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Yeast meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335590/roles-of-budding-yeast-hrr25-in-recombination-and-sporulation
#1
Min-Su Lee, Jeong Hwan Joo, Keunpil Kim
Hrr25, a casein kinase 1 δ/ε homolog in budding yeast, is essential to set up mono-orientation of sister kinetochores during meiosis. Hrr25 kinase activity coordinates sister chromatid cohesion via cohesin phosphorylation. Here, we investigated the prophase roles of Hrr25 using the auxin-inducible degron system and by ectopic expression of Hrr25 during yeast meiosis. Hrr25 mediates nuclear division in meiosis I but does not affect DNA replication. We also found that initiation of meiotic double-strand breaks as well as joint molecule formation were normal in HRR25-deficient cells...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330257/generation-of-an-inducible-system-to-express-polo-like-kinase-cdc5-as-tap-fusion-protein-during-meiosis-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#2
Rajni Vaid, Kamal Dev, Michael Lichten, Anuradha Sourirajan
Tandem affinity purification (TAP) is a highly efficient method for isolation of protein complexes from endogenous biological macromolecules. TAP system consists of dual affinity tags that facilitates the sequential purification of the desired proteins expressed at their low levels in vivo. Polo-like kinases (PLK) are serine/threonine protein kinases that are the crucial regulators of cell cycle. Cdc5, the solitary PLK in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has diverse array of targets in cell cycle. The present study was undertaken to construct an estrogen-inducible system for expression of Cdc5-TAP to isolate the substrates of Cdc5 during meiosis, particularly, pachytene stage of meiosis I...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249986/coordination-of-double-strand-break-repair-and-meiotic-progression-in-yeast-by-a-mek1-ndt80-negative-feedback-loop
#3
Evelyn Prugar, Cameron Burnett, Xiangyu Chen, Nancy M Hollingsworth
During meiosis, homologous chromosomes are physically connected by crossovers and sister chromatid cohesion. Interhomolog crossovers are generated by the highly regulated repair of programmed double strand breaks (DSBs). The meiosis-specific kinase, Mek1, is critical for this regulation. Mek1 down-regulates the mitotic recombinase Rad51, indirectly promoting interhomolog strand invasion by the meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1. Mek1 also promotes the formation of crossovers that are distributed throughout the genome by interference and is the effector kinase for a meiosis-specific checkpoint that delays entry into Meiosis I until DSBs have been repaired...
March 1, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193845/the-predicted-rna-binding-proteins-pes4-and-mip6-regulate-mrna-levels-translation-and-localization-during-sporulation-in-budding-yeast
#4
Liang Jin, Kai Zhang, Rolf Sternglanz, Aaron M Neiman
In response to starvation, diploid cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo meiosis and form haploid spores, a process collectively referred to as sporulation. The differentiation into spores requires extensive changes in gene expression. The transcriptional activator Ndt80 is a central regulator of this process, which controls many genes essential for sporulation. Ndt80 induces ∼300 genes coordinately during meiotic prophase, but different mRNAs within the NDT80-regulon are translated at different times during sporulation...
February 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133632/cdc14-phosphatase-directs-centrosome-re-duplication-at-the-meiosis-i-to-meiosis-ii-transition-in-budding-yeast
#5
Colette Fox, Juan Zou, Juri Rappsilber, Adele L Marston
Background Gametes are generated through a specialized cell division called meiosis, in which ploidy is reduced by half because two consecutive rounds of chromosome segregation, meiosis I and meiosis II, occur without intervening DNA replication. This contrasts with the mitotic cell cycle where DNA replication and chromosome segregation alternate to maintain the same ploidy. At the end of mitosis, CDKs are inactivated. This low CDK state in late mitosis/G1 allows for critical preparatory events for DNA replication and centrosome/spindle pole body (SPB) duplication...
January 5, 2017: Wellcome Open Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079247/dynamic-location-changes-of-bub1-phosphorylated-h2athr133-with-cenh3-nucleosome-in-maize-centromeric-regions
#6
Handong Su, Yalin Liu, Qianhua Dong, Chao Feng, Jing Zhang, Yang Liu, James A Birchler, Fangpu Han
The genomic stability of all organisms requires precise cell division with proper chromosome orientation. The Bub1-H2Aph-Sgo1 pathway and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) components have been identified in yeast and mammals that are important for sister centromere orientation and chromosome segregation. However, their roles in plants are not clear. Maize meiotic mutants and minichromosomes were used to study the role of H2AThr133 phosphorylation and SAC components in sister centromere orientation and chromosome segregation...
