7
Shuang Liang, Jing Guo, Jeong-Woo Choi, Kyung-Tae Shin, Hai-Yang Wang, Yu-Jin Jo, Nam-Hyung Kim, Xiang-Shun Cui
Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B55α (PP2A-B55α) has been studied in mitosis. However, its functions in mammalian meiosis and early embryonic development remain unknown. Here, we report that PP2A-B55α is critical for mouse oocyte meiosis and preimplantation embryo development. Knockdown of PP2A-B55α in oocytes led to abnormal asymmetric division, disordered spindle dynamics, defects in chromosome congression, an increase in aneuploidy, and induction of the DNA damage response. Moreover, knockdown of PP2A-B55α in fertilized mouse zygotes impaired development to the blastocyst stage...
March 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435066/cross-talk-between-sumoylation-and-phosphorylation-in-mouse-spermatocytes
#8
Yuxuan Xiao, Benjamin Lucas, Elana Molcho, Margarita Vigodner
The meiotic G2/M1 transition is mostly regulated by posttranslational modifications, however, the cross-talk between different posttranslational modifications is not well-understood, especially in spermatocytes. Sumoylation has emerged as a critical regulatory event in several developmental processes, including reproduction. In mouse oocytes, inhibition of sumoylation caused various meiotic defects and led to aneuploidy. However, the role of sumoylation in male reproduction has only begun to be elucidated. Given the important role of several SUMO targets (including kinases) in meiosis, in this study, the role of sumoylation was addressed by monitoring the G2/M1 transition in pachytene spermatocytes in vitro upon inhibition of sumoylation...
April 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434825/rna-binding-proteins-in-human-oogenesis-balancing-differentiation-and-self-renewal-in-the-female-fetal-germline
#9
Roseanne Rosario, Andrew J Childs, Richard A Anderson
Primordial germ cells undergo three significant processes on their path to becoming primary oocytes: the initiation of meiosis, the formation and breakdown of germ cell nests, and the assembly of single oocytes into primordial follicles. However at the onset of meiosis, the germ cell becomes transcriptionally silenced. Consequently translational control of pre-stored mRNAs plays a central role in coordinating gene expression throughout the remainder of oogenesis; RNA binding proteins are key to this regulation...
April 18, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431155/motoring-through-the-role-of-kinesin-superfamily-proteins-in-female-meiosis
#10
Nicole J Camlin, Eileen A McLaughlin, Janet E Holt
BACKGROUND: The kinesin motor protein family consists of 14 distinct subclasses and 45 kinesin proteins in humans. A large number of these proteins, or their orthologues, have been shown to possess essential function(s) in both the mitotic and the meiotic cell cycle. Kinesins have important roles in chromosome separation, microtubule dynamics, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. This article contains a review of the literature with respect to the role of kinesin motor proteins in female meiosis in model species...
April 18, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431016/somatic-transposition-and-meiotically-driven-elimination-of-an-active-helitron-family-in-pleurotus-ostreatus
#11
Alessandra Borgognone, Raúl Castanera, Elaia Muguerza, Antonio G Pisabarro, Lucía Ramírez
Helitrons constitute a superfamily of DNA transposons that were discovered in silico and are widespread in most eukaryotic genomes. They are postulated to mobilize through a "rolling-circle" mechanism, but the experimental evidence of their transposition has been described only recently. Here, we present the inheritance patterns of HELPO1 and HELPO2 helitron families in meiotically derived progeny of the basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus. We found distorted segregation patterns of HELPO2 helitrons that led to a strong under-representation of these elements in the progeny...
April 1, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429538/finding-a-partner-in-the-ocean-molecular-and-evolutionary-bases-of-the-response-to-sexual-cues-in-a-planktonic-diatom
#12
Swaraj Basu, Shrikant Patil, Daniel Mapleson, Monia Teresa Russo, Laura Vitale, Cristina Fevola, Florian Maumus, Raffaella Casotti, Thomas Mock, Mario Caccamo, Marina Montresor, Remo Sanges, Maria Immacolata Ferrante
Microalgae play a major role as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Cell signalling regulates their interactions with the environment and other organisms, yet this process in phytoplankton is poorly defined. Using the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, we investigated the cell response to cues released during sexual reproduction, an event that demands strong regulatory mechanisms and impacts on population dynamics. We sequenced the genome of P. multistriata and performed phylogenomic and transcriptomic analyses, which allowed the definition of gene gains and losses, horizontal gene transfers, conservation and evolutionary rate of sex-related genes...
April 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428939/effects-of-sperm-insemination-on-the-final-meiotic-maturation-of-mouse-oocytes-arrested-at-metaphase-i-after-in-vitro-maturation
#13
Jeong Yoon, Kyoung-Mi Juhn, San-Hyun Yoon, Yong Ko, Jin-Ho Lim
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate whether fertilization could induce the resumption of meiosis in mouse oocytes arrested at metaphase I (MI) after in vitro maturation (IVM), and to investigate the effect of Ca(2)(+) chelator treatment at the time of fertilization on the transition from MI to metaphase II (MII). METHODS: MII-stage and arrested MI-stage mouse oocytes after IVM were fertilized, and then embryonic development was monitored. Blastocysts from each group were transferred into 2...
