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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725435/biogeophysical-and-physiological-processes-drive-movement-patterns-in-a-marine-predator
#1
Lucy A Howey, Bradley M Wetherbee, Emily R Tolentino, Mahmood S Shivji
BACKGROUND: Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) are among the most abundant and widely distributed of oceanic elasmobranchs. Millions are taken annually in pelagic longline fisheries and comprise the highest component of auctioned fin weight in the international shark fin trade. Though studies of blue sharks outnumber those of other large pelagic sharks, the species' complicated and sexually segregated life history still confound current understanding of Atlantic movement patterns. Lack of detailed information regarding movement and vertical behavior continues to limit management efforts that require such data for stock assessment and sustainable catch modeling...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724735/dual-function-of-the-pectoral-girdle-for-feeding-and-locomotion-in-white-spotted-bamboo-sharks
#2
Ariel L Camp, Bradley Scott, Elizabeth L Brainerd, Cheryl D Wilga
Positioned at the intersection of the head, body and forelimb, the pectoral girdle has the potential to function in both feeding and locomotor behaviours-although the latter has been studied far more. In ray-finned fishes, the pectoral girdle attaches directly to the skull and is retracted during suction feeding, enabling the ventral body muscles to power rapid mouth expansion. However, in sharks, the pectoral girdle is displaced caudally and entirely separate from the skull (as in tetrapods), raising the question of whether it is mobile during suction feeding and contributing to suction expansion...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705829/regional-variation-in-undulatory-kinematics-of-two-hammerhead-species-the-bonnethead-sphyrna-tiburo-and-the-scalloped-hammerhead-sphyrna-lewini
#3
S L Hoffmann, S M Warren, M E Porter
Hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae) are have a large amount of morpholigcal variation within the family, making them the focus of many studies. The size of the laterally expanded head, or cephalofoil, is inversely correlated with pectoral fin area. The inverse relation in cephalofoil and pectoral fin size in this family suggests that they might serve a complimentary role in lift generation. The cephalofoil is also hypothesized to increase olfaction, electroreception, and vision; however, little is known about how morphological variation impacts post-cranial swimming kinematics...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649268/muscle-development-in-the-shark-scyliorhinus-canicula-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-gnathostome-head-and-paired-appendage-musculature
#4
Janine M Ziermann, Renata Freitas, Rui Diogo
BACKGROUND: The origin of jawed vertebrates was marked by profound reconfigurations of the skeleton and muscles of the head and by the acquisition of two sets of paired appendages. Extant cartilaginous fish retained numerous plesiomorphic characters of jawed vertebrates, which include several aspects of their musculature. Therefore, myogenic studies on sharks are essential in yielding clues on the developmental processes involved in the origin of the muscular anatomy. RESULTS: Here we provide a detailed description of the development of specific muscular units integrating the cephalic and appendicular musculature of the shark model, Scyliorhinus canicula...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586694/challenges-and-priorities-in-shark-and-ray-conservation
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas K Dulvy, Colin A Simpfendorfer, Lindsay N K Davidson, Sonja V Fordham, Amie Bräutigam, Glenn Sant, David J Welch
Sharks, rays, and chimaeras (Class Chondrichthyes; herein 'sharks') are the earliest extant jawed vertebrates and exhibit some of the greatest functional diversity of all vertebrates. Ecologically, they influence energy transfer vertically through trophic levels and sometimes trophic cascades via direct consumption and predation risk. Through movements and migrations, they connect horizontally and temporally across habitats and ecosystems, integrating energy flows at large spatial scales and across time. This connectivity flows from ontogenetic growth in size and spatial movements, which in turn underpins their relatively low reproductive rates compared with other exploited ocean fishes...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468932/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-evolution-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-sequence-structure-and-function
#6
REVIEW
Michael E Baker, Yoshinao Katsu
The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is descended from a corticoid receptor (CR), which has descendants in lamprey and hagfish, cyclostomes (jawless fish), a taxon that evolved at the base of the vertebrate line. A distinct MR and GR first appear in cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes), such as sharks, skates, rays and chimeras. Skate MR has a strong response to corticosteroids that are mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids in humans. The half-maximal responses (EC50s) for skate MR for the mineralocorticoids aldosterone and 11-deoxycorticosterone are 0...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438339/mercury-arsenic-cadmium-and-lead-in-two-commercial-shark-species-sphyrna-lewini-and-caraharinus-porosus-in-trinidad-and-tobago
#7
Azad Mohammed, Terry Mohammed
Sharks are long-lived apex predators which can accumulate toxic metals such as mercury and arsenic. Samples of Sphyrna lewini and Carcharinus porosus were collected from two commercial fish landing sites in Trinidad. Heavy metal concentrations were determined in the muscle, dorsal fin, vertebrae and liver using atomic absorption spectrometric. The provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) were determined to assess the potential health risks to consumers. Mercury levels ranged between 74-1899μg/kg in S...
