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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521007/computing-the-social-brain-connectome-across-systems-and-states
#1
Daniel Alcalá-López, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies, Frank Van Overwalle, Kai Vogeley, Rogier B Mars, Bruce I Turetsky, Angela R Laird, Peter T Fox, Simon B Eickhoff, Danilo Bzdok
Social skills probably emerge from the interaction between different neural processing levels. However, social neuroscience is fragmented into highly specialized, rarely cross-referenced topics. The present study attempts a systematic reconciliation by deriving a social brain definition from neural activity meta-analyses on social-cognitive capacities. The social brain was characterized by meta-analytic connectivity modeling evaluating coactivation in task-focused brain states and physiological fluctuations evaluating correlations in task-free brain states...
May 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512222/looplessness-in-networks-is-linked-to-trophic-coherence
#2
Samuel Johnson, Nick S Jones
Many natural, complex systems are remarkably stable thanks to an absence of feedback acting on their elements. When described as networks these exhibit few or no cycles, and associated matrices have small leading eigenvalues. It has been suggested that this architecture can confer advantages to the system as a whole, such as "qualitative stability," but this observation does not in itself explain how a loopless structure might arise. We show here that the number of feedback loops in a network, as well as the eigenvalues of associated matrices, is determined by a structural property called trophic coherence, a measure of how neatly nodes fall into distinct levels...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507312/design-and-evaluation-of-ephrina1-mutants-with-cerebral-protective-effect
#3
Yuanjun Zhu, Yuanqing Gao, Danping Zheng, Mengyang Shui, Kuai Yu, Xiaoyan Liu, Yuan Lin, Li Su, Wenxing Yang, Yinye Wang
The activation of EphA2 receptor by its natural ligand EphrinA1 causes blood brain barrier dysfunction, and inactivation of EphA2 reduces BBB damage in ischemic stroke. Thus, EphA2 targeted antagonists may serve as neuroprotective agents. We engineered four mutants of EphrinA1, EM1, EM2, EM3 and EM4, respectively. The computational analysis showed that these four mutants were capable of interacting with EphA2. Their potential neuroprotective effects were examined in mouse focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model...
May 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507231/biological-modelling-of-a-computational-spiking-neural-network-with-neuronal-avalanches
#4
Xiumin Li, Qing Chen, Fangzheng Xue
In recent years, an increasing number of studies have demonstrated that networks in the brain can self-organize into a critical state where dynamics exhibit a mixture of ordered and disordered patterns. This critical branching phenomenon is termed neuronal avalanches. It has been hypothesized that the homeostatic level balanced between stability and plasticity of this critical state may be the optimal state for performing diverse neural computational tasks. However, the critical region for high performance is narrow and sensitive for spiking neural networks (SNNs)...
June 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505838/correlations-induced-by-depressing-synapses-in-critically-self-organized-networks-with-quenched-dynamics
#5
João Guilherme Ferreira Campos, Ariadne de Andrade Costa, Mauro Copelli, Osame Kinouchi
In a recent work, mean-field analysis and computer simulations were employed to analyze critical self-organization in networks of excitable cellular automata where randomly chosen synapses in the network were depressed after each spike (the so-called annealed dynamics). Calculations agree with simulations of the annealed version, showing that the nominal branching ratio σ converges to unity in the thermodynamic limit, as expected of a self-organized critical system. However, the question remains whether the same results apply to the biological case where only the synapses of firing neurons are depressed (the so-called quenched dynamics)...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500299/visual-processing-mode-switching-regulated-by-vip-cells
#6
Jung Hoon Lee, Stefan Mihalas
The responses of neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) to visual stimuli depend on behavioral states. Specifically, surround suppression is reduced during locomotion. Although locomotion-induced vasoactive intestinal polypeptide positive (VIP) interneuron depolarization can account for the reduction of surround suppression, the functions of VIP cell depolarization are not fully understood. Here we utilize a firing rate model and a computational model to elucidate the potential functions of VIP cell depolarization during locomotion...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498321/bdnf-binds-its-pro-peptide-with-high-affinity-and-the-common-val66met-polymorphism-attenuates-the-interaction
#7
Koichi Uegaki, Haruko Kumanogoh, Toshiyuki Mizui, Takatsugu Hirokawa, Yasuyuki Ishikawa, Masami Kojima
Most growth factors are initially synthesized as precursors then cleaved into bioactive mature domains and pro-domains, but the biological roles of pro-domains are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-domain (or pro-peptide) of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes neuronal survival, differentiation and synaptic plasticity. The BDNF pro-peptide is a post-processing product of the precursor BDNF. Using surface plasmon resonance and biochemical experiments, we first demonstrated that the BDNF pro-peptide binds to mature BDNF with high affinity, but not other neurotrophins...
