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Posttrauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649912/post-combat-adaptation-improving-social-support-and-reaching-constructive-growth
#1
L Y Saltzman, R Pat-Horenczyk, M Lombe, A Weltman, Y Ziv, T McNamara, D Takeuchi, D Brom
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Posttraumatic stress disorder, a commonly researched mental health outcome associated with trauma, does not develop in the majority of survivors. More common trajectories of adaptation include resilience, and posttraumatic growth (PTG). The objectives of the current study were to: (1) describe posttrauma adaptation profiles in a sample of Israeli male military veterans (N = 448); and (2) to explore the protective factors that promote constructive PTG within two profiles of posttrauma adaptation...
April 12, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570030/novel-application-of-skills-for-psychological-recovery-as-an-early-intervention-for-violent-loss-rationale-and-case-examples
#2
Joah L Williams, Alyssa A Rheingold
This article describes a novel application of Skills for Psychological Recovery (SPR)-a brief, early intervention developed by the National Center for posttraumatic stress disorder and the National Child Traumatic Stress Network-for families grieving the violent death of a loved one. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, SPR incorporates cognitive-behavioral skills-building modules to help survivors cope with trauma-related distress and posttrauma resource loss. The authors describe the intervention and illustrate the use of SPR for violent loss by presenting data from two cases involving a suicide survivor and a homicide survivor...
January 1, 2018: Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566556/stories-of-trauma-in-family-therapy-with-refugees-supporting-safe-relational-spaces-of-narration-and-silence
#3
Lucia De Haene, Cécile Rousseau, Ruth Kevers, Nele Deruddere, Peter Rober
With the sharp increase of refugees' arrival and resettlement in western communities, adequate mental health care forms a pivotal dimension in host societies' responses to those individuals and communities seeking protection within their borders. Here, clinical literature shows a growing interest in the development of family therapy approaches with refugees, in which therapeutic practice engages with the pivotal role of refugee family dynamics in posttrauma reconstruction and adaptation in resettlement and aims at supporting posttrauma reconstruction through strengthening capacities to restore safety, meaning and connectedness within family relationships...
April 2018: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502508/sexual-assault-disclosure-the-effect-of-victim-race-and-perpetrator-type-on-empathy-culpability-and-service-referral-for-survivors-in-a-hypothetical-scenario
#4
Cortney A Franklin, Alondra D Garza
The aftermath of sexual assault warrants further attention surrounding the responses provided by those to whom survivors disclose, especially when perpetrator type or victim race may affect whether the bystander response is supportive or attributes culpability to the victim. Disclosure responses have significant consequences for survivors' posttrauma mental health and formal help-seeking behavior. The current study used a sample of 348 self-report, paper-and-pencil surveys administered during the fall 2015 semester to a purposive sample of undergraduate students with a mean age of 20...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441803/trauma-related-disclosure-in-sexual-assault-survivors-intimate-relationships-associations-with-ptsd-shame-and-partners-responses
#5
Jennifer DiMauro, Keith D Renshaw
Relative to survivors of other traumatic events, survivors of sexual assault have an increased likelihood of meeting criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). They are also comparatively more likely to exhibit higher levels of PTSD symptom severity. Recent research has highlighted the importance of trauma-related disclosure within the context of intimate relationships for posttrauma functioning and recovery, but this phenomenon has yet to be examined specifically in sexual assault survivor samples...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434566/assessment-of-platelet-function-in-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-observational-study-in-the-neuro-critical-care-setting
#6
Caroline Lindblad, Eric Peter Thelin, Michael Nekludov, Arvid Frostell, David W Nelson, Mikael Svensson, Bo-Michael Bellander
Background: Despite seemingly functional coagulation, hemorrhagic lesion progression is a common and devastating condition following traumatic brain injury (TBI), stressing the need for new diagnostic techniques. Multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) measures platelet function and could aid in coagulopathy assessment following TBI. The aims of this study were to evaluate MEA temporal dynamics, influence of concomitant therapy, and its capabilities to predict lesion progression and clinical outcome in a TBI cohort...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410774/peritraumatic-distress-fully-mediates-the-relationship-between-posttraumatic-stress-symptoms-preoperative-and-three-months-postoperative-in-patients-undergoing-spine-surgery
#7
Ehab Shiban, Jens Lehmberg, Ute Hoffmann, Jeff Thiel, Thomas Probst, Margret Friedl, Andreas Mühlberger, Bernhard Meyer, Youssef Shiban
Background: Growing evidence shows the significance of illness and surgical procedures as traumatizing stressors. Risk factors are widely investigated in various settings and samples, using numerous measures of posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While pretrauma psychological distress is acknowledged as an influential factor, peritraumatic experiences are controversially still being discussed as relevant to the development of PTSD. Objective: In a group of patients consecutively undergoing elective spine surgery (N = 89) in a German hospital, this longitudinal study addressed the question of how pretrauma PTSD symptoms and peritrauma distress interact with one another in regard to the amount of posttrauma symptoms of PTSD...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405922/ptsd-symptom-severity-and-emotion-regulation-strategy-use-during-trauma-cue-exposure-among-patients-with-substance-use-disorders-associations-with-negative-affect-craving-and-cortisol-reactivity
#8
Matthew T Tull, Christopher R Berghoff, Linnie E Wheeless, Rivka T Cohen, Kim L Gratz
The co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) pathology with a substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with emotion regulation deficits. However, studies in this area generally rely on trait-based emotion regulation measures, and there is limited information on the relation of PTSD pathology to the use of specific emotion regulation strategies in response to trauma-related distress among SUD patients or the consequences of these strategies for trauma cue reactivity. This study examined the relation of PTSD symptom severity to the use of specific emotion regulation strategies during trauma cue exposure among trauma-exposed SUD patients, as well as the indirect relations of PTSD symptom severity to changes in negative affect, cravings, and cortisol levels pre- to posttrauma cue exposure through different emotion regulation strategies...
