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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820536/atp7a-and-atp7b-regulate-copper-homeostasis-in-developing-male-germ-cells-in-mice
#1
Mateusz Ogórek, Małgorzata Lenartowicz, Rafał Starzyński, Aneta Jończy, Robert Staroń, Andrzej Doniec, Wojciech Krzeptowski, Aleksandra Bednarz, Olga Pierzchała, Paweł Lipiński, Zenon Rajfur, Zbigniew Baster, Patrycja Gibas-Tybur, Paweł Grzmil
The maintenance of copper homeostasis is critical for all cells. As learned from mice with disturbed copper metabolism, this trace element is also important for spermatogenesis. The experiments conducted in yeasts have demonstrated that appropriate copper level must be preserved to enable meiosis progression; however, increased copper level is toxic for cells. This study aims to analyze the expression profile of Atp7a and Atp7b and other genes encoding copper-related proteins during spermatogenesis in mice...
August 18, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818866/systematic-identification-of-determinants-for-single-strand-annealing-mediated-deletion-formation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Maia Segura-Wang, Megumi Onishi-Seebacher, Adrian M Stütz, Balca R Mardin, Jan O Korbel
To ensure genomic integrity, living organisms have evolved diverse molecular processes for sensing and repairing damaged DNA. If improperly repaired, DNA damage can give rise to different types of mutations, an important class of which are the genomic structural variants (SVs). In spite of their importance for phenotypic variation and genome evolution, potential contributors to SV formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), a highly tractable model organism, are not fully recognized. Here we developed and applied a genome-wide assay to identify yeast gene knock-out mutants associated with de novo deletion formation, in particular single strand annealing (SSA) -mediated deletion formation in a systematic manner...
August 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803330/bime2-a-novel-gene-required-for-interhomolog-meiotic-recombination-in-the-protist-model-organism-tetrahymena
#3
Anura Shodhan, Maria Novatchkova, Josef Loidl
Meiotic recombination is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Most DSBs are converted into nonreciprocal exchanges (gene conversions) or crossovers (COs) between sister chromatids. Only a minority of DSBs are processed toward interhomolog COs, the precursors of the chiasmata that connect homologous chromosomes. Dmc1, the meiosis-specific paralog of the universal recombination protein Rad51, is required for interhomolog COs; in its absence, univalents are primarily formed. Here, we report a ciliate-specific novel meiotic gene, BIME2, which also promotes interhomolog crossing over...
August 12, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797117/analysis-of-the-impact-of-the-absence-of-rad51-strand-exchange-activity-in-arabidopsis-meiosis
#4
Gunjita Singh, Olivier Da Ines, Maria Eugenia Gallego, Charles I White
The ploidy of eukaryote gametes must be halved to avoid doubling of numbers of chromosomes with each generation and this is carried out by meiosis, a specialized cell division in which a single chromosomal replication phase is followed by two successive nuclear divisions. With some exceptions, programmed recombination ensures the proper pairing and distribution of homologous pairs of chromosomes in meiosis and recombination defects thus lead to sterility. Two highly related recombinases are required to catalyse the key strand-invasion step of meiotic recombination and it is the meiosis-specific DMC1 which is generally believed to catalyse the essential non-sister chromatid crossing-over, with RAD51 catalysing sister-chromatid and non-cross-over events...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763437/variation-of-the-meiotic-recombination-landscape-and-properties-over-a-broad-evolutionary-distance-in-yeasts
#5
Christian Brion, Sylvain Legrand, Jackson Peter, Claudia Caradec, David Pflieger, Jing Hou, Anne Friedrich, Bertrand Llorente, Joseph Schacherer
Meiotic recombination is a major factor of genome evolution, deeply characterized in only a few model species, notably the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Consequently, little is known about variations of its properties across species. In this respect, we explored the recombination landscape of Lachancea kluyveri, a protoploid yeast species that diverged from the Saccharomyces genus more than 100 million years ago and we found striking differences with S. cerevisiae. These variations include a lower recombination rate, a higher frequency of chromosomes segregating without any crossover and the absence of recombination on the chromosome arm containing the sex locus...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735863/structural-insights-into-the-specific-recognition-of-dsr-by-the-yth-domain-containing-protein-mmi1
#6
Baixing Wu, Jinhao Xu, Shichen Su, Hehua Liu, Jianhua Gan, Jinbiao Ma
Meiosis is one of the most dramatic differentiation programs accompanied by a striking change in gene expression profiles in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Whereas a number of meiosis-specific transcripts are expressed untimely in mitotic cells, and the entry of meiosis will be blocked as the accumulation of meiosis-specific mRNAs in the mitotic cells. A YTH domain containing protein Mmi1 was identified as a pivotal effector in a post-transcriptional event termed selective elimination of meiosis-specific mRNAs...
