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Yeast meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913618/meiotic-centromere-coupling-and-pairing-function-by-two-separate-mechanisms-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Emily L Kurdzo, David Obeso, Hoa Chuong, Dean S Dawson
In meiosis I, chromosomes become paired with their homologous partners and then are pulled towards opposite poles of the spindle. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in early meiotic prophase, centromeres are observed to associate in pairs in a homology-independent manner, a process called centromere coupling. Later, as homologous chromosomes align, their centromeres associate in a process called centromere pairing. The synaptonemal complex protein Zip1 is necessary for both types of centromere association...
December 2, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889481/mitotic-nuclear-envelope-breakdown-and-spindle-nucleation-are-controlled-by-interphase-contacts-between-centromeres-and-the-nuclear-envelope
#2
Alfonso Fernández-Álvarez, Cécile Bez, Eileen T O'Toole, Mary Morphew, Julia Promisel Cooper
Faithful genome propagation requires coordination between nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown, spindle formation, and chromosomal events. The conserved linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex connects fission yeast centromeres and the centrosome, across the NE, during interphase. During meiosis, LINC connects the centrosome with telomeres rather than centromeres. We previously showed that loss of telomere-LINC contacts compromises meiotic spindle formation. Here, we define the precise events regulated by telomere-LINC contacts and address the analogous possibility that centromeres regulate mitotic spindle formation...
November 22, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881602/n-terminal-acetylation-promotes-synaptonemal-complex-assembly-in-c-elegans
#3
Jinmin Gao, Consuelo Barroso, Pan Zhang, Hyun-Min Kim, Shangtong Li, Leticia Labrador, James Lightfoot, Maxim V Gerashchenko, Vyacheslav M Labunskyy, Meng-Qiu Dong, Enrique Martinez-Perez, Monica P Colaiácovo
N-terminal acetylation of the first two amino acids on proteins is a prevalent cotranslational modification. Despite its abundance, the biological processes associated with this modification are not well understood. Here, we mapped the pattern of protein N-terminal acetylation in Caenorhabditis elegans, uncovering a conserved set of rules for this protein modification and identifying substrates for the N-terminal acetyltransferase B (NatB) complex. We observed an enrichment for global protein N-terminal acetylation and also specifically for NatB substrates in the nucleus, supporting the importance of this modification for regulating biological functions within this cellular compartment...
November 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856494/the-dynamic-landscape-of-fission-yeast-meiosis-alternative-splice-isoforms
#4
Zheng Kuang, Jef D Boeke, Stefan Canzar
Alternative splicing increases the diversity of transcriptomes and proteomes in metazoans. The extent to which alternative splicing is active and functional in unicellular organisms is less understood. Here we exploit a single-molecule long-read sequencing technique and develop an open-source software program called SpliceHunter to characterize the transcriptome in the meiosis of fission yeast. We reveal 14353 alternative splicing events in 17669 novel isoforms at different stages of meiosis, including antisense and read-through transcripts...
November 17, 2016: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855779/local-chromosome-context-is-a-major-determinant-of-crossover-pathway-biochemistry-during-budding-yeast-meiosis
#5
Darpan Medhi, Alastair Sh Goldman, Michael Lichten
The budding yeast genome contains regions where meiotic recombination initiates more frequently than in others. This pattern parallels enrichment for the meiotic chromosome axis proteins Hop1 and Red1. These proteins are important for Spo11-catalyzed double strand break formation; their contribution to crossover recombination remains undefined. Using the sequence-specific VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE) to initiate recombination in meiosis, we show that chromosome structure influences the choice of proteins that resolve recombination intermediates to form crossovers...
November 18, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816818/the-spindle-checkpoint-in-plants-a-green-variation-over-a-conserved-theme
#6
REVIEW
Shinichiro Komaki, Arp Schnittger
The spindle checkpoint, also called spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is a crucial control instance in animals and yeast that surveys the correct attachment of chromosomes to the spindle assuring their equal distribution in mitosis and meiosis. The presence of homologs of all core SAC components in plants indicates that these regulators have an ancient function. However, the fact that mutants of SAC components in plants are usually fully viable together with the observation that plants can be readily made polyploid raises the question whether plants have an efficient SAC...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815245/the-coprinopsis-cinerea-tup1-homologue-cag1-is-required-for-gill-formation-during-fruiting-body-morphogenesis
#7
Ryo Masuda, Naoki Iguchi, Kooki Tukuta, Takahiro Nagoshi, Kazuki Kemuriyama, Hajime Muraguchi
The pileus (cap) of the fruiting body in homobasidiomycete fungi bears the hymenium, a layer of cells that includes the basidia where nuclear fusion, meiosis and sporulation occur. Coprinopsis cinerea is a model system for studying fruiting body development. The hymenium of C. cinerea forms at the surface of the gills in the pileus. In the previous study, we identified a mutation that blocks gill formation, which yields primordia that never mature called cap-growthless1-1 (cag1-1). In this study, we found that the cag1 gene encodes a homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tup1...
