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Yeast meiosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444071/the-phd-finger-protein-spp1-has-distinct-functions-in-the-set1-and-the-meiotic-dsb-formation-complexes
#1
Céline Adam, Raphaël Guérois, Anna Citarella, Laura Verardi, Florine Adolphe, Claire Béneut, Vérane Sommermeyer, Claire Ramus, Jérôme Govin, Yohann Couté, Valérie Borde
Histone H3K4 methylation is a feature of meiotic recombination hotspots shared by many organisms including plants and mammals. Meiotic recombination is initiated by programmed double-strand break (DSB) formation that in budding yeast takes place in gene promoters and is promoted by histone H3K4 di/trimethylation. This histone modification is recognized by Spp1, a PHD-finger containing protein that belongs to the conserved histone H3K4 methyltransferase Set1 complex. During meiosis, Spp1 binds H3K4me3 and interacts with a DSB protein, Mer2, to promote DSB formation close to gene promoters...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423857/tetrad-dissection-in-fission-yeast
#2
Wilber Escorcia, Susan L Forsburg
Tetrad dissection is a powerful tool in yeast genetics that allows the analysis of products of a single meiosis. With just a few tetrads, it is possible to determine linkage, identify unique phenotypes associated with double mutants, or assess specific meiotic defects. Strains are crossed on nitrogen-limiting medium for 3 days. With the help of a micromanipulator, ripe asci are isolated to spots 5 mm apart on a YES plate. Incubation at 36 °C for about 3-5 h is necessary for the ascus walls to break down...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391437/differential-abundance-and-transcription-of-14-3-3-proteins-during-vegetative-growth-and-sexual-reproduction-in-budding-yeast
#3
Ravinder Kumar
14-3-3 is a family of relatively low molecular weight, acidic, dimeric proteins, conserved from yeast to metazoans including humans. Apart from their role in diverse cellular processes, these proteins are also known for their role in several clinical implications. Present proteomic and biochemical comparison showed increased abundance and differential phosphorylation of these proteins in meiotic cells. Double deletion of bmh1-/-bmh2-/- leads to complete absence of sporulation with cells arrested at G1/S phase while further incubation of cells in sporulating media leads to cell death...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317645/computational-modelling-of-meiotic-entry-and-commitment
#4
Tanvi Bhola, Orsolya Kapuy, P K Vinod
In response to developmental and environmental conditions, cells exit the mitotic cell cycle and enter the meiosis program to generate haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Once cells decide to enter the meiosis program they become irreversibly committed to the completion of meiosis irrespective of the presence of cue signals. How meiotic entry and commitment occur due to the dynamics of the regulatory network is not well understood. Therefore, we constructed a mathematical model of the regulatory network that controls the transition from mitosis to meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301906/a-role-for-respiration-in-regulating-meiosis-initiation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Haichao Zhao, Qian Wang, Chao Liu, Yongliang Shang, Fuping Wen, Fang Wang, Weixiao Liu, Wei Xiao, Wei Li
Meiosis is a specific type of cell division that is essential for sexual reproduction in most eukaryotes. Mitochondria are crucial cellular organelles that play important roles in reproduction, though the detailed mechanism by which the mitochondrial respiratory chain functions during meiosis remains elusive. Here, we show that components of the respiratory chain (Complexes I-V) play essential roles in meiosis initiation during the sporulation of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Any functional defects in the complex I component Ndi1p resulted in the abolishment of sporulation...
January 4, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290403/zipping-and-unzipping-protein-modifications-regulating-synaptonemal-complex-dynamics
#6
REVIEW
Jinmin Gao, Monica P Colaiácovo
The proteinaceous zipper-like structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC), which forms between pairs of homologous chromosomes during meiosis from yeast to humans, plays important roles in promoting interhomolog crossover formation, regulating cessation of DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation following crossover designation, and ensuring accurate meiotic chromosome segregation. Recent studies are starting to reveal critical roles for different protein modifications in regulating SC dynamics. Protein SUMOylation, N-terminal acetylation, and phosphorylation have been shown to be essential for the regulated assembly and disassembly of the SC...
December 28, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259092/effects-of-temperature-on-the-meiotic-recombination-landscape-of-the-yeast-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Ke Zhang, Xue-Chang Wu, Dao-Qiong Zheng, Thomas D Petes
Although meiosis in warm-blooded organisms takes place in a narrow temperature range, meiosis in many organisms occurs over a wide variety of temperatures. We analyzed the properties of meiosis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in cells sporulated at 14°C, 30°C, or 37°C. Using comparative-genomic-hybridization microarrays, we examined the distribution of Spo11-generated meiosis-specific double-stranded DNA breaks throughout the genome. Although there were between 300 and 400 regions of the genome with high levels of recombination (hot spots) observed at each temperature, only about 20% of these hot spots were found to have occurred independently of the temperature...
