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Patient derived xenograft and methylation

Sharon K Michelhaugh, Otto Muzik, Anthony R Guastella, Neil V Klinger, Lisa A Polin, Hancheng Cai, Yanchun Xin, Thomas J Mangner, Shaohui Zhang, Csaba Juhasz, Sandeep Mittal
: Abnormal tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) is involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of human diseases including cancers. α-[(11)C]-methyl-L-tryptophan ((11)C-AMT) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging demonstrated increased tryptophan uptake and trapping in epileptic foci and brain tumors, but the short half-life of (11)C limits its widespread clinical application. Recent in vitro studies suggested that the novel radiotracer 1-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tryptophan ((18)F-FETrp) may be useful to assess tryptophan metabolism via the KP...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Tushar Tomar, Steven de Jong, Nicolette G Alkema, Rieks L Hoekman, Gert Jan Meersma, Harry G Klip, Ate Gj van der Zee, G Bea A Wisman
BACKGROUND: In high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), intrinsic and/or acquired resistance against platinum-containing chemotherapy is a major obstacle for successful treatment. A low frequency of somatic mutations but frequent epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation in HGSOC tumors, presents the cancer epigenome as a relevant target for innovative therapy. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) supposedly are good preclinical models for identifying novel drug targets. However, the representativeness of global methylation status of HGSOC PDXs compared to their original tumors has not been evaluated so far...
October 20, 2016: Genome Medicine
Dennis Wang, Nhu-An Pham, Jiefei Tong, Shingo Sakashita, Ghassan Allo, Lucia Kim, Naoki Yanagawa, Vibha Raghavan, Yuhong Wei, Christine To, Quang M Trinh, Maud H W Starmans, Michelle A Chan-Seng-Yue, Dianne Chadwick, Lei Li, Chang-Qi Zhu, Ni Liu, Ming Li, Sharon Lee, Vladimir Ignatchenko, Dan Strumpf, Paul Taylor, Nadeem Moghal, Geoffrey Liu, Paul C Boutros, Thomas Kislinger, Melania Pintilie, Igor Jurisica, Frances A Shepherd, John D McPherson, Lakshmi Muthuswamy, Michael F Moran, Ming-Sound Tsao
Availability of lung cancer models that closely mimic human tumors remains a significant gap in cancer research, as tumor cell lines and mouse models may not recapitulate the spectrum of lung cancer heterogeneity seen in patients. We aimed to establish a patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) resource from surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fresh tumor tissue from surgical resection was implanted and grown in the subcutaneous pocket of non-obese severe combined immune deficient (NOD SCID) gamma mice...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Xiang Yuan, Jinyu Kong, Zhikun Ma, Na Li, Ruinuo Jia, Yiwen Liu, Fuyou Zhou, Qimin Zhan, Gang Liu, Shegan Gao
Our studies investigating the existence of tumor-initiating cell (TIC) populations in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) had identified a subpopulation of cells isolated from ESCC patient-derived tumor specimens marked by an ALDH(bri+) phenotype bear stem cell-like features. Importantly, KDM4C, a histone demethylase was enhanced in ALDH(bri+) subpopulation, suggesting that strategies interfering with KDM4C may be able to target these putative TICs. In the present study, by genetic and chemical means, we demonstrated that, KDM4C blockade selectively decreased the ESCC ALDH(bri+) TICs population in vitro and specifically targeted the TICs in ALDH(bri+)-derived xenograft, retarding engraftment...
October 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Mariam M AlHilli, Marc A Becker, S John Weroha, Karen S Flatten, Rachel M Hurley, Maria I Harrell, Ann L Oberg, Matt J Maurer, Kieran M Hawthorne, Xiaonan Hou, Sean C Harrington, Sarah McKinstry, X Wei Meng, Keith M Wilcoxen, Kimberly R Kalli, Elizabeth M Swisher, Scott H Kaufmann, Paul Haluska
OBJECTIVE: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have yielded encouraging responses in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSOCs), but the optimal treatment setting remains unknown. We assessed the effect of niraparib on HGSOC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models as well as the relationship between certain markers of homologous recombination (HR) status, including BRCA1/2 mutations and formation of RAD51 foci after DNA damage, and response of these PDXs to niraparib in vivo...
