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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534786/evolutionary-computing-enriched-computer-aided-diagnosis-system-for-diabetic-retinopathy-a-survey
#1
Romany Mansour
The alterations caused due to diabetes mellitus results into significant micro-vasculature that eventually causes diabetic retinopathy (DR) that keeps on increasing as per time and eventually causes complete vision loss. Identifying subtle variations in morphological changes in retinal blood vessels, optic disk, exudates, micro-aneurysms, hemorrhage etc is complicate and requires robust computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system so as to enable earlier and efficient DR diagnosis practices. In majority of the existing CAD systems, the need of functional enhancement has been realized time by time to ensure accurate and time efficient DR...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527130/pulse-generation-in-the-quorum-machinery-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#2
Cicik Alfiniyah, Martin A Bees, A Jamie Wood
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for a wide range of infections in humans. Colonies employ quorum sensing (QS) to coordinate gene expression, including for virulence factors, swarming motility and complex social traits. The QS signalling system of P. aeruginosa is known to involve multiple control components, notably the las, rhl and pqs systems. In this paper, we examine the las system and, in particular, the repressive interaction of rsaL, an embedded small regulative protein, employing recent biochemical information to aid model construction...
May 19, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522292/cross-talk-between-bacterial-two-component-systems-drives-stepwise-regulation-of-flagellar-biosynthesis-in-swarming-development
#3
Chia-Fong Wei, Yu-Huan Tsai, Sheng-Hui Tsai, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Chih-Jung Chang, Chia-Chen Lu, Hsiou-Chen Huang, Hsin-Chih Lai
Swarming motility is a mode of bacterial movement over a solid surface driven by rotating flagella in a coordinated manner. Bacteria can use two-component system (TCS), which typically comprises a sensor kinase and a specific cognate response regulator, to properly react to environmental changes. We previously showed that the TCS RssAB suppresses flagellar biosynthesis master regulator flhDC specifically in swarming lag phase to control surface migration timing without affecting expansion rate in Serratia marcescens swarming development...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513418/flagellar-expression-in-clinical-isolates-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#4
Alejandro Carabarin-Lima, Patricia Lozano-Zarain, Miguel Castañeda-Lucio, Claudia Fabiola Martínez de la Peña, Julieta Martinez-Garcia, Norarizbeth Lara Flores, Elías Campos de la Cruz, Sirenia González-Posos, Rosa Del Carmen Rocha-Gracia
PURPOSE: Haemophilus influenzae is a commensal organism found in the upper respiratory tract of humans. When H. influenzae becomes a pathogen, these bacteria can move out of their commensal niche and cause multiple respiratory tract diseases such as otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis and bronchitis in children, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. However, H. influenzae is currently considered a non-flagellate bacterium. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: In this study, 90 clinical isolates of H...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513202/abstraction-sensory-motor-coordination-and-the-reality-gap-in-evolutionary-robotics
#5
Kirk Y W Scheper, Guido C H E de Croon
One of the major challenges of evolutionary robotics is to transfer robot controllers evolved in simulation to robots in the real world. In this article, we investigate abstraction of the sensory inputs and motor actions as a tool to tackle this problem. Abstraction in robots is simply the use of preprocessed sensory inputs and low-level closed-loop control systems that execute higher-level motor commands. To demonstrate the impact abstraction could have, we evolved two controllers with different levels of abstraction to solve a task of forming an asymmetric triangle with a homogeneous swarm of micro air vehicles...
May 17, 2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505821/stable-swarming-using-adaptive-long-range-interactions
#6
Dan Gorbonos, Nir S Gov
Sensory mechanisms in biology, from cells to humans, have the property of adaptivity, whereby the response produced by the sensor is adapted to the overall amplitude of the signal, reducing the sensitivity in the presence of strong stimulus, while increasing it when it is weak. This property is inherently energy consuming and a manifestation of the nonequilibrium nature of living organisms. We explore here how adaptivity affects the effective forces that organisms feel due to others in the context of a uniform swarm, in both two and three dimensions...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505765/moment-fluid-equations-for-ions-in-weakly-ionized-plasma
#7
I L Semenov
A one-dimensional fluid model for ions in weakly ionized plasma is proposed. The model differs from the existing ones in two aspects. First, a more accurate approximation of the collision terms in the fluid equations is suggested. For this purpose, the results obtained using the Monte Carlo kinetic model of the ion swarm experiments are considered. Second, the ion energy equation is taken into account. The fluid equations are closed using a simple model of the ion velocity distribution function. The accuracy of the fluid model is examined by comparing with the results of particle-in-cell Monte Carlo simulations...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504816/virulence-factors-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-environmental-strains-of-vibrio-alginolyticus
#8
Marcos F Hernández-Robles, Ana K Álvarez-Contreras, Patricia Juárez-García, Iván Natividad-Bonifacio, Everardo Curiel-Quesada, Carlos Vázquez-Salinas, Elsa I Quiñones-Ramírez
Vibrio alginolyticus has acquired increasing importance because this microorganism may be pathogenic to aquatic animals and humans. It has been reported that some V. alginolyticus strains carry virulence genes derived from pathogenic V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus strains. In this work V. alginolyticus was isolated from oyster samples acquired from a food-market in Mexico City. Thirty isolates were identified as V. alginolitycus. Strains showed β-haemolysis and proteolytic activity and produced a capsule...