November 4, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806301/meiotic-nuclear-oscillations-are-necessary-to-avoid-excessive-chromosome-associations
#8
Mariola R Chacón, Petrina Delivani, Iva M Tolić
Pairing of homologous chromosomes is a crucial step in meiosis, which in fission yeast depends on nuclear oscillations. However, how nuclear oscillations help pairing is unknown. Here, we show that homologous loci typically pair when the spindle pole body is at the cell pole and the nucleus is elongated, whereas they unpair when the spindle pole body is in the cell center and the nucleus is round. Inhibition of oscillations demonstrated that movement is required for initial pairing and that prolonged association of loci leads to mis-segregation...
November 1, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797084/a-protocol-for-measuring-mitotic-chromosome-condensation-quantitatively-in-fission-yeast-cells
#9
Christoph Schiklenk, Boryana Petrova, Christian H Haering
Even though the formation of compact cylindrical chromosomes early during mitosis or meiosis is a prerequisite for the successful segregation of eukaryotic genomes, little is known about the molecular basis of this chromosome condensation process. Here, we describe in detail the protocol for a quantitative chromosome condensation assay in fission yeast cells, which is based on precise time-resolved measurements of the distances between two fluorescently labeled positions on the same chromosome. In combination with an automated computational analysis pipeline, this assay enables the study of various candidate proteins for their roles in regulating genome topology during cell divisions...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797078/a-dual-color-reporter-assay-of-cohesin-mediated-gene-regulation-in-budding-yeast-meiosis
#10
Jinbo Fan, Hui Jin, Hong-Guo Yu
In this chapter, we describe a quantitative fluorescence-based assay of gene expression using the ratio of the reporter green fluorescence protein (GFP) to the internal red fluorescence protein (RFP) control. With this dual-color heterologous reporter assay, we have revealed cohesin-regulated genes and discovered a cis-acting DNA element, the Ty1-LTR, which interacts with cohesin and regulates gene expression during yeast meiosis. The method described here provides an effective cytological approach for quantitative analysis of global gene expression in budding yeast meiosis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771580/an-rrm-containing-mei2-like-mct1-plays-a-negative-role-in-the-seed-germination-and-seedling-growth-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-in-the-presence-of-aba
#11
Lili Gu, Hyun Ju Jung, Kyung Jin Kwak, Sy Nguyen Dinh, Yeon-Ok Kim, Hunseung Kang
Despite an increasing understanding of the essential role of the Mei2 gene encoding an RNA-binding protein (RBP) in premeiotic DNA synthesis and meiosis in yeasts and animals, the functional roles of the mei2-like genes in plant growth and development are largely unknown. Contrary to other mei2-like RBPs that contain three RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs), the mei2 C-terminal RRM only (MCT) is unique in that it harbors only the last C-terminal RRM. Although MCTs have been implicated to play important roles in plants, their functional roles in stress responses as well as plant growth and development are still unknown...
October 13, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768699/multiple-pairwise-analysis-of-non-homologous-centromere-coupling-reveals-preferential-chromosome-size-dependent-interactions-and-a-role-for-bouquet-formation-in-establishing-the-interaction-pattern
#12
Philippe Lefrançois, Beth Rockmill, Pingxing Xie, G Shirleen Roeder, Michael Snyder
During meiosis, chromosomes undergo a homology search in order to locate their homolog to form stable pairs and exchange genetic material. Early in prophase, chromosomes associate in mostly non-homologous pairs, tethered only at their centromeres. This phenomenon, conserved through higher eukaryotes, is termed centromere coupling in budding yeast. Both initiation of recombination and the presence of homologs are dispensable for centromere coupling (occurring in spo11 mutants and haploids induced to undergo meiosis) but the presence of the synaptonemal complex (SC) protein Zip1 is required...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759153/the-master-greatwall-kinase-a-critical-regulator-of-mitosis-and-meiosis
#13
Suzanne Vigneron, Perle Robert, Khaled Hached, Lena Sundermann, Sophie Charrasse, Jean-Claude Labbé, Anna Castro, Thierry Lorca
Entry into mitosis requires the coordinated activation of various protein kinases and phosphatases that together activate sequential signaling pathways allowing entry, progression and exit of mitosis. The limiting step is thought to be the activation of the mitotic Cdk1-cyclin B kinase. However, this model has recently evolved with new data showing that in addition to the Cdk1-cyclin B complex, Greatwall (Gwl) kinase is also required to enter into and maintain mitosis. This new concept proposes that entry into mitosis is now based on the combined activation of both kinases Cdk1-cyclin B and Gwl, the former promoting massive phosphorylation of mitotic substrates and the latter inhibiting PP2A-B55 phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of these substrates...
