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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755504/molecular-identification-of-shark-meat-from-local-markets-in-southern-brazil-based-on-dna-barcoding-evidence-for-mislabeling-and-trade-of-endangered-species
#1
Fernanda Almerón-Souza, Christian Sperb, Carolina L Castilho, Pedro I C C Figueiredo, Leonardo T Gonçalves, Rodrigo Machado, Larissa R Oliveira, Victor H Valiati, Nelson J R Fagundes
Elasmobranchs, the group of cartilaginous fishes that include sharks and rays, are especially vulnerable to overfishing due to low fecundity and late sexual maturation. A significant number of elasmobranch species are currently overexploited or threatened by fisheries activities. Additionally, several recent reports have indicated that there has been a reduction in regional elasmobranch population sizes. Brazil is an important player in elasmobranch fisheries and one of the largest importers of shark meat. However, carcasses entering the shark meat market have usually had their fins and head removed, which poses a challenge to reliable species identification based on the morphology of captured individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703988/artisanal-shark-fishing-in-milne-bay-province-papua-new-guinea-biomass-estimation-from-genetically-identified-shark-and-ray-fins
#2
S A Appleyard, W T White, S Vieira, B Sabub
Our study is the first detailed examination of species composition using DNA COI barcoding of elasmobranchs from an artisanal fishery of Papua New Guinea. The study is the first in the region to provide biomass estimates based on species confirmation following examination of dried fins. Over 20 species of elasmobranchs were identified from 623 fins from the artisanal fishery in Milne Bay Province of PNG, with Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos and Carcharhinus melanopterus the most abundant species in the catches. Of concern, 21% of fins examined were from IUCN listed threatened species (Vulnerable or Endangered) with 8% of fins from the Endangered scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini)...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690450/three-new-species-of-parapercis-perciformes-pinguipedidae-and-first-records-of-p-muronis-tanaka-1918-and-p-rubromaculata-ho-chang-shao-2012-from-australia
#3
Jeffrey W Johnson, Jessica Worthington Wilmer
Three new species of pinguipedid fishes from northern Australia are described based on specimens collected by deep water demersal trawling. Parapercis algrahami sp. nov. is recorded from off Dunk Island, Qld, south to Newcastle, NSW, in 67-333 m. It is distinct in having five narrow transverse dark bars across the upper body and a dark spot dorsally on the caudal-fin base, 6 canine teeth in outer row at front of lower jaw, palatines with 1-2 rows of teeth, and predorsal scales extending far forward on the nape to the posterior portion of the interorbital region...
March 1, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690100/parmaturus-nigripalatum-n-sp-a-new-species-of-deep-sea-catshark-chondrichthyes-carcharhiniformes-scyliorhinidae-from-indonesia
#4
Fahmi Fahmi, David A Ebert
Parmaturus nigripalatum, a new species of catshark of the genus Parmaturus is described from a single specimen collected from a deep-water shark longliner operating in south Sumbawa waters, Indonesia. This new species is distinguished from its closest geographic congener P. lanatus by having prominent enlarged caudal crests, well-developed labial furrows with the uppers and lowers of equal lengths, mouth roof blackish with dark pores, first dorsal fin origin more posteriorly positioned on body trunk, and much lower tooth counts than all other known Parmaturus species...
April 23, 2018: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618888/strain-distribution-and-amount-of-force-required-during-pterygomaxillary-dysjunction-a-comparison-of-pterygoid-versus-shark-fin-osteotome
#5
Shoaib Parkar, Mueedul Islam, Ramakrishna Tangaturi, Hari Keerthy Panthala, Azhar Khan, Mohammed Imran, Jayesh Anand
Objective: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of Obwegeser's pterygoid osteotome and Laster shark-fin osteotome by measurement of strain adjacent to the pterygomaxillary suture and the amount of force required for dysjunction. Materials and Methods: Two popular instruments Obwegesser's pterygoid and shark-fin osteotome were tested on dry human skulls. The external force required for separation of the pterygomaxillary suture with these osteotomes was generated by an electronically controlled 'Instron' tester Bi-06-108...
