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7 dehydrocholesterol reductase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503313/novel-dhcr7-mutation-in-a-case-of-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome-showing-46-xy-disorder-of-sex-development
#1
Mayuko Tamura, Tsuyoshi Isojima, Takeshi Kasama, Ryo Mafune, Konomi Shimoda, Hiroki Yasudo, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Chie Takahashi, Akira Oka, Sachiko Kitanaka
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), which is rarely observed in Japan. We report a Japanese case with 46,XY disorder of sex development and Y-shaped 2-3 toe syndactyly. DHCR7 gene analysis revealed compound heterozygous mutations including the novel mutation H442R. Early diagnosis led to starting cholesterol treatment at an early age.
2017: Human Genome Variation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484475/de-novo-sequencing-and-transcriptome-analysis-reveal-key-genes-regulating-steroid-metabolism-in-leaves-roots-adventitious-roots-and-calli-of-periploca-sepium-bunge
#2
Jian Zhang, Xinglin Li, Fuping Lu, Shanying Wang, Yunhe An, Xiaoxing Su, Xiankuan Li, Lin Ma, Guangjian Han
Periploca sepium Bunge is a traditional medicinal plant, whose root bark is important for Chinese herbal medicine. Its major bioactive compounds are C21 steroids and periplocin, a kind of cardiac glycoside, which are derived from the steroid synthesis pathway. However, research on P. sepium genome or transcriptomes and their related genes has been lacking for a long time. In this study we estimated this species nuclear genome size at 170 Mb (using flow cytometry). Then, RNA sequencing of four different tissue samples of P...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423480/the-effect-of-high-dose-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-muscular-function-and-quality-of-life-in-postmenopausal-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
G Grimnes, N Emaus, K D Cashman, R Jorde
OBJECTIVE: Observational studies have suggested positive associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and muscular strength, balance and quality of life. Our aim was to examine whether high-dose vitamin D supplementation would improve these measures as compared to standard-dose vitamin D, as well as the possible muscular effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding vitamin D-related enzymes. DESIGN: A 12-month randomized, double-blind, controlled trial where the participants received daily elemental calcium (1000 mg) plus vitamin D3 (800 IU)...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382877/common-genetic-variants-are-associated-with-lower-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-across-the-year-among-children-at-northern-latitudes
#4
Rikke A Petersen, Lesli H Larsen, Camilla T Damsgaard, Louise B Sørensen, Mads F Hjorth, Rikke Andersen, Inge Tetens, Henrik Krarup, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Kim F Michaelsen, Christian Mølgaard
In a longitudinal study including 642 healthy 8-11-year-old Danish children, we investigated associations between vitamin D dependent SNP and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations across a school year (August-June). Serum 25(OH)D was measured three times for every child, which approximated measurements in three seasons (autumn, winter, spring). Dietary and supplement intake, physical activity, BMI and parathyroid hormone were likewise measured at each time point. In all, eleven SNP in four vitamin D-related genes: Cytochrome P450 subfamily IIR1 (CYP2R1); 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase-1(DHCR7/NADSYN1); group-specific complement (GC); and vitamin D receptor were genotyped...
March 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357621/improved-campesterol-production-in-engineered-yarrowia-lipolytica-strains
#5
Yu Zhang, Ying Wang, Mingdong Yao, Hong Liu, Xiao Zhou, Wenhai Xiao, Yingjin Yuan
OBJECTIVES: To engineer Yarrowia lipolytica for improving the heterologous production of campesterol (a key precursor to manufacture pharmaceutical steroids). RESULTS: By screening 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) from diverse species, DHCR7 from Danio rerio was the best candidate for campesterol synthesis. Overexpression of ACL (ATP: citrate lyase) or POX2 (peroxisome acyl-CoA oxidase 2) were key to improving campesterol production. The highest yield of campesterol was 942 mg/l was with the strain overexpressing POX2 in a 5 l bioreactor via high cell density fermentation process with a restricted supply of carbon sourc, sunflower seed oil...
March 29, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202290/effect-of-psychotropic-drug-treatment-on-sterol-metabolism
#6
Željka Korade, Wei Liu, Emily B Warren, Kristan Armstrong, Ned A Porter, Christine Konradi
Cholesterol metabolism is vital for brain function. Previous work in cultured cells has shown that a number of psychotropic drugs inhibit the activity of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), an enzyme that catalyzes the final steps in cholesterol biosynthesis. This leads to the accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC), a molecule that gives rise to oxysterols, vitamin D, and atypical neurosteroids. We examined levels of cholesterol and the cholesterol precursors desmosterol, lanosterol, 7DHC and its isomer 8-dehydrocholesterol (8DHC), in blood samples of 123 psychiatric patients on various antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs, and 85 healthy controls, to see if the observations in cell lines hold true for patients as well...