July 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733418/a-simple-method-to-induce-meiosis-and-sporulation-semisynchronously-in-the-fission-yeast-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#7
Akira Yamashita, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe, Masayuki Yamamoto
Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells initiate a sexual differentiation program, which comprises meiosis and spore formation, on nitrogen starvation. This protocol describes a simple procedure to induce meiosis and sporulation semisynchronously in heterozygous diploid S. pombe cells. The procedure is appropriate for a variety of applications, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and northern and western blotting. Zygotic meiosis can also be induced by the same procedure, although less synchronously...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733417/analysis-of-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-meiosis
#8
Akira Yamashita, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe, Masayuki Yamamoto
Meiosis is a specialized cell cycle that generates haploid gametes from diploid cells. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is one of the best model organisms for studying the regulatory mechanisms of meiosis. S. pombe cells, which normally grow in the haploid state, diploidize by conjugation and initiate meiosis when starved for nutrients, especially nitrogen. Following two rounds of chromosome segregation, spore formation takes place. The switch from mitosis to meiosis is controlled by a kinase, Pat1, and an RNA-binding protein, Mei2...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733401/mating-spore-dissection-and-selection-of-diploid-cells-in-schizosaccharomyces-japonicus
#9
Kanji Furuya, Hironori Niki
Haploid yeast cells mate to form heterozygotes and subsequently undergo meiosis to form spores. This process can be used to produce gene combinations and variants that are useful for genetic analysis. For example, these spores can be used to generate double mutants or to measure genetic distances in a mutational analysis. Here, we describe mating and spore dissection procedures for Schizosaccharomyces japonicus cells. Although the overall procedures resemble those used in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, some differences exist, including the use of EMM2 medium without nitrogen (EMM-N) for mating and the shorter incubation time of 16-20 h for S...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733399/synchronous-induction-of-meiosis-in-the-fission-yeast-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#10
Akira Yamashita, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe, Masayuki Yamamoto
In fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, initiation of meiosis is repressed by Pat1 kinase. This protocol describes how ectopic inactivation of the temperature-sensitive Pat1-114 kinase in G1-arrested h(-)/h(-) diploid cells carrying mat1-Pc induces a highly synchronized commitment to and execution of meiosis. Haploid or diploid pat1-114 mutants without mat1-Pc can also be used for convenience, although less synchrony may be attained compared with induction using true diploids. An essentially identical protocol can be used for induction via inhibition of genetically sensitized Pat1 kinase by ATP analogs...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733398/live-imaging-of-chromosome-segregation-during-meiosis-in-the-fission-yeast-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#11
Akira Yamashita, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe, Masayuki Yamamoto
This protocol describes the live observation of chromosome segregation during fission yeast meiosis. To visualize one chromosome of interest, the lac operator (lacO array) is integrated at its centromere-proximal locus, and the lac repressor (lacI)-GFP fusion protein is expressed in a haploid strain. This haploid strain, in which mCherry-tagged tubulin is also expressed exogenously to monitor meiotic progression, is crossed with a nonlabeled haploid strain to induce meiosis. GFP and mCherry signals in resulting zygotes are observed by a fluorescent microscopy during the progression of meiosis...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711872/cell-scientist-to-watch-kevin-corbett
#12
(no author information available yet)
Kevin Corbett graduated in biology and biochemistry from the University of Virginia. He then went to the University of California, Berkeley, to work on the structure and function of DNA topoisomerases in bacteria and archaea for his PhD with James Berger. In 2005, he moved to the laboratory of Stephen Harrison at Harvard Medical School for his postdoctoral work on kinetochore structure and function, particularly the yeast monopolin complex, which promotes proper chromosome segregation in the first meiotic division...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673925/acetylation-regulates-monopolar-attachment-at-multiple-levels-during-meiosis-i-in-fission-yeast
#13
Ayano Kagami, Takeshi Sakuno, Yuya Yamagishi, Tadashi Ishiguro, Tatsuya Tsukahara, Katsuhiko Shirahige, Koichi Tanaka, Yoshinori Watanabe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655762/the-m6a-methyltransferase-ime4-epitranscriptionally-regulates-triacylglycerol-metabolism-and-vacuolar-morphology-in-haploid-yeast-cells
#14
Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ram Rajasekharan
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is among the most common modifications in eukaryotic mRNA. The role of yeast m6A methyltransferase, Ime4, in meiosis and sporulation in diploid strains is very well studied, but its role in haploid strains has remained unknown. Here, with the help of an immunoblotting strategy and Ime4-GFP protein localization studies, we establish the physiological role of Ime4 in haploid cells. Our data showed that Ime4 epitranscriptionally regulates triacylglycerol metabolism and vacuolar morphology through the long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase Faa1, independently of the RNA methylation complex (MIS complex)...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628358/h2b-ubiquitination-conserved-molecular-mechanism-diverse-physiologic-functions-of-the-e3-ligase-during-meiosis
#15
Liying Wang, Chunwei Cao, Fang Wang, Jianguo Zhao, Wei Li
RNF20/Bre1 mediated H2B ubiquitination (H2Bub) has various physiologic functions. Recently, we found that H2Bub participates in meiotic recombination by promoting chromatin relaxation during meiosis. We then analyzed the phylogenetic relationships among the E3 ligase for H2Bub, its E2 Rad6 and their partner WW domain-containing adaptor with a coiled-coil (WAC) or Lge1, and found that the molecular mechanism underlying H2Bub is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. However, RNF20 has diverse physiologic functions in different organisms, which might be caused by the evolutionary divergency of their domain/motif architectures...
