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Birgit Kleim, Julia Wysokowsky, Nuria Schmid, Erich Seifritz, Björn Rasch
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate sleep's effect in the immediate aftermath of experiencing an analog trauma in the laboratory on reducing intrusive emotional memory formation. METHODS: Sixty-five healthy women were exposed to an experimental laboratory trauma. They viewed a neutral and a trauma film in the laboratory and were randomly allocated to either a group that slept following film viewing or a group that remained awake. Sleep was recorded with electroencephalogram in a subgroup of participants in the sleep group...
October 10, 2016: Sleep
Nirmalendu Bikash Bhowmik, Aamir Abbas, Mohammad Saifuddin, Md Rashedul Islam, Rumana Habib, Aminur Rahman, Md Amirul Haque, Zahid Hassan, Mohammad Wasay
Background. Stroke is an important morbidity for low and middle income countries like Bangladesh. We established the first stroke registry in Bangladesh. Methods. Data was collected from stroke patients who were admitted in Department of Neurology of BIRDEM with first ever stroke, aged between 30 and 90 years. Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid and subdural hemorrhage, and posttrauma features were excluded. Results. Data was gathered from 679 stroke patients. Mean age was 60.6 years. Almost 68% of patients were male...
2016: Stroke Research and Treatment
Alberta Engelbrecht, Laura Jobson
Appraisals are a key feature in understanding an individual's experience; this is especially important when the experience is a traumatic one. However, research is diminutive when looking at the interaction between trauma appraisals and culture in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder using qualitative methodologies. This study explored cultural differences in perceptions and appraisals of trauma using three qualitative focus groups with community members (n = 11) from collectivistic cultures who had experienced a traumatic event and three qualitative individual key informant interviews with mental health practitioners (n = 3) routinely working with trauma survivors...
2016: SpringerPlus
Yael Danieli, Fran H Norris, Brian Engdahl
Objective: Because findings on the mental health status of Holocaust survivors' offspring have been inconsistent, we aimed to identify factors that place some offspring at greater risk for developing mood or anxiety disorders. Method: Using a web-based survey and structured clinical interviews with adult children of survivors, we attempted to predict disorders from offspring's circumstances, perceptions of parents' posttrauma adaptational styles, and self-reported reparative adaptational impacts. Posttrauma adaptational styles encompass intrafamilial and interpersonal psychological, social and behavioral coping, mastery, and defense mechanisms used by each parent...
September 19, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Daniel Jay Krosch, Jane Shakespeare-Finch
Objective: Pregnancy loss is common and can be devastating for those who experience it. However, a historical focus on negative outcomes, and grief in particular, has rendered an incomplete portrait of both the gravity of the loss, and the potential for growth in its wake. Consistent with contemporary models of growth following bereavement, this study explored the occurrence of posttraumatic growth following pregnancy loss and further assessed the role of core belief disruptions and common loss context factors across perinatal grief, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and posttraumatic growth...
September 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Julie Vieselmeyer, Jeff Holguin, Amy Mezulis
Objective: This study investigated the role of resilience and gratitude in the relationship between trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (PTS), and posttraumatic growth (PTG) following the campus shooting at Seattle Pacific University. The prevalence of community traumatic events such as school shootings has increased dramatically in the last decade. However, a significant number of individuals report positive changes such as enhanced appreciation for life, suggesting that some people are able to convert adverse experiences into personal growth...
August 22, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Jillian C Shipherd, Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, Alexis Matza
Although intrusive cognitions (ICs) are common posttrauma, little is known about trauma-related IC content, or associations between IC content and posttraumatic adjustment. A mixed-method cross-sectional approach was used in a secondary analysis of IC content and postdeployment distress. Participants were 1,521 U.S. Army soldiers 3-12 months postdeployment reporting their most distressing postdeployment ICs (mean number of ICs reported was 1.20). ICs were transcribed and content was categorized by 13 emergent themes...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Christopher J Howard
Trauma can oftentimes be a catalyst for changes in an individual's religious and spiritual beliefs. Beliefs about the cause of the trauma, for instance, may include attributions of possessing spirits, and are to be found in an increasingly pluralistic and multicultural society. Such preternatural explanations may be referred to as dissociative identity disorder, possession form. Unwittingly, an overreliance on neurobiological explanations and relegation of cultural idioms of distress may diminish effective collaboration with ecclesiastical authorities...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Religion and Health
Christina Sheerin, Erin C Berenz, Gun Peggy Knudsen, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Kenneth S Kendler, Steven H Aggen, Ananda B Amstadter
Epidemiologic studies of trauma highlight the imbalance between prevalence of psychiatric diagnoses and help seeking. We investigated prevalence and correlates of help seeking and self-medication in Norwegian adults with trauma history with a focus on common posttrauma outcomes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (alcohol or drug). Participants reporting at least 1 PTSD symptom (n = 307) were asked if they consulted with a doctor/another professional (help seeking) or used drugs/alcohol (self-medication) for trauma-related problems...
June 6, 2016: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Bryce Hruska, Maria L Pacella, Richard L George, Douglas L Delahanty
OBJECTIVE: Prior research has identified different PTSD symptom (PTSS) trajectories over months and years posttrauma that warrant different levels of clinical attention. Earlier identification of at-risk trauma victims can facilitate efficient and appropriate intervention efforts. METHOD: Using latent class growth analysis, we examined daily PTSS trajectories beginning 6 weeks postinjury in 68 injury victims. Resulting classes were compared on key characteristics at 6 and 21 weeks postinjury...
