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Yeast meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237818/mps1-promotes-chromosome-meiotic-chromosome-bi-orientation-through-dam1
#1
Régis E Meyer, Jamin Brown, Lindsay Beck, Dean S Dawson
In budding yeast meiosis, homologous chromosomes become linked by chiasmata and then move back and forth on the spindle until they are bi-oriented - with the kinetochores of the partners attached to microtubules from opposite spindle poles. Certain mutations in the conserved kinase, Mps1, result in catastrophic meiotic segregation errors but mild mitotic defects. We tested whether Dam1, a known substrate of Mps1 was necessary for its critical meiotic role. We found that kinetochore-microtubule attachments are established even when Dam1 is not phosphorylated by Mps1, but that Mps1 phosphorylation of Dam1 sustains those connections...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196561/hierarchical-regulation-of-centromeric-cohesion-protection-by-meikin-and-shugoshin-during-meiosis-i
#2
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
The kinetochore is the key apparatus regulating chromosome segregation. Particularly in meiosis, unlike in mitosis, sister kinetochores are captured by microtubules emanating from the same spindle pole (mono-orientation), and sister chromatid cohesion mediated by cohesin is protected at centromeres in the following anaphase. Shugoshin, which localizes to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage...
December 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191370/linc-complexes-and-nuclear-positioning
#3
REVIEW
Yin Loon Lee, Brian Burke
One of the characteristics of eukaryotic cells is their structural plasticity associated with the ability to carry out a broad range of complex functions, both autonomously and as components of tissues and organs. Major cellular rearrangements can be observed in various systems from meiosis in fission yeast, through dermal differentiation in nematodes, to muscle and neuronal development in vertebrates. Each of these processes involves oftentimes dramatic relocation of the nucleus within the cell. During the last decade it has become apparent that the nuclear periphery represents a nexus of cytoskeletal interactions that are involved not only in nuclear movement but also in the distribution and dissemination of mechanical forces throughout the cell...
November 27, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158400/drosophila-protein-phosphatases-2a-b-wdb-and-wrd-regulate-meiotic-centromere-localization-and-function-of-the-mei-s332-shugoshin
#4
Belinda S Pinto, Terry L Orr-Weaver
Proper segregation of chromosomes in meiosis is essential to prevent miscarriages and birth defects. This requires that sister chromatids maintain cohesion at the centromere as cohesion is released on the chromatid arms when the homologs segregate at anaphase I. The Shugoshin proteins preserve centromere cohesion by protecting the cohesin complex from cleavage, and this has been shown in yeasts to be mediated by recruitment of the protein phosphatase 2A B' (PP2A B'). In metazoans, delineation of the role of PP2A B' in meiosis has been hindered by its myriad of other essential roles...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136644/developmentally-regulated-internal-transcription-initiation-during-meiosis-in-budding-yeast
#5
Sai Zhou, Rolf Sternglanz, Aaron M Neiman
Sporulation of budding yeast is a developmental process in which cells undergo meiosis to generate stress-resistant progeny. The dynamic nature of the budding yeast meiotic transcriptome has been well established by a number of genome-wide studies. Here we develop an analysis pipeline to systematically identify novel transcription start sites that reside internal to a gene. Application of this pipeline to data from a synchronized meiotic time course reveals over 40 genes that display specific internal initiations in mid-sporulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124795/proteomic-analysis-of-lysine-acetylation-provides-strong-evidence-for-acetylated-proteins-involved-in-plant-meiosis-and-tapetum-function
#6
Xiaojing Li, Juanying Ye, Hong Ma, Pingli Lu
Protein lysine acetylation (KAC) is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, playing important biological roles in many organisms. Although KAC was shown to affect reproductive development and meiosis in yeast and animals, similar studies are largely lacking in flowering plants, especially in a proteome-scale investigation for a certain reproductive stage. Here, we reported results from a proteomic investigation to detect KAC status of the developing rice anthers near the time of meiosis (RAM), providing strong biochemical evidence for roles of many KAC-affected proteins during rice anther development and meiosis...
