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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734593/unifying-research-on-social-ecological-resilience-and-collapse
#1
REVIEW
Graeme S Cumming, Garry D Peterson
Ecosystems influence human societies, leading people to manage ecosystems for human benefit. Poor environmental management can lead to reduced ecological resilience and social-ecological collapse. We review research on resilience and collapse across different systems and propose a unifying social-ecological framework based on (i) a clear definition of system identity; (ii) the use of quantitative thresholds to define collapse; (iii) relating collapse processes to system structure; and (iv) explicit comparison of alternative hypotheses and models of collapse...
July 19, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703324/scaling-range-sizes-to-threats-for-robust-predictions-of-risks-to-biodiversity
#2
David A Keith, H Resit Akçakaya, Nicholas J Murray
Assessments of risk to biodiversity often rely on spatial distributions of species and ecosystems. Range size metrics used extensively in these assessments, such as Area of Occupancy (AOO), are sensitive to measurement scale, prompting proposals to measure them at finer scales, or a variery of different scales based on the shape of the distribution or ecological characteristics of the biota. Despite its dominant role in Red List assessments for decades, appropriate spatial scales of AOO for predicting risks of species extinction or ecosystem collapse remain untested and contentious...
July 13, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690109/species-interactions-drive-fish-biodiversity-loss-in-a-high-co2-world
#3
Ivan Nagelkerken, Silvan U Goldenberg, Camilo M Ferreira, Bayden D Russell, Sean D Connell
Accelerating climate change is eroding the functioning and stability of ecosystems by weakening the interactions among species that stabilize biological communities against change [1]. A key challenge to forecasting the future of ecosystems centers on how to extrapolate results from short-term, single-species studies to community-level responses that are mediated by key mechanisms such as competition, resource availability (bottom-up control), and predation (top-down control) [2]. We used CO2 vents as potential analogs of ocean acidification combined with in situ experiments to test current predictions of fish biodiversity loss and community change due to elevated CO2 [3] and to elucidate the potential mechanisms that drive such change...
July 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636751/using-experimentation-to-understand-the-10-year-snowshoe-hare-cycle-in-the-boreal-forest-of-north-america
#4
C J Krebs, R Boonstra, S Boutin
Population cycles have long fascinated ecologists from the time of Charles Elton in the 1920s. The discovery of large population fluctuations in undisturbed ecosystems challenged the idea that pristine nature was in a state of balance. The 10-year cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus Erxleben) across the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska is a classic cycle, recognized by fur traders for more than 300 years. Since the 1930s ecologists have investigated the mechanisms that might cause these cycles. Proposed causal mechanisms have varied from sunspots to food supplies, parasites, diseases, predation, and social behaviour...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623798/monitoring-the-ecotoxicity-of-%C3%AE-al2o3-and-ni-%C3%AE-al2o3-nanomaterials-by-means-of-a-battery-of-bioassays
#5
Gabriela Svartz, Mariana Papa, Marina Gosatti, Marianela Jordán, Analia Soldati, Paula Samter, María M Guraya, Cristina Pérez Coll, Soledad Perez Catán
The increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) to a variety of new technologies has become a matter of concern due to the potential toxicity of these materials. Many questions about the fate of NPs in the environment and the subsequent impact on ecosystems need to be answered. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of two alumina-based nanoceramics, γ-Al2O3 (NC) and Ni/ γ-Al2O3 (NiNC) by means of three different standardized tests: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), bioassay with luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox), and bioassay on amphibian larvae (Rhinella arenarum) (AMPHITOX)...