April 21, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423077/early-devonian-late-emsian-shark-fin-remains-chondrichthyes-from-the-paran%C3%A3-basin-southern-brazil
#8
Martha Richter, Elvio P Bosetti, Rodrigo S Horodyski
We report on the pioneering discovery of Devonian fish remains in the Paraná Basin, which represents the southernmost record of fishes from that period in mainland South America. The material comes from an outcrop at the lower portion of the São Domingos Formation, within Sequence C of the Paraná-Apucarana sub-basin in Tibagi, State of Paraná. Marine invertebrates are abundant in the same strata. The dark colored fish remains were collected in situ and represent natural moulds of partially articulated shark fin rays (radials)...
January 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303139/evolution-of-interferons-and-interferon-receptors
#9
REVIEW
Chris J Secombes, Jun Zou
The earliest jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomes) would likely have had interferon (IFN) genes, since they are present in extant cartilaginous fish (sharks and rays) and bony fish (lobe-finned and ray-finned fish, the latter consisting of the chondrostei, holostei, and teleostei), as well as in tetrapods. They are thought to have evolved from a class II helical cytokine ancestor, along with the interleukin (IL)-10 cytokine family. The two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) that occurred between invertebrates and vertebrates (1) may have given rise to additional loci, initially containing an IL-10 ancestor and IFN ancestor, which have duplicated further to give rise to the two loci containing the IL-10 family genes, and potentially the IFN type I and IFN type III loci (2)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214875/a-developmental-study-of-the-cerebellar-nucleus-in-the-catshark-a-basal-gnathostome
#10
Sol Pose-Méndez, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal, Sylvie Mazan, Ramón Anadón
The output of the cerebellar cortex is mainly released via cerebellar nuclei which vary in number and complexity among gnathostomes, extant vertebrates with a cerebellum. Cartilaginous fishes, a basal gnathostome lineage, show a conspicuous, well-organized cerebellar nucleus, unlike ray-finned fishes. To gain insight into the evolution and development of the cerebellar nucleus, we analyzed in the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (a chondrichthyan model species) the developmental expression of several genes coding for transcription factors (ScLhx5,ScLhx9,ScTbr1, and ScEn2) and the distribution of the protein calbindin, since all appear to be involved in cerebellar nuclei patterning in other gnathostomes...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159401/relationships-of-mercury-concentrations-across-tissue-types-muscle-regions-and-fins-for-two-shark-species
#11
Jason R O'Bryhim, Douglas H Adams, Julia L Y Spaet, Gary Mills, Stacey L Lance
Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups...
April 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116055/the-development-of-an-intermediate-duration-tag-to-characterize-the-diving-behavior-of-large-whales
#12
Bruce R Mate, Ladd M Irvine, Daniel M Palacios
The development of high-resolution archival tag technologies has revolutionized our understanding of diving behavior in marine taxa such as sharks, turtles, and seals during their wide-ranging movements. However, similar applications for large whales have lagged behind due to the difficulty of keeping tags on the animals for extended periods of time. Here, we present a novel configuration of a transdermally attached biologging device called the Advanced Dive Behavior (ADB) tag. The ADB tag contains sensors that record hydrostatic pressure, three-axis accelerometers, magnetometers, water temperature, and light level, all sampled at 1 Hz...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089553/plastic-debris-straps-on-threatened-blue-shark-prionace-glauca
#13
Ana I Colmenero, Claudio Barría, Elisabetta Broglio, Salvador García-Barcelona
Juveniles of blue shark Prionace glauca caught in pelagic longlines targeting tuna and swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea were found entangled with plastic straps around their gill region. The plastic debris were identified as strapping bands and caused several degrees of injuries on the dorsal musculature and pectoral fins. They were also obstructing the gill slits probably causing breathing issues. These records were uploaded in the web site seawatchers.org, and highlight the potential of citizen science in revealing the occurrence of such problems which could help to measure the effects of plastic debris on marine life...