December 19, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259000/genes-important-for-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-meiosis-identified-through-a-functional-genomics-screen
#8
Julie Blyth, Vasso Makrantoni, Rachael E Barton, Christos Spanos, Juri Rappsilber, Adele L Marston
Meiosis is a specialized cell division that generates gametes, such as eggs and sperm. Errors in meiosis result in miscarriages and are the leading cause of birth defects, however the molecular origins of these defects remain unknown. Studies in model organisms are beginning to identify the genes and pathways important for meiosis, but the parts list is still poorly defined. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of genes important for meiosis in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Our genome-wide functional screen surveyed all non-essential genes for roles in chromosome segregation and spore formation...
December 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237818/mps1-promotes-chromosome-meiotic-chromosome-bi-orientation-through-dam1
#9
Régis E Meyer, Jamin Brown, Lindsay Beck, Dean S Dawson
In budding yeast meiosis, homologous chromosomes become linked by chiasmata and then move back and forth on the spindle until they are bi-oriented - with the kinetochores of the partners attached to microtubules from opposite spindle poles. Certain mutations in the conserved kinase, Mps1, result in catastrophic meiotic segregation errors but mild mitotic defects. We tested whether Dam1, a known substrate of Mps1 was necessary for its critical meiotic role. We found that kinetochore-microtubule attachments are established even when Dam1 is not phosphorylated by Mps1, but that Mps1 phosphorylation of Dam1 sustains those connections...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196561/hierarchical-regulation-of-centromeric-cohesion-protection-by-meikin-and-shugoshin-during-meiosis-i
#10
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
The kinetochore is the key apparatus regulating chromosome segregation. Particularly in meiosis, unlike in mitosis, sister kinetochores are captured by microtubules emanating from the same spindle pole (mono-orientation), and sister chromatid cohesion mediated by cohesin is protected at centromeres in the following anaphase. Shugoshin, which localizes to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage...
December 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191370/linc-complexes-and-nuclear-positioning
#11
REVIEW
Yin Loon Lee, Brian Burke
One of the characteristics of eukaryotic cells is their structural plasticity associated with the ability to carry out a broad range of complex functions, both autonomously and as components of tissues and organs. Major cellular rearrangements can be observed in various systems from meiosis in fission yeast, through dermal differentiation in nematodes, to muscle and neuronal development in vertebrates. Each of these processes involves oftentimes dramatic relocation of the nucleus within the cell. During the last decade it has become apparent that the nuclear periphery represents a nexus of cytoskeletal interactions that are involved not only in nuclear movement but also in the distribution and dissemination of mechanical forces throughout the cell...
November 27, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158400/drosophila-protein-phosphatases-2a-b-wdb-and-wrd-regulate-meiotic-centromere-localization-and-function-of-the-mei-s332-shugoshin
#12
Belinda S Pinto, Terry L Orr-Weaver
Proper segregation of chromosomes in meiosis is essential to prevent miscarriages and birth defects. This requires that sister chromatids maintain cohesion at the centromere as cohesion is released on the chromatid arms when the homologs segregate at anaphase I. The Shugoshin proteins preserve centromere cohesion by protecting the cohesin complex from cleavage, and this has been shown in yeasts to be mediated by recruitment of the protein phosphatase 2A B' (PP2A B'). In metazoans, delineation of the role of PP2A B' in meiosis has been hindered by its myriad of other essential roles...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136644/developmentally-regulated-internal-transcription-initiation-during-meiosis-in-budding-yeast
#13
Sai Zhou, Rolf Sternglanz, Aaron M Neiman
Sporulation of budding yeast is a developmental process in which cells undergo meiosis to generate stress-resistant progeny. The dynamic nature of the budding yeast meiotic transcriptome has been well established by a number of genome-wide studies. Here we develop an analysis pipeline to systematically identify novel transcription start sites that reside internal to a gene. Application of this pipeline to data from a synchronized meiotic time course reveals over 40 genes that display specific internal initiations in mid-sporulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124795/proteomic-analysis-of-lysine-acetylation-provides-strong-evidence-for-acetylated-proteins-involved-in-plant-meiosis-and-tapetum-function
#14
Xiaojing Li, Juanying Ye, Hong Ma, Pingli Lu
Protein lysine acetylation (KAC) is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, playing important biological roles in many organisms. Although KAC was shown to affect reproductive development and meiosis in yeast and animals, similar studies are largely lacking in flowering plants, especially in a proteome-scale investigation for a certain reproductive stage. Here, we reported results from a proteomic investigation to detect KAC status of the developing rice anthers near the time of meiosis (RAM), providing strong biochemical evidence for roles of many KAC-affected proteins during rice anther development and meiosis...
November 10, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118343/exosc10-rrp6-is-post-translationally-regulated-in-male-germ-cells-and-controls-the-onset-of-spermatogenesis
#15
Soazik P Jamin, Fabrice G Petit, Christine Kervarrec, Fatima Smagulova, Doris Illner, Harry Scherthan, Michael Primig
EXOSC10 is a catalytic subunit of the exosome that processes biologically active transcripts, degrades aberrant mRNAs and targets certain long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The yeast orthologue Rrp6 is required for efficient growth and gametogenesis, and becomes unstable during meiosis. However, nothing is known about the localization, stability and function of EXOSC10 in the rodent male germline. We detect the protein in nucleoli and the cytoplasm of mitotic and meiotic germ cells, and find that it transiently associates with the XY body, a structure targeted by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118076/the-meiosis-specific-cdc20-family-member-ama1-promotes-binding-of-the-ssp2-activator-to-the-smk1-map-kinase
#16
Gregory Omerza, Chong Wai Tio, Timothy Philips, Aviva Diamond, Aaron M Neiman, Edward Winter
Smk1 is a meiosis-specific MAP kinase (MAPK) in budding yeast that is required for spore formation. It is localized to prospore membranes (PSMs), the structures that engulf haploid cells during meiosis II (MII). Similar to canonically activated MAPKs, Smk1 is controlled by phosphorylation of its activation-loop threonine (T) and tyrosine (Y). However, activation loop phosphorylation occurs via a non-canonical two-step mechanism in which 1- the cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase Cak1 phosphorylaytes T207 during MI and 2- Smk1 autophosphorylates Y209 as MII draws to a close...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114019/native-elongating-transcript-sequencing-reveals-global-anti-correlation-between-sense-and-antisense-nascent-transcription-in-fission-yeast
#17
Maxime Wery, Camille Gautier, Marc Descrimes, Mayuko Yoda, Hervé Vennin-Rendos, Valérie Migeot, Daniel Gautheret, Damien Hermand, Antonin Morillon
Antisense transcription can regulate sense gene expression. However, previous annotations of antisense transcription units have been based on detection of mature antisense long non-coding (aslnc)RNAs by RNA-Seq and/or micro-arrays, only giving a partial view of the antisense transcription landscape and incomplete molecular bases for antisense-mediated regulation. Here, we used Native Elongating Transcript sequencing to map genome-wide nascent antisense transcription in fission yeast. Strikingly, antisense transcription was detected for most protein-coding genes, correlating with low sense transcription, especially when overlapping the mRNA start site...
November 7, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079616/can-interspecies-hybrid-zygosaccharomyces-rouxii-produce-allohaploid-gamete
#18
Jun Watanabe, Kenji Uehara, Yuichiro Tsukioka
In soy sauce manufacturing, Candida versatilis plays a role in the production of volatile flavor compounds, such as volatile phenols, but limited accessible information on its genome has prevented further investigation regarding aroma production and breeding. Although the draft genome sequence data of two strains of C. versatilis have recently been reported, these strains are not similar to each other. Here, we reassess the draft genome sequence data for strain t-1, which was originally reported to be C. versatilis, and conclude that strain t-1 is most probably not C...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071446/sequence-requirement-of-the-ade6-4095-meiotic-recombination-hotspot-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#19
Steven J Foulis, Kyle R Fowler, Walter W Steiner
Homologous recombination occurs at a greatly elevated frequency in meiosis compared to mitosis and is initiated by programmed double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs). DSBs do not occur at uniform frequency throughout the genome in most organisms, but occur preferentially at a limited number of sites referred to as hotspots. The location of hotspots have been determined at nucleotide-level resolution in both the budding and fission yeasts, and while several patterns have emerged regarding preferred locations for DSB hotspots, it remains unclear why particular sites experience DSBs at much higher frequency than other sites with seemingly similar properties...
October 25, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066473/repression-of-middle-sporulation-genes-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-the-sum1-rfm1-hst1-complex-is-maintained-by-set1-and-h3k4-methylation
#20
Deepika Jaiswal, Meagan Jezek, Jeremiah Quijote, Joanna Lum, Grace Choi, Rushmie Kulkarni, DoHwan Park, Erin M Green
The conserved yeast histone methyltransferase Set1 targets H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) for mono-, di- and tri-methylation and is linked to active transcription due to the euchromatic distribution of these methyl marks and the recruitment of Set1 during transcription. However, loss of Set1 results in increased expression of multiple classes of genes, including genes adjacent to telomeres and middle sporulation genes, which are repressed under normal growth conditions because they function in meiotic progression and spore formation...
November 4, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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