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Yulia A Filip'echeva, Andrei V Shelud'ko, Alexei G Prilipov, Gennady L Burygin, Elizaveta M Telesheva, Stella S Yevstigneyeva, Marina P Chernyshova, Lilia P Petrova, Elena I Katsy
Azospirillum brasilense can swim and swarm owing to the activity of a constitutive polar flagellum (Fla) and inducible lateral flagella (Laf), respectively. Experimental data on the regulation of the Fla and Laf assembly in azospirilla are scarce. Here, the coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_p1160043 (fabG1) for a putative 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein (ACP)] reductase was found essential for the construction of both types of flagella. In an immotile leaky Fla- Laf- fabG1::Omegon-Km mutant, Sp245.1610, defects in flagellation and motility were fully complemented by expressing the CDS AZOBR_p1160043 from plasmid pRK415...
November 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Xiaolan Zhang, Defeng Wu, Tengfei Guo, Tingting Ran, Weiwu Wang, Dongqing Xu
ArcAB is a two-component regulatory system that can help bacteria respond to and survive in a changing environment. To identify the function of ArcAB homologues in Serratia marcescens FS14, in-frame deletion mutants of the arcA, arcB and arcAB genes were constructed. Surprisingly, ArcB affects the motility of FS14, but ArcA does not. These results are the reverse of those found in Escherichia coli. Further studies demonstrated that ArcB could promote bacterial motility by activating the synthesis of flagella and particularly by activating the expression of the biosurfactant serrawettin W1...
November 14, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Kevin P O'Keeffe, Hyunsuk Hong, Steven H Strogatz
Synchronization occurs in many natural and technological systems, from cardiac pacemaker cells to coupled lasers. In the synchronized state, the individual cells or lasers coordinate the timing of their oscillations, but they do not move through space. A complementary form of self-organization occurs among swarming insects, flocking birds, or schooling fish; now the individuals move through space, but without conspicuously altering their internal states. Here we explore systems in which both synchronization and swarming occur together...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
Takashi Ikegami, Yoh-Ichi Mototake, Shintaro Kobori, Mizuki Oka, Yasuhiro Hashimoto
A large group with a special structure can become the mother of emergence. We discuss this hypothesis in relation to large-scale boid simulations and web data. In the boid swarm simulations, the nucleation, organization and collapse dynamics were found to be more diverse in larger flocks than in smaller flocks. In the second analysis, large web data, consisting of shared photos with descriptive tags, tended to group together users with similar tendencies, allowing the network to develop a core-periphery structure...
December 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Dengying Jiang, Ling Yu, Fei Wang, Xiaoxia Xie, Yongsheng Yu
To improve the traditional smart home system, its electric wiring, networking technology, information transmission and facility control are studied. In this paper, we study the electric wiring, networking technology, information transmission and facility control to improve the traditional smart home system. First, ZigBee is used to replace the traditional electric wiring. Second, a network is built to connect lots of wireless sensors and facilities, thanks to the capability of ZigBee self-organized network and Genetic Algorithm-Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (GA-PSOA) to search for the optimal route...
2017: PloS One
Jian Liu, Yong Li, Weibo Wang, Yuhang Wang, He Zhang, Jiubin Tan
We proposed a high-accuracy image registration method of confocal microscopy for a large field of view and high resolution. The spatial information (edge information) and the entropy correlation coefficient have been both taken into account for higher accuracy of registration. The edge information is introduced to calculate the normalization correlation coefficient of the image. Then the normalization correlation coefficient and the entropy correlation coefficient of the original image have been used to improve the proposed similarity measures, the normalized mutual information with edge information (called EMI)...
November 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Xin Qu, Jinghai Yang, Yanchao Wang, Jian Lv, Zhongfang Chen, Yanming Ma
At present, the concept of planar hypercoordination in chemistry meets the fast development of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, leading to considerable interest in searching for 2D materials with planar hypercoordinate atoms. In this work, by means of the swarm-intelligence structure search method and first-principles calculations, we predict a hitherto unknown 2D TiB4 monolayer with a planar octacoordinate Ti moiety, in which each Ti atom binds to eight B atoms with equal distances in a perfect plane, and has the highest coordination of Ti known for 2D materials thus far...
November 13, 2017: Nanoscale
Michel Diouf, Vincent Hervé, Philippe Mora, Alain Robert, Sophie Frechault, Corinne Rouland-Lefèvre, Edouard Miambi
Studies on termite symbiosis have revealed that significant symbiont lineages are maintained across generations. However, most studies have focused only on the worker caste. Little is known about the gut microbiota of reproductives, the most probable vectors for transmitting these lineages to offspring. Using 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing, we compared the gut microbiota of swarming alates of the higher termite Nasutitermes arborum with those of their nestmates from the parental colony. The OTU-based alpha diversity indices showed that the gut microbiota of the alates was at least as diverse as those of non-reproductive adults...
November 10, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Athmanya K Eshwar, Claudia Guldimann, Anna Oevermann, Taurai Tasara
Cold shock-domain family proteins (Csps) are highly conserved nucleic acid binding proteins regulating the expression of various genes including those involved in stress resistance and virulence in bacteria. We show here that Csps are involved in virulence, cell aggregation and flagella-based extracellular motility of Listeria monocytogenes. A L. monocytogenes mutant deleted in all three csp genes (ΔcspABD) is attenuated with respect to human macrophage infection as well as virulence in a zebrafish infection model...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Michael Döllinger, Pablo Gómez, Rita R Patel, Christoph Alexiou, Christopher Bohr, Anne Schützenberger
MOTIVATION: Human voice is generated in the larynx by the two oscillating vocal folds. Owing to the limited space and accessibility of the larynx, endoscopic investigation of the actual phonatory process in detail is challenging. Hence the biomechanics of the human phonatory process are still not yet fully understood. Therefore, we adapt a mathematical model of the vocal folds towards vocal fold oscillations to quantify gender and age related differences expressed by computed biomechanical model parameters...
2017: PloS One
Shahrazad M A Malek, Richard K Bowles, Ivan Saika-Voivod, Francesco Sciortino, Peter H Poole
It is common practice in molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo computer simulations to run multiple, separately-initialized simulations in order to improve the sampling of independent microstates. Here we examine the utility of an extreme case of this strategy, in which we run a large ensemble of M independent simulations (a "swarm"), each of which is relaxed to equilibrium. We show that if M is of order [Formula: see text], we can monitor the swarm's relaxation to equilibrium, and confirm its attainment, within [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the equilibrium relaxation time...
November 10, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Aiming Liu, Kun Chen, Quan Liu, Qingsong Ai, Yi Xie, Anqi Chen
Motor Imagery (MI) electroencephalography (EEG) is widely studied for its non-invasiveness, easy availability, portability, and high temporal resolution. As for MI EEG signal processing, the high dimensions of features represent a research challenge. It is necessary to eliminate redundant features, which not only create an additional overhead of managing the space complexity, but also might include outliers, thereby reducing classification accuracy. The firefly algorithm (FA) can adaptively select the best subset of features, and improve classification accuracy...
November 8, 2017: Sensors
Dominik Spinczyk, Sylwester Fabian
In minimally invasive surgery one of the main challenges is the precise location of the target during the intervention. The aim of the study is to present usability of elastic body splines (EBS) to minimize TRE error. The method to find the desired EBS parameters values is presented with usage of Particle Swarm optimization approach. This ability of TRE minimization has been achieved for the respiratory phases corresponding to minimum FRE for abdominal (especially liver) surgery. The proposed methodology was verified during experiments conducted on 21 patients diagnosed with liver tumors...
December 2017: Surgical Oncology
Haejoon Jung, In-Ho Lee
In this paper, we consider clustered unmanned vehicle (UV) sensor networks for swarm sensing applications in a linear structure such as highway, tunnel, underwater pipelines, power lines, and international border. We assume that the linear UV sensor networks follow Thomas cluster process (TCP), in which the cluster locations are modelled by Poisson point process (PPP), while the cluster members (UVs) are normally distributed around their cluster centers. We focus on communications between UVs within a cluster such as local sensing data transfer or swarm coordination, where multiple UV pairs can share the same frequency band simultaneously...
November 5, 2017: Sensors
Brian W Brunelle, Bradley L Bearson, Shawn M D Bearson, Thomas A Casey
Motile bacteria employ one or more methods for movement, including darting, gliding, sliding, swarming, swimming, and twitching. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella carries acquired genes that provide resistance to specific antibiotics, and the goal of our study was to determine how antibiotics influence swimming and swarming in such resistant Salmonella isolates. Differences in motility were examined for six MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates grown on swimming and swarming media containing subinhibitory concentrations of chloramphenicol, kanamycin, streptomycin, or tetracycline...
November 2017: MSphere
Srinivasan Ramanathan, Durgadevi Ravindran, Kannappan Arunachalam, Veera Ravi Arumugam
The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-biofilm and anti-virulence properties of petroselinic acid (PSA) against the environmental pathogen Serratia marcescens. PSA significantly inhibited the quorum sensing (QS)-dependent virulence factors such as prodigiosin, protease productions, and biofilm formation in S. marcescens. The antibiofilm potential of PSA was also confirmed through light, confocal laser scanning, and scanning electron microscopic analyses. Furthermore, PSA effectively inhibited the biofilm-related phenomena such as exopolysaccharide production, hydrophobicity production, swimming, and swarming motility without affecting the bacterial growth...
November 3, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Mohamed Abdel-Basset, Ahmed E Fakhry, Ibrahim El-Henawy, Tie Qiu, Arun Kumar Sangaiah
Image registration is an important aspect in medical image analysis, and kinds use in a variety of medical applications. Examples include diagnosis, pre/post surgery guidance, comparing/merging/integrating images from multi-modal like Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Computed Tomography (CT). Whether registering images across modalities for a single patient or registering across patients for a single modality, registration is an effective way to combine information from different images into a normalized frame for reference...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
Yingxiang Cai, Yuqing Guo, Bo Jiang, Yanan Lv
Sulfur cathodes in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries still suffer from their low electronic conductivity, undesired dissolution of lithium polysulfide (Li2S n , 3 ≤ n ≤ 8) species into the electrolyte, and large degree volume change during the cycle. To overcome these problems, an effective encapsulation for the sulfur cathode is necessary. By means of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and density functional theory (DFT), we have predicted a stable metallic two-dimensional sp (2)-hybridized carbon allotrope (DHP-graphene)...
November 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rabia Aziz, C K Verma, Namita Srivastava
This paper proposes a new hybrid search technique for feature (gene) selection (FS) using Independent component analysis (ICA) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) called ICA+ABC, to select informative genes based on a Naïve Bayes (NB) algorithm. An important trait of this technique is the optimization of ICA feature vector using ABC. ICA+ABC is a hybrid search algorithm that combines the benefits of extraction approach, to reduce the size of data and wrapper approach, to optimize the reduced feature vectors. This hybrid search technique is facilitated by evaluating the performance of ICA+ABC on six standard gene expression datasets of classification...
October 28, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Xinyu Yang, Guoai Xu, Qi Li, Yanhui Guo, Miao Zhang
Authorship attribution is to identify the most likely author of a given sample among a set of candidate known authors. It can be not only applied to discover the original author of plain text, such as novels, blogs, emails, posts etc., but also used to identify source code programmers. Authorship attribution of source code is required in diverse applications, ranging from malicious code tracking to solving authorship dispute or software plagiarism detection. This paper aims to propose a new method to identify the programmer of Java source code samples with a higher accuracy...
2017: PloS One
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