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ecosystem collapse

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134193/snowball-earth-climate-dynamics-and-cryogenian-geology-geobiology
#1
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061888/innovation-and-the-growth-of-human-population
#2
V P Weinberger, C Quiñinao, P A Marquet
Biodiversity is sustained by and is essential to the services that ecosystems provide. Different species would use these services in different ways, or adaptive strategies, which are sustained in time by continuous innovations. Using this framework, we postulate a model for a biological species (Homo sapiens) in a finite world where innovations, aimed at increasing the flux of ecosystem services (a measure of habitat quality), increase with population size, and have positive effects on the generation of new innovations (positive feedback) as well as costs in terms of negatively affecting the provision of ecosystem services...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987466/how-ecosystems-recover-from-pulse-perturbations-a-theory-of-short-to-long-term-responses
#3
J-F Arnoldi, A Bideault, M Loreau, B Haegeman
Quantifying stability properties of ecosystems is an important problem in ecology. A common approach is based on the recovery from pulse perturbations, and posits that the faster an ecosystem return to its pre-perturbation state, the more stable it is. Theoretical studies often collapse the recovery dynamics into a single quantity: the long-term rate of return, called asymptotic resilience. However, empirical studies typically measure the recovery dynamics at much shorter time scales. In this paper we explain why asymptotic resilience is rarely representative of the short-term recovery...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953232/responses-of-microcystis-colonies-of-different-sizes-to-hydrogen-peroxide-stress
#4
Mixue Liu, Xiaoli Shi, Chao Chen, Li Yu, Chuang Sun
Microcystis blooms have become a ubiquitous phenomenon in freshwater ecosystems, and the size of Microcystis colonies varies widely throughout the year. In the present study, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was applied to test the effect of this algaecide on Microcystis colonies of different sizes and to evaluate the colonies' antioxidant strategy. The results showed that Microcystis populations collapsed under treatment with 5 mg/L H₂O₂ at colony sizes smaller than 25 μm. A dosage of 20 mg/L H₂O₂ was necessary to efficiently control Microcystis colonies larger than 25 μm...
September 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931744/using-multiple-lines-of-evidence-to-assess-the-risk-of-ecosystem-collapse
#5
Lucie M Bland, Tracey J Regan, Minh Ngoc Dinh, Renata Ferrari, David A Keith, Rebecca Lester, David Mouillot, Nicholas J Murray, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Emily Nicholson
Effective ecosystem risk assessment relies on a conceptual understanding of ecosystem dynamics and the synthesis of multiple lines of evidence. Risk assessment protocols and ecosystem models integrate limited observational data with threat scenarios, making them valuable tools for monitoring ecosystem status and diagnosing key mechanisms of decline to be addressed by management. We applied the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria to quantify the risk of collapse of the Meso-American Reef, a unique ecosystem containing the second longest barrier reef in the world...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900312/dynamic-patterns-of-overexploitation-in-fisheries
#6
Ilaria Perissi, Ugo Bardi, Toufic El Asmar, Alessandro Lavacchi
Understanding overfishing and regulating fishing quotas is a major global challenge for the 21st Century both in terms of providing food for humankind and to preserve the oceans' ecosystems. However, fishing is a complex economic activity, affected not just by overfishing but also by such factors as pollution, technology, financial factors and more. For this reason, it is often difficult to state with complete certainty that overfishing is the cause of the decline of a fishery. In this study, we developed a simple dynamic model specifically designed to isolate and to study the role of depletion on production...
September 10, 2017: Ecological Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829636/kleptoparasitism-and-scavenging-can-stabilize-ecosystem-dynamics
#7
Stefano Focardi, Massimo Materassi, Giacomo Innocenti, Duccio Berzi
Scavenging is ubiquitous in nature, but its implications have rarely been investigated. We used camera traps on wolf kills to investigate the role of scavenging on predator and multiprey dynamics in a northern Apennine system in Italy. In contrast to North American systems, the omnivorous wild boar successfully competes with wolves for the meat of their kills. We developed a deterministic, multitrophic web model (wolf, vegetation, deer, and wild boar), tunable through a parameter that governs the impact of prey sharing between wolves and wild boar...
