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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449168/mri-sequences-in-head-neck-radiology-state-of-the-art
#1
Gerlig Widmann, Benjamin Henninger, Christian Kremser, Werner Jaschke
Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of head & neck pathologies. However, the diagnostic power of MRI is strongly related to the appropriate selection and interpretation of imaging protocols and sequences. The aim of this article is to review state-of-the-art sequences for the clinical routine in head & neck MRI and to describe the evidence for which medical question these sequences and techniques are useful. Method Literature review of state-of-the-art sequences in head & neck MRI...
May 2017: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446351/deep-vein-thrombosis-of-the-upper-extremity
#2
Jan Heil, Wolfgang Miesbach, Thomas Vogl, Wolf O Bechstein, Alexander Reinisch
BACKGROUND: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) arises with an incidence of about 1 per 1000 persons per year; 4-10% of all DVTs are located in an upper extremity (DVT-UE). DVT-UE can lead to complications such as post-thrombotic syndrome and pulmonary embolism and carries a high mortality. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent literature, published from January 1980 to May 2016, that was retrieved by a systematic search, employing the PRISMA criteria, carried out in four databases: PubMed (n = 749), EMBASE (n = 789), SciSearch (n = 0), and the Cochrane Library (n = 12)...
April 7, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445943/a-molecular-inversion-probe-based-next-generation-sequencing-panel-to-detect-germline-mutations-in-chinese-early-onset-colorectal-cancer-patients
#3
Junxiao Zhang, Xiaoyan Wang, Richarda M de Voer, Jayne Y Hehir-Kwa, Eveline J Kamping, Robbert D A Weren, Marcel Nelen, Alexander Hoischen, Marjolijn J L Ligtenberg, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Xiangling Yang, Zihuan Yang, Xinjuan Fan, Lei Wang, Huanliang Liu, Jianping Wang, Roland P Kuiper, Ad Geurts van Kessel
The currently known Mendelian colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition syndromes account for ~5-10% of all CRC cases, and are caused by inherited germline mutations in single CRC predisposing genes. Using molecular inversion probes (MIPs), we designed a targeted next-generation sequencing panel to identify mutations in seven CRC predisposing genes: APC, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, MUTYH and NTHL1. From a consecutive series of 2,371 Chinese CRC patients, 140 familial and non-familial cases were selected that were diagnosed with CRC at or below the age of 35 years...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445745/increased-tissue-stiffness-in-tumors-from-mice-with-neurofibromatosis-1-optic-glioma
#4
Christopher Walter, Lindsey Crawford, Melinda Lai, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Shelly Sakiyama-Elbert, David H Gutmann, Amit Pathak
Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome are prone to the development of low-grade brain tumors (gliomas) within the optic pathway (optic gliomas). One of the key obstacles to developing successful therapeutic strategies for these tumors is the striking lack of information about the mechanical properties that characterize these tumors relative to non-neoplastic optic nerve tissue. To study the physical changes that may occur when an optic nerve glioma is present, we employed atomic force microscopy to measure the stiffness of healthy versus tumor-bearing optic nerve tissue...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444859/roles-of-samhd1-in-antiviral-defense-autoimmunity-and-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Miaomiao Li, Dong Zhang, Mengying Zhu, Yuxian Shen, Wei Wei, Songcheng Ying, Heinrich Korner, Jun Li
The enzyme, sterile α motif and histidine-aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) diminishes infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by hydrolyzing intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) in myeloid cells and resting CD4+ T cells. This dNTP degradation reduces the dNTP concentration to a level insufficient for viral cDNA synthesis, thereby inhibiting retroviral replication. This antiviral enzymatic activity can be inhibited by viral protein X (Vpx). The HIV-2/SIV Vpx causes degradation of SAMHD1, thus interfering with the SAMHD1-mediated restriction of retroviral replication...
April 25, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444639/metformin-and-prostate-cancer-a-new-role-for-an-old-drug
#6
REVIEW
Jessica Whitburn, Claire M Edwards, Prasanna Sooriakumaran
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since epidemiological studies first demonstrated a potential positive effect of metformin in reducing cancer incidence and mortality, there has been an increased interest in not only better understanding metformin's mechanisms of action but also in exploring its potential anti-cancer effects. In this review, we aim to summarise the current evidence exploring a role for metformin in prostate cancer therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical studies have demonstrated a number of antineoplastic biological effects via a range of molecular mechanisms...
June 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444534/metabolic-factors-anthropometric-measures-diet-and-physical-activity-in-long-term-breast-cancer-survivors-change-from-diagnosis-and-comparison-to-non-breast-cancer-controls
#7
Ana Elisa Lohmann, Marguerite Ennis, Sara K Taylor, Pamela J Goodwin
PURPOSE: We studied metabolic factors, diabetes, and anthropometric measurements at diagnosis and long-term follow-up (LTFU), mean 12.5 years post-diagnosis, in breast cancer (BC) survivors, and compared their status at LTFU to that of age-matched women without BC. Diet and physical activity were also assessed. METHOD: 535 non-diabetic BC patients treated at three University of Toronto hospitals were followed prospectively; 285 surviving patients, without distant recurrence, participated in a LTFU study...
April 25, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443200/epidemiology-of-ovarian-cancer-a-review
#8
Brett M Reid, Jennifer B Permuth, Thomas A Sellers
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the seventh most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the world and the tenth most common in China. Epithelial OC is the most predominant pathologic subtype, with five major histotypes that differ in origination, pathogenesis, molecular alterations, risk factors, and prognosis. Genetic susceptibility is manifested by rare inherited mutations with high to moderate penetrance. Genome-wide association studies have additionally identified 29 common susceptibility alleles for OC, including 14 subtype-specific alleles...
February 2017: Cancer Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441855/-correlation-between-mismatch-repair-proteins-status-and-clinicopathological-characteristics-in-sporadic-colorectal-cancer-patients
#9
Z T Xiao, R X Zhang, Y Zhao, J H Peng, S X Lu, H Z Zhang, P R Ding, X J Wu, Z H Lu, L R Li, D S Wan, Z Z Pan, G Chen
Objective: To explore the expression of mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in sporadic colorectal cancer (SCRC) patients, and its association with clinicopathological characteristics of SCRC. Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer were consecutively recruited between December 2011 and June 2015 at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The exclusion criteria included multiple primary colorectal tumors, hereditary colorectal cancer (including Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis), and the patients without the MMR proteins status tested...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441168/a-review-of-caffeine-use-as-a-risk-or-protective-factor-for-women-s-health-and-pregnancy
#10
Amy Peacock, Richard P Mattick, Raimondo Bruno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a narrative synthesis of recently published studies on caffeine use as a risk or protective factor for health outcomes, with a focus on women's health and pregnancy. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on predominantly observational studies, moderate caffeine intake has been shown to be a protective factor for liver cancer, certain bowel conditions, colorectal cancer, skin cancer, and regular menstrual cycle function. However, heavy consumption is a risk factor for osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, and poorer birth and child developmental outcomes...
April 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441110/effects-of-the-us-food-and-drug-administration-boxed-warning-of-erythropoietin-stimulating-agents-on-utilization-and-adverse-outcome
#11
John Bian, Brian Chen, Dawn L Hershman, Norman Marks, LeAnn Norris, Richard Schulz, Charles Bennett
Purpose In March 2007, a US Food and Drug Administration boxed warning was issued for erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs) regarding serious adverse events, such as venous thromboembolism (VTE). We evaluated the US Food and Drug Administration's boxed warning of ESAs used to treat chemotherapy-induced anemia because evidence on the effectiveness of boxed warnings remains inconclusive. Patients and Methods Using 2004 to 2009 SEER-Medicare data, we exploited a natural experiment to examine the effects of ESA boxed warnings on utilization and risk of VTE...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440532/the-assessment-of-cancer-related-fatigue-syndrome-in-patients-with-lung-cancer-during-palliative-chemotherapy
#12
Andrzej Nowicki, Joanna Piekarska, Ewa Farbicka
INTRODUCTION: Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most common problems of patients with lung cancer. The assessment of cancer- -related fatigue is therefore a significant medical problem in patients during treatment with palliative chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 100 patients during palliative chemotherapy because of lung cancer. The study was conducted in the Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Treatment of Lung Cancer in the Kuyavian and Pomeranian Centre of Pulmonology in Bydgoszcz, in the period from February to June 2016...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440518/-choice-of-bariatric-and-metabolic-surgical-procedures
#13
Hui Liang, Shibo Lin, Wei Guan
Bariatric and metabolic surgery has become the clinical hot topic of the treatment of metabolic syndromes including obesity and diabetes mellitus, but how to choose the appropriate surgical procedure remains the difficult problem in clinical practice. Clinical guidelines of American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery(ASMBS)(version 2013) introduced the procedures of bariatric and metabolic surgery mainly including biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch(BPD-DS), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy(LSG)...
April 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440412/a-rare-fanca-gene-variation-as-a-breast-cancer-susceptibility-allele-in-an-iranian-population
#14
Sakineh Abbasi, Mina Rasouli
Fanconi Anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by congenital abnormalities, progressive bone marrow failure and Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FANCA) is also a potential breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. A novel allele with tandem duplication of 13 base pair sequence in promoter region was identified. To investigate whether the 13 base pair sequence of tandem duplication in promoter region of the FANCA gene is of high penetrance in patients with breast cancer and to determine if the presence of the duplicated allele was associated with an altered risk of breast cancer, the present study screened DNA in blood samples from 304 breast cancer patients and 295 normal individuals as controls...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439675/a-pilot-study-assessing-the-efficacy-of-posterior-tibial-nerve-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-low-anterior-resection-syndrome
#15
V Vigorita, S Rausei, P Troncoso Pereira, I Trostchansky, A Ruano Poblador, E Moncada Iribarren, C Facal Alvarez, A de San Ildefonso Pereira, E Casal Núñez
BACKGROUND: Low anterior resection for rectal cancer often results in severe bowel dysfunction, specifically low anterior resection syndrome (LARS), with symptoms such as incontinence, urgency, and frequent bowel movements. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) resulted in a high rate of success in patients with fecal incontinence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with PTNS in LARS and to identify predictors of the outcome of the technique. METHODS: The study was conducted from May 2012 to April 2015 at the Alvaro Cunqueiro Hospital, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Spain...
April 24, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438782/incidence-and-prevalence-of-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-2b-in-denmark-a-nationwide-study
#16
Jes Sloth Mathiesen, Jens Peter Kroustrup, Peter Vestergaard, Mette Madsen, Kirstine Stochholm, Per Løgstrup Poulsen, Åse Krogh Rasmussen, Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen, Sten Schytte, Henrik Baymler Pedersen, Christoffer Holst Hahn, Jens Bentzen, Mette Gaustadnes, Torben Falck Ørntoft, Thomas van Overeem Hansen, Finn Cilius Nielsen, Kim Brixen, Anja Lisbeth Frederiksen, Christian Godballe
Extract: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome associating medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), ganglioneuromatosis of the aerodigestive tract and facial, ophthalmologic and skeletal abnormalities. MEN2B is caused by the M918T and A883F mutation of the REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene in approximately 95% and <5% of cases, respectively. Only very few other mutations have been reported to cause MEN2B. In approximately 75% of MEN2B patients, mutations occur as de novo (Wells, et al...
April 24, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438473/bevacizumab-and-paclitaxel-carboplatin-chemotherapy-and-secondary-cytoreduction-in-recurrent-platinum-sensitive-ovarian-cancer-nrg-oncology-gynecologic-oncology-group-study-gog-0213-a-multicentre-open-label-randomised-phase-3-trial
#17
Robert L Coleman, Mark F Brady, Thomas J Herzog, Paul Sabbatini, Deborah K Armstrong, Joan L Walker, Byoung-Gie Kim, Keiichi Fujiwara, Krishnansu S Tewari, David M O'Malley, Susan A Davidson, Stephen C Rubin, Paul DiSilvestro, Karen Basen-Engquist, Helen Huang, John K Chan, Nick M Spirtos, Raheela Ashfaq, Robert S Mannel
BACKGROUND: Platinum-based chemotherapy doublets are a standard of care for women with ovarian cancer recurring 6 months after completion of initial therapy. In this study, we aimed to explore the roles of secondary surgical cytoreduction and bevacizumab in this population, and report the results of the bevacizumab component here. METHODS: The multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 GOG-0213 trial was done in 67 predominantly academic centres in the USA (65 centres), Japan (one centre), and South Korea (one centre)...
April 21, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437161/randomized-phase-iii-trial-of-trastuzumab-plus-capecitabine-with-or-without-pertuzumab-in-patients-with-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-positive-metastatic-breast-cancer-who-experienced-disease-progression-during-or-after-trastuzumab-based-therapy
#18
Ander Urruticoechea, Mohammed Rizwanullah, Seock-Ah Im, Antonio Carlos Sánchez Ruiz, István Láng, Gianluca Tomasello, Hannah Douthwaite, Tanja Badovinac Crnjevic, Sarah Heeson, Jennifer Eng-Wong, Montserrat Muñoz
Purpose To assess the efficacy and safety of trastuzumab plus capecitabine with or without pertuzumab in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive metastatic breast cancer who experienced disease progression during or after trastuzumab-based therapy and received a prior taxane. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to arm A: trastuzumab 8 mg/kg → 6 mg/kg once every 3 weeks plus capecitabine 1,250 mg/m(2) twice a day (2 weeks on, 1 week off, every 3 weeks); or arm B: pertuzumab 840 mg → 420 mg once every 3 weeks plus trastuzumab at the same dose and schedule as arm A plus capecitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) on the same schedule as arm A...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436936/the-u2af1s34f-mutation-induces-lineage-specific-splicing-alterations-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#19
Bon Ham Yip, Violetta Steeples, Emmanouela Repapi, Richard N Armstrong, Miriam Llorian, Swagata Roy, Jacqueline Shaw, Hamid Dolatshad, Stephen Taylor, Amit Verma, Matthias Bartenstein, Paresh Vyas, Nicholas C P Cross, Luca Malcovati, Mario Cazzola, Eva Hellström-Lindberg, Seishi Ogawa, Christopher W J Smith, Andrea Pellagatti, Jacqueline Boultwood
Mutations of the splicing factor-encoding gene U2AF1 are frequent in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a myeloid malignancy, and other cancers. Patients with MDS suffer from peripheral blood cytopenias, including anemia, and an increasing percentage of bone marrow myeloblasts. We studied the impact of the common U2AF1S34F mutation on cellular function and mRNA splicing in the main cell lineages affected in MDS. We demonstrated that U2AF1S34F expression in human hematopoietic progenitors impairs erythroid differentiation and skews granulomonocytic differentiation toward granulocytes...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435794/cushing-disease-in-a-patient-with-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2b
#20
Kannan Kasturi, Lucas Fernandes, Martha Quezado, Mary Eid, Leigh Marcus, Prashant Chittiboina, Mark Rappaport, Constantine A Stratakis, Brigitte Widemann, Maya Lodish
CONTEXT: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is a rare autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized in part by metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and pheochromocytoma. Cushing disease is a rare cause of endogenous hypercortisolism in children. CASE DESCRIPTION: We describe a 21-year-old African-American male who was diagnosed at age 10 with an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma. At age 16 he developed medullary thyroid cancer and was found to have multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B with the characteristic M918T mutation of the RET proto-oncogene...
June 2017: J Clin Transl Endocrinol Case Rep
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