June 2018: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534100/analysis-of-the-supply-chain-and-conservation-status-of-sharks-elasmobranchii-superorder-selachimorpha-based-on-fisher-knowledge
#6
Ana Paula Barbosa Martins, Leonardo Manir Feitosa, Rosangela Paula Lessa, Zafira Silva Almeida, Michelle Heupel, Wagner Macedo Silva, Ligia Tchaicka, Jorge Luiz Silva Nunes
Increasing fishing effort has caused declines in shark populations worldwide. Understanding biological and ecological characteristics of sharks is essential to effectively implement management measures, but to fully understand drivers of fishing pressure social factors must be considered through multidisciplinary and integrated approaches. The present study aimed to use fisher and trader knowledge to describe the shark catch and product supply chain in Northeastern Brazil, and evaluate perceptions regarding the regional conservation status of shark species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524525/evaluating-the-interactions-between-red-stingray-dasyatis-akajei-melanocortin-receptors-and-elephant-shark-callorhinchus-milii-mrap1-and-mrap2-following-stimulation-with-either-stingray-acth-1-24-or-stingray-des-acetyl-%C3%AE-msh-a-pharmacological-study-in-chinese
#7
Robert M Dores, Michelle Scuba-Gray, Bridgette McNally, Perry Davis, Akiyoshi Takahashi
Previous studies on bony vertebrate MC2R orthologs (i.e., ray finned fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) have shown that these MC2R orthologs have an obligatory requirement for interaction with bony vertebrate MRAP1 orthologs to a) allow for the trafficking of the MC2R ortholog to the plasma membrane; and b) to allow activation by ACTH, but not by any MSH-sized ligand. In addition, previous studies have found that co-expression of teleost and mammalian MC4R orthologs with corresponding MRAP2 has positive effects on sensitivity to stimulation by αMSH or ACTH...
March 7, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510149/diversification-of-the-functions-of-proglucagon-and-glucagon-receptor-genes-in-fish
#8
David M Irwin, Svetlana Mojsov
The teleost fish-specific genome duplication gave rise to a great number of species inhabiting diverse environments with different access to nutrients and life histories. This event produced duplicated gcg genes, gcga and gcgb, for proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon and GLP-1 and duplicated gcgr receptor genes, gcgra and gcgrb, which play key roles connecting the consumption of nutrients with glucose metabolism. We conducted a systematic survey of the genomes from 28 species of fish (24 bony (Superclass Osteichthyes), 1 lobe-finned (Class Sarcoperygii), 1 cartilaginous (Superclass Chondrichthyes), and 2 jawless (Superclass Agnatha)) and find that almost all surveyed ray-finned fish contain gcga and gcgb genes with different coding potential and duplicated gcgr genes, gcgra and gcgrb that form two separate clades in the phylogenetic tree consistent with the accepted species phylogeny...
May 15, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491198/a-modified-shark-fin-test-simulating-the-single-step-double-mix-technique-a-comparison-of-three-groups-of-elastomers
#9
Fabian Huettig, Usama Chekhani, Andrea Klink, Fadi Said, Frank Rupp
The shark-fin test was modified to convey the clinical application of a single-step/double-mix technique assessing the behavior of two viscosities applied at one point in time. A medium and light body polyether (PE), a medium and light body polyvinylsiloxane (PVS), and a medium as well as heavy and light body vinyl polyether silicone (PVXE) impression material were analyzed solely, and in a layered mixture of 1:1 and 3:1 at working times of 50, 80, and 120 s. The fin heights were measured with a digital ruler...
