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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320475/warfare-and-wildlife-declines-in-africa-s-protected-areas
#1
Joshua H Daskin, Robert M Pringle
Large-mammal populations are ecological linchpins, and their worldwide decline and extinction disrupts many ecosystem functions and services. Reversal of this trend will require an understanding of the determinants of population decline, to enable more accurate predictions of when and where collapses will occur and to guide the development of effective conservation and restoration policies. Many correlates of large-mammal declines are known, including low reproductive rates, overhunting, and habitat destruction...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316275/functional-trait-ecology-of-the-plateau-pika-ochotona-curzoniae-hodgson-1858-in-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-ecosystem
#2
Andrew T Smith, Badingqiuying, Maxwell C Wilson, Brigitte W Hogan
Understanding a species' functional traits allows for a directed and productive perspective on the role a species plays in nature, thus its relative importance to conservation planning. The functional trait ecology of the plateau pika Ochotona curzoniae (Hodgson, 1858) is examined to better understand the resilience and sustainability of the high alpine grasslands of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The key functional traits of plateau pikas are their abundance and behavior of digging extensive burrow systems...
January 9, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315309/climate-change-could-drive-marine-food-web-collapse-through-altered-trophic-flows-and-cyanobacterial-proliferation
#3
Hadayet Ullah, Ivan Nagelkerken, Silvan U Goldenberg, Damien A Fordham
Global warming and ocean acidification are forecast to exert significant impacts on marine ecosystems worldwide. However, most of these projections are based on ecological proxies or experiments on single species or simplified food webs. How energy fluxes are likely to change in marine food webs in response to future climates remains unclear, hampering forecasts of ecosystem functioning. Using a sophisticated mesocosm experiment, we model energy flows through a species-rich multilevel food web, with live habitats, natural abiotic variability, and the potential for intra- and intergenerational adaptation...
January 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311325/predicting-tipping-points-in-mutualistic-networks-through-dimension-reduction
#4
Junjie Jiang, Zi-Gang Huang, Thomas P Seager, Wei Lin, Celso Grebogi, Alan Hastings, Ying-Cheng Lai
Complex networked systems ranging from ecosystems and the climate to economic, social, and infrastructure systems can exhibit a tipping point (a "point of no return") at which a total collapse of the system occurs. To understand the dynamical mechanism of a tipping point and to predict its occurrence as a system parameter varies are of uttermost importance, tasks that are hindered by the often extremely high dimensionality of the underlying system. Using complex mutualistic networks in ecology as a prototype class of systems, we carry out a dimension reduction process to arrive at an effective 2D system with the two dynamical variables corresponding to the average pollinator and plant abundances...
January 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311224/collapsing-the-tumor-ecosystem-preventing-adaptive-response-to-treatment-by-inhibiting-transcription
#5
Alessandro Carugo, Giulio F Draetta
Adaptation and resistance to treatment are the results of a multitude of (epi)genetic events unmasked or directly triggered by therapies targeting the genetic driver(s) of a dominant cell population within a tumor mass. Rusan and colleagues report that drug-tolerant cells are sensitive to THZ1, a dual CDK7/12 inhibitor, which, by impairing the transcriptional machinery, can prevent cellular rewiring to survive therapeutic attack. Cancer Discov; 8(1); 17-9. ©2018 AACRSee related article by Rusan et al., p. 59...