January 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383722/mechanisms-of-red-blood-cell-transfusion-related-immunomodulation
#9
REVIEW
Kenneth E Remy, Mark W Hall, Jill Cholette, Nicole P Juffermans, Kathleen Nicol, Allan Doctor, Neil Blumberg, Philip C Spinella, Philip J Norris, Mary K Dahmer, Jennifer A Muszynski
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is common in critically ill, postsurgical, and posttrauma patients in whom both systemic inflammation and immune suppression are associated with adverse outcomes. RBC products contain a multitude of immunomodulatory mediators that interact with and alter immune cell function. These interactions can lead to both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Defining clinical outcomes related to immunomodulatory effects of RBCs in transfused patients remains a challenge, likely due to complex interactions between individual blood product characteristics and patient-specific risk factors...
March 2018: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364750/ptsd-latent-classes-and-class-transitions-predicted-by-distress-and-fear-disorders-in-disaster-exposed-adolescents
#10
Xing Cao, Li Wang, Chengqi Cao, Jianxin Zhang, Jon D Elhai
This study aimed to determine the population-based typologies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, the longitudinal patterns of transitions across these typologies, and the predictive effects of distress and fear disorder symptoms on these transitions in a frequently referred but scantly studied population of traumatized youth. A sample of 1,278 Chinese adolescents (54.0% girls) with a mean age of 13.4 years (SD = 0.8, range = 12-16) completed 2-wave surveys 2.5 and 3.5 years after a major disaster...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363677/decoronation-of-an-ankylosed-tooth-postoperative-restoration-by-means-of-an-intermediate-fixed-orthodontic-laboratory-device
#11
Shmuel Einy, Arieh Y Kaufman, Margarita Yoshpe, Nir Philosoph, Dror Aizenbud, Shaul Lin
Rehabilitation of missing decoronated permanent incisors in growing children and adolescents is a major challenge. The psychologic impact of the loss of an incisor is significant due to its immediate influence on facial appearance. Final restoration is planned only after skeletal growth cessation. Consequently, the fabrication and installation of an immediate temporary restoration, which is expected to remain in place for a long period, must meet the patient's esthetic demands and be durable in the oral environment...
2018: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294998/social-and-contextual-influences-on-mental-health-following-an-episode-of-mass-violence
#12
Erika D Felix, Stephanie A Moore, Haley Meskunas, Antoniya Terzieva
Few studies explore how the recovery context following an episode of mass violence affects posttragedy mental health (MH), despite clear implications for developing posttrauma supports. Following a mass murder, this prospective, longitudinal study examined how reactions to media coverage, family reactions, and disappointment in social support influenced posttragedy MH (posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety), above and beyond the influence of pretragedy MH, pretragedy victimization, and objective exposure...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283022/cns-injury-posttranslational-modification-of-the-tau-protein-as-a-biomarker
#13
Mitchell T Caprelli, Andrea J Mothe, Charles H Tator
The ideal biomarker for central nervous system (CNS) trauma in patients would be a molecular marker specific for injured nervous tissue that would provide a consistent and reliable assessment of the presence and severity of injury and the prognosis for recovery. One candidate biomarker is the protein tau, a microtubule-associated protein abundant in the axonal compartment of CNS neurons. Following axonal injury, tau becomes modified primarily by hyperphosphorylation of its various amino acid residues and cleavage into smaller fragments...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238636/functional-outcome-of-neurologic-controlled-hal-exoskeletal-neurorehabilitation-in-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-a-pilot-with-one-year-treatment-and-variable-treatment-frequency
#14
Oliver Jansen, Thomas A Schildhauer, Renate C Meindl, Martin Tegenthoff, Peter Schwenkreis, Matthias Sczesny-Kaiser, Dennis Grasmücke, Christian Fisahn, Mirko Aach
Study Design: Longitudinal prospective study. Objectives: Whether 1-year HAL-BWSTT of chronic spinal cord injured patients can improve independent ambulated mobility further as a function of training frequency, after an initial 3-month training period. Methods: Eight patients with chronic SCI were enrolled. They initially received full standard physical therapy and neurorehabilitation in the acute/subacute posttrauma phase. During this trial, all patients first underwent a daily (5 per week) HAL-BWSTT for 12 weeks...
