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Yeast meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043484/the-role-of-yeast-m-6-a-methyltransferase-in-peroxisomal-fatty-acid-oxidation
#1
REVIEW
Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Praveen Kumar Rajvanshi, Ram Rajasekharan
The precise and controlled regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels is crucial for the eukaryotic cell survival and functions. In eukaryotes, more than 100 types of post-transcriptional RNA modifications have been identified. The N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modification in mRNA is among the most common post-transcriptional RNA modifications known in eukaryotic organisms, and the m(6)A RNA modification can regulate gene expression. The role of yeast m(6)A methyltransferase (Ime4) in meiosis, sporulation, triacylglycerol metabolism, vacuolar morphology, and mitochondrial functions has been reported...
October 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021797/the-rice-aaa-atpase-osfignl1-is-essential-for-male-meiosis
#2
Peipei Zhang, Yingxin Zhang, Lianping Sun, Sittipun Sinumporn, Zhengfu Yang, Bin Sun, Dandan Xuan, Zihe Li, Ping Yu, Weixun Wu, Kejian Wang, Liyong Cao, Shihua Cheng
Meiosis is crucial in reproduction of plants and ensuring genetic diversity. Although several genes involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair have been reported, their functions in rice (Oryza sativa) male meiosis remain poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized the rice OsFIGNL1 (OsFidgetin-like 1) gene, encoding a conserved AAA-ATPase, and explored its function and importance in male meiosis and pollen formation. The rice Osfignl1 mutant exhibited normal vegetative growth, but failed to produce seeds and displayed pollen abortion phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021238/asy2-mer2-an-evolutionarily-conserved-mediator-of-meiotic-recombination-pairing-and-global-chromosome-compaction
#3
Sophie Tessé, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Robert Debuchy, Karine Budin, Emeline Dubois, Zhang Liangran, Romain Antoine, Tristan Piolot, Nancy Kleckner, Denise Zickler, Eric Espagne
Meiosis is the cellular program by which a diploid cell gives rise to haploid gametes for sexual reproduction. Meiotic progression depends on tight physical and functional coupling of recombination steps at the DNA level with specific organizational features of meiotic-prophase chromosomes. The present study reveals that every step of this coupling is mediated by a single molecule: Asy2/Mer2. We show that Mer2, identified so far only in budding and fission yeasts, is in fact evolutionarily conserved from fungi (Mer2/Rec15/Asy2/Bad42) to plants (PRD3/PAIR1) and mammals (IHO1)...
October 11, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981863/subtelomeres-constitute-a-safeguard-for-gene-expression-and-chromosome-homeostasis
#4
Sanki Tashiro, Yuki Nishihara, Kazuto Kugou, Kunihiro Ohta, Junko Kanoh
The subtelomere, a telomere-adjacent chromosomal domain, contains species-specific homologous DNA sequences, in addition to various genes. However, the functions of subtelomeres, particularly subtelomeric homologous (SH) sequences, remain elusive. Here, we report the first comprehensive analyses of the cellular functions of SH sequences in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Complete removal of SH sequences from the genome revealed that they are dispensable for mitosis, meiosis and telomere length control...
September 14, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977643/regulation-of-mitotic-recombination-between-dna-repeats-in-centromeres
#5
Faria Zafar, Akiko K Okita, Atsushi T Onaka, Jie Su, Yasuhiro Katahira, Jun-Ichi Nakayama, Tatsuro S Takahashi, Hisao Masukata, Takuro Nakagawa
Centromeres that are essential for faithful segregation of chromosomes consist of unique DNA repeats in many eukaryotes. Although recombination is under-represented around centromeres during meiosis, little is known about recombination between centromere repeats in mitotic cells. Here, we compared spontaneous recombination that occurs between ade6B/ade6X inverted repeats integrated at centromere 1 (cen1) or at a non-centromeric ura4 locus in fission yeast. Remarkably, distinct mechanisms of homologous recombination (HR) were observed in centromere and non-centromere regions...
August 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975387/the-m-6-a-methyltransferase-ime4-and-mitochondrial-functions-in-yeast
#6
REVIEW
Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ram Rajasekharan
In eukaryotes, the precise transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of gene expression are crucial for the developmental processes. More than 100 types of post-transcriptional RNA modifications have been identified in eukaryotes. The deposition of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) into mRNA is among the most common post-transcriptional RNA modifications known in eukaryotes. It has been reported that m(6)A RNA modification can regulate gene expression. The role of yeast m(6)A methyltransferase (Ime4) in meiosis and sporulation in diploid cells is very well proven, but its physiological role in haploid cells has remained unknown until recently...
October 3, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967670/modeling-the-contributions-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-and-aneuploidy-to-saccharomyces-hybrid-sterility
#7
Primrose J Boynton, Thijs Janzen, Duncan Greig
Errors in meiosis can be important postzygotic barriers between different species. In Saccharomyces hybrids, chromosomal missegregation during meiosis I produces gametes with missing or extra chromosomes. Gametes with missing chromosomes are inviable, but we do not understand how extra chromosomes (disomies) influence hybrid gamete inviability. We designed a model predicting rates of missegregation in interspecific hybrid meioses assuming several different mechanisms of disomy tolerance, and compared predictions from the model to observations of sterility in hybrids between Saccharomyces yeast species...