January 2018: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299267/thresholds-of-sea-level-rise-rate-and-sea-level-rise-acceleration-rate-in-a-vulnerable-coastal-wetland
#6
Wei Wu, Patrick Biber, Matthew Bethel
Feedbacks among inundation, sediment trapping, and vegetation productivity help maintain coastal wetlands facing sea-level rise (SLR). However, when the SLR rate exceeds a threshold, coastal wetlands can collapse. Understanding the threshold helps address key challenges in ecology-nonlinear response of ecosystems to environmental change, promotes communication between ecologists and resource managers, and facilitates decision-making in climate change policies. We studied the threshold of SLR rate and developed a new threshold of SLR acceleration rate on sustainability of coastal wetlands as SLR is likely to accelerate due to enhanced anthropogenic forces...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196525/mapping-local-and-global-variability-in-plant-trait-distributions
#7
Ethan E Butler, Abhirup Datta, Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Ming Chen, Kirk R Wythers, Farideh Fazayeli, Arindam Banerjee, Owen K Atkin, Jens Kattge, Bernard Amiaud, Benjamin Blonder, Gerhard Boenisch, Ben Bond-Lamberty, Kerry A Brown, Chaeho Byun, Giandiego Campetella, Bruno E L Cerabolini, Johannes H C Cornelissen, Joseph M Craine, Dylan Craven, Franciska T de Vries, Sandra Díaz, Tomas F Domingues, Estelle Forey, Andrés González-Melo, Nicolas Gross, Wenxuan Han, Wesley N Hattingh, Thomas Hickler, Steven Jansen, Koen Kramer, Nathan J B Kraft, Hiroko Kurokawa, Daniel C Laughlin, Patrick Meir, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Yusuke Onoda, Josep Peñuelas, Quentin Read, Lawren Sack, Brandon Schamp, Nadejda A Soudzilovskaia, Marko J Spasojevic, Enio Sosinski, Peter E Thornton, Fernando Valladares, Peter M van Bodegom, Mathew Williams, Christian Wirth, Peter B Reich
Our ability to understand and predict the response of ecosystems to a changing environment depends on quantifying vegetation functional diversity. However, representing this diversity at the global scale is challenging. Typically, in Earth system models, characterization of plant diversity has been limited to grouping related species into plant functional types (PFTs), with all trait variation in a PFT collapsed into a single mean value that is applied globally. Using the largest global plant trait database and state of the art Bayesian modeling, we created fine-grained global maps of plant trait distributions that can be applied to Earth system models...
December 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195169/modelling-interactive-effects-of-multiple-disturbances-on-a-coastal-lake-ecosystem-implications-for-management
#8
Hannah F E Jones, Deniz Özkundakci, Chris G McBride, Conrad A Pilditch, Mathew G Allan, David P Hamilton
Coastal lakes, also known as temporarily open/closed estuaries or intermittently closed and open lakes and lagoons, are common worldwide, are typically sites of high biodiversity and often contain abundant macrophyte populations. Anthropogenic stressors such as increased nutrient and sediment loading have adverse effects on submerged macrophytes, and when closed, the lack of tidal flushing makes coastal lakes highly susceptible to eutrophication. Lake openings to the sea may occur naturally, but many coastal lakes are also opened artificially, often to reduce inundation of surrounding land...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188005/connectivity-persistence-and-loss-of-high-abundance-areas-of-a-recovering-marine-fish-population-in-the-northwest-atlantic-ocean
#9
Stephanie A Boudreau, Nancy L Shackell, Stuart Carson, Cornelia E den Heyer
In the early 1990s, the Northwest Atlantic Ocean underwent a fisheries-driven ecosystem shift. Today, the iconic cod (Gadus morhua) remains at low levels, while Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) has been increasing since the mid-2000s, concomitant with increasing interest from the fishing industry. Currently, our knowledge about halibut ecology is limited, and the lack of recovery in other collapsed groundfish populations has highlighted the danger of overfishing local concentrations. Here, we apply a Bayesian hierarchical spatiotemporal approach to model the spatial structure of juvenile Atlantic halibut over 36 years and three fisheries management regimes using three model parameters to characterize the resulting spatiotemporal abundance structure: persistence (similarity of spatial structure over time), connectivity (coherence of temporal pattern over space), and spatial variance (variation across the seascape)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187624/delayed-behavioural-shifts-undermine-the-sustainability-of-social-ecological-systems
#10
A-S Lafuite, C de Mazancourt, M Loreau
Natural habitat destruction and fragmentation generate a time-delayed loss of species and associated ecosystem services. As social-ecological systems (SESs) depend on a range of ecosystem services, lagged ecological dynamics may affect their long-term sustainability. Here, we investigate the role of consumption changes for sustainability, under a time-delayed ecological feedback on agricultural production. We use a stylized model that couples the dynamics of biodiversity, technology, human demography and compliance with a social norm prescribing sustainable consumption...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149749/the-role-of-satellite-remote-sensing-in-structured-ecosystem-risk-assessments
#11
REVIEW
Nicholas J Murray, David A Keith, Lucie M Bland, Renata Ferrari, Mitchell B Lyons, Richard Lucas, Nathalie Pettorelli, Emily Nicholson
The current set of global conservation targets requires methods for monitoring the changing status of ecosystems. Protocols for ecosystem risk assessment are uniquely suited to this task, providing objective syntheses of a wide range of data to estimate the likelihood of ecosystem collapse. Satellite remote sensing can deliver ecologically relevant, long-term datasets suitable for analysing changes in ecosystem area, structure and function at temporal and spatial scales relevant to risk assessment protocols...