September 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812627/direct-observation-of-increasing-recovery-length-before-collapse-of-a-marine-benthic-ecosystem
#8
Luca Rindi, Martina Dal Bello, Lei Dai, Jeff Gore, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi
Ecosystems can experience catastrophic transitions to alternative states, yet recent results have suggested that slowing down in rates of recovery after a perturbation may provide advance warning that a critical transition is approaching. Perturbation experiments with microbial populations have supported this hypothesis under controlled laboratory conditions, but evidence from natural ecosystems remains rare. Here, we manipulated rocky intertidal canopy algae to test the hypothesis that the spatial scale at which the system recovers from a perturbation in space should increase as the system approaches the tipping point, marking the transition from a canopy-dominated to a turf-dominated state...
May 8, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800687/the-profound-effect-of-harmful-cyanobacterial-blooms-from-food-web-and-management-perspectives
#9
Sigitas Šulčius, Danguolė Montvydienė, Hanna Mazur-Marzec, Jūratė Kasperovičienė, Rokas Rulevičius, Živilė Cibulskaitė
Sustainable and effective water management plans must have a reliable risk assessment strategies for harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HABs) that would enable timely decisions to be made, thus avoiding the trespassing of ecological thresholds, leading to the collapse of ecosystem structure and function. Such strategies are usually based on cyanobacterial biomass and/or on the monitoring of known toxins, which may, however, in many cases, under- or over-represent the actual toxicity of the HAB. Therefore, in this study, by the application of growth-inhibition assays using different bacteria, algae, zooplankton and fish species, we assessed the toxicological potential of two cyanobacterial blooms that differed in total cyanobacterial biomass, species composition and cyanopeptide profiles...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791149/signatures-of-the-collapse-and-incipient-recovery-of-an-overexploited-marine-ecosystem
#10
Eric J Pedersen, Patrick L Thompson, R Aaron Ball, Marie-Josée Fortin, Tarik C Gouhier, Heike Link, Charlotte Moritz, Hedvig Nenzen, Ryan R E Stanley, Zofia E Taranu, Andrew Gonzalez, Frédéric Guichard, Pierre Pepin
The Northwest Atlantic cod stocks collapsed in the early 1990s and have yet to recover, despite the subsequent establishment of a continuing fishing moratorium. Efforts to understand the collapse and lack of recovery have so far focused mainly on the dynamics of commercially harvested species. Here, we use data from a 33-year scientific trawl survey to determine to which degree the signatures of the collapse and recovery of the cod are apparent in the spatial and temporal dynamics of the broader groundfish community...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783733/crustose-coralline-algae-increased-framework-and-diversity-on-ancient-coral-reefs
#11
Anna Weiss, Rowan C Martindale
Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are key producers of carbonate sediment on reefs today. Despite their importance in modern reef ecosystems, the long-term relationship of CCA with reef development has not been quantitatively assessed in the fossil record. This study includes data from 128 Cenozoic coral reefs collected from the Paleobiology Database, the Paleoreefs Database, as well as the original literature and assesses the correlation of CCA abundance with taxonomic diversity (both corals and reef dwellers) and framework of fossil coral reefs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734593/unifying-research-on-social-ecological-resilience-and-collapse
#12
REVIEW
Graeme S Cumming, Garry D Peterson
Ecosystems influence human societies, leading people to manage ecosystems for human benefit. Poor environmental management can lead to reduced ecological resilience and social-ecological collapse. We review research on resilience and collapse across different systems and propose a unifying social-ecological framework based on (i) a clear definition of system identity; (ii) the use of quantitative thresholds to define collapse; (iii) relating collapse processes to system structure; and (iv) explicit comparison of alternative hypotheses and models of collapse...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703324/scaling-range-sizes-to-threats-for-robust-predictions-of-risks-to-biodiversity
#13
David A Keith, H Resit Akçakaya, Nicholas J Murray
Assessments of risk to biodiversity often rely on spatial distributions of species and ecosystems. Range size metrics used extensively in these assessments, such as Area of Occupancy (AOO), are sensitive to measurement scale, prompting proposals to measure them at finer scales, or a variery of different scales based on the shape of the distribution or ecological characteristics of the biota. Despite its dominant role in Red List assessments for decades, appropriate spatial scales of AOO for predicting risks of species extinction or ecosystem collapse remain untested and contentious...