October 2, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929627/strategies-and-challenges-in-identifying-function-for-thousands-of-sorf-encoded-peptides-in-meiosis
#8
Ina Hollerer, Andrea Higdon, Gloria A Brar
Recent genomic analyses have revealed pervasive translation from formerly unrecognized short Open Reading Frames (sORFs) during yeast meiosis. Despite their short length, which has caused these regions to be systematically overlooked by traditional gene annotation approaches, meiotic sORFs share many features with classical genes, implying the potential for similar types of cellular functions. We found that sORF expression accounts for ∼10-20% of the cellular translation capacity in yeast during meiotic differentiation and occurs within well-defined time windows, suggesting the production of relatively abundant peptides with stage-specific meiotic roles from these regions...
September 20, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906249/kinetochore-inactivation-by-expression-of-a-repressive-mrna
#9
Jingxun Chen, Amy Tresenrider, Minghao Chia, David T McSwiggen, Gianpiero Spedale, Victoria Jorgensen, Hanna Liao, Folkert Jacobus van Werven, Elcin Unal
Differentiation programs such as meiosis depend on extensive gene regulation to mediate cellular morphogenesis. Meiosis requires transient removal of the outer kinetochore, the complex that connects microtubules to chromosomes. How the meiotic gene expression program temporally restricts kinetochore function is unknown. We discovered that in budding yeast, kinetochore inactivation occurs by reducing the abundance of a limiting subunit, Ndc80. Furthermore, we uncovered an integrated mechanism that acts at the transcriptional and translational level to repress NDC80 expression...
September 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887594/do-long-telomeres-affect-cellular-fitness
#10
REVIEW
Yaniv Harari, Martin Kupiec
Telomeres protect the chromosome ends and maintain the genome stability; they, therefore, play important roles in aging and cancer. Despite the wide variability in telomere length among eukaryotes, in all telomerase-expressing cells telomere length is strictly controlled within a very narrow range. In humans, telomeres shorten with age, and it has been proposed that telomere shortening may play a causal role in aging. Using yeast strains with genetically or physiologically generated differences in telomere length, we have explored the question of whether having long telomeres affects telomere function and fitness or cellular lifespan...
September 8, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876998/meiosis-specific-localization-of-the-exocytic-rab-ypt2-in-fission-yeast
#11
Kazuki Imada, Taro Nakamura
Fission yeast Ypt2, an orthologue of the mammalian small GTPase Rab8, is responsible for post-Golgi membrane trafficking. During meiosis, Ypt2 localizes at the spindle pole body (SPB), where it regulates de novo biogenesis of the spore plasma membrane. Recruitment of Ypt2 to the SPB is dependent on its meiosis-specific GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF), the SPB-resident protein Spo13. Here we have examined the SPB recruitment of Ypt2 by Spo13. The GEF activity of Spo13 was required, but not essential for recruitment...
September 6, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860184/a-bimolecular-fluorescence-complementation-tool-for-identification-of-protein-protein-interactions-in-candida-albicans
#12
Ana Subotić, Erwin Swinnen, Liesbeth Demuyser, Herlinde De Keersmaecker, Hideaki Mizuno, Hélène Tournu, Patrick Van Dijck
Investigation of protein-protein interactions (PPI) in Candida albicans is essential for understanding the regulation of the signal transduction network that triggers its pathogenic lifestyle. Unique features of C. albicans, such as its alternative codon usage and incomplete meiosis, have enforced the optimization of standard genetic methods as well as development of novel approaches. Since the existing methods for detection of PPI are limited for direct visualization of the interacting complex in vivo, we have established a bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay in C...
October 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855376/destabilization-of-the-replication-fork-protection-complex-disrupts-meiotic-chromosome-segregation
#13
Wilber Escorcia, Susan L Forsburg
The replication fork protection complex (FPC) coordinates multiple processes that are crucial for unimpeded passage of the replisome through various barriers and difficult-to-replicate areas of the genome. We examine the function of Swi1 and Swi3, fission yeast's primary FPC components, to elucidate how replication fork stability contributes to DNA integrity in meiosis. We report that destabilization of the FPC results in reduced spore viability, delayed replication, changes in recombination, and chromosome mis-segregation in MI and MII...
August 30, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841135/ubiquitination-dependent-control-of-sexual-differentiation-in-fission-yeast
#14
Fabrizio Simonetti, Tito Candelli, Sebastien Leon, Domenico Libri, Mathieu Rougemaille
In fission yeast, meiosis-specific transcripts are selectively eliminated during vegetative growth by the combined action of the YTH-family RNA-binding protein Mmi1 and the nuclear exosome. Upon nutritional starvation, the master regulator of meiosis Mei2 inactivates Mmi1, thereby allowing expression of the meiotic program. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase subunit Not4/Mot2 of the evolutionarily conserved Ccr4-Not complex, which associates with Mmi1, promotes suppression of meiotic transcripts expression in mitotic cells...