December 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500044/rpon-%C3%AF-54-is-required-for-floc-formation-but-not-for-extracellular-polysaccharide-biosynthesis-in-a-floc-forming-aquincola-tertiaricarbonis-strain
#9
Dianzhen Yu, Ming Xia, Liping Zhang, Yulong Song, You Duan, Tong Yuan, Minjie Yao, Liyou Wu, Chunyuan Tian, Zhenbin Wu, Xiangzhen Li, Jizhong Zhou, Dongru Qiu
Some bacteria are capable of forming flocs in which bacterial cells are self-flocculated by secreted extracellular polysaccharides and other biopolymers. The floc-forming bacteria play a central role in activated sludge, which has been widely utilized for the treatment of municipal sewage and industrial wastewater. Here we use a floc-forming bacterium, Aquincola tertiaricarbonis RN12, as a model to explore the biosynthesis of EPS and the regulation of floc-formation. A large gene cluster for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis and a gene encoding the alternative sigma factor RpoN1, one of the four paralogues, have been identified in the floc-formation-deficient mutants generated by transposon mutagenesis and the gene functions have been further confirmed by genetic complementation analyses...
May 12, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489542/a-grouping-particle-swarm-optimizer-with-personal-best-position-guidance-for-large-scale-optimization
#10
Weian Guo, Chengyong Si, Yu Xue, Yanfen Mao, Lei Wang, Qidi Wu
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a popular algorithm which is widely investigated and well implemented in many areas. However, the canonical PSO does not perform well in population diversity maintenance so that usually leads to a premature convergence or local optima. To address this issue, we propose a variant of PSO named Grouping PSO with Personal- Best-Position (Pbest) Guidance (GPSO-PG) which maintains the population diversity by preserving the diversity of exemplars. On one hand, we adopt uniform random allocation strategy to assign particles into different groups and in each group the losers will learn from the winner...
May 4, 2017: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487483/string-method-solution-of-the-gating-pathways-for-a-pentameric-ligand-gated-ion-channel
#11
Bogdan Lev, Samuel Murail, Frédéric Poitevin, Brett A Cromer, Marc Baaden, Marc Delarue, Toby W Allen
Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels control synaptic neurotransmission by converting chemical signals into electrical signals. Agonist binding leads to rapid signal transduction via an allosteric mechanism, where global protein conformational changes open a pore across the nerve cell membrane. We use all-atom molecular dynamics with a swarm-based string method to solve for the minimum free-energy gating pathways of the proton-activated bacterial GLIC channel. We describe stable wetted/open and dewetted/closed states, and uncover conformational changes in the agonist-binding extracellular domain, ion-conducting transmembrane domain, and gating interface that control communication between these domains...