June 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592668/nineteenth-century-collapse-of-a-benthic-marine-ecosystem-on-the-open-continental-shelf
#6
Adam Tomašových, Susan M Kidwell
The soft-sediment seafloor of the open continental shelf is among the least-known biomes on Earth, despite its high diversity and importance to fisheries and biogeochemical cycling. Abundant dead shells of epifaunal suspension-feeding terebratulid brachiopods (Laqueus) and scallops on the now-muddy mainland continental shelf of southern California reveal the recent, previously unsuspected extirpation of an extensive offshore shell-gravel ecosystem, evidently driven by anthropogenic siltation. Living populations of attached epifauna, which formerly existed in a middle- and outer-shelf mosaic with patches of trophically diverse muds, are restricted today to rocky seafloor along the shelf edge and to the sandier shelves of offshore islands...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580146/use-of-physiological-knowledge-to-control-the-invasive-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-in-the-laurentian-great-lakes
#7
Michael J Siefkes
Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America is an example of using physiological knowledge to successfully control an invasive species and rehabilitate an ecosystem and valuable fishery. The parasitic sea lamprey contributed to the devastating collapse of native fish communities after invading the Great Lakes during the 1800s and early 1900s. Economic tragedy ensued with the loss of the fishery and severe impacts to property values and tourism resulting from sea lamprey-induced ecological changes...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552352/calcium-isotopic-evidence-for-vulnerable-marine-ecosystem-structure-prior-to-the-k-pg-extinction
#8
Jeremy E Martin, Peggy Vincent, Théo Tacail, Fatima Khaldoune, Essaid Jourani, Nathalie Bardet, Vincent Balter
The collapse of marine ecosystems during the end-Cretaceous mass extinction involved the base of the food chain [1] up to ubiquitous vertebrate apex predators [2-5]. Large marine reptiles became suddenly extinct at the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary, whereas other contemporaneous groups such as bothremydid turtles or dyrosaurid crocodylomorphs, although affected at the familial, genus, or species level, survived into post-crisis environments of the Paleocene [5-9] and could have found refuge in freshwater habitats [10-12]...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505889/vegetation-dynamics-and-responses-to-climate-change-and-human-activities-in-central-asia
#9
Liangliang Jiang, Guli Jiapaer, Anming Bao, Hao Guo, Felix Ndayisaba
Knowledge of the current changes and dynamics of different types of vegetation in relation to climatic changes and anthropogenic activities is critical for developing adaptation strategies to address the challenges posed by climate change and human activities for ecosystems. Based on a regression analysis and the Hurst exponent index method, this research investigated the spatial and temporal characteristics and relationships between vegetation greenness and climatic factors in Central Asia using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and gridded high-resolution station (land) data for the period 1984-2013...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464290/testing-for-thresholds-of-ecosystem-collapse-in-seagrass-meadows
#10
Sean D Connell, Milena Fernandes, Owen W Burnell, Zoë A Doubleday, Kingsley J Griffin, Andrew D Irving, Jonathan Y S Leung, Samuel Owen, Bayden D Russell, Laura J Falkenberg
While the public's value of 'healthy' environments is renown, the science and management of ecosystem health has not been as simple. Ecological systems can be dynamic and unpredictable, with shifts from one ecosystem state to another often considered 'surprising'. This unpredictability is often thought to be due to ecological thresholds, where small cumulative increases in an environmental stressor drives a much greater consequence than would be predicted from linear effects, suggesting an unforeseen tipping point is crossed...
May 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439454/distribution-and-establishment-of-the-alien-australian-redclaw-crayfish-cherax-quadricarinatus-in-south-africa-and-swaziland
#11
Ana L Nunes, Tsungai A Zengeya, Andries C Hoffman, G John Measey, Olaf L F Weyl
BACKGROUND: The Australian redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus, von Martens), is native to Australasia, but has been widely translocated around the world due to aquaculture and aquarium trade. Mostly as a result of escape from aquaculture facilities, this species has established extralimital populations in Australia and alien populations in Europe, Asia, Central America and Africa. In South Africa, C. quadricarinatus was first sampled from the wild in 2002 in the Komati River, following its escape from an aquaculture facility in Swaziland, but data on the current status of its populations are not available...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416118/a-magnetic-map-leads-juvenile-european-eels-to-the-gulf-stream
#12
Lewis C Naisbett-Jones, Nathan F Putman, Jessica F Stephenson, Sam Ladak, Kyle A Young
Migration allows animals to track the environmental conditions that maximize growth, survival, and reproduction [1-3]. Improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying migrations allows for improved management of species and ecosystems [1-4]. For centuries, the catadromous European eel (Anguilla anguilla) has provided one of Europe's most important fisheries and has sparked considerable scientific inquiry, most recently owing to the dramatic collapse of juvenile recruitment [5]. Larval eels are transported by ocean currents associated with the Gulf Stream System from Sargasso Sea breeding grounds to coastal and freshwater habitats from North Africa to Scandinavia [6, 7]...
