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Yeast meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669220/sumoylation-regulates-germinal-vesicle-break-down-and-the-akt-pkb-pathway-during-mouse-oocyte-maturation
#1
Weber Beringui Feitosa, Patricia L Morris
SUMOylation, a process of posttranslational modification of proteins by the Small Ubiquitin related Modifier (SUMO) family of proteins, is known to be involved in yeast and mammalian somatic cell-cycle regulation. However, the identities of the SUMO-modified oocyte targets are largely unknown and the functional role(s) for SUMOylation during mammalian oocyte maturation remains unclear. Based upon studies in non-germline cells, protein kinase B/AKT is a potential SUMOylation target in the mouse oocyte, where it plays an essential role in cell-cycle resumption and progression during maturation...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550859/genetic-interactions-between-the-chromosome-axis-associated-protein-hop1-and-homologous-recombination-determinants-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#2
Simon David Brown, Olga Dorota Jarosinska, Alexander Lorenz
Hop1 is a component of the meiosis-specific chromosome axis and belongs to the evolutionarily conserved family of HORMA domain proteins. Hop1 and its orthologs in higher eukaryotes are a major factor in promoting double-strand DNA break formation and inter-homolog recombination. In budding yeast and mammals, they are also involved in a meiotic checkpoint kinase cascade monitoring the completion of double-strand DNA break repair. We used the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which lacks a canonical synaptonemal complex to test whether Hop1 has a role beyond supporting the generation of double-strand DNA breaks and facilitating inter-homolog recombination events...
March 17, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523238/methods-for-controlled-protein-depletion-to-study-protein-function-during-meiosis
#3
Hardeep Kaur, Jasvinder S Ahuja, Michael Lichten
Proteins with potential roles in meiotic recombination often have essential or important functions during the mitotic cell cycle. In addition, proteins may have different functions at different times during meiosis. In such cases, it can be challenging to precisely determine protein function during meiosis using null or hypomorphic mutants. One example is the Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1 helicase-decatenase complex, which is required for normal vegetative growth and genome stability. In such cases, conditional loss-of-function mutants can be useful...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523237/s1-seq-assay-for-mapping-processed-dna-ends
#4
Eleni P Mimitou, Scott Keeney
During meiosis, the specialized cell division giving rise to gametes, numerous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are introduced at multiple places throughout the genome by the topoisomerase-like protein Spo11. Homologous recombination, a highly conserved DSB repair pathway, is employed for their repair and ensures the formation of chiasmata and the proper segregation of homologous chromosomes. In the initial steps of recombination, end resection takes place, wherein Spo11 is endonucleolytically released and the 5'-terminal strands of each DSB are exonucleolytically processed, exposing the ssDNA necessary to identify a homologous repair template...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523236/monitoring-recombination-during-meiosis-in-budding-yeast
#5
Shannon Owens, Shangming Tang, Neil Hunter
Homologous recombination is fundamental to sexual reproduction, facilitating accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes at the first division of meiosis, and creating novel allele combinations that fuel evolution. Following initiation of meiotic recombination by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), homologous pairing and DNA strand exchange form joint molecule (JM) intermediates that are ultimately resolved into crossover and noncrossover repair products. Physical monitoring of the DNA steps of meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) cultures undergoing synchronous meiosis has provided seminal insights into the molecular basis of meiotic recombination and affords a powerful tool for dissecting the molecular roles of recombination factors...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474919/pervasive-coordinated-protein-level-changes-driven-by-transcript-isoform-switching-during-meiosis
#6
Ze Cheng, George Maxwell Otto, Emily Nicole Powers, Abdurrahman Keskin, Philipp Mertins, Steven Alfred Carr, Marko Jovanovic, Gloria Ann Brar
To better understand the gene regulatory mechanisms that program developmental processes, we carried out simultaneous genome-wide measurements of mRNA, translation, and protein through meiotic differentiation in budding yeast. Surprisingly, we observed that the levels of several hundred mRNAs are anti-correlated with their corresponding protein products. We show that rather than arising from canonical forms of gene regulatory control, the regulation of at least 380 such cases, or over 8% of all measured genes, involves temporally regulated switching between production of a canonical, translatable transcript and a 5' extended isoform that is not efficiently translated into protein...
February 22, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472539/a-regulatory-circuit-of-two-lncrnas-and-a-master-regulator-directs-cell-fate-in-yeast
#7
Fabien Moretto, N Ezgi Wood, Gavin Kelly, Andreas Doncic, Folkert J van Werven
Transcription of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulates local gene expression in eukaryotes. Many examples of how a single lncRNA controls the expression of an adjacent or nearby protein-coding gene have been described. Here we examine the regulation of a locus consisting of two contiguous lncRNAs and the master regulator for entry into yeast meiosis, IME1. We find that the cluster of two lncRNAs together with several transcription factors form a regulatory circuit by which IME1 controls its own promoter and thereby promotes its own expression...