January 12, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057603/the-protein-expression-landscape-of-mitosis-and-meiosis-in-diploid-budding-yeast
#7
Emmanuelle Becker, Emmanuelle Com, Régis Lavigne, Marie-Hélène Guilleux, Bertrand Evrard, Charles Pineau, Michael Primig
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an established model organism for the molecular analysis of fundamental biological processes. The genomes of numerous strains have been sequenced, and the transcriptome and proteome ofmajor phases during the haploid and diploid yeast life cycle have been determined. However, much less is known about dynamic changes of the proteome when cells switch from mitotic growth to meiotic development. We report a quantitative protein profiling analysis of yeast cell division and differentiation based on mass spectrometry...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049740/resolvase-osgen1-mediates-dna-repair-by-homologous-recombination
#8
Chong Wang, James D Higgins, Yi He, Pingli Lu, Dabing Zhang, Wanqi Liang
Yen1/GEN1 are canonical Holliday junction resolvases that belong to the RAD2/XPG family. In eukaryotes, such as budding yeast, mice, worms, and humans, Yen1/GEN1 work together with Mus81-Mms4/MUS81-EME1 and Slx1-Slx4/SLX1-SLX4 in DNA repair by homologous recombination to maintain genome stability. In plants, the biological function of Yen1/GEN1 remains largely unclear. In this study, we characterized the loss of function mutants of OsGEN1 and OsSEND1, a pair of paralogs of Yen1/GEN1 in rice (Oryza sativa). We first investigated the role of OsGEN1 during meiosis and found a reduction in chiasma frequency by ∼6% in osgen1 mutants, compared to the wild type, suggesting a possible involvement of OsGEN1 in the formation of crossovers...
February 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039134/a-family-of-secretory-proteins-is-associated-with-different-morphotypes-in-cryptococcus-neoformans
#9
Rachana Gyawali, Srijana Upadhyay, Joshua Way, Xiaorong Lin
Cryptococcus neoformans, an opportunistic human fungal pathogen, can undergo a yeast-to-hypha transition in response to environmental cues. This morphological transition is associated with changes in the expression of cell surface proteins. The Cryptococcus cell surface and secreted protein Cfl1 was the first identified adhesin in the Basidiomycota. Cfl1 has been shown to regulate morphology, biofilm formation, and intercellular communication. Four additional homologs of CFL1 are harbored by the Cryptococcus genome: DHA1, DHA2, CPL1, and CFL105 The common features of this gene family are the conserved C-terminal SIGC domain and the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide...
March 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027291/interaction-of-prions-causes-heritable-traits-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#10
Anton A Nizhnikov, Tatyana A Ryzhova, Kirill V Volkov, Sergey P Zadorsky, Julia V Sopova, Sergey G Inge-Vechtomov, Alexey P Galkin
The concept of "protein-based inheritance" defines prions as epigenetic determinants that cause several heritable traits in eukaryotic microorganisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Podospora anserina. Previously, we discovered a non-chromosomal factor, [NSI+], which possesses the main features of yeast prions, including cytoplasmic infectivity, reversible curability, dominance, and non-Mendelian inheritance in meiosis. This factor causes omnipotent suppression of nonsense mutations in strains of S. cerevisiae bearing a deleted or modified Sup35 N-terminal domain...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017619/casein-kinase-1-coordinates-cohesin-cleavage-gametogenesis-and-exit-from-m-phase-in-meiosis-ii
#11
Orlando Argüello-Miranda, Ievgeniia Zagoriy, Valentina Mengoli, Julie Rojas, Katarzyna Jonak, Tugce Oz, Peter Graf, Wolfgang Zachariae
Meiosis consists of DNA replication followed by two consecutive nuclear divisions and gametogenesis or spore formation. While meiosis I has been studied extensively, less is known about the regulation of meiosis II. Here we show that Hrr25, the conserved casein kinase 1δ of budding yeast, links three mutually independent key processes of meiosis II. First, Hrr25 induces nuclear division by priming centromeric cohesin for cleavage by separase. Hrr25 simultaneously phosphorylates Rec8, the cleavable subunit of cohesin, and removes from centromeres the cohesin protector composed of shugoshin and the phosphatase PP2A...
January 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974736/hed1-promotes-meiotic-crossover-formation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Yoon-Ju Kong, Jeong-Hwan Joo, Keun Pil Kim, Soogil Hong
Homologous recombination (HR) occurs between homologous chromosomes and is significantly involved in programmed double-strand breaks (DSB) repair. Activation of two recombinases, Rad51 and Dmc1, is essential for an inter-homolog bias during meiosis. Rad51 participates in both mitotic and meiotic recombination, and its strand exchange activity is regulated by an inhibitory factor during meiosis. Thus, activities of Rad51 and Dmc1 are coordinated to promote homolog bias. It has been reported that Hed1, a meiosis-specific protein in budding yeast, regulates Rad51-dependent recombination activity...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932493/prdm9-interactions-with-other-proteins-provide-a-link-between-recombination-hotspots-and-the-chromosomal-axis-in-meiosis
#13
Emil D Parvanov, Hui Tian, Timothy Billings, Ruth L Saxl, Catrina Spruce, Rakesh Aithal, Lumir Krejci, Kenneth Paigen, Petko M Petkov
In mammals, meiotic recombination occurs at 1-2 kb genomic regions termed hotspots, whose positions and activities are determined by PRDM9, a DNA-binding histone methyltransferase. We now show that the KRAB domain of PRDM9 forms complexes with additional proteins to allow hotspots to proceed into the next phase of recombination. By a combination of yeast-two hybrid assay, in vitro binding, and co-immunoprecipitation from mouse spermatocytes, we identified four proteins that directly interact with PRDM9's KRAB domain, namely CXXC1, EWSR1, EHMT2, and CDYL...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932491/lipid-droplets-are-central-organelles-for-meiosis-ii-progression-during-yeast-sporulation
#14
Tzu-Han Hsu, Rey-Huei Chen, Yun-Hsin Cheng, Chao-Wen Wang
Neutral lipids, predominantly triacylglycerol (TAG) and sterol ester (SE), are stored within the cellular organelle termed lipid droplets (LDs). Although it is believed that the major function of LDs is to supply the cell with energy and membranes, little is known about the cellular events directly involving LDs and their contents. In this study, we provide cytological evidence to reveal that LDs formed direct contacts with the prospore membrane (PSM) that is synthesized de novo during meiosis II to sequester the dividing nuclei in sporulating yeast...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930825/modulation-of-meiotic-homologous-recombination-by-dna-helicases
#15
Alexander Lorenz
DNA helicases are ATP-driven motor proteins which translocate along DNA capable of dismantling DNA-DNA interactions and/or removing proteins bound to DNA. These biochemical capabilities make DNA helicases main regulators of crucial DNA metabolic processes, including DNA replication, DNA repair, and genetic recombination. This budding topic will focus on reviewing the function of DNA helicases important for homologous recombination during meiosis, and discuss recent advances in how these modulators of meiotic recombination are themselves regulated...