July 13, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690109/species-interactions-drive-fish-biodiversity-loss-in-a-high-co2-world
#14
Ivan Nagelkerken, Silvan U Goldenberg, Camilo M Ferreira, Bayden D Russell, Sean D Connell
Accelerating climate change is eroding the functioning and stability of ecosystems by weakening the interactions among species that stabilize biological communities against change [1]. A key challenge to forecasting the future of ecosystems centers on how to extrapolate results from short-term, single-species studies to community-level responses that are mediated by key mechanisms such as competition, resource availability (bottom-up control), and predation (top-down control) [2]. We used CO2 vents as potential analogs of ocean acidification combined with in situ experiments to test current predictions of fish biodiversity loss and community change due to elevated CO2 [3] and to elucidate the potential mechanisms that drive such change...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636751/using-experimentation-to-understand-the-10-year-snowshoe-hare-cycle-in-the-boreal-forest-of-north-america
#15
C J Krebs, R Boonstra, S Boutin
Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. Since the 1930s ecologists have investigated the mechanisms that might cause these cycles. Proposed causal mechanisms have varied from sunspots to food supplies, parasites, diseases, predation, and social behaviour...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623798/monitoring-the-ecotoxicity-of-%C3%AE-al2o3-and-ni-%C3%AE-al2o3-nanomaterials-by-means-of-a-battery-of-bioassays
#16
Gabriela Svartz, Mariana Papa, Marina Gosatti, Marianela Jordán, Analia Soldati, Paula Samter, María M Guraya, Cristina Pérez Coll, Soledad Perez Catán
The increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) to a variety of new technologies has become a matter of concern due to the potential toxicity of these materials. Many questions about the fate of NPs in the environment and the subsequent impact on ecosystems need to be answered. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of two alumina-based nanoceramics, γ-Al2O3 (NC) and Ni/ γ-Al2O3 (NiNC) by means of three different standardized tests: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), bioassay with luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox), and bioassay on amphibian larvae (Rhinella arenarum) (AMPHITOX)...
October 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592668/nineteenth-century-collapse-of-a-benthic-marine-ecosystem-on-the-open-continental-shelf
#17
Adam Tomašových, Susan M Kidwell
The soft-sediment seafloor of the open continental shelf is among the least-known biomes on Earth, despite its high diversity and importance to fisheries and biogeochemical cycling. Abundant dead shells of epifaunal suspension-feeding terebratulid brachiopods (Laqueus) and scallops on the now-muddy mainland continental shelf of southern California reveal the recent, previously unsuspected extirpation of an extensive offshore shell-gravel ecosystem, evidently driven by anthropogenic siltation. Living populations of attached epifauna, which formerly existed in a middle- and outer-shelf mosaic with patches of trophically diverse muds, are restricted today to rocky seafloor along the shelf edge and to the sandier shelves of offshore islands...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580146/use-of-physiological-knowledge-to-control-the-invasive-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-in-the-laurentian-great-lakes
#18
Michael J Siefkes
Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America is an example of using physiological knowledge to successfully control an invasive species and rehabilitate an ecosystem and valuable fishery. The parasitic sea lamprey contributed to the devastating collapse of native fish communities after invading the Great Lakes during the 1800s and early 1900s. Economic tragedy ensued with the loss of the fishery and severe impacts to property values and tourism resulting from sea lamprey-induced ecological changes...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552352/calcium-isotopic-evidence-for-vulnerable-marine-ecosystem-structure-prior-to-the-k-pg-extinction
#19
Jeremy E Martin, Peggy Vincent, Théo Tacail, Fatima Khaldoune, Essaid Jourani, Nathalie Bardet, Vincent Balter
The collapse of marine ecosystems during the end-Cretaceous mass extinction involved the base of the food chain [1] up to ubiquitous vertebrate apex predators [2-5]. Large marine reptiles became suddenly extinct at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, whereas other contemporaneous groups such as bothremydid turtles or dyrosaurid crocodylomorphs, although affected at the familial, genus, or species level, survived into post-crisis environments of the Paleocene [5-9] and could have found refuge in freshwater habitats [10-12]...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505889/vegetation-dynamics-and-responses-to-climate-change-and-human-activities-in-central-asia
#20
Liangliang Jiang, Guli Jiapaer, Anming Bao, Hao Guo, Felix Ndayisaba
Knowledge of the current changes and dynamics of different types of vegetation in relation to climatic changes and anthropogenic activities is critical for developing adaptation strategies to address the challenges posed by climate change and human activities for ecosystems. Based on a regression analysis and the Hurst exponent index method, this research investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics and relationships between vegetation greenness and climatic factors in Central Asia using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and gridded high-resolution station (land) data for the period 1984-2013...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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