September 7, 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Hye-Young Min, Su-Chan Lee, Jong Kyu Woo, Hyun Jin Jung, Kwan Hee Park, Hae Min Jeong, Seung Yeob Hyun, Jaebeom Cho, Wooin Lee, Ji Eun Park, So Jung Kwon, Hyo-Jong Lee, Xiao Ni, Young Kee Shin, Faye M Johnson, Madeleine Duvic, Ho-Young Lee
PURPOSE: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are promising anticancer therapies; however, drug resistance limits their efficacy. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying HDI resistance, focusing on the mechanism of HDI-mediated induction of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) based on our previous study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The methylation status of CCCTC binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites in the IGF2/H19 imprinting control region (ICR) were determined by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing...
August 31, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Qian Xiao, Donger Zhou, Agnieszka A Rucki, Jamila Williams, Jiaojiao Zhou, Guanglan Mo, Adrian Murphy, Kenji Fujiwara, Jennifer Kleponis, Bulent Salman, Christopher L Wolfgang, Robert A Anders, Shu Zheng, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Lei Zheng
Stromal fibrosis is a prominent histologic characteristic of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but how stromal fibroblasts are regulated in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to support tumor growth is largely unknown. Here we show that PDAC cells can induce DNA methylation in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF). Upon direct contact with PDAC cells, DNA methylation of SOCS1 and other genes is induced in mesenchymal stem cells or in CAF that lack SOCS1 methylation at baseline. Silencing or decitabine treatment to block the DNA methylation enzyme DNMT1 inhibited methylation of SOCS1...
September 15, 2016: Cancer Research
Pascal O Zinn, Sanjay K Singh, Aikaterini Kotrotsou, Faramak Zandi, Ginu Thomas, Masumeh Hatami, Markus M Luedi, Ahmed Elakkad, Islam Hassan, Joy Gumin, Erik P Sulman, Frederick F Lang, Rivka R Colen
INTRODUCTION: Imaging is the modality of choice for noninvasive characterization of biological tissue and organ systems; imaging serves as early diagnostic tool for most disease processes and is rapidly evolving, thus transforming the way we diagnose and follow patients over time. A vast number of cancer imaging characteristics have been correlated to underlying genomics; however, none have established causality. Therefore, our objectives were to test if there is a causal relationship between imaging and genomic information; and to develop a clinically relevant radiomic pipeline for glioblastoma molecular characterization...
August 2016: Neurosurgery
Petra Ter Brugge, Petra Kristel, Eline van der Burg, Ute Boon, Michiel de Maaker, Esther Lips, Lennart Mulder, Julian de Ruiter, Catia Moutinho, Heidrun Gevensleben, Elisabetta Marangoni, Ian Majewski, Katarzyna Jóźwiak, Wigard Kloosterman, Markus van Roosmalen, Karen Duran, Frans Hogervorst, Nick Turner, Manel Esteller, Edwin Cuppen, Jelle Wesseling, Jos Jonkers
BACKGROUND: Although BRCA1-deficient tumors are extremely sensitive to DNA-damaging drugs and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, recurrences do occur and, consequently, resistance to therapy remains a serious clinical problem. To study the underlying mechanisms, we induced therapy resistance in patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of BRCA1-mutated and BRCA1-methylated triple-negative breast cancer. METHODS: A cohort of 75 mice carrying BRCA1-deficient breast PDX tumors was treated with cisplatin, melphalan, nimustine, or olaparib, and treatment sensitivity was determined...
November 2016: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Kelsie L Thu, Mahboubeh Papari-Zareei, Victor Stastny, Kai Song, Michael Peyton, Victor D Martinez, Yu-An Zhang, Isabel B Castro, Marileila Varella-Garcia, Hanquan Liang, Chao Xing, Ralf Kittler, Sara Milchgrub, Diego H Castrillon, Heather L Davidson, C Patrick Reynolds, Wan L Lam, Jayanthi Lea, Adi F Gazdar
Recent literature suggests that most widely used ovarian cancer (OVCA) cell models do not recapitulate the molecular features of clinical tumors. To address this limitation, we generated 18 cell lines and 3 corresponding patient-derived xenografts predominantly from high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSOC) peritoneal effusions. Comprehensive genomic characterization and comparison of each model to its parental tumor demonstrated a high degree of molecular similarity. Our characterization included whole exome-sequencing and copy number profiling for cell lines, xenografts, and matched non-malignant tissues, and DNA methylation, gene expression, and spectral karyotyping for a subset of specimens...