May 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486589/are-dispersal-mechanisms-changing-the-host-parasite-relationship-and-increasing-the-virulence-of-varroa-destructor-mesostigmata-varroidae-in-managed-honey-bee-hymenoptera-apidae-colonies
#12
Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman, Fabiana Ahumada, Henry Graham
Varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) are a serious pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.), and difficult to control in managed colonies. In our 11-mo longitudinal study, we applied multiple miticide treatments, yet mite numbers remained high and colony losses exceeded 55%. High mortality from varroa in managed apiaries is a departure from the effects of the mite in feral colonies where bees and varroa can coexist. Differences in mite survival strategies and dispersal mechanisms may be contributing factors...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486505/modeling-of-inter-neuronal-coupling-medium-and-its-impact-on-neuronal-synchronization
#13
Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Rehan, Keum-Shik Hong
In this paper, modeling of the coupling medium between two neurons, the effects of the model parameters on the synchronization of those neurons, and compensation of coupling strength deficiency in synchronization are studied. Our study exploits the inter-neuronal coupling medium and investigates its intrinsic properties in order to get insight into neuronal-information transmittance and, there from, brain-information processing. A novel electrical model of the coupling medium that represents a well-known RLC circuit attributable to the coupling medium's intrinsic resistive, inductive, and capacitive properties is derived...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484636/response-threshold-variance-as-a-basis-of-collective-rationality
#14
Tatsuhiro Yamamoto, Eisuke Hasegawa
Determining the optimal choice among multiple options is necessary in various situations, and the collective rationality of groups has recently become a major topic of interest. Social insects are thought to make such optimal choices by collecting individuals' responses relating to an option's value (=a quality-graded response). However, this behaviour cannot explain the collective rationality of brains because neurons can make only 'yes/no' responses on the basis of the response threshold. Here, we elucidate the basic mechanism underlying the collective rationality of such simple units and show that an ant species uses this mechanism...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484444/leaf-extracts-of-mangifera-indica-l-inhibit-quorum-sensing-regulated-production-of-virulence-factors-and-biofilm-in-test-bacteria
#15
Fohad M Husain, Iqbal Ahmad, Abdullah S Al-Thubiani, Hussein H Abulreesh, Ibrahim M AlHazza, Farrukh Aqil
Quorum sensing (QS) is a global gene regulatory mechanism in bacteria for various traits including virulence factors. Disabling QS system with anti-infective agent is considered as a potential strategy to prevent bacterial infection. Mangifera indica L. (mango) has been shown to possess various biological activities including anti-QS. This study investigates the efficacy of leaf extracts on QS-regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Gram negative pathogens. Mango leaf (ML) extract was tested for QS inhibition and QS-regulated virulence factors using various indicator strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481215/effects-of-manganese-doping-on-the-structure-evolution-of-small-sized-boron-clusters
#16
Lingquan Zhao, Xin Qu, Yanchao Wang, Jian Lv, Lijun Zhang, Zi-Yu Hu, Guang-Rui Gu, Yanming Ma
Atomic doping of clusters is known as an effective approach to stabilize or modify the structures and properties of resulting doped clusters. We herein report the effect of manganese (Mn) doping on the structure evolution of small-sized boron (B) clusters. The global minimum structures of both neutral and charged Mn doped B cluster MnBnQ (n = 10-20 and Q = 0, ±1) have been proposed through extensive first-principles swarm-intelligence based structure searches. It is found that Mn doping has significantly modified the grow behaviors of B clusters, leading to two novel structural transitions from planar to tubular and then to cage-like B structures in both neutral and charged species...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481009/a-magnetically-actuated-microscaffold-containing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-articular-cartilage-repair
#17
Gwangjun Go, Jiwon Han, Jin Zhen, Shaohui Zheng, Ami Yoo, Mi-Jeong Jeon, Jong-Oh Park, Sukho Park
This study proposes a magnetically actuated microscaffold with the capability of targeted mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) delivery for articular cartilage regeneration. The microscaffold, as a 3D porous microbead, is divided into body and surface portions according to its materials and fabrication methods. The microscaffold body, which consists of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), is formed through water-in-oil-in-water emulsion templating, and its surface is coated with amine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via amino bond formation...
May 8, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479977/the-foundations-of-plant-intelligence
#18
REVIEW
Anthony Trewavas
Intelligence is defined for wild plants and its role in fitness identified. Intelligent behaviour exhibited by single cells and systems similarity between the interactome and connectome indicates neural systems are not necessary for intelligent capabilities. Plants sense and respond to many environmental signals that are assessed to competitively optimize acquisition of patchily distributed resources. Situations of choice engender motivational states in goal-directed plant behaviour; consequent intelligent decisions enable efficient gain of energy over expenditure...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478962/virtual-bacterium-colony-in-3d-image-segmentation
#19
Pawel Badura
Several heuristic, biologically inspired strategies have been discovered in recent decades, including swarm intelligence algorithms. So far, their application to volumetric imaging data mining is, however, limited. This paper presents a new flexible swarm intelligence optimization technique for segmentation of various structures in three- or two-dimensional images. The agents of a self-organizing colony explore their host, use stigmergy to communicate themselves, and mark regions of interest leading to the object extraction...
April 26, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473053/applications-of-artificial-neural-networks-for-adsorption-removal-of-dyes-from-aqueous-solution-a-review
#20
REVIEW
Abdol Mohammad Ghaedi, Azam Vafaei
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely applied for the prediction of dye adsorption during the last decade. In this paper, the applications of ANN methods, namely multilayer feedforward neural networks (MLFNN), support vector machine (SVM), and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for adsorption of dyes are reviewed. The reported researches on adsorption of dyes are classified into four major categories, such as (i) MLFNN, (ii) ANFIS, (iii) SVM and (iv) hybrid with genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO)...
April 26, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
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