February 22, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458764/purification-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-homologous-recombination-proteins-dmc1-and-rdh54-tid1-and-a-fluorescent-d-loop-assay
#8
Yuen-Ling Chan, Douglas K Bishop
Budding yeast Dmc1 is a member of the RecA family of strand exchange proteins essential for homologous recombination (HR) during meiosis. Dmc1 mediates the steps of homology search and DNA strand exchange reactions that are central to HR. To achieve optimum activity, Dmc1 requires a number of accessory factors. Although methods for purification of Dmc1 and many of its associated factors have been described (Binz, Dickson, Haring, & Wold, 2006; Busygina et al., 2013; Chan, Brown, Qin, Handa, & Bishop, 2014; Chi et al...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444071/the-phd-finger-protein-spp1-has-distinct-functions-in-the-set1-and-the-meiotic-dsb-formation-complexes
#9
Céline Adam, Raphaël Guérois, Anna Citarella, Laura Verardi, Florine Adolphe, Claire Béneut, Vérane Sommermeyer, Claire Ramus, Jérôme Govin, Yohann Couté, Valérie Borde
Histone H3K4 methylation is a feature of meiotic recombination hotspots shared by many organisms including plants and mammals. Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed double-strand break (DSB) formation that in budding yeast takes place in gene promoters and is promoted by histone H3K4 di/trimethylation. This histone modification is recognized by Spp1, a PHD-finger containing protein that belongs to the conserved histone H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 complex. During meiosis, Spp1 binds H3K4me3 and interacts with a DSB protein, Mer2, to promote DSB formation close to gene promoters...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423857/tetrad-dissection-in-fission-yeast
#10
Wilber Escorcia, Susan L Forsburg
Tetrad dissection is a powerful tool in yeast genetics that allows the analysis of products of a single meiosis. With just a few tetrads, it is possible to determine linkage, identify unique phenotypes associated with double mutants, or assess specific meiotic defects. Strains are crossed on nitrogen-limiting medium for 3 days. With the help of a micromanipulator, ripe asci are isolated to spots 5 mm apart on a YES plate. Incubation at 36 °C for about 3-5 h is necessary for the ascus walls to break down...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391437/differential-abundance-and-transcription-of-14-3-3-proteins-during-vegetative-growth-and-sexual-reproduction-in-budding-yeast
#11
Ravinder Kumar
14-3-3 is a family of relatively low molecular weight, acidic, dimeric proteins, conserved from yeast to metazoans including humans. Apart from their role in diverse cellular processes, these proteins are also known for their role in several clinical implications. Present proteomic and biochemical comparison showed increased abundance and differential phosphorylation of these proteins in meiotic cells. Double deletion of bmh1-/-bmh2-/- leads to complete absence of sporulation with cells arrested at G1/S phase while further incubation of cells in sporulating media leads to cell death...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317645/computational-modelling-of-meiotic-entry-and-commitment
#12
Tanvi Bhola, Orsolya Kapuy, P K Vinod
In response to developmental and environmental conditions, cells exit the mitotic cell cycle and enter the meiosis program to generate haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Once cells decide to enter the meiosis program they become irreversibly committed to the completion of meiosis irrespective of the presence of cue signals. How meiotic entry and commitment occur due to the dynamics of the regulatory network is not well understood. Therefore, we constructed a mathematical model of the regulatory network that controls the transition from mitosis to meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301906/a-role-for-the-respiratory-chain-in-regulating-meiosis-initiation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#13
Haichao Zhao, Qian Wang, Chao Liu, Yongliang Shang, Fuping Wen, Fang Wang, Weixiao Liu, Wei Xiao, Wei Li
Meiosis is a specific type of cell division that is essential for sexual reproduction in most eukaryotes. Mitochondria are crucial cellular organelles that play important roles in reproduction, though the detailed mechanism by which the mitochondrial respiratory chain functions during meiosis remains elusive. Here, we show that components of the respiratory chain (Complexes I-V) play essential roles in meiosis initiation during the sporulation of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Any functional defects in the Complex I component Ndi1p resulted in the abolishment of sporulation...