2016: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684273/efficient-sporulation-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-in-a-96-multiwell-format
#14
Scott M Paulissen, Linda S Huang
During times of nutritional stress, Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes gametogenesis, known as sporulation. Diploid yeast cells that are starved for nitrogen and carbon will initiate the sporulation process. The process of sporulation includes meiosis followed by spore formation, where the haploid nuclei are packaged into environmentally resistant spores. We have developed methods for the efficient sporulation of budding yeast in 96 multiwell plates, to increase the throughput of screening yeast cells for sporulation phenotypes...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678521/prevention-of-dna-rereplication-through-a-meiotic-recombination-checkpoint-response
#15
Nicole A Najor, Layne Weatherford, George S Brush
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response...
September 27, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649245/reappearance-from-obscurity-mammalian-rad52-in-homologous-recombination
#16
REVIEW
Kritika Hanamshet, Olga M Mazina, Alexander V Mazin
Homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. It is responsible for repair of the most harmful DNA lesions, DNA double-strand breaks and inter-strand DNA cross-links. HR function is also essential for proper segregation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis, maintenance of telomeres, and resolving stalled replication forks. Defects in HR often lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Rad52 is one of the key HR proteins, which is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans...
September 14, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630265/the-exocytic-rabs-ypt3-and-ypt2-regulate-the-early-step-of-biogenesis-of-the-spore-plasma-membrane-in-fission-yeast
#17
Kazuki Imada, Taro Nakamura
During fission yeast sporulation, a membrane compartment called the forespore membrane (FSM) is newly formed on the spindle pole body (SPB). The FSM expands by membrane vesicle fusion, encapsulates the daughter nucleus resulting from meiosis, and eventually matures into the plasma membrane of the spore. Although many of the genes involved in FSM formation have been identified, its molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, a genetic screen for sporulation-deficient mutations identified Ypt3, a Rab family small GTPase known to function in the exocytic pathway...
September 14, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619703/the-frequency-of-sex-in-fungi
#18
REVIEW
Bart P S Nieuwenhuis, Timothy Y James
Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with a huge variation in reproductive strategy. While almost all species can reproduce sexually, many reproduce asexually most of the time. When sexual reproduction does occur, large variation exists in the amount of in- and out-breeding. While budding yeast is expected to outcross only once every 10 000 generations, other fungi are obligate outcrossers with well-mixed panmictic populations. In this review, we give an overview of the costs and benefits of sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi, and the mechanisms that evolved in fungi to reduce the costs of either mode...
October 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612028/trim27-interacts-with-slx2-is-associated-with-meiotic-processes-during-spermatogenesis
#19
Xin-Jie Zhuang, Wen-Hao Tang, Xue Feng, Chang-Yu Liu, Jin-Liang Zhu, Jie Yan, De-Feng Liu, Ping Liu, Jie Qiao
ABSTARCT Formation of the XY body is believed to prevent recombination between X and Y chromosomes during meiosis. We recently demonstrated that SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (Slx2) could be involved in synaptonemal complex formation as well as XY body maintenance during meiosis. In order to further investigate the role and composition of XY body protein complexes in meiotic processes and spermatogenesis, a yeast 2-hybrid screening was performed, and the tripartite motif protein 27(Trim27) was found to interact with Slx2 and co-localized in the XY body...
October 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611693/a-taz1-and-microtubule-dependent-regulatory-relationship-between-telomere-and-centromere-positions-in-bouquet-formation-secures-proper-meiotic-divisions
#20
Kazuhiro Katsumata, Ami Hirayasu, Junpei Miyoshi, Eriko Nishi, Kento Ichikawa, Kazuki Tateho, Airi Wakuda, Hirotada Matsuhara, Ayumu Yamamoto
During meiotic prophase, telomeres cluster, forming the bouquet chromosome arrangement, and facilitate homologous chromosome pairing. In fission yeast, bouquet formation requires switching of telomere and centromere positions. Centromeres are located at the spindle pole body (SPB) during mitotic interphase, and upon entering meiosis, telomeres cluster at the SPB, followed by centromere detachment from the SPB. Telomere clustering depends on the formation of the microtubule-organizing center at telomeres by the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex (LINC), while centromere detachment depends on disassembly of kinetochores, which induces meiotic centromere formation...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
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