December 8, 2016: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923845/numerical-and-spatial-patterning-of-yeast-meiotic-dna-breaks-by-tel1
#16
Neeman Mohibullah, Scott Keeney
The Spo11-generated double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination are dangerous lesions that can disrupt genome integrity, so meiotic cells regulate their number, timing, and distribution. Mechanisms of this regulation remain poorly understood. Here, we use Spo11-oligonucleotide complexes, a byproduct of DSB formation, to reveal aspects of the contribution of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA damage-responsive kinase Tel1 (ortholog of mammalian ATM). A tel1Δ mutant has globally increased amounts of Spo11-oligonucleotide complexes and altered Spo11-oligonucleotide lengths, consistent with conserved roles for Tel1 in control of DSB number and processing...
February 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913618/meiotic-centromere-coupling-and-pairing-function-by-two-separate-mechanisms-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#17
Emily L Kurdzo, David Obeso, Hoa Chuong, Dean S Dawson
In meiosis I, chromosomes become paired with their homologous partners and then are pulled toward opposite poles of the spindle. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in early meiotic prophase, centromeres are observed to associate in pairs in a homology-independent manner; a process called centromere coupling. Later, as homologous chromosomes align, their centromeres associate in a process called centromere pairing. The synaptonemal complex protein Zip1 is necessary for both types of centromere association...
February 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889481/mitotic-nuclear-envelope-breakdown-and-spindle-nucleation-are-controlled-by-interphase-contacts-between-centromeres-and-the-nuclear-envelope
#18
Alfonso Fernández-Álvarez, Cécile Bez, Eileen T O'Toole, Mary Morphew, Julia Promisel Cooper
Faithful genome propagation requires coordination between nuclear envelope (NE) breakdown, spindle formation, and chromosomal events. The conserved linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex connects fission yeast centromeres and the centrosome, across the NE, during interphase. During meiosis, LINC connects the centrosome with telomeres rather than centromeres. We previously showed that loss of telomere-LINC contacts compromises meiotic spindle formation. Here, we define the precise events regulated by telomere-LINC contacts and address the analogous possibility that centromeres regulate mitotic spindle formation...
December 5, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881602/n-terminal-acetylation-promotes-synaptonemal-complex-assembly-in-c-elegans
#19
Jinmin Gao, Consuelo Barroso, Pan Zhang, Hyun-Min Kim, Shangtong Li, Leticia Labrador, James Lightfoot, Maxim V Gerashchenko, Vyacheslav M Labunskyy, Meng-Qiu Dong, Enrique Martinez-Perez, Monica P Colaiácovo
N-terminal acetylation of the first two amino acids on proteins is a prevalent cotranslational modification. Despite its abundance, the biological processes associated with this modification are not well understood. Here, we mapped the pattern of protein N-terminal acetylation in Caenorhabditis elegans, uncovering a conserved set of rules for this protein modification and identifying substrates for the N-terminal acetyltransferase B (NatB) complex. We observed an enrichment for global protein N-terminal acetylation and also specifically for NatB substrates in the nucleus, supporting the importance of this modification for regulating biological functions within this cellular compartment...
November 1, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856494/the-dynamic-landscape-of-fission-yeast-meiosis-alternative-splice-isoforms
#20
Zheng Kuang, Jef D Boeke, Stefan Canzar
Alternative splicing increases the diversity of transcriptomes and proteomes in metazoans. The extent to which alternative splicing is active and functional in unicellular organisms is less understood. Here, we exploit a single-molecule long-read sequencing technique and develop an open-source software program called SpliceHunter to characterize the transcriptome in the meiosis of fission yeast. We reveal 14,353 alternative splicing events in 17,669 novel isoforms at different stages of meiosis, including antisense and read-through transcripts...
January 2017: Genome Research
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