December 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222622/toll-like-receptor-4-knockdown-attenuates-brain-damage-and-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy-and-astrocyte-activation
#15
Hongsheng Jiang, Yanzhou Wang, Xin Liang, Xiaofeng Xing, Xiuzhen Xu, Caifeng Zhou
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is reported that posttraumatic neuroinflammation is an essential event in the progression of brain injury after TBI. Recent evidences indicate that TLR4 mediates glial phagocytic activity and inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, TLR4 may be an important therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory injury post-TBI. This study was designed to explore potential effects and underlying mechanisms of TLR4 in rats suffered from TBI...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170347/50-how-can-informal-support-impact-child-ptsd-symptoms-following-a-psychological-trauma
#16
Sarah Halligan
BACKGROUND: An estimated 20% of children who present to hospital emergency departments following potentially traumatic events (e.g., serious injuries, road traffic accidents, assaults) will develop post-traumatic stress disorder as a consequence. The development of PTSD can have a substantial impact on a child's developmental trajectory, including their emotional, social and educational wellbeing. Despite this, only a small proportion will access mental health services, with the majority relying on informal sources of support...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154596/the-moderating-role-of-trauma-type-on-the-relationship-between-event-centrality-of-the-traumatic-experience-and-mental-health-outcomes
#17
Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Kathryn H Howell, Laura E Schwartz, Amanda J Hasselle
OBJECTIVE: Event centrality, or the extent to which traumatic events are perceived to be integral to one's life, has been found to be predictive of trauma-related symptoms, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Less research has been devoted to whether event centrality is related to adaptive outcomes, such as posttraumatic growth (PTG) and resiliency, and psychological well-being (PWB) has not been investigated. Given the unique circumstances of different types of traumas, the relationship between event centrality and posttrauma functioning may differ by the type of trauma experienced...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154593/shame-and-alienation-related-to-child-maltreatment-links-to-symptoms-across-generations
#18
Rebecca L Babcock Fenerci, Anne P DePrince
OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated associations between appraisals of shame and alienation related to mothers' own experiences of child maltreatment and symptoms across generations-in mothers themselves as well as their toddler/preschool-aged children. METHOD: Mothers who survived maltreatment (N = 113) with a child between the ages of 2 and 5 were recruited to participate in an online study on Maternal Coping, Attachment and Health. Mother participants completed a series of questionnaires, including those that asked about posttrauma appraisals of their own maltreatment experiences as well as their child's and their own mental health symptoms...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140560/negative-posttrauma-cognitions-mediate-the-association-between-morally-injurious-events-and-trauma-related-psychopathology-in-treatment-seeking-veterans
#19
Philip Held, Brian J Klassen, Denise S Zou, Blake S Schroedter, Niranjan S Karnik, Mark H Pollack, Alyson K Zalta
Exposure to potentially morally injurious events has been shown to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in military personnel. Few studies have examined factors that help to explain how potentially morally injurious events may contribute to the development of trauma-related psychopathology. Negative posttrauma cognitions are thought to play a role in the etiology of PTSD and depression following trauma; however, it is unclear whether more global beliefs about the self, others, and world play a role in the development of PTSD and depression due to morally injurious events...
December 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131332/the-impact-of-rape-acknowledgment-on-survivor-outcomes-the-moderating-effects-of-rape-myth-acceptance
#20
Laura C Wilson, Amie R Newins, Susan W White
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about how rape acknowledgment relates to posttrauma functioning; recent research suggests the effect may depend on additional factors. In the current study, the moderating effect of rape myth acceptance (RMA) on the relationships between rape acknowledgment and mental health outcomes was examined. METHOD: A sample of 181 female rape survivors recruited from a university completed an online survey assessing RMA, rape acknowledgment, depression symptoms, and alcohol use...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
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