May 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488252/multiscale-modeling-in-the-clinic-diseases-of-the-brain-and-nervous-system
#8
REVIEW
William W Lytton, Jeff Arle, Georgiy Bobashev, Songbai Ji, Tara L Klassen, Vasilis Z Marmarelis, James Schwaber, Mohamed A Sherif, Terence D Sanger
Computational neuroscience is a field that traces its origins to the efforts of Hodgkin and Huxley, who pioneered quantitative analysis of electrical activity in the nervous system. While also continuing as an independent field, computational neuroscience has combined with computational systems biology, and neural multiscale modeling arose as one offshoot. This consolidation has added electrical, graphical, dynamical system, learning theory, artificial intelligence and neural network viewpoints with the microscale of cellular biology (neuronal and glial), mesoscales of vascular, immunological and neuronal networks, on up to macroscales of cognition and behavior...
May 9, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487644/a-computational-analysis-of-the-function-of-three-inhibitory-cell-types-in-contextual-visual-processing
#9
Jung H Lee, Christof Koch, Stefan Mihalas
Most cortical inhibitory cell types exclusively express one of three genes, parvalbumin, somatostatin and 5HT3a. We conjecture that these three inhibitory neuron types possess distinct roles in visual contextual processing based on two observations. First, they have distinctive synaptic sources and targets over different spatial extents and from different areas. Second, the visual responses of cortical neurons are affected not only by local cues, but also by visual context. We use modeling to relate structural information to function in primary visual cortex (V1) of the mouse, and investigate their role in contextual visual processing...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484385/an-evaluation-of-the-accuracy-of-classical-models-for-computing-the-membrane-potential-and-extracellular-potential-for-neurons
#10
Aslak Tveito, Karoline H Jæger, Glenn T Lines, Łukasz Paszkowski, Joakim Sundnes, Andrew G Edwards, Tuomo Māki-Marttunen, Geir Halnes, Gaute T Einevoll
Two mathematical models are part of the foundation of Computational neurophysiology; (a) the Cable equation is used to compute the membrane potential of neurons, and, (b) volume-conductor theory describes the extracellular potential around neurons. In the standard procedure for computing extracellular potentials, the transmembrane currents are computed by means of (a) and the extracellular potentials are computed using an explicit sum over analytical point-current source solutions as prescribed by volume conductor theory...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481659/ion-channel-mechanisms-underlying-frequency-firing-patterns-of-the-avian-nucleus-magnocellularis-a-computational-model
#11
Ting Lu, Kirstie Wade, Hui Hong, Jason Tait Sanchez
We have previously shown that late-developing avian nucleus magnocellularis (NM) neurons (embryonic [E] days 19-21) fire action potentials (APs) that resembles a band-pass filter in response to sinusoidal current injections of varying frequencies. NM neurons located in the mid- to high-frequency regions of the nucleus fire preferentially at 75 Hz, but only fire a single onset AP to frequency inputs greater than 200 Hz. Surprisingly, NM neurons do not fire APs to sinusoidal inputs less than 20 Hz regardless of the strength of the current injection...
May 8, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481348/cortical-gamma-band-synchronization-through-somatostatin-interneurons
#12
Julia Veit, Richard Hakim, Monika P Jadi, Terrence J Sejnowski, Hillel Adesnik
Gamma band rhythms may synchronize distributed cell assemblies to facilitate information transfer within and across brain areas, yet their underlying mechanisms remain hotly debated. Most circuit models postulate that soma-targeting parvalbumin-positive GABAergic neurons are the essential inhibitory neuron subtype necessary for gamma rhythms. Using cell-type-specific optogenetic manipulations in behaving animals, we show that dendrite-targeting somatostatin (SOM) interneurons are critical for a visually induced, context-dependent gamma rhythm in visual cortex...
May 8, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477355/%C3%AE-conotoxins-active-at-%C3%AE-3-containing-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-and-their-molecular-determinants-for-selective-inhibition
#13
REVIEW
Hartmut Cuny, Rilei Yu, Han-Shen Tae, Shiva N Kompella, David J Adams
Neuronal α3-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and non-neuronal tissues are implicated in a number of severe disease conditions ranging from cancer to cardiovascular diseases, and chronic pain. However, despite the physiological characterization of mouse models and cell lines, the precise pathophysiology of nAChRs outside the central nervous system (CNS) remains not well understood, in part because there is a lack of subtype-selective antagonists. α-Conotoxins isolated from cone snail venom exhibit characteristic individual selectivity profiles for nAChRs and, therefore, are excellent tools to study the determinants for nAChR-antagonist interactions...
May 6, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475686/quercitrin-and-quercetin-3-%C3%AE-d-glucoside-as-chemical-chaperones-for-the-a4v-sod1-als-causing-mutant
#14
Philbert Ip, Priya Roy Sharda, Anna Cunningham, Sumon Chakrabartty, Vijay Pande, Avijit Chakrabartty
In many cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), mutant forms of the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase protein (SOD1) misfold and aggregate in motor neurons. Monomers of the normally homodimeric SOD1 have been found in patient tissue, presymptomatic mouse models of ALS, and in vitro misfolding assays which suggests that monomerization might be an early step in the pathological SOD1 misfolding pathway. In this study, we targeted the dimer interface with small molecules that might act as chemical chaperones to stabilize the native dimer and prevent downstream misfolding and aggregation...
May 5, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475061/modulation-of-parkinsonian-state-with-uncertain-disturbance-based-on-sliding-mode-control
#15
Yulin Zhu, Jiang Wang, Huiyan Li, Bin Deng, Chen Liu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of central nervous system that endangers the olds' health seriously. The motor symptoms of PD can be attributed to the distorted relay reliability of thalamus to cortical sensorimotor input that results from the increase of inhibitory input from internal segment of the globus pallidum (GPi). Based on this, we construct the GPithalamocortical computational model to generate the normal and pathological firing patterns by varying GPi spike train input. A kind of closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) strategy is proposed here...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473648/activity-clamp-provides-insights-into-paradoxical-effects-of-the-anti-seizure-drug-carbamazepine
#16
G Morris, M Leite, D M Kullmann, I Pavlov, S Schorge, G Lignani
A major challenge in experimental epilepsy research is to reconcile the effects of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on individual neurons with their network-level actions. Highlighting this difficulty, it is unclear why carbamazepine (CBZ), a front-line AED with a known molecular mechanism, has been reported to increase epileptiform activity in several clinical and experimental studies. We confirmed in an in vitro mouse model (both sexes) that the frequency of interictal bursts increased following CBZ perfusion...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472057/top-down-control-of-cortical-gamma-band-communication-via-pulvinar-induced-phase-shifts-in-the-alpha-rhythm
#17
Silvan Quax, Ole Jensen, Paul Tiesinga
Selective routing of information between cortical areas is required in order to combine different sources of information according to cognitive demand. Recent experiments have suggested that alpha band activity originating from the pulvinar coordinates this inter-areal cortical communication. Using a computer model we investigated whether top-down induced shifts in the relative alpha phase between two cortical areas could modulate cortical communication, quantified in terms of changes in gamma band coherence between them...
May 4, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472037/state-dependent-intrinsic-predictability-of-cortical-network-dynamics
#18
Leila Fakhraei, Shree Hari Gautam, Woodrow L Shew
The information encoded in cortical circuit dynamics is fleeting, changing from moment to moment as new input arrives and ongoing intracortical interactions progress. A combination of deterministic and stochastic biophysical mechanisms governs how cortical dynamics at one moment evolve from cortical dynamics in recently preceding moments. Such temporal continuity of cortical dynamics is fundamental to many aspects of cortex function but is not well understood. Here we study temporal continuity by attempting to predict cortical population dynamics (multisite local field potential) based on its own recent history in somatosensory cortex of anesthetized rats and in a computational network-level model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468997/ube3a-loss-increases-excitability-and-blunts-orientation-tuning-in-the-visual-cortex-of-angelman-syndrome-model-mice
#19
Michael L Wallace, Geeske M van Woerden, Ype Elgersma, Spencer LaVere Smith, Benjamin D Philpot
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of the maternally inherited allele of UBE3A. Ube3a(STOP/p+) mice recapitulate major features of AS in humans and allow conditional reinstatement of maternal Ube3a with the expression of Cre recombinase. We have recently shown that AS model mice exhibit reduced inhibitory drive onto L2/3 pyramidal neurons of visual cortex, which contributes to a synaptic excitatory/inhibitory imbalance. However, it remains unclear how this loss of inhibitory drive affects neural circuits in vivo...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467417/anatomy-of-adult-megaphragma-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae-one-of-the-smallest-insects-and-new-insight-into-insect-miniaturization
#20
Alexey A Polilov
The body size, especially in cases of extreme reduction, is an important characteristic that strongly determines the morphology, physiology, and biology of animals. Miniaturization is a widespread trend in animal evolution and one of the principal directions of evolution in insects. Miniaturization-related features of insect morphology have been subject to intensive studies during the last few years, but the structure of the smallest insects remains insufficiently known. It is especially important to study hymenopterans of the genus Megaphragma, which include the smallest flying insects and a species in which an almost anucleate nervous system was recently discovered...
2017: PloS One
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