February 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139795/sunlight-exposure-is-just-one-of-the-factors-which-influence-vitamin-d-status
#7
M Abboud, M S Rybchyn, R Rizk, D R Fraser, R S Mason
Studies on the determinants of vitamin D status have tended to concentrate on input - exposure to ultraviolet B radiation and the limited sources in food. Yet, vitamin D status, determined by circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), can vary quite markedly in groups of people with apparently similar inputs of vitamin D. There are small effects of polymorphisms in the genes for key proteins involved in vitamin D production and metabolism, including 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, which converts 7-dehydrocholesterol, the precursor of vitamin D, to cholesterol, CYP2R1, the main 25-hydroxylase of vitamin D, GC, coding for the vitamin D binding protein which transports 25(OH)D and other metabolites in blood and CYP24A1, which 24-hydroxylates both 25(OH)D and the hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D...
March 16, 2017: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697512/dhcr7-a-vital-enzyme-switch-between-cholesterol-and-vitamin-d-production
#8
REVIEW
Anika V Prabhu, Winnie Luu, Dianfan Li, Laura J Sharpe, Andrew J Brown
The conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, the final step of cholesterol synthesis in the Kandutsch-Russell pathway, is catalyzed by the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7). Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in DHCR7 lead to the developmental disease Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, which can also result in fetal mortality, highlighting the importance of this enzyme in human development and survival. Besides serving as a substrate for DHCR7, 7-dehydrocholesterol is also a precursor of vitamin D via the action of ultraviolet light on the skin...
October 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27526097/intracranial-undifferentiated-malign-neuroglial-tumor-in-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome-a-theory-of-a-possible-predisposing-factor-for-primary-brain-tumors-via-a-case-report
#9
Ayfer Aslan, Alp Ozgun Borcek, Selma Pamukcuoglu, M Kemali Baykaner
BACKGROUND: Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) is a rare hereditary autosomal recessive disorder with broken cholesterol synthesis causing by 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency. Although the clinical features and pathogenesis is well-defined, it is unknown whether there is a relationship between SLOS and neoplastic processes, especially brain neoplasms. PURPOSE: We aimed to attract the attentions to any possibility of relation between SLOS and intracranial tumor development via a pediatric case with both intracranial high-grade neuroglial tumor and SLOS, and thus to contribute an additional data to the literature on togetherness of these two clinical conditions...
January 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27520299/phosphorylation-regulates-activity-of-7-dehydrocholesterol-reductase-dhcr7-a-terminal-enzyme-of-cholesterol-synthesis
#10
Anika V Prabhu, Winnie Luu, Laura J Sharpe, Andrew J Brown
Cholesterol is essential for survival, but too much or too little can cause disease. Thus, cholesterol levels must be kept within close margins. 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) is a terminal enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, and is essential for embryonic development. Largely, DHCR7 research is associated with the developmental disease Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the DHCR7 gene. However, little is known about what regulates DHCR7 activity. Here we provide evidence that phosphorylation plays a role in controlling DHCR7 activity, which may provide a means to divert flux from cholesterol synthesis to vitamin D production...
January 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513191/a-placebo-controlled-trial-of-simvastatin-therapy-in-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome
#11
Christopher A Wassif, Lisa Kratz, Susan E Sparks, Courtney Wheeler, Simona Bianconi, Andrea Gropman, Karim A Calis, Richard I Kelley, Elaine Tierney, Forbes D Porter
BACKGROUND: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a multiple malformation/cognitive impairment syndrome characterized by the accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor sterol of cholesterol. Simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier, has been proposed for the treatment of SLOS based on in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that simvastatin increases the expression of hypomorphic DHCR7 alleles. METHODS: Safety and efficacy of simvastatin therapy in 23 patients with mild to typical SLOS were evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
March 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401223/investigation-of-7-dehydrocholesterol-reductase-pathway-to-elucidate-off-target-prenatal-effects-of-pharmaceuticals-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
M R Boland, N P Tatonetti
Mendelian diseases contain important biological information regarding developmental effects of gene mutations that can guide drug discovery and toxicity efforts. In this review, we focus on Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), a rare Mendelian disease characterized by compound heterozygous mutations in 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) resulting in severe fetal deformities. We present a compilation of SLOS-inducing DHCR7 mutations and the geographic distribution of those mutations in healthy and diseased populations...
October 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315086/7dhc-induced-changes-of-kv1-3-operation-contributes-to-modified-t-cell-function-in-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome
#13
András Balajthy, Sándor Somodi, Zoltán Pethő, Mária Péter, Zoltán Varga, Gabriella P Szabó, György Paragh, László Vígh, György Panyi, Péter Hajdu
In vitro manipulation of membrane sterol level affects the regulation of ion channels and consequently certain cellular functions; however, a comprehensive study that confirms the pathophysiological significance of these results is missing. The malfunction of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) reductase in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) leads to the elevation of the 7-dehydrocholesterol level in the plasma membrane. T lymphocytes were isolated from SLOS patients to assess the effect of the in vivo altered membrane sterol composition on the operation of the voltage-gated Kv1...