February 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071651/marine-origin-of-retroviruses-in-the-early-palaeozoic-era
#14
Pakorn Aiewsakun, Aris Katzourakis
Very little is known about the ancient origin of retroviruses, but owing to the discovery of their ancient endogenous viral counterparts, their early history is beginning to unfold. Here we report 36 lineages of basal amphibian and fish foamy-like endogenous retroviruses (FLERVs). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that ray-finned fish FLERVs exhibit an overall co-speciation pattern with their hosts, while amphibian FLERVs might not. We also observe several possible ancient viral cross-class transmissions, involving lobe-finned fish, shark and frog FLERVs...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988590/-i-pseudotrichonotus-i-i-belos-i-new-species-first-record-of-the-fish-family-pseudotrichonotidae-from-australia-teleostei-aulopiformes
#15
Anthony C Gill, John J Pogonoski
Pseudotrichonotus belos new species, described from three specimens trawled in 100-120 m offshore between Exmouth Gulf and Shark Bay, Western Australia, represents the first record of the sand-diving fish family Pseudotrichonotidae from Australian waters. It differs from its two congeners in having a more posteriorly positioned dorsal fin (predorsal length 39.6-41.2 % SL) and fewer dorsal- and anal-fin rays (31-33 and 12, respectively).
December 5, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987932/by-products-of-scyliorhinus-canicula-prionace-glauca-and-raja-clavata-a-valuable-source-of-predominantly-6s-sulfated-chondroitin-sulfate
#16
Ramon Novoa-Carballal, Ricardo Pérez-Martín, María Blanco, Carmen G Sotelo, Dario Fassini, Cláudia Nunes, Manuel A Coimbra, Tiago H Silva, Rui L Reis, José Antonio Vázquez
Chondroitin sulfate (CS) was isolated from Scyliorhinus canicula (fin, head and skeleton), Prionace glauca (head), and Raja clavata (skeleton) by-products from fish processing industry using environmentally friendly processes. The molecular weight was determined by gel permeation chromatography and the sugar composition and sulfation position by NMR and SAX-HPLC after enzymatic digestion. The CSs showed a prevalent 6S GalNAc sulfation for the 3 species (4S/6S ratio lower than 1). A higher 6S sulfation was observed for P...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853556/relations-between-morphology-buoyancy-and-energetics-of-requiem-sharks
#17
Gil Iosilevskii, Yannis P Papastamatiou
Sharks have a distinctive shape that remained practically unchanged through hundreds of millions of years of evolution. Nonetheless, there are variations of this shape that vary between and within species. We attempt to explain these variations by examining the partial derivatives of the cost of transport of a generic shark with respect to buoyancy, span and chord of its pectoral fins, length, girth and body temperature. Our analysis predicts an intricate relation between these parameters, suggesting that ectothermic species residing in cooler temperatures must either have longer pectoral fins and/or be more buoyant in order to maintain swimming performance...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794535/convergence-in-thunniform-anatomy-in-lamnid-sharks-and-jurassic-ichthyosaurs
#18
Theagarten Lingham-Soliar
Among extinct ichthyosaurs the Jurassic forms Ichthyosaurus and Stenopterygius share a number of anatomical specializations with lamnid sharks, characterized in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias These features allow their inclusion within the mode of high-speed thunniform swimming to which only two other equally distinctive phylogenetic groups belong, tuna and dolphins-a striking testaments to evolutionary convergence. Jurassic ichthyosaurs evolved from reptiles that had returned to the sea (secondarily adapted) about 250 million years ago (MYA) while lamnid sharks evolved about 50 MYA from early cartilaginous fishes (originating ca...
December 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783634/whale-shark-rhincodon-typus-seasonal-occurrence-abundance-and-demographic-structure-in-the-mid-equatorial-atlantic-ocean
#19
Bruno C L Macena, Fábio H V Hazin
Whale sharks are generally associated with environmental factors that drive their movements to specific locations where food availability is high. Consequently, foraging is believed to be the main reason for the formation of whale shark aggregations. Feeding aggregations occur mainly in nearshore areas and are composed primarily of immature individuals. Conversely, aggregations of mature adults are rarely observed, and their occurrence is correlated with oceanic environments. Despite an increase in the number of whale shark studies, information on mating and parturition grounds is still lacking...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774596/a-novel-field-method-to-distinguish-between-cryptic-carcharhinid-sharks-australian-blacktip-shark-carcharhinus-tilstoni-and-common-blacktip-shark-c-limbatus-despite-the-presence-of-hybrids
#20
G J Johnson, R C Buckworth, H Lee, J A T Morgan, J R Ovenden, C R McMahon
Multivariate and machine-learning methods were used to develop field identification techniques for two species of cryptic blacktip shark. From 112 specimens, precaudal vertebrae (PCV) counts and molecular analysis identified 95 Australian blacktip sharks Carcharhinus tilstoni and 17 common blacktip sharks Carcharhinus limbatus. Molecular analysis also revealed 27 of the 112 were C. tilstoni × C. limbatus hybrids, of which 23 had C. tilstoni PCV counts and four had C. limbatus PCV counts. In the absence of further information about hybrid phenotypes, hybrids were assigned as either C...
January 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
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