May 30, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Wen-Yen Huang, I-Yin Lu, Chyan Yang, Yi-Pin Chou, Hsing-Lin Lin
Hemothorax is common in elderly patients following blunt chest trauma. Traditionally, tube thoracostomy is the first choice for managing this complication. The goal of this study was to determine the benefits of this approach in elderly patients with and without an initial tube thoracostomy. Seventy-eight patients aged >65 years with blunt chest trauma and stable vital signs were included. All of them had more than 300 mL of hemothorax, indicating that a tube thoracostomy was necessary. The basic demographic data and clinical outcomes of patients with hemothorax who underwent direct video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without a tube thoracostomy were compared with those who received an initial tube thoracostomy...
2016: BioMed Research International
Eve B Carlson, Lynn C Waelde, Patrick A Palmieri, Kathryn S Macia, Steven R Smith, Elizabeth McDade-Montez
The Dissociative Symptoms Scale (DSS) was developed to assess moderately severe levels of depersonalization, derealization, gaps in awareness or memory, and dissociative reexperiencing that would be relevant to a wide range of clinical populations. Structural analyses of data from four clinical and five nonclinical samples (N = 1,600) yielded four factors that reflected the domains of interest and showed good fit with the data. Sample scores were consistent with expectations and showed very good internal consistency and temporal stability...
May 13, 2016: Assessment
Rachel M Hiller, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Pasco Fearon, Sarah Lobo, Anna McKinnon, Abigail Fraser, Sarah L Halligan
BACKGROUND: Understanding the natural course of child and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has significant implications for the identification of, and intervention for, at-risk youth. We used a meta-analytic approach to examine longitudinal changes in youth PTSD prevalence and symptoms over the first 12 months posttrauma. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to identify longitudinal studies of PTSD in young people (5-18 years old), excluding treatment trials...
August 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Christin M Ogle, David C Rubin, Ilene C Siegler
Using data from a longitudinal study of community-dwelling older adults, we analyzed the most extensive set of known correlates of PTSD symptoms obtained from a single sample to examine the measures' independent and combined utility in accounting for PTSD symptom severity. Fifteen measures identified as PTSD risk factors in published meta-analyses and 12 theoretically and empirically supported individual difference and health-related measures were included. Individual difference measures assessed after the trauma, including insecure attachment and factors related to the current trauma memory, such as self-rated severity, event centrality, frequency of involuntary recall, and physical reactions to the memory, accounted for symptom severity better than measures of pre-trauma factors...
March 2016: Clinical Psychological Science
Jessica A Blayney, Jennifer P Read, Craig Colder
OBJECTIVE: Sexual victimization is common in college populations and has been linked to a number of deleterious outcomes, including posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and problem drinking. Research suggests that these associations may be further impacted when the victimization involves alcohol, yet little is known about how alcohol-related sexual victimization (ASV) may influence functional outcomes over time. Posttraumatic cognitions are dysfunctional trauma-related beliefs that are thought to affect posttrauma adaptation and may help to shed light on the later psychological effects of ASV...
July 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Galit Ben-Amitay, Nir Kimchi, Leo Wolmer, Paz Toren
Sexual abuse has physiological and emotional implications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neurobiological sequels of childhood sexual trauma by monitoring physiological variables among sexually abused girls and women compared to controls. We assessed posttrauma and traumatic life events of 35 females sexually abused in their childhood (age range 7-51 years) and 25 control females (age range 7-54 years). Electroencephalography, frontalis electromyography, electrodermal activity, and heart rate parameters were recorded while watching sets of pictures representing neutral and trauma-suggestive stimuli...
2016: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
José M Andreu, M Elena Peña, M Ángeles de La Cruz
This study evaluated the factor structure, internal consistency, concurrent and discriminant validity of the Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI; Foa, Ehlers, Clark, Tolin, & Orsillo, 1999) in a sample of 107 female survivors of sexual assault with a mean age of 29.1 years (SD = 7.7). All participants were recruited between July 2010 and December 2014 from a care center for sexual assault victims in Madrid, Spain. Results supported the three-factor structure of the PTCI: (a) negative cognition about self, (b) negative cognition about the world, and (c) self-blame...
February 16, 2016: Women & Health
Laura J Gilbert, Ping Li, Clinton K Murray, Heather C Yun, Deepak Aggarwal, Amy C Weintrob, David R Tribble
Prior studies have demonstrated high rates of colonization and infection with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDR-GNB) in injured military personnel. Our analysis shows that injuries inflicted during peak combat periods, massive blood transfusion requirement, and posttrauma cefazolin prophylaxis (additive effect with fluoroquinolones) were risk factors for MDR-GNB colonization.
April 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Alejandro Morales, Diego González-Aguilera, Alfonso I López, Miguel A Gutiérrez
OBJECTIVE: This article develops and validates a new methodology and tool for rescue assistance in traffic accidents, with the aim of improving its efficiency and safety in the evacuation of people, reducing the number of victims in road accidents. METHOD: Different tests supported by professionals and experts have been designed under different circumstances and with different categories of damaged vehicles coming from real accidents and simulated trapped victims in order to calibrate and refine the proposed methodology and tool...
2016: Traffic Injury Prevention
Arabinda N Chowdhury, Ranajit Mondal, Arabinda Brahma, Mrinal K Biswas
AIMS: Human-tiger conflict (HTC) is a serious public health issue in Sundarban Reserve Forest, India. HTC is a continued concern for the significant mortality and morbidity of both human and tiger population. This is the first comprehensive report on Sundarban tiger-human conflicts and its impact on widows whose husbands were killed by tigers. The study attempts to explore the situation analysis of HTC and the aftermath of the incident including bereavement and coping, the cultural stigma related to being killed by a tiger and the consequent discrimination, deprivation, and social rejection, and the impact on the mental health of the tiger-widows...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
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