June 19, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609436/cleavage-of-the-sun-domain-protein-mps3-at-its-n-terminus-regulates-centrosome-disjunction-in-budding-yeast-meiosis
#16
Ping Li, Hui Jin, Bailey A Koch, Rebecca L Abblett, Xuemei Han, John R Yates, Hong-Guo Yu
Centrosomes organize microtubules and are essential for spindle formation and chromosome segregation during cell division. Duplicated centrosomes are physically linked, but how this linkage is dissolved remains unclear. Yeast centrosomes are tethered by a nuclear-envelope-attached structure called the half-bridge, whose components have mammalian homologues. We report here that cleavage of the half-bridge protein Mps3 promotes accurate centrosome disjunction in budding yeast. Mps3 is a single-pass SUN-domain protein anchored at the inner nuclear membrane and concentrated at the nuclear side of the half-bridge...
June 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538144/probing-the-potential-role-of-non-b-dna-structures-at-yeast-meiosis-specific-dna-double-strand-breaks
#17
Rucha Kshirsagar, Krishnendu Khan, Mamata V Joshi, Ramakrishna V Hosur, K Muniyappa
A plethora of evidence suggests that different types of DNA quadruplexes are widely present in the genome of all organisms. The existence of a growing number of proteins that selectively bind and/or process these structures underscores their biological relevance. Moreover, G-quadruplex DNA has been implicated in the alignment of four sister chromatids by forming parallel guanine quadruplexes during meiosis; however, the underlying mechanism is not well defined. Here we show that a G/C-rich motif associated with a meiosis-specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae folds into G-quadruplex, and the C-rich sequence complementary to the G-rich sequence forms an i-motif...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527011/the-prdm9-krab-domain-is-required-for-meiosis-and-involved-in-protein-interactions
#18
Yukiko Imai, Frédéric Baudat, Miguel Taillepierre, Marcello Stanzione, Attila Toth, Bernard de Massy
PR domain-containing protein 9 (PRDM9) is a major regulator of the localization of meiotic recombination hotspots in the human and mouse genomes. This role involves its DNA-binding domain, which is composed of a tandem array of zinc fingers, and PRDM9-dependent trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4. PRDM9 is a member of the PRDM family of transcription regulators, but unlike other family members, it contains a Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-related domain that is predicted to be a potential protein interaction domain...
May 19, 2017: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514186/apc-c-cdc20-mediates-deprotection-of-centromeric-cohesin-at-meiosis-ii-in-yeast
#19
Katarzyna Jonak, Ievgeniia Zagoriy, Tugce Oz, Peter Graf, Julie Rojas, Valentina Mengoli, Wolfgang Zachariae
Cells undergoing meiosis produce haploid gametes through one round of DNA replication followed by 2 rounds of chromosome segregation. This requires that cohesin complexes, which establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase, are removed in a stepwise manner. At meiosis I, the separase protease triggers the segregation of homologous chromosomes by cleaving cohesin's Rec8 subunit on chromosome arms. Cohesin persists at centromeres because the PP2A phosphatase, recruited by the shugoshin protein, dephosphorylates Rec8 and thereby protects it from cleavage...
June 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510588/evolutionary-restoration-of-fertility-in-an-interspecies-hybrid-yeast-by-whole-genome-duplication-after-a-failed-mating-type-switch
#20
Raúl A Ortiz-Merino, Nurzhan Kuanyshev, Stephanie Braun-Galleani, Kevin P Byrne, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi, Kenneth H Wolfe
Many interspecies hybrids have been discovered in yeasts, but most of these hybrids are asexual and can replicate only mitotically. Whole-genome duplication has been proposed as a mechanism by which interspecies hybrids can regain fertility, restoring their ability to perform meiosis and sporulate. Here, we show that this process occurred naturally during the evolution of Zygosaccharomyces parabailii, an interspecies hybrid that was formed by mating between 2 parents that differed by 7% in genome sequence and by many interchromosomal rearrangements...
May 2017: PLoS Biology
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