March 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290403/zipping-and-unzipping-protein-modifications-regulating-synaptonemal-complex-dynamics
#14
REVIEW
Jinmin Gao, Monica P Colaiácovo
The proteinaceous zipper-like structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC), which forms between pairs of homologous chromosomes during meiosis from yeast to humans, plays important roles in promoting interhomolog crossover formation, regulating cessation of DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation following crossover designation, and ensuring accurate meiotic chromosome segregation. Recent studies are starting to reveal critical roles for different protein modifications in regulating SC dynamics. Protein SUMOylation, N-terminal acetylation, and phosphorylation have been shown to be essential for the regulated assembly and disassembly of the SC...
March 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259092/effects-of-temperature-on-the-meiotic-recombination-landscape-of-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#15
Ke Zhang, Xue-Chang Wu, Dao-Qiong Zheng, Thomas D Petes
Although meiosis in warm-blooded organisms takes place in a narrow temperature range, meiosis in many organisms occurs over a wide variety of temperatures. We analyzed the properties of meiosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cells sporulated at 14°C, 30°C, or 37°C. Using comparative-genomic-hybridization microarrays, we examined the distribution of Spo11-generated meiosis-specific double-stranded DNA breaks throughout the genome. Although there were between 300 and 400 regions of the genome with high levels of recombination (hot spots) observed at each temperature, only about 20% of these hot spots were found to have occurred independently of the temperature...
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259000/genes-important-for-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-meiosis-identified-through-a-functional-genomics-screen
#16
Julie Blyth, Vasso Makrantoni, Rachael E Barton, Christos Spanos, Juri Rappsilber, Adele L Marston
Meiosis is a specialized cell division that generates gametes, such as eggs and sperm. Errors in meiosis result in miscarriages and are the leading cause of birth defects; however, the molecular origins of these defects remain unknown. Studies in model organisms are beginning to identify the genes and pathways important for meiosis, but the parts list is still poorly defined. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of genes important for meiosis in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Our genome-wide functional screen surveyed all nonessential genes for roles in chromosome segregation and spore formation...
February 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237818/mps1-promotes-chromosome-meiotic-chromosome-biorientation-through-dam1
#17
Régis E Meyer, Jamin Brown, Lindsay Beck, Dean S Dawson
In budding yeast meiosis, homologous chromosomes become linked by chiasmata and then move back and forth on the spindle until they are bioriented, with the kinetochores of the partners attached to microtubules from opposite spindle poles. Certain mutations in the conserved kinase, Mps1, result in catastrophic meiotic segregation errors but mild mitotic defects. We tested whether Dam1, a known substrate of Mps1, was necessary for its critical meiotic role. We found that kinetochore-microtubule attachments are established even when Dam1 is not phosphorylated by Mps1, but that Mps1 phosphorylation of Dam1 sustains those connections...
February 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196561/hierarchical-regulation-of-centromeric-cohesion-protection-by-meikin-and-shugoshin-during-meiosis-i
#18
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
The kinetochore is the key apparatus regulating chromosome segregation. Particularly in meiosis, unlike in mitosis, sister kinetochores are captured by microtubules emanating from the same spindle pole (mono-orientation), and sister chromatid cohesion mediated by cohesin is protected at centromeres in the following anaphase. Shugoshin, which localizes to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage...
December 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191370/linc-complexes-and-nuclear-positioning
#19
REVIEW
Yin Loon Lee, Brian Burke
One of the characteristics of eukaryotic cells is their structural plasticity associated with the ability to carry out a broad range of complex functions, both autonomously and as components of tissues and organs. Major cellular rearrangements can be observed in various systems from meiosis in fission yeast, through dermal differentiation in nematodes, to muscle and neuronal development in vertebrates. Each of these processes involves oftentimes dramatic relocation of the nucleus within the cell. During the last decade it has become apparent that the nuclear periphery represents a nexus of cytoskeletal interactions that are involved not only in nuclear movement but also in the distribution and dissemination of mechanical forces throughout the cell...
November 27, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158400/-drosophila-protein-phosphatases-2a-b-wdb-and-wrd-regulate-meiotic-centromere-localization-and-function-of-the-mei-s332-shugoshin
#20
Belinda S Pinto, Terry L Orr-Weaver
Proper segregation of chromosomes in meiosis is essential to prevent miscarriages and birth defects. This requires that sister chromatids maintain cohesion at the centromere as cohesion is released on the chromatid arms when the homologs segregate at anaphase I. The Shugoshin proteins preserve centromere cohesion by protecting the cohesin complex from cleavage, and this has been shown in yeasts to be mediated by recruitment of the protein phosphatase 2A B' (PP2A B'). In metazoans, delineation of the role of PP2A B' in meiosis has been hindered by its myriad of other essential roles...
December 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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