August 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827832/mlh3-mutations-in-baker-s-yeast-alter-meiotic-recombination-outcomes-by-increasing-noncrossover-events-genome-wide
#15
Najla Al-Sweel, Vandana Raghavan, Abhishek Dutta, V P Ajith, Luigi Di Vietro, Nabila Khondakar, Carol M Manhart, Jennifer A Surtees, K T Nishant, Eric Alani
Mlh1-Mlh3 is an endonuclease hypothesized to act in meiosis to resolve double Holliday junctions into crossovers. It also plays a minor role in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR). To understand how Mlh1-Mlh3 functions in both meiosis and MMR, we analyzed in baker's yeast 60 new mlh3 alleles. Five alleles specifically disrupted MMR, whereas one (mlh3-32) specifically disrupted meiotic crossing over. Mlh1-mlh3 representatives for each class were purified and characterized. Both Mlh1-mlh3-32 (MMR+, crossover-) and Mlh1-mlh3-45 (MMR-, crossover+) displayed wild-type endonuclease activities in vitro...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820536/atp7a-and-atp7b-regulate-copper-homeostasis-in-developing-male-germ-cells-in-mice
#16
Mateusz Ogórek, Małgorzata Lenartowicz, Rafał Starzyński, Aneta Jończy, Robert Staroń, Andrzej Doniec, Wojciech Krzeptowski, Aleksandra Bednarz, Olga Pierzchała, Paweł Lipiński, Zenon Rajfur, Zbigniew Baster, Patrycja Gibas-Tybur, Paweł Grzmil
The maintenance of copper homeostasis is critical for all cells. As learned from mice with disturbed copper metabolism, this trace element is also important for spermatogenesis. The experiments conducted in yeasts have demonstrated that appropriate copper level must be preserved to enable meiosis progression; however, increased copper level is toxic for cells. This study aims to analyze the expression profile of Atp7a and Atp7b and other genes encoding copper-related proteins during spermatogenesis in mice...
September 20, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818866/systematic-identification-of-determinants-for-single-strand-annealing-mediated-deletion-formation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Maia Segura-Wang, Megumi Onishi-Seebacher, Adrian M Stütz, Balca R Mardin, Jan O Korbel
To ensure genomic integrity, living organisms have evolved diverse molecular processes for sensing and repairing damaged DNA. If improperly repaired, DNA damage can give rise to different types of mutations, an important class of which are genomic structural variants (SVs). In spite of their importance for phenotypic variation and genome evolution, potential contributors to SV formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), a highly tractable model organism, are not fully recognized. Here, we developed and applied a genome-wide assay to identify yeast gene knockout mutants associated with de novo deletion formation, in particular single-strand annealing (SSA)-mediated deletion formation, in a systematic manner...
October 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803330/bime2-a-novel-gene-required-for-interhomolog-meiotic-recombination-in-the-protist-model-organism-tetrahymena
#18
Anura Shodhan, Maria Novatchkova, Josef Loidl
Meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Most DSBs are converted into nonreciprocal exchanges (gene conversions) or crossovers (COs) between sister chromatids. Only a minority of DSBs are processed toward interhomolog COs, the precursors of the chiasmata that connect homologous chromosomes. Dmc1, the meiosis-specific paralog of the universal recombination protein Rad51, is required for interhomolog COs; in its absence, univalents are primarily formed. Here, we report a ciliate-specific novel meiotic gene, BIME2, which also promotes interhomolog crossing over...
August 12, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797117/analysis-of-the-impact-of-the-absence-of-rad51-strand-exchange-activity-in-arabidopsis-meiosis
#19
Gunjita Singh, Olivier Da Ines, Maria Eugenia Gallego, Charles I White
The ploidy of eukaryote gametes must be halved to avoid doubling of numbers of chromosomes with each generation and this is carried out by meiosis, a specialized cell division in which a single chromosomal replication phase is followed by two successive nuclear divisions. With some exceptions, programmed recombination ensures the proper pairing and distribution of homologous pairs of chromosomes in meiosis and recombination defects thus lead to sterility. Two highly related recombinases are required to catalyse the key strand-invasion step of meiotic recombination and it is the meiosis-specific DMC1 which is generally believed to catalyse the essential non-sister chromatid crossing-over, with RAD51 catalysing sister-chromatid and non-cross-over events...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763437/variation-of-the-meiotic-recombination-landscape-and-properties-over-a-broad-evolutionary-distance-in-yeasts
#20
Christian Brion, Sylvain Legrand, Jackson Peter, Claudia Caradec, David Pflieger, Jing Hou, Anne Friedrich, Bertrand Llorente, Joseph Schacherer
Meiotic recombination is a major factor of genome evolution, deeply characterized in only a few model species, notably the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Consequently, little is known about variations of its properties across species. In this respect, we explored the recombination landscape of Lachancea kluyveri, a protoploid yeast species that diverged from the Saccharomyces genus more than 100 million years ago and we found striking differences with S. cerevisiae. These variations include a lower recombination rate, a higher frequency of chromosomes segregating without any crossover and the absence of recombination on the chromosome arm containing the sex locus...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
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