June 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Celia Chao, John R Zatarain, Ye Ding, Ciro Coletta, Amy A Mrazek, Nadiya Druzhyna, Paul Johnson, Haiying Chen, Judy L Hellmich, Antonia Asimakopoulou, Kazunori Yanagi, Gabor Olah, Petra Szoleczky, Gabor Törö, Fredrick J Bohanon, Minal Cheema, Rachel Lewis, David Eckelbarger, Akbar Ahmad, Katalin Módis, Ashley Untereiner, Bartosz Szczesny, Andreas Papapetropoulos, Jia Zhou, Mark R Hellmich, Csaba Szabo
Colon cancer cells contain high levels of cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS). Its product, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) promotes the growth and proliferation of colorectal tumor cells. In order to improve the antitumor efficacy of the prototypical CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA), we designed and synthesized YD0171, a methyl ester derivative of AOAA. The antiproliferative effect of YD0171 exceeded the antiproliferative potency of AOAA in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. The esterase inhibitor paraoxon prevented the cellular inhibition of CBS activity by YD0171...
April 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine
Kerri A Ohman, Yassar M Hashim, Suwanna Vangveravong, Timothy M Nywening, Darren R Cullinan, S Peter Goedegebuure, Jingxia Liu, Brian A Van Tine, Herve Tiriac, David A Tuveson, David G DeNardo, Dirk Spitzer, Robert H Mach, William G Hawkins
Cancer-selective drug delivery is an important concept in improving treatment while minimizing off-site toxicities, and sigma-2 receptors, which are overexpressed in solid tumors, represent attractive pharmacologic targets. Select sigma-2 ligands have been shown to be rapidly internalized selectively into cancer cells while retaining the capacity to deliver small molecules as drug cargoes. We utilized the sigma-2-based drug delivery concept to convert Erastin, a clinically underperforming drug, into a potent pancreatic cancer therapeutic...
June 7, 2016: Oncotarget
Anthony R Guastella, Sharon K Michelhaugh, Neil V Klinger, William J Kupsky, Lisa A Polin, Otto Muzik, Csaba Juhász, Sandeep Mittal
Increasing evidence demonstrates the immunosuppressive kynurenine pathway's (KP) role in the pathophysiology of human gliomas. To study the KP in vivo, we used the noninvasive molecular imaging tracer α-[(11)C]-methyl-l-tryptophan (AMT). The AMT-positron emission tomography (PET) has shown high uptake in high-grade gliomas and predicted survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). We generated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models from dissociated cells, or tumor fragments, from 5 patients with GBM...
2016: Molecular Imaging
Yuqiao Sheng, Kangdong Liu, Qiong Wu, Naomi Oi, Hanyong Chen, Kanamata Reddy, Yanan Jiang, Ke Yao, Haitao Li, Wei Li, Yi Zhang, Mohammad Saleem, Wei-Ya Ma, Ann M Bode, Ziming Dong, Zigang Dong
Esophageal cancer is one of the least studied and deadliest cancers worldwide with a poor prognosis due to limited options for treatment. Chemotherapy agents such as the microtubule-targeting compounds are the mainstay of palliation for advanced esophageal cancer treatment. However, the toxicity and side effects of tubulin-binding agents (TBAs) have promoted the development of novel, more potent but less toxic TBAs. Herein, we identified 2-[4-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-5-[(2-methylprop-2-en-1-yl)oxy] phenol (PPMP) as a novel TBA for esophageal cancer treatment...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Takeshi Yoshikawa, Go Kobori, Takayuki Goto, Shusuke Akamatsu, Naoki Terada, Takashi Kobayashi, Yoshinori Tanaka, Giman Jung, Tomomi Kamba, Osamu Ogawa, Takahiro Inoue
BACKGROUND: The high rate of failure of new agents in oncology clinical trials indicates a weak understanding of the complexity of human cancer. Recent understanding of the mechanisms underlying castration resistance in prostate cancer led to the development of new agents targeting the androgen receptor pathway; however, their effectiveness is limited. Hence, there is a need for experimental systems that are able to better reproduce the biological diversity of prostate cancer in preclinical settings...
