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Pengfei Li, Wei Zhang, Dongdong Li, Changhao Liang, Xiao Cheng Zeng
The most stable structures of two-dimensional (2D) GexPy and GexAsy monolayers with different stoichiometry (e.g., GeP, GeP2, GeP3) are explored systematically through the combination of the particle-swarm optimization (PSO) technique and density functional theory optimization. For GeP3, we show that the newly predicted most stable C2/m structure is 0.16 eV/atom lower in energy than the state-of-the-art P-3m1 structure reported previously (Nano Lett.2017, 17, 1833). The computed electronic band structures suggest that all the stable and metastable monolayers of GexPy are semiconductors with highly tunable bandgaps under the biaxial strain, allowing strain engineering of their bandgaps within nearly the whole visible-light range...
May 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alma K González-Alcalde, Rafael Salas-Montiel, Habib Mohamad, Alain Morand, Sylvain Blaize, Demetrio Macías
In this work, we propose an inversion scheme to tailor the chromatic response of an all-dielectric structure. To this end, we couple, through a previously defined objective functional involving the concept of color difference, a forward solver with an optimization algorithm. The former is based on the differential method, whereas the latter is based on particle swarm optimization. The optimal geometrical parameters of the structure that generates a specific color are obtained through the solution of an approximation problem...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Jens Karschau, Marco Zimmerling, Benjamin M Friedrich
Motivated by multi-hop communication in unreliable wireless networks, we present a percolation theory for time-varying networks. We develop a renormalization group theory for a prototypical network on a regular grid, where individual links switch stochastically between active and inactive states. The question whether a given source node can communicate with a destination node along paths of active links is equivalent to a percolation problem. Our theory maps the temporal existence of multi-hop paths on an effective two-state Markov process...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenqian Ruan, Jiwei Hu, Jimei Qi, Yu Hou, Rensheng Cao, Xionghui Wei
Reduced-graphene-oxide-supported bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles were synthesized in this study for the removal of crystal violet (CV) dye from aqueous solutions. This material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Raman spectroscopy, N₂-sorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The influence of independent parameters (namely, initial dye concentration, initial pH, contact time, and temperature) on the removal efficiency were investigated via Box⁻Behnken design (BBD)...
May 22, 2018: Materials
Siddhartha Verma, Guido Novati, Petros Koumoutsakos
Fish in schooling formations navigate complex flow fields replete with mechanical energy in the vortex wakes of their companions. Their schooling behavior has been associated with evolutionary advantages including energy savings, yet the underlying physical mechanisms remain unknown. We show that fish can improve their sustained propulsive efficiency by placing themselves in appropriate locations in the wake of other swimmers and intercepting judiciously their shed vortices. This swimming strategy leads to collective energy savings and is revealed through a combination of high-fidelity flow simulations with a deep reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Robert A Swarm, Maria Dans
The NCCN Framework aims to provide adapted guidelines for low- and middle-resource countries to improve the experience of patients with cancer. In particular, the NCCN Frameworks for Adult Cancer Pain and Palliative Care and were designed to help expand access to pain management and palliative care for patients in low-resource countries. The NCCN Framework is one of several tools that can improve cancer care in the developing world. The NCCN Harmonized Guidelines for Sub-Saharan Africa, a collaborative effort between NCCN, American Cancer Society, Clinton Health Access Initiative, and African Cancer Coalition, was developed to harmonize NCCN recommendations with local guidelines across Africa and to make best use of available services and resources...
May 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Qin Yang, Lu Xu, Li-Juan Tang, Jiang-Tao Yang, Ben-Qing Wu, Nan Chen, Jian-Hui Jiang, Ru-Qin Yu
Metabonomics has been widely used in disease diagnosis and clinically practical methods often require the detection of multi-class bio-samples. In this work, multi-class classification methods were investigated to simultaneously discriminate among 6 inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) and the normal instances using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of urine samples. Two common multi-class classification strategies, one-against-all (OAA) and one-against-one (OAO) were compared and enhanced using a novel ensemble classification strategy (ECS), which developed a set of sequential sub-classifiers by fusion of OAA and OAO and made the final classification decisions using softmax function...
August 15, 2018: Talanta
Gowri M Ratnayake, P N Weerathunga, Matharage Shani Apsara Dilrukshi, E W R Amara Witharana, Saroj Jayasinghe
BACKGROUND: Clinically significant manifestations of Hymenopteran envenomation is increasingly recognized in Sri Lanka. These clinical manifestations range from localized allergic reactions to end-organ failure and thrombotic-episodes. We report a case of 65 year old male who developed acute lower limb ischaemia after a sting of the hymenopteran Apis dorsata. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65 year old male with hypertension and hyperlipidaemia presented with envenomation from an attack of a swarm of A...
May 21, 2018: BMC Research Notes
S F W M Libregts, G J A Arkesteijn, A Németh, E N M Nolte-'t Hoen, M H M Wauben
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in plasma are increasingly recognized as potential biomarkers. EV analysis for diagnostic purposes should be robust and should allow analysis of EV subsets in a wide range of abundance and in a large number of patient samples. Flow cytometry offers possibilities to meet these criteria as it allows multi-parameter analysis of individual EVs. However, analysis of plasma EVs is challenging due to their size and heterogeneity and the presence of other submicron-sized particles in plasma that could interfere in EV-analysis...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Maria Chiara Mastropasqua, Iain Lamont, Lois W Martin, David W Reid, Melania D'Orazio, Andrea Battistoni
We have recently shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and other forms of lung disease, is extremely efficient in recruiting zinc from the environment and that this capability is required for its ability to cause acute lung infections in mice. To verify that P. aeruginosa faces zinc shortage when colonizing the lungs of human patients, we analyzed the expression of three genes that are highly induced under conditions of zinc deficiency (zrmA, dksA2 and rpmE2), in bacteria in the sputum of patients with inflammatory lung disease...
July 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Kamal Z Zamli, Fakhrud Din, Bestoun S Ahmed, Miroslav Bures
The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is a new population-based meta-heuristic algorithm. In addition to exploiting sine and cosine functions to perform local and global searches (hence the name sine-cosine), the SCA introduces several random and adaptive parameters to facilitate the search process. Although it shows promising results, the search process of the SCA is vulnerable to local minima/maxima due to the adoption of a fixed switch probability and the bounded magnitude of the sine and cosine functions (from -1 to 1)...
2018: PloS One
Kevin W Rio, Gregory C Dachner, William H Warren
It is commonly believed that global patterns of motion in flocks, schools and crowds emerge from local interactions between individuals, through a process of self-organization. The key to explaining such collective behaviour thus lies in deciphering these local interactions. We take an experiment-driven approach to modelling collective motion in human crowds. Previously, we observed that a pedestrian aligns their velocity vector (speed and heading direction) with that of a neighbour. Here we investigate the neighbourhood of interaction in a crowd: which neighbours influence a pedestrian's behaviour, how this depends on neighbour position, and how the influences of multiple neighbours are combined...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Hannah Jessie Rani R, Aruldoss Albert Victoire T
This paper presents an integrated hybrid optimization algorithm for training the radial basis function neural network (RBF NN). Training of neural networks is still a challenging exercise in machine learning domain. Traditional training algorithms in general suffer and trap in local optima and lead to premature convergence, which makes them ineffective when applied for datasets with diverse features. Training algorithms based on evolutionary computations are becoming popular due to their robust nature in overcoming the drawbacks of the traditional algorithms...
2018: PloS One
Gloriana Chaverri, Leonardo Ancillotto, Danilo Russo
Bats represent one of the most diverse mammalian orders, not only in terms of species numbers, but also in their ecology and life histories. Many species are known to use ephemeral and/or unpredictable resources that require substantial investment to find and defend, and also engage in social interactions, thus requiring significant levels of social coordination. To accomplish these tasks, bats must be able to communicate; there is now substantial evidence that demonstrates the complexity of bat communication and the varied ways in which bats solve some of the problems associated with their unique life histories...
May 15, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Elin Malmqvist, Samuel Jansson, Shiming Zhu, Wansha Li, Katarina Svanberg, Sune Svanberg, Jens Rydell, Ziwei Song, Joakim Bood, Mikkel Brydegaard, Susanne Åkesson
We present the results of, to our knowledge, the first Lidar study applied to continuous and simultaneous monitoring of aerial insects, bats and birds. It illustrates how common patterns of flight activity, e.g. insect swarming around twilight, depend on predation risk and other constraints acting on the faunal components. Flight activity was monitored over a rice field in China during one week in July 2016, using a high-resolution Scheimpflug Lidar system. The monitored Lidar transect was about 520 m long and covered approximately 2...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
James G Puckett, Aawaz R Pokhrel, Julia A Giannini
Throughout the animal kingdom, animals frequently benefit from living in groups. Models of collective behaviour show that simple local interactions are sufficient to generate group morphologies found in nature (swarms, flocks and mills). However, individuals also interact with the complex noisy environment in which they live. In this work, we experimentally investigate the group performance in navigating a noisy light gradient of two unrelated freshwater species: golden shiners (Notemigonuscrysoleucas) and rummy nose tetra (Hemigrammus bleheri)...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qing Pan, Jialiang Yao, Ruofan Wang, Ping Cao, Gangmin Ning, Luping Fang
The vessels in the microcirculation keep adjusting their structure to meet the functional requirements of the different tissues. A previously developed theoretical model can reproduce the process of vascular structural adaptation to help the study of the microcirculatory physiology. However, until now, such model lacks the appropriate methods for its parameter settings with subsequent limitation of further applications. This study proposed an improved quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm for setting the parameter values in this model...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Juan Dai, Zhong Ji, Yubao Du
Existing near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose detection modelings mostly detect multi-spectral signals with different wavelength, which is not conducive to the popularization of non-invasive glucose meter at home and does not consider the physiological glucose dynamics of individuals. In order to solve these problems, this study presented a non-invasive blood glucose detection model combining particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial neural network (ANN) by using the 1 550 nm near-infrared absorbance as the independent variable and the concentration of blood glucose as the dependent variable, named as PSO-2ANN...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
Arianna Pompilio, Valentina Crocetta, Vincenzo Savini, Dezemona Petrelli, Marta Di Nicola, Silvia Bucco, Luigi Amoroso, Mario Bonomini, Giovanni Di Bonaventura
The present work set out to search for a virulence repertoire distinctive for Escherichia coli causing primitive acute pyelonephritis (APN). To this end, the virulence potential of 18 E. coli APN strains was genotypically and phenotypically assessed, comparatively with 19 strains causing recurrent cystitis (RC), and 16 clinically not significant (control, CO) strains. Most of the strains belong to phylogenetic group B1 (69.8%; p<0.01), and APN strains showed unique features, which are the presence of phylogroup A, and the absence of phylogroup B2 and non-typeable strains...
2018: PloS One
Charles N Serhan, Bruce D Levy
Countless times each day, the acute inflammatory response protects us from invading microbes, injuries, and insults from within, as in surgery-induced tissue injury. These challenges go unnoticed because they are self-limited and naturally resolve without progressing to chronic inflammation. Peripheral blood markers of inflammation are present in many common diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. While acute inflammation is protective, excessive swarming of neutrophils amplifies collateral tissue damage and inflammation...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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