February 27, 2018: Dental Materials Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463851/dna-based-identification-reveals-illegal-trade-of-threatened-shark-species-in-a-global-elasmobranch-conservation-hotspot
#10
Leonardo Manir Feitosa, Ana Paula Barbosa Martins, Tommaso Giarrizzo, Wagner Macedo, Iann Leonardo Monteiro, Romário Gemaque, Jorge Luiz Silva Nunes, Fernanda Gomes, Horácio Schneider, Iracilda Sampaio, Rosália Souza, João Bráullio Sales, Luís Fernando Rodrigues-Filho, Lígia Tchaicka, Luís Fernando Carvalho-Costa
Here, we report trading of endangered shark species in a world hotspot for elasmobranch conservation in Brazil. Data on shark fisheries are scarce in Brazil, although the northern and northeastern regions have the highest indices of shark bycatch. Harvest is made primarily with processed carcasses lacking head and fins, which hampers reliable species identification and law enforcement on illegal catches. We used partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (COI and/or NADH2) to identify 17 shark species from 427 samples being harvested and marketed on the northern coast of Brazil...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447475/the-divergent-genomes-of-teleosts
#11
Vydianathan Ravi, Byrappa Venkatesh
Boasting nearly 30,000 species, teleosts account for half of all extant vertebrates and approximately 98% of all ray-finned fish species (Actinopterygii). Teleosts are also the largest and most diverse group of vertebrates, exhibiting an astonishing level of morphological, physiological, and behavioral diversity. Previous studies had indicated that the teleost lineage has experienced an additional whole-genome duplication event. Recent comparative genomic analyses of teleosts and other bony vertebrates using spotted gar (a nonteleost ray-finned fish) and elephant shark (a cartilaginous fish) as outgroups have revealed several divergent features of teleost genomes...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426941/microfluidic-channel-optimization-to-improve-hydrodynamic-dissociation-of-cell-aggregates-and-tissue
#12
Xiaolong Qiu, Jen-Huang Huang, Trisha M Westerhof, Jeremy A Lombardo, Katrina M Henrikson, Marissa Pennell, Pedram P Pourfard, Edward L Nelson, Pulak Nath, Jered B Haun
Maximizing the speed and efficiency at which single cells can be liberated from tissues would dramatically advance cell-based diagnostics and therapies. Conventional methods involve numerous manual processing steps and long enzymatic digestion times, yet are still inefficient. In previous work, we developed a microfluidic device with a network of branching channels to improve the dissociation of cell aggregates into single cells. However, this device was not tested on tissue specimens, and further development was limited by high cost and low feature resolution...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316367/development-of-the-lunate-shaped-caudal-fin-in-white-shark-embryos
#13
Taketeru Tomita, Minoru Toda, Kei Miyamoto, Shin-Ichiro Oka, Keiichi Ueda, Keiichi Sato
The lunate-shaped caudal fin in lamnid sharks is a morphological specialization for their thunniform mode of locomotion, but its developmental process during gestation has been poorly investigated. Observations of 21 embryonic specimens of the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) revealed that their caudal fin morphology drastically changes from strongly heterocercal to lunate-shaped through ontogeny. This morphological change involves (1) rapid elongation of the ventral lobe, (2) increased upward curvature of the vertebra within the caudal fin, and (3) formation of keels at both lateral sides of the caudal fin base...