August 2016: Prostate
Yun-Peng Hao, Zheng-Yu Liu, Cheng Xie, Lu Zhou, Xun Sun
N-De-tert-butoxycarbonyl-N-[2-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-methyl)propyloxycarbonyl]-2-debenzoyl-2-(m-fluorobenzoyl)-docetaxel (4FDT), a novel fluorinated docetaxel analog, was evaluated for its anti-hepatoma effect and possible druggability. In molecular docking studies, 4FDT coincided with paclitaxel in a part of the nucleus. In in vitro studies, 4FDT demonstrated higher anti-hepatoma activity approximately 1.5 times greater than that of docetaxel. More interestingly, 4FDT had been determined to have better anticancer effects, even 90 times greater in patient-derived xenografts (PDX) liver cancer cell lines than sorafenib...
June 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Brittany Kleb, Marcos R H Estécio, Jiexin Zhang, Vassiliki Tzelepi, Woonbok Chung, Jaroslav Jelinek, Nora M Navone, Salahaldin Tahir, Victor E Marquez, Jean-Pierre Issa, Sankar Maity, Ana Aparicio
Small cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) morphology is rare at initial diagnosis but often emerges during prostate cancer progression and portends a dismal prognosis. It does not express androgen receptor (AR) or respond to hormonal therapies. Clinically applicable markers for its early detection and treatment with effective chemotherapy are needed. Our studies in patient tumor-derived xenografts (PDX) revealed that AR-negative SCPC (AR(-)SCPC) expresses neural development genes instead of the prostate luminal epithelial genes characteristic of AR-positive castration-resistant adenocarcinomas (AR(+)ADENO)...
March 3, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Pier-Luc Clermont, Francesco Crea, Yan Ting Chiang, Dong Lin, Amy Zhang, James Z L Wang, Abhijit Parolia, Rebecca Wu, Hui Xue, Yuwei Wang, Jiarui Ding, Kelsie L Thu, Wan L Lam, Sohrab P Shah, Colin C Collins, Yuzhuo Wang, Cheryl D Helgason
BACKGROUND: While localized prostate cancer (PCa) can be effectively cured, metastatic disease inevitably progresses to a lethal state called castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant epigenetic repression by the polycomb group (PcG) complexes fuels PCa progression, providing novel therapeutic opportunities. RESULTS: In the search for potential epigenetic drivers of CRPC, we analyzed the molecular profile of PcG members in patient-derived xenografts and clinical samples...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Feng Xu, Li Liu, Chun-Kang Chang, Qi He, Ling-Yun Wu, Zheng Zhang, Wen-Hui Shi, Juan Guo, Yang Zhu, You-Shan Zhao, Shu-Cheng Gu, Cheng-Ming Fei, Xiao Li
The role of EZH2 in cancer is complex and may vary depending on cancer type or stage. We examined the effect of altered EZH2 levels on H3K27 methylation, HOX gene expression, and malignant phenotype in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) cell lines and an in vivo xenograft model. We also studied links between EZH2 expression and prognosis in MDS patients. Patients with high-grade MDS exhibited lower levels of EZH2 expression than those with low-grade MDS. Low EZH2 expression was associated with high percentages of blasts, shorter survival, and increased transformation of MDS into acute myeloid leukemia (AML)...
February 16, 2016: Oncotarget
Andrew R Chin, Miranda Y Fong, George Somlo, Jun Wu, Piotr Swiderski, Xiwei Wu, Shizhen Emily Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of gene expression, and exert extensive impacts on development, physiology, and disease of eukaryotes. A high degree of parallelism is found in the molecular basis of miRNA biogenesis and action in plants and animals. Recent studies interestingly suggest a potential cross-kingdom action of plant-derived miRNAs, through dietary intake, in regulating mammalian gene expression. Although the source and scope of plant miRNAs detected in mammalian specimens remain controversial, these initial studies inspired us to determine whether plant miRNAs can be detected in Western human sera and whether these plant miRNAs are able to influence gene expression and cellular processes related to human diseases such as cancer...
February 2016: Cell Research
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