November 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134193/snowball-earth-climate-dynamics-and-cryogenian-geology-geobiology
#12
Paul F Hoffman, Dorian S Abbot, Yosef Ashkenazy, Douglas I Benn, Jochen J Brocks, Phoebe A Cohen, Grant M Cox, Jessica R Creveling, Yannick Donnadieu, Douglas H Erwin, Ian J Fairchild, David Ferreira, Jason C Goodman, Galen P Halverson, Malte F Jansen, Guillaume Le Hir, Gordon D Love, Francis A Macdonald, Adam C Maloof, Camille A Partin, Gilles Ramstein, Brian E J Rose, Catherine V Rose, Peter M Sadler, Eli Tziperman, Aiko Voigt, Stephen G Warren
Geological evidence indicates that grounded ice sheets reached sea level at all latitudes during two long-lived Cryogenian (58 and ≥5 My) glaciations. Combined uranium-lead and rhenium-osmium dating suggests that the older (Sturtian) glacial onset and both terminations were globally synchronous. Geochemical data imply that CO2 was 10(2) PAL (present atmospheric level) at the younger termination, consistent with a global ice cover. Sturtian glaciation followed breakup of a tropical supercontinent, and its onset coincided with the equatorial emplacement of a large igneous province...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061888/innovation-and-the-growth-of-human-population
#13
V P Weinberger, C Quiñinao, P A Marquet
Biodiversity is sustained by and is essential to the services that ecosystems provide. Different species would use these services in different ways, or adaptive strategies, which are sustained in time by continuous innovations. Using this framework, we postulate a model for a biological species (Homo sapiens) in a finite world where innovations, aimed at increasing the flux of ecosystem services (a measure of habitat quality), increase with population size, and have positive effects on the generation of new innovations (positive feedback) as well as costs in terms of negatively affecting the provision of ecosystem services...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987466/how-ecosystems-recover-from-pulse-perturbations-a-theory-of-short-to-long-term-responses
#14
J-F Arnoldi, A Bideault, M Loreau, B Haegeman
Quantifying stability properties of ecosystems is an important problem in ecology. A common approach is based on the recovery from pulse perturbations, and posits that the faster an ecosystem return to its pre-perturbation state, the more stable it is. Theoretical studies often collapse the recovery dynamics into a single quantity: the long-term rate of return, called asymptotic resilience. However, empirical studies typically measure the recovery dynamics at much shorter time scales. In this paper we explain why asymptotic resilience is rarely representative of the short-term recovery...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953232/responses-of-microcystis-colonies-of-different-sizes-to-hydrogen-peroxide-stress
#15
Mixue Liu, Xiaoli Shi, Chao Chen, Li Yu, Chuang Sun
Microcystis blooms have become a ubiquitous phenomenon in freshwater ecosystems, and the size of Microcystis colonies varies widely throughout the year. In the present study, hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) was applied to test the effect of this algaecide on Microcystis colonies of different sizes and to evaluate the colonies' antioxidant strategy. The results showed that Microcystis populations collapsed under treatment with 5 mg/L H₂O₂ at colony sizes smaller than 25 μm. A dosage of 20 mg/L H₂O₂ was necessary to efficiently control Microcystis colonies larger than 25 μm...