November 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118343/exosc10-rrp6-is-post-translationally-regulated-in-male-germ-cells-and-controls-the-onset-of-spermatogenesis
#7
Soazik P Jamin, Fabrice G Petit, Christine Kervarrec, Fatima Smagulova, Doris Illner, Harry Scherthan, Michael Primig
EXOSC10 is a catalytic subunit of the exosome that processes biologically active transcripts, degrades aberrant mRNAs and targets certain long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The yeast orthologue Rrp6 is required for efficient growth and gametogenesis, and becomes unstable during meiosis. However, nothing is known about the localization, stability and function of EXOSC10 in the rodent male germline. We detect the protein in nucleoli and the cytoplasm of mitotic and meiotic germ cells, and find that it transiently associates with the XY body, a structure targeted by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118076/the-meiosis-specific-cdc20-family-member-ama1-promotes-binding-of-the-ssp2-activator-to-the-smk1-map-kinase
#8
Gregory Omerza, Chong Wai Tio, Timothy Philips, Aviva Diamond, Aaron M Neiman, Edward Winter
Smk1 is a meiosis-specific MAP kinase (MAPK) in budding yeast that is required for spore formation. It is localized to prospore membranes (PSMs), the structures that engulf haploid cells during meiosis II (MII). Similar to canonically activated MAPKs, Smk1 is controlled by phosphorylation of its activation-loop threonine (T) and tyrosine (Y). However, activation loop phosphorylation occurs via a non-canonical two-step mechanism in which 1- the cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase Cak1 phosphorylaytes T207 during MI and 2- Smk1 autophosphorylates Y209 as MII draws to a close...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114019/native-elongating-transcript-sequencing-reveals-global-anti-correlation-between-sense-and-antisense-nascent-transcription-in-fission-yeast
#9
Maxime Wery, Camille Gautier, Marc Descrimes, Mayuko Yoda, Hervé Vennin-Rendos, Valérie Migeot, Daniel Gautheret, Damien Hermand, Antonin Morillon
Antisense transcription can regulate sense gene expression. However, previous annotations of antisense transcription units have been based on detection of mature antisense long non-coding (aslnc)RNAs by RNA-Seq and/or micro-arrays, only giving a partial view of the antisense transcription landscape and incomplete molecular bases for antisense-mediated regulation. Here, we used Native Elongating Transcript sequencing to map genome-wide nascent antisense transcription in fission yeast. Strikingly, antisense transcription was detected for most protein-coding genes, correlating with low sense transcription, especially when overlapping the mRNA start site...
November 7, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079616/can-interspecies-hybrid-zygosaccharomyces-rouxii-produce-allohaploid-gamete
#10
Jun Watanabe, Kenji Uehara, Yuichiro Tsukioka
In soy sauce manufacturing, Candida versatilis plays a role in the production of volatile flavor compounds, such as volatile phenols, but limited accessible information on its genome has prevented further investigation regarding aroma production and breeding. Although the draft genome sequence data of two strains of C. versatilis have recently been reported, these strains are not similar to each other. Here, we reassess the draft genome sequence data for strain t-1, which was originally reported to be C. versatilis, and conclude that strain t-1 is most probably not C...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071446/sequence-requirement-of-the-ade6-4095-meiotic-recombination-hotspot-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#11
Steven J Foulis, Kyle R Fowler, Walter W Steiner
Homologous recombination occurs at a greatly elevated frequency in meiosis compared to mitosis and is initiated by programmed double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). DSBs do not occur at uniform frequency throughout the genome in most organisms, but occur preferentially at a limited number of sites referred to as hotspots. The location of hotspots have been determined at nucleotide-level resolution in both the budding and fission yeasts, and while several patterns have emerged regarding preferred locations for DSB hotspots, it remains unclear why particular sites experience DSBs at much higher frequency than other sites with seemingly similar properties...
October 25, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066473/repression-of-middle-sporulation-genes-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-the-sum1-rfm1-hst1-complex-is-maintained-by-set1-and-h3k4-methylation
#12
Deepika Jaiswal, Meagan Jezek, Jeremiah Quijote, Joanna Lum, Grace Choi, Rushmie Kulkarni, DoHwan Park, Erin M Green
The conserved yeast histone methyltransferase Set1 targets H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) for mono-, di- and tri-methylation and is linked to active transcription due to the euchromatic distribution of these methyl marks and the recruitment of Set1 during transcription. However, loss of Set1 results in increased expression of multiple classes of genes, including genes adjacent to telomeres and middle sporulation genes, which are repressed under normal growth conditions because they function in meiotic progression and spore formation...
November 4, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061122/metabolic-differentiation-of-surface-and-invasive-cells-of-yeast-colony-biofilms-revealed-by-gene-expression-profiling
#13
Jana Maršíková, Derek Wilkinson, Otakar Hlaváček, Gregor D Gilfillan, Alexandru Mizeranschi, Timothy Hughes, Markéta Begany, Stanislava Rešetárová, Libuše Váchová, Zdena Palková
BACKGROUND: Yeast infections are often connected with formation of biofilms that are extremely difficult to eradicate. An excellent model system for deciphering multifactorial determinants of yeast biofilm development is the colony biofilm, composed of surface ("aerial") and invasive ("root") cells. While surface cells have been partially analyzed before, we know little about invasive root cells. In particular, information on the metabolic, chemical and morphogenetic properties of invasive versus surface cells is lacking...
October 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043484/the-role-of-yeast-m-6-a-methyltransferase-in-peroxisomal-fatty-acid-oxidation
#14
REVIEW
Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Praveen Kumar Rajvanshi, Ram Rajasekharan
The precise and controlled regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels is crucial for the eukaryotic cell survival and functions. In eukaryotes, more than 100 types of post-transcriptional RNA modifications have been identified. The N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modification in mRNA is among the most common post-transcriptional RNA modifications known in eukaryotic organisms, and the m(6)A RNA modification can regulate gene expression. The role of yeast m(6)A methyltransferase (Ime4) in meiosis, sporulation, triacylglycerol metabolism, vacuolar morphology, and mitochondrial functions has been reported...