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426351/chromosome-4-in-drosophila-melanogaster-imperfection-or-interesting-exception
#14
Michaelyn A Hartmann, Jeff Sekelsky
Drosophila melanogaster chromosome 4 is an anomaly because of its small size, chromatin structure, and most notably its lack of crossing over during meiosis. Earlier ideas about the absence of crossovers on 4 hypothesize that these unique characteristics function to prevent crossovers. Here, we explore hypotheses about the absence of crossovers on 4, how these have been addressed, and new insights into the mechanism behind this suppression. We review recently published results that indicate that global crossover patterning, in particular the centromere effect, make a major contribution to the prevention of crossovers on 4...
April 20, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423184/the-differentiated-and-conserved-roles-of-swi5-sfr1-in-homologous-recombination
#15
REVIEW
Bilge Argunhan, Yasuto Murayama, Hiroshi Iwasaki
Homologous recombination (HR) is the process whereby two DNA molecules that share high sequence similarity are able to recombine to generate hybrid DNA molecules. Throughout evolution, the ability of HR to identify highly similar DNA sequences has been adopted for numerous biological phenomena including DNA repair, meiosis, telomere maintenance, ribosomal DNA amplification, and immunological diversity. Although Rad51 and Dmc1 are the key proteins that promote HR in mitotic and meiotic cells, respectively, accessory proteins that allow Rad51 and Dmc1 to effectively fulfil their functions have been identified in all examined model systems...
April 19, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419145/apomixis-frequency-under-stress-conditions-in-weeping-lovegrass-eragrostis-curvula
#16
Juan Manuel Rodrigo, Diego Carlos Zappacosta, Juan Pablo Selva, Ingrid Garbus, Emidio Albertini, Viviana Echenique
To overcome environmental stress, plants develop physiological responses that are triggered by genetic or epigenetic changes, some of which involve DNA methylation. It has been proposed that apomixis, the formation of asexual seeds without meiosis, occurs through the temporal or spatial deregulation of the sexual process mediated by genetic and epigenetic factors influenced by the environment. Here, we explored whether there was a link between the occurrence of apomixis and various factors that generate stress, including drought stress, in vitro culture, and intraspecific hybridization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418813/radiation-induced-deletions-in-mouse-spermatogonia-are-usually-large-over-200-kb-and-contain-little-sequence-similarity-at-the-junctions
#17
Mieko Kodaira, Jun-Ichi Asakawa, Nori Nakamura
Ionizing radiation can induce mutations, and the majority of radiation-induced mutations in mammalian cells are deletions. The most critical types of radiation-induced DNA damage are DNA double-strand breaks, and these breaks are repaired by either the homologous recombination (HR) pathway or the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. The HR pathway is not as mutagenic as the NHEJ pathway, and it is expected that radiation-induced deletions would usually have little sequence similarity around the deletion junction points...
April 18, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412934/karyotype-diversity-and-chromosomal-organization-of-repetitive-dna-in-tityus-obscurus-scorpiones-buthidae
#18
Bruno Rafael Ribeiro de Almeida, Susana Suely Rodrigues Milhomem-Paixão, Renata Coelho Rodrigues Noronha, Cleusa Yoshiko Nagamachi, Marlyson Jeremias Rodrigues da Costa, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira Pardal, Johne Souza Coelho, Julio Cesar Pieczarka
BACKGROUND: Holocentric chromosomes occur in approximately 750 species of eukaryotes. Among them, the genus Tityus (Scorpiones, Buthidae) has a labile karyotype that shows complex multivalent associations during male meiosis. Thus, taking advantage of the excellent model provided by the Buthidae scorpions, here we analyzed the chromosomal distribution of several repetitive DNA classes on the holocentric chromosomes of different populations of the species Tityus obscurus Gervais, 1843, highlighting their involvement in the karyotypic differences found among them...
April 17, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408472/the-sweet-side-of-the-cell-cycle
#19
REVIEW
Ee Phie Tan, Francesca E Duncan, Chad Slawson
Cell division (mitosis) and gamete production (meiosis) are fundamental requirements for normal organismal development. The mammalian cell cycle is tightly regulated by different checkpoints ensuring complete and precise chromosomal segregation and duplication. In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in understanding how O-GlcNAc regulates the cell cycle. The O-GlcNAc post-translation modification is an O-glycosidic bond of a single β-N-acetylglucosamine sugar to serine/threonine residues of intracellular proteins...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402788/ustilago-maydis-the-corn-smut-fungus-has-an-unusual-diploid-mitotic-stage
#20
Karen Snetselaar, Michael McCann
Ustilago maydis causes common smut disease in maize. Although pathogenic diploid strains of the fungus have been known for many years, the normal life cycle was thought to involve an extended dikaryotic stage, with nuclear fusion occurring in immature teliospores. However, microscopic examination of both living and fixed tumor material showed that nuclei fuse long before sporulation begins and that tumors are filled with uninucleate cells undergoing mitosis. Quantification of DNA in the nuclei confirmed these observations...
2017: Mycologia
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