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Yeast meiosis

Scott M Paulissen, Linda S Huang
During times of nutritional stress, Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes gametogenesis, known as sporulation. Diploid yeast cells that are starved for nitrogen and carbon will initiate the sporulation process. The process of sporulation includes meiosis followed by spore formation, where the haploid nuclei are packaged into environmentally resistant spores. We have developed methods for the efficient sporulation of budding yeast in 96 multiwell plates, to increase the throughput of screening yeast cells for sporulation phenotypes...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nicole A Najor, Layne Weatherford, George S Brush
In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, unnatural stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 during meiosis can trigger extra rounds of DNA replication. When programmed DNA double-strand breaks are generated but not repaired due to absence of DMC1, a pathway involving the checkpoint gene RAD17 prevents this DNA rereplication. Further genetic analysis has now revealed that prevention of DNA rereplication also requires MEC1, which encodes a protein kinase that serves as a central checkpoint regulator in several pathways including the meiotic recombination checkpoint response...
September 27, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Kritika Hanamshet, Olga M Mazina, Alexander V Mazin
Homologous recombination (HR) plays an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. It is responsible for repair of the most harmful DNA lesions, DNA double-strand breaks and inter-strand DNA cross-links. HR function is also essential for proper segregation of homologous chromosomes in meiosis, maintenance of telomeres, and resolving stalled replication forks. Defects in HR often lead to genetic diseases and cancer. Rad52 is one of the key HR proteins, which is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans...
2016: Genes
Kazuki Imada, Taro Nakamura
During fission yeast sporulation, a membrane compartment called the forespore membrane (FSM) is newly formed on the spindle pole body (SPB). The FSM expands by membrane vesicle fusion, encapsulates the daughter nucleus resulting from meiosis, and eventually matures into the plasma membrane of the spore. Although many of the genes involved in FSM formation have been identified, its molecular mechanism is not fully understood. Here, a genetic screen for sporulation-deficient mutations identified Ypt3, a Rab family small GTPase known to function in the exocytic pathway...
September 14, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Bart P S Nieuwenhuis, Timothy Y James
Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with a huge variation in reproductive strategy. While almost all species can reproduce sexually, many reproduce asexually most of the time. When sexual reproduction does occur, large variation exists in the amount of in- and out-breeding. While budding yeast is expected to outcross only once every 10 000 generations, other fungi are obligate outcrossers with well-mixed panmictic populations. In this review, we give an overview of the costs and benefits of sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi, and the mechanisms that evolved in fungi to reduce the costs of either mode...
October 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Xin-Jie Zhuang, Wen-Hao Tang, Xue Feng, Chang-Yu Liu, Jin-Liang Zhu, Jie Yan, De-Feng Liu, Ping Liu, Jie Qiao
ABSTARCT Formation of the XY body is believed to prevent recombination between X and Y chromosomes during meiosis. We recently demonstrated that SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (Slx2) could be involved in synaptonemal complex formation as well as XY body maintenance during meiosis. In order to further investigate the role and composition of XY body protein complexes in meiotic processes and spermatogenesis, a yeast 2-hybrid screening was performed, and the tripartite motif protein 27(Trim27) was found to interact with Slx2 and co-localized in the XY body...
October 2016: Cell Cycle
Kazuhiro Katsumata, Ami Hirayasu, Junpei Miyoshi, Eriko Nishi, Kento Ichikawa, Kazuki Tateho, Airi Wakuda, Hirotada Matsuhara, Ayumu Yamamoto
During meiotic prophase, telomeres cluster, forming the bouquet chromosome arrangement, and facilitate homologous chromosome pairing. In fission yeast, bouquet formation requires switching of telomere and centromere positions. Centromeres are located at the spindle pole body (SPB) during mitotic interphase, and upon entering meiosis, telomeres cluster at the SPB, followed by centromere detachment from the SPB. Telomere clustering depends on the formation of the microtubule-organizing center at telomeres by the linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton complex (LINC), while centromere detachment depends on disassembly of kinetochores, which induces meiotic centromere formation...