September 27, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931744/using-multiple-lines-of-evidence-to-assess-the-risk-of-ecosystem-collapse
#16
Lucie M Bland, Tracey J Regan, Minh Ngoc Dinh, Renata Ferrari, David A Keith, Rebecca Lester, David Mouillot, Nicholas J Murray, Hoang Anh Nguyen, Emily Nicholson
Effective ecosystem risk assessment relies on a conceptual understanding of ecosystem dynamics and the synthesis of multiple lines of evidence. Risk assessment protocols and ecosystem models integrate limited observational data with threat scenarios, making them valuable tools for monitoring ecosystem status and diagnosing key mechanisms of decline to be addressed by management. We applied the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems criteria to quantify the risk of collapse of the Meso-American Reef, a unique ecosystem containing the second longest barrier reef in the world...
September 27, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900312/dynamic-patterns-of-overexploitation-in-fisheries
#17
Ilaria Perissi, Ugo Bardi, Toufic El Asmar, Alessandro Lavacchi
Understanding overfishing and regulating fishing quotas is a major global challenge for the 21st Century both in terms of providing food for humankind and to preserve the oceans' ecosystems. However, fishing is a complex economic activity, affected not just by overfishing but also by such factors as pollution, technology, financial factors and more. For this reason, it is often difficult to state with complete certainty that overfishing is the cause of the decline of a fishery. In this study, we developed a simple dynamic model specifically designed to isolate and to study the role of depletion on production...
September 10, 2017: Ecological Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829636/kleptoparasitism-and-scavenging-can-stabilize-ecosystem-dynamics
#18
Stefano Focardi, Massimo Materassi, Giacomo Innocenti, Duccio Berzi
Scavenging is ubiquitous in nature, but its implications have rarely been investigated. We used camera traps on wolf kills to investigate the role of scavenging on predator and multiprey dynamics in a northern Apennine system in Italy. In contrast to North American systems, the omnivorous wild boar successfully competes with wolves for the meat of their kills. We developed a deterministic, multitrophic web model (wolf, vegetation, deer, and wild boar), tunable through a parameter that governs the impact of prey sharing between wolves and wild boar...
September 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812627/direct-observation-of-increasing-recovery-length-before-collapse-of-a-marine-benthic-ecosystem
#19
Luca Rindi, Martina Dal Bello, Lei Dai, Jeff Gore, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi
Ecosystems can experience catastrophic transitions to alternative states, yet recent results have suggested that slowing down in rates of recovery after a perturbation may provide advance warning that a critical transition is approaching. Perturbation experiments with microbial populations have supported this hypothesis under controlled laboratory conditions, but evidence from natural ecosystems remains rare. Here, we manipulated rocky intertidal canopy algae to test the hypothesis that the spatial scale at which the system recovers from a perturbation in space should increase as the system approaches the tipping point, marking the transition from a canopy-dominated to a turf-dominated state...
May 8, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800687/the-profound-effect-of-harmful-cyanobacterial-blooms-from-food-web-and-management-perspectives
#20
Sigitas Šulčius, Danguolė Montvydienė, Hanna Mazur-Marzec, Jūratė Kasperovičienė, Rokas Rulevičius, Živilė Cibulskaitė
Sustainable and effective water management plans must have a reliable risk assessment strategies for harmful cyanobacterial blooms (HABs) that would enable timely decisions to be made, thus avoiding the trespassing of ecological thresholds, leading to the collapse of ecosystem structure and function. Such strategies are usually based on cyanobacterial biomass and/or on the monitoring of known toxins, which may, however, in many cases, under- or over-represent the actual toxicity of the HAB. Therefore, in this study, by the application of growth-inhibition assays using different bacteria, algae, zooplankton and fish species, we assessed the toxicological potential of two cyanobacterial blooms that differed in total cyanobacterial biomass, species composition and cyanopeptide profiles...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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