August 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313313/genetic-environmental-and-disease-associated-correlates-of-vitamin-d-status-in-children-with-ckd
#14
Anke Doyon, Bettina Schmiedchen, Anja Sander, Aysun Bayazit, Ali Duzova, Nur Canpolat, Daniela Thurn, Karolis Azukaitis, Ali Anarat, Justine Bacchetta, Sevgi Mir, Rukshana Shroff, Ebru Yilmaz, Cengiz Candan, Markus Kemper, Michel Fischbach, Gerard Cortina, Günter Klaus, Matthias Wuttke, Anna Köttgen, Anette Melk, Uwe Querfeld, Franz Schaefer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency is endemic in children with CKD. We sought to investigate the association of genetic disposition, environmental factors, vitamin D supplementation, and renal function on vitamin D status in children with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D, and 24,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D concentrations were measured cross-sectionally in 500 children from 12 European countries with CKD stages 3-5...
July 7, 2016: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162362/endogenous-b-ring-oxysterols-inhibit-the-hedgehog-component-smoothened-in-a-manner-distinct-from-cyclopamine-or-side-chain-oxysterols
#15
Navdar Sever, Randall K Mann, Libin Xu, William J Snell, Carmen I Hernandez-Lara, Ned A Porter, Philip A Beachy
Cellular lipids are speculated to act as key intermediates in Hedgehog signal transduction, but their precise identity and function remain enigmatic. In an effort to identify such lipids, we pursued a Hedgehog pathway inhibitory activity that is particularly abundant in flagellar lipids of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, resulting in the purification and identification of ergosterol endoperoxide, a B-ring oxysterol. A mammalian analog of ergosterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), accumulates in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a human genetic disease that phenocopies deficient Hedgehog signaling and is caused by genetic loss of 7-DHC reductase...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160810/regulation-of-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-by-dietary-carbohydrate-levels-and-lipid-sources-in-gilthead-sea-bream-juveniles
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Carolina Castro, Geneviève Corraze, Alexandre Firmino-Diógenes, Laurence Larroquet, Stéphane Panserat, Aires Oliva-Teles
The long-term effects on growth performance, body composition, plasma metabolites, liver and intestine glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed in gilthead sea bream juveniles fed diets without carbohydrates (CH-) or carbohydrate-enriched (20 % gelatinised starch, CH+) combined with two lipid sources (fish oil; or vegetable oil (VO)). No differences in growth performance among treatments were observed. Carbohydrate intake was associated with increased hepatic transcripts of glucokinase but not of 6-phosphofructokinase...
July 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148958/altered-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteins-in-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome-patients
#17
Stephanie M Cologna, Christine Shieh, Cynthia L Toth, Antony Cougnoux, Kathryn R Burkert, Simona E Bianconi, Christopher A Wassif, Forbes D Porter
Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive, multiple malformation syndrome with neurocognitive impairment. SLOS arises from mutations in the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase gene which results in impaired enzymatic conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol. In the current work, we sought to measure proteins that were altered in the cerebrospinal fluid from SLOS patients compared to pediatric controls. Using a multi-analyte antibody-based assay, we found that 12 proteins are altered in SLOS patients...
August 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097157/inhibitors-of-7-dehydrocholesterol-reductase-screening-of-a-collection-of-pharmacologically-active-compounds-in-neuro2a-cells
#18
Hye-Young H Kim, Zeljka Korade, Keri A Tallman, Wei Liu, C David Weaver, Karoly Mirnics, Ned A Porter
A small library of pharmacologically active compounds (the NIH Clinical Collection) was assayed in Neuro2a cells to determine their effect on the last step in the biosynthesis of cholesterol, the transformation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to cholesterol promoted by 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, DHCR7. Of some 727 compounds in the NIH Clinical Collection, over 30 compounds significantly increased 7-DHC in Neuro2a cells when assayed at 1 μM. Active compounds that increased 7-DHC with a Z-score of +3 or greater generally gave rise to modest decreases in desmosterol and increases in lanosterol levels...
May 16, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27066502/dhcr7-regulates-palatal-shelf-fusion-through-regulation-of-shh-and-bmp2-expression
#19
Wen-lin Xiao, Dai-zun Zhang, Hong Xu, Cui-zhu Zhuang
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (Dhcr7) gene and identify signaling pathways involved in regulation of embryonic palatogenesis. The expression of Dhcr7 and its protein product were examined during murine normal embryonic palatogenesis via a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot (WB). RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to inhibit Dhcr7 expression in a palatal shelf culture in vitro. The effects of Dhcr7 on palatogenesis and palatal fusion were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053961/development-behavior-and-biomarker-characterization-of-smith-lemli-opitz-syndrome-an-update
#20
Audrey Thurm, Elaine Tierney, Cristan Farmer, Phebe Albert, Lisa Joseph, Susan Swedo, Simona Bianconi, Irena Bukelis, Courtney Wheeler, Geeta Sarphare, Diane Lanham, Christopher A Wassif, Forbes D Porter
BACKGROUND: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of cholesterol metabolism syndrome with neurocognitive manifestations. SLOS is the result of mutations in the gene encoding the 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, which results in the elevation of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Previous reports indicate that intellectual disability, behavioral disturbances, and autism symptoms are frequently part of the SLOS behavioral phenotype...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
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