April 24, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386414/a-morphometric-analysis-of-vegetation-patterns-in-dryland-ecosystems
#13
Luke Mander, Stefan C Dekker, Mao Li, Washington Mio, Surangi W Punyasena, Timothy M Lenton
Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity of regime shifts in dryland ecosystems...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330920/immanent-conditions-determine-imminent-collapses-nutrient-regimes-define-the-resilience-of-macroalgal-communities
#14
Jordi Boada, Rohan Arthur, David Alonso, Jordi F Pagès, Albert Pessarrodona, Silvia Oliva, Giulia Ceccherelli, Luigi Piazzi, Javier Romero, Teresa Alcoverro
Predicting where state-changing thresholds lie can be inherently complex in ecosystems characterized by nonlinear dynamics. Unpacking the mechanisms underlying these transitions can help considerably reduce this unpredictability. We used empirical observations, field and laboratory experiments, and mathematical models to examine how differences in nutrient regimes mediate the capacity of macrophyte communities to sustain sea urchin grazing. In relatively nutrient-rich conditions, macrophyte systems were more resilient to grazing, shifting to barrens beyond 1 800 g m(-2) (urchin biomass), more than twice the threshold of nutrient-poor conditions...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293421/protein-misfolding-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-implications-and-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Patrick Sweeney, Hyunsun Park, Marc Baumann, John Dunlop, Judith Frydman, Ron Kopito, Alexander McCampbell, Gabrielle Leblanc, Anjli Venkateswaran, Antti Nurmi, Robert Hodgson
A hallmark of neurodegenerative proteinopathies is the formation of misfolded protein aggregates that cause cellular toxicity and contribute to cellular proteostatic collapse. Therapeutic options are currently being explored that target different steps in the production and processing of proteins implicated in neurodegenerative disease, including synthesis, chaperone-assisted folding and trafficking, and degradation via the proteasome and autophagy pathways. Other therapies, like mTOR inhibitors and activators of the heat shock response, can rebalance the entire proteostatic network...
2017: Translational Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275729/radar-interferometry-offers-new-insights-into-threats-to-the-angkor-site
#16
Fulong Chen, Huadong Guo, Peifeng Ma, Hui Lin, Cheng Wang, Natarajan Ishwaran, Peou Hang
The conservation of World Heritage is critical to the cultural and social sustainability of regions and nations. Risk monitoring and preventive diagnosis of threats to heritage sites in any given ecosystem are a complex and challenging task. Taking advantage of the performance of Earth Observation technologies, we measured the impacts of hitherto imperceptible and poorly understood factors of groundwater and temperature variations on the monuments in the Angkor World Heritage site (400 km(2)). We developed a two-scale synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) approach...
March 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261659/climate-impacts-on-global-hot-spots-of-marine-biodiversity
#17
Francisco Ramírez, Isabel Afán, Lloyd S Davis, André Chiaradia
Human activities drive environmental changes at scales that could potentially cause ecosystem collapses in the marine environment. We combined information on marine biodiversity with spatial assessments of the impacts of climate change to identify the key areas to prioritize for the conservation of global marine biodiversity. This process identified six marine regions of exceptional biodiversity based on global distributions of 1729 species of fish, 124 marine mammals, and 330 seabirds. Overall, these hot spots of marine biodiversity coincide with areas most severely affected by global warming...
February 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221708/improved-management-of-small-pelagic-fisheries-through-seasonal-climate-prediction
#18
Désirée Tommasi, Charles A Stock, Kathleen Pegion, Gabriel A Vecchi, Richard D Methot, Michael A Alexander, David M Checkley
Populations of small pelagic fish are strongly influenced by climate. The inability of managers to anticipate environment-driven fluctuations in stock productivity or distribution can lead to overfishing and stock collapses, inflexible management regulations inducing shifts in the functional response to human predators, lost opportunities to harvest populations, bankruptcies in the fishing industry, and loss of resilience in the human food supply. Recent advances in dynamical global climate prediction systems allow for sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly predictions at a seasonal scale over many shelf ecosystems...
October 12, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211914/eco-evolutionary-feedbacks-can-rescue-cooperation-in-microbial-populations
#19
Clara Moreno-Fenoll, Matteo Cavaliere, Esteban Martínez-García, Juan F Poyatos
Bacterial populations whose growth depends on the cooperative production of public goods are usually threatened by the rise of cheaters that do not contribute but just consume the common resource. Minimizing cheater invasions appears then as a necessary mechanism to maintain these populations. However, that invasions result instead in the persistence of cooperation is a prospect that has yet remained largely unexplored. Here, we show that the demographic collapse induced by cheaters in the population can actually contribute to the rescue of cooperation, in a clear illustration of how ecology and evolution can influence each other...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190724/flourishing-sponge-based-ecosystems-after-the-end-ordovician-mass-extinction
#20
Joseph P Botting, Lucy A Muir, Yuandong Zhang, Xuan Ma, Junye Ma, Longwu Wang, Jianfang Zhang, Yanyan Song, Xiang Fang
The Late Ordovician (Hirnantian, approximately 445 million years ago) extinction event was among the largest known, with 85% species loss [1]. Post-extinction survival faunas are invariably low diversity, especially benthic communities [2], but ecological structure was restored relatively rapidly [1]. This pattern, however, reflects organisms with robust skeletons, as only one exceptionally preserved Hirnantian fossil biota was previously known [3, 4]; in particular, almost no Hirnantian sponges have been recorded...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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