September 2016: PLoS Genetics
Jianhui Ji, Ding Tang, Yi Shen, Zhihui Xue, Hongjun Wang, Wenqing Shi, Chao Zhang, Guijie Du, Yafei Li, Zhukuan Cheng
The human mitotic arrest-deficient 2 (Mad2) binding protein p31(comet) participates in the spindle checkpoint and coordinates cell cycle events in mitosis although its function in meiosis remains unknown in all organisms. Here, we reveal P31(comet) as a synaptonemal complex (SC) protein in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In p31(comet), homologous pairing and synapsis are eliminated, leading to the homologous nondisjunction and complete sterility. The failure in loading of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) in p31(comet), together with the suppressed chromosome fragmentation in rice completion of meiotic recombination 1 (com1) p31(comet) and radiation sensitive 51c (rad51c) p31(comet) double mutants, indicates that P31(comet) plays an essential role in double-strand break (DSB) formation...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marc-André Lachance
The purpose of this review is to introduce Metschnikowia to the yeast researcher community and to convince readers that the genus is a worthwhile object of study in developmental biology, genetics, ecology and biotechnology. Metschnikowia sits at the foundation of modern immunology, having been instrumental in the discovery of animal phagocytosis. Some 81 species form a monophyletic group within the Metschnikowiaceae, which also include the smaller genus Clavispora and a few clades of Candida species. The family stands out by the habit of forming, by meiosis, only two ascospores, which in Metschnikowia are needle shaped...
September 7, 2016: Yeast
Ravinder Kumar, Sanjeeva Srivastava
Most of the microbial cells on earth under natural conditions exist in a dormant condition, commonly known as quiescent state. Quiescent cells exhibit low rates of transcription and translation suggesting that cellular abundance of proteins may be similar in quiescent cells. Therefore, this study aim to compare the proteome of budding yeast cells from two quiescent states viz. stationary phase/G0 and tetrads. Using iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation) based quantitative proteomics we identified 289 proteins, among which around 40 proteins exhibited ±1...
2016: Scientific Reports
Tracy L Callender, Raphaelle Laureau, Lihong Wan, Xiangyu Chen, Rima Sandhu, Saif Laljee, Sai Zhou, Ray T Suhandynata, Evelyn Prugar, William A Gaines, YoungHo Kwon, G Valentin Börner, Alain Nicolas, Aaron M Neiman, Nancy M Hollingsworth
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006226.].
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
Walter W Steiner, Chelsea L Recor, Bethany M Zakrzewski
The M26 hotspot of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is one of the best-characterized eukaryotic hotspots of recombination. The hotspot requires a seven bp sequence, ATGACGT, that serves as a binding site for the Atf1-Pcr1 transcription factor, which is also required for activity. The M26 hotspot is active in meiosis but not mitosis and is active in some but not all chromosomal contexts and not on a plasmid. A longer palindromic version of M26, ATGACGTCAT, shows significantly greater activity than the seven bp sequence...
November 15, 2016: Gene
Qing Hu, Ding Tang, Hongjun Wang, Yi Shen, Xiaojun Chen, Jianhui Ji, Guijie Du, Yafei Li, Zhukuan Cheng
During meiosis, programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs) are generated to initiate homologous recombination, which is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation. In yeast, Radiation sensitive1 (RAD1) acts together with Radiation sensitive9 (RAD9) and Hydroxyurea sensitive1 (HUS1) to facilitate meiotic recombination via cell-cycle checkpoint control. However, little is known about the meiotic functions of these proteins in higher eukaryotes. Here, we characterized a RAD1 homolog in rice (Oryza sativa) and obtained evidence that O...
October 2016: Plant Physiology
Qiaozhen Ye, Sarah N Ur, Tiffany Y Su, Kevin D Corbett
In budding yeast, the monopolin complex mediates sister kinetochore cross-linking and co-orientation in meiosis I. The CK1δ kinase Hrr25 is critical for sister kinetochore co-orientation, but its roles are not well understood. Here, we present the structures of Hrr25 and its complex with the monopolin subunit Mam1. Hrr25 possesses a "central domain" that packs tightly against the kinase C-lobe, adjacent to the binding site for Mam1. Together, the Hrr25 central domain and Mam1 form a novel, contiguous embellishment to the Hrr25 kinase domain that affects Hrr25 conformational dynamics and enzyme kinetics...
October 4, 2016: EMBO Journal
Tracy L Callender, Raphaelle Laureau, Lihong Wan, Xiangyu Chen, Rima Sandhu, Saif Laljee, Sai Zhou, Ray T Suhandynata, Evelyn Prugar, William A Gaines, YoungHo Kwon, G Valentin Börner, Alain Nicolas, Aaron M Neiman, Nancy M Hollingsworth
During meiosis, programmed double strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired preferentially between homologs to generate crossovers that promote proper chromosome segregation at Meiosis I. In many organisms, there are two strand exchange proteins, Rad51 and the meiosis-specific Dmc1, required for interhomolog (IH) bias. This bias requires the presence, but not the strand exchange activity of Rad51, while Dmc1 is responsible for the bulk of meiotic recombination. How these activities are regulated is less well established...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
Hiroki Okada, Aaron M Neiman, Yoshikazu Ohya
During the budding yeast life cycle, a starved diploid cell undergoes meiosis followed by production of four haploid spores, each surrounded by a spore wall. The wall allows the spores to survive in harsh environments until conditions improve. Spores are also more resistant than vegetative cells to treatments such as ether vapor, glucanases, heat shock, high salt concentrations, and exposure to high or low pH, but the relevance of these treatments to natural environmental stresses remains unclear. This protocol describes a method for assaying the yeast spore wall under natural environmental conditions by quantifying the survival of yeast spores that have passed through the digestive system of a yeast predator, the fruit fly...
2016: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Genevieve M Gould, Joseph M Paggi, Yuchun Guo, David V Phizicky, Boris Zinshteyn, Eric T Wang, Wendy V Gilbert, David K Gifford, Christopher B Burge
Spliced messages constitute one-fourth of expressed mRNAs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and most mRNAs in metazoans. Splicing requires 5' splice site (5'SS), branch point (BP), and 3' splice site (3'SS) elements, but the role of the BP in splicing control is poorly understood because BP identification remains difficult. We developed a high-throughput method, Branch-seq, to map BPs and 5'SSs of isolated RNA lariats. Applied to S. cerevisiae, Branch-seq detected 76% of expressed, annotated BPs and identified a comparable number of novel BPs...
October 2016: RNA
Ariane Brault, Charalampos Rallis, Vincent Normant, Jean-Michel Garant, Jürg Bähler, Simon Labbé
Meiosis is essential for sexually reproducing organisms, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe In meiosis, chromosomes replicate once in a diploid precursor cell (zygote), and then segregate twice to generate four haploid meiotic products, named spores in yeast. In S. pombe, Php4 is responsible for the transcriptional repression capability of the heteromeric CCAAT-binding factor to negatively regulate genes encoding iron-using proteins under low-iron conditions. Here, we show that the CCAAT-regulatory subunit Php4 is required for normal progression of meiosis under iron-limiting conditions...
October 13, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Gary W Kerr, Jin Huei Wong, Prakash Arumugam
PP2A(Cdc55) is a highly conserved serine-threonine protein phosphatase that is involved in diverse cellular processes. In budding yeast, meiotic cells lacking PP2A(Cdc55) activity undergo a premature exit from meiosis I which results in a failure to form bipolar spindles and divide nuclei. This defect is largely due to its role in negatively regulating the Cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release (FEAR) pathway. PP2A(Cdc55) prevents nucleolar release of the Cdk (Cyclin-dependent kinase)-antagonising phosphatase Cdc14 by counteracting phosphorylation of the nucleolar protein Net1 by Cdk...
2016: Scientific Reports
Guan-Xiong Yan, Jing Zhang, Anura Shodhan, Miao Tian, Wei Miao
Meiosis is an important process in sexual reproduction. Meiosis initiation has been found to be highly diverse among species. In yeast, it has been established that cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and cyclins are essential components in the meiosis initiation pathway. In this study, we identified 4 Cdks in the model ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, and we found one of them, Cdk3, which is specifically expressed during early conjugation, to be essential for meiosis initiation. Cdk3 deletion led to arrest at the pair formation stage of conjugation...
September 16, 2016: Cell Cycle
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