January 6, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230354/ecomorphological-inferences-in-early-vertebrates-reconstructing-dunkleosteus-terrelli-arthrodira-placodermi-caudal-fin-from-palaeoecological-data
#14
Humberto G Ferrón, Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Héctor Botella
Our knowledge about the body morphology of many extinct early vertebrates is very limited, especially in regard to their post-thoracic region. The prompt disarticulation of the dermo-skeletal elements due to taphonomic processes and the lack of a well-ossified endoskeleton in a large number of groups hinder the preservation of complete specimens. Previous reconstructions of most early vertebrates known from partial remains have been wholly based on phylogenetically closely related taxa. However, body design of fishes is determined, to a large extent, by their swimming mode and feeding niche, making it possible to recognise different morphological traits that have evolved several times in non-closely related groups with similar lifestyles...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214009/the-role-of-hoxa11-and-hoxa13-in-the-evolution-of-novel-fin-morphologies-in-a-representative-batoid-leucoraja-erinacea
#15
Shannon N Barry, Karen D Crow
Background: Batoids exhibit unique body plans with derived fin morphologies, such as the anteriorly expanded pectoral fins that fuse to the head, or distally extended anterior pelvic fin lobes used for a modified swimming technique utilized by skates (Rajidae). The little skate ( Leucoraja erinacea ), exhibits both of these unique fin morphologies. These fin modifications are not present in a typical shark body plan, and little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying their development...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209245/identification-and-description-of-novel-mood-profile-clusters
#16
Renée L Parsons-Smith, Peter C Terry, M Anthony Machin
Mood profiling has been a popular assessment strategy since the 1970s, although little evidence exists of distinct mood profiles beyond the realm of sport and exercise. In the present study, we investigated clusters of mood profiles derived from the six subscales of the Brunel Mood Scale using the In The Mood website. Mood responses in three samples ( n = 2,364, n = 2,303, n = 1,865) were analyzed using agglomerative, hierarchical cluster analysis, which distinguished six distinct and theoretically meaningful profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077226/species-composition-of-the-international-shark-fin-trade-assessed-through-a-retail-market-survey-in-hong-kong
#17
Andrew T Fields, Gunter A Fischer, Stanley K H Shea, Huarong Zhang, Debra L Abercrombie, Kevin A Feldheim, Elizabeth A Babcock, Demian D Chapman
The shark fin trade is a major driver of shark exploitation in fisheries all over the world, most of which are not managed on a species-specific basis. Species-specific trade information highlights taxa of particular concern and can be used to assess the efficacy of management measures and anticipate emerging threats. The species composition of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, one of the world's largest fin trading hubs, was partially assessed in 1999-2001. We randomly selected and genetically identified fin trimmings (n = 4800), produced during fin processing, from the retail market of Hong Kong in 2014-2015 to assess contemporary species composition of the fin trade...
October 27, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056141/the-economy-of-shark-conservation-in-the-northeast-pacific-the-role-of-ecotourism-and-citizen-science
#18
Peter A Mieras, Chris Harvey-Clark, Michael Bear, Gina Hodgin, Boone Hodgin
Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020095/a-multiplex-pcr-mini-barcode-assay-to-identify-processed-shark-products-in-the-global-trade
#19
Diego Cardeñosa, Andrew Fields, Debra Abercrombie, Kevin Feldheim, Stanley K H Shea, Demian D Chapman
Protecting sharks from overexploitation has become global priority after widespread population declines have occurred. Tracking catches and trade on a species-specific basis has proven challenging, in part due to difficulties in identifying processed shark products such as fins, meat, and liver oil. This has hindered efforts to implement regulations aimed at promoting sustainable use of commercially important species and protection of imperiled species. Genetic approaches to identify shark products exist but are typically based on sequencing or amplifying large DNA regions and may fail to work on heavily processed products in which DNA is degraded...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931746/voltage-gated-sodium-channel-gene-repertoire-of-lampreys-gene-duplications-tissue-specific-expression-and-discovery-of-a-long-lost-gene
#20
Harold H Zakon, Weiming Li, Nisha E Pillai, Sumanty Tohari, Prashant Shingate, Jianfeng Ren, Byrappa Venkatesh
Studies of the voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels of extant gnathostomes have made it possible to deduce that ancestral gnathostomes possessed four voltage-gated sodium channel genes derived from a single ancestral chordate gene following two rounds of genome duplication early in vertebrates. We investigated the Nav gene family in two species of lampreys (the Japanese lamprey Lethenteron japonicum and sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus ) (jawless vertebrates-agnatha) and compared them with those of basal vertebrates to better understand the origin of Nav genes in vertebrates...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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