October 17, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021797/the-rice-aaa-atpase-osfignl1-is-essential-for-male-meiosis
#15
Peipei Zhang, Yingxin Zhang, Lianping Sun, Sittipun Sinumporn, Zhengfu Yang, Bin Sun, Dandan Xuan, Zihe Li, Ping Yu, Weixun Wu, Kejian Wang, Liyong Cao, Shihua Cheng
Meiosis is crucial in reproduction of plants and ensuring genetic diversity. Although several genes involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair have been reported, their functions in rice (Oryza sativa) male meiosis remain poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized the rice OsFIGNL1 (OsFidgetin-like 1) gene, encoding a conserved AAA-ATPase, and explored its function and importance in male meiosis and pollen formation. The rice Osfignl1 mutant exhibited normal vegetative growth, but failed to produce seeds and displayed pollen abortion phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021238/asy2-mer2-an-evolutionarily-conserved-mediator-of-meiotic-recombination-pairing-and-global-chromosome-compaction
#16
Sophie Tessé, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Robert Debuchy, Karine Budin, Emeline Dubois, Zhang Liangran, Romain Antoine, Tristan Piolot, Nancy Kleckner, Denise Zickler, Eric Espagne
Meiosis is the cellular program by which a diploid cell gives rise to haploid gametes for sexual reproduction. Meiotic progression depends on tight physical and functional coupling of recombination steps at the DNA level with specific organizational features of meiotic-prophase chromosomes. The present study reveals that every step of this coupling is mediated by a single molecule: Asy2/Mer2. We show that Mer2, identified so far only in budding and fission yeasts, is in fact evolutionarily conserved from fungi (Mer2/Rec15/Asy2/Bad42) to plants (PRD3/PAIR1) and mammals (IHO1)...
September 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981863/subtelomeres-constitute-a-safeguard-for-gene-expression-and-chromosome-homeostasis
#17
Sanki Tashiro, Yuki Nishihara, Kazuto Kugou, Kunihiro Ohta, Junko Kanoh
The subtelomere, a telomere-adjacent chromosomal domain, contains species-specific homologous DNA sequences, in addition to various genes. However, the functions of subtelomeres, particularly subtelomeric homologous (SH) sequences, remain elusive. Here, we report the first comprehensive analyses of the cellular functions of SH sequences in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Complete removal of SH sequences from the genome revealed that they are dispensable for mitosis, meiosis and telomere length control...
October 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977643/regulation-of-mitotic-recombination-between-dna-repeats-in-centromeres
#18
Faria Zafar, Akiko K Okita, Atsushi T Onaka, Jie Su, Yasuhiro Katahira, Jun-Ichi Nakayama, Tatsuro S Takahashi, Hisao Masukata, Takuro Nakagawa
Centromeres that are essential for faithful segregation of chromosomes consist of unique DNA repeats in many eukaryotes. Although recombination is under-represented around centromeres during meiosis, little is known about recombination between centromere repeats in mitotic cells. Here, we compared spontaneous recombination that occurs between ade6B/ade6X inverted repeats integrated at centromere 1 (cen1) or at a non-centromeric ura4 locus in fission yeast. Remarkably, distinct mechanisms of homologous recombination (HR) were observed in centromere and non-centromere regions...
August 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975387/the-m-6-a-methyltransferase-ime4-and-mitochondrial-functions-in-yeast
#19
REVIEW
Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ram Rajasekharan
In eukaryotes, the precise transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations of gene expression are crucial for the developmental processes. More than 100 types of post-transcriptional RNA modifications have been identified in eukaryotes. The deposition of N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) into mRNA is among the most common post-transcriptional RNA modifications known in eukaryotes. It has been reported that m(6)A RNA modification can regulate gene expression. The role of yeast m(6)A methyltransferase (Ime4) in meiosis and sporulation in diploid cells is very well proven, but its physiological role in haploid cells has remained unknown until recently...
October 3, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967670/modeling-the-contributions-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-and-aneuploidy-to-saccharomyces-hybrid-sterility
#20
Primrose J Boynton, Thijs Janzen, Duncan Greig
Errors in meiosis can be important postzygotic barriers between different species. In Saccharomyces hybrids, chromosomal missegregation during meiosis I produces gametes with missing or extra chromosomes. Gametes with missing chromosomes are inviable, but we do not understand how extra chromosomes (disomies) influence hybrid gamete inviability. We designed a model predicting rates of missegregation in interspecific hybrid meioses assuming several different mechanisms of disomy tolerance, and compared predictions from the model to observations of sterility in hybrids between Saccharomyces yeast species...
October 2, 2017: Yeast
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