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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453522/structural-disconnection-is-responsible-for-increased-functional-connectivity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Kevin R Patel, Sean Tobyne, Daria Porter, John Daniel Bireley, Victoria Smith, Eric Klawiter
Increased synchrony within neuroanatomical networks is often observed in neurophysiologic studies of human brain disease. Most often, this phenomenon is ascribed to a compensatory process in the face of injury, though evidence supporting such accounts is limited. Given the known dependence of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) on underlying structural connectivity (SC), we examine an alternative hypothesis: that topographical changes in SC, specifically particular patterns of disconnection, contribute to increased network rsFC...
February 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#2
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either 'direct', via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or 'indirect', via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449814/multisite-delayed-feedback-for-electrical-brain-stimulation
#3
Oleksandr V Popovych, Peter A Tass
Demand-controlled deep brain stimulation (DBS) appears to be a promising approach for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) as revealed by computational, pre-clinical and clinical studies. Stimulation delivery is adapted to brain activity, for example, to the amount of neuronal activity considered to be abnormal. Such a closed-loop stimulation setup might help to reduce the amount of stimulation current, thereby maintaining therapeutic efficacy. In the context of the development of stimulation techniques that aim to restore desynchronized neuronal activity on a long-term basis, specific closed-loop stimulation protocols were designed computationally...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448391/relationship-between-the-mechanisms-of-gamma-rhythm-generation-and-the-magnitude-of-the-macroscopic-phase-response-function-in-a-population-of-excitatory-and-inhibitory-modified-quadratic-integrate-and-fire-neurons
#4
Akihiko Akao, Yutaro Ogawa, Yasuhiko Jimbo, G Bard Ermentrout, Kiyoshi Kotani
Gamma oscillations are thought to play an important role in brain function. Interneuron gamma (ING) and pyramidal interneuron gamma (PING) mechanisms have been proposed as generation mechanisms for these oscillations. However, the relation between the generation mechanisms and the dynamical properties of the gamma oscillation are still unclear. Among the dynamical properties of the gamma oscillation, the phase response function (PRF) is important because it encodes the response of the oscillation to inputs...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435093/a-roadmap-to-computational-social-neuroscience
#5
Emmanuelle Tognoli, Guillaume Dumas, J A Scott Kelso
To complement experimental efforts toward understanding human social interactions at both neural and behavioral levels, two computational approaches are presented: (1) a fully parameterizable mathematical model of a social partner, the Human Dynamic Clamp which, by virtue of experimentally controlled interactions between Virtual Partners and real people, allows for emergent behaviors to be studied; and (2) a multiscale neurocomputational model of social coordination that enables exploration of social self-organization at all levels-from neuronal patterns to people interacting with each other...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432418/spike-and-burst-coding-in-thalamocortical-relay-cells
#6
Fleur Zeldenrust, Pascal Chameau, Wytse J Wadman
Mammalian thalamocortical relay (TCR) neurons switch their firing activity between a tonic spiking and a bursting regime. In a combined experimental and computational study, we investigated the features in the input signal that single spikes and bursts in the output spike train represent and how this code is influenced by the membrane voltage state of the neuron. Identical frozen Gaussian noise current traces were injected into TCR neurons in rat brain slices as well as in a validated three-compartment TCR model cell...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432411/electrical-receptive-fields-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-influence-of-presynaptic-neurons
#7
Matias I Maturana, Nicholas V Apollo, David J Garrett, Tatiana Kameneva, Shaun L Cloherty, David B Grayden, Anthony N Burkitt, Michael R Ibbotson, Hamish Meffin
Implantable retinal stimulators activate surviving neurons to restore a sense of vision in people who have lost their photoreceptors through degenerative diseases. Complex spatial and temporal interactions occur in the retina during multi-electrode stimulation. Due to these complexities, most existing implants activate only a few electrodes at a time, limiting the repertoire of available stimulation patterns. Measuring the spatiotemporal interactions between electrodes and retinal cells, and incorporating them into a model may lead to improved stimulation algorithms that exploit the interactions...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429935/deconvolution-of-voltage-sensor-time-series-and-electro-diffusion-modeling-reveal-the-role-of-spine-geometry-in-controlling-synaptic-strength
#8
Jerome Cartailler, Taekyung Kwon, Rafael Yuste, David Holcman
Most synaptic excitatory connections are made on dendritic spines. But how the voltage in spines is modulated by its geometry remains unclear. To investigate the electrical properties of spines, we combine voltage imaging data with electro-diffusion modeling. We first present a temporal deconvolution procedure for the genetically encoded voltage sensor expressed in hippocampal cultured neurons and then use electro-diffusion theory to compute the electric field and the current-voltage conversion. We extract a range for the neck resistances of 〈R〉=100±35MΩ...
February 5, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429576/in-silico-studies-synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation-to-explore-multi-targeted-approach-for-imidazole-analogues-as-potential-cholinesterase-inhibitors-with-neuroprotective-role-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Archana S Gurjar, Mrunali N Darekar, Keng Yoon Yeong, Luyi Ooi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with multiple factors associated with its pathogenesis. Our strategy against AD involves design of multi-targeted 2-substituted-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazole analogues which can interact and inhibit AChE, thereby, increasing the synaptic availability of ACh, inhibit BuChE, relieve induced oxidative stress and confer a neuroprotective role. Molecular docking was employed to study interactions within the AChE active site. In silico ADME study was performed to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters...
February 2, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427848/targeting-alpha-band-oscillations-in-a-cortical-model-with-amplitude-modulated-high-frequency-transcranial-electric-stimulation
#10
Ehsan Negahbani, Florian H Kasten, Christoph S Herrmann, Flavio Frohlich
Non-invasive brain stimulation to target specific network activity patterns, e.g. transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), has become an essential tool to understand the causal role of neuronal oscillations in cognition and behavior. However, conventional sinusoidal tACS limits the ability to record neuronal activity during stimulation and lacks spatial focality. One particularly promising new tACS stimulation paradigm uses amplitude-modulated (AM) high-frequency waveforms (AM-tACS) with a slow signal envelope that may overcome the limitations...
February 7, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426924/a-biopotential-optrode-array-operation-principles-and-simulations
#11
Amr Al Abed, Hrishikesh Srinivas, Josiah Firth, François Ladouceur, Nigel H Lovell, Leonardo Silvestri
We propose an optical electrode 'optrode' sensor array for biopotential measurements. The transduction mechanism is based on deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystals which realign, altering the optrode's light reflectance properties, relative to applied potential fields of biological cells and tissue. A computational model of extracellular potential recording by the optrode including the electro-optical transduction mechanism is presented, using a combination of time-domain and frequency-domain finite element analysis...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424359/motor-unit-number-index-munix-derivation-from-the-relationship-between-the-area-and-power-of-surface-electromyogram-a-computer-simulation-and-clinical-study
#12
Francesc Miralles
Objetive. MUNIX is a technique based on surface electromyogram (sEMG) that is gaining acceptance as a method to monitoring motor neuron loss because is reliable and produces less discomfort than other electrodiagnostic techniques aimed to the same purpose. MUNIX assumes that the relationship between the area of sEMG obtained at increasing levels of muscle activation and the values of a variable called "Ideal case motor unit count" (ICMUC), defined as the product of the ratio between area and power of the M-wave by that of the sEMG, is described by a decreasing power function...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415041/full-force-a-target-based-method-for-training-recurrent-networks
#13
Brian DePasquale, Christopher J Cueva, Kanaka Rajan, G Sean Escola, L F Abbott
Trained recurrent networks are powerful tools for modeling dynamic neural computations. We present a target-based method for modifying the full connectivity matrix of a recurrent network to train it to perform tasks involving temporally complex input/output transformations. The method introduces a second network during training to provide suitable "target" dynamics useful for performing the task. Because it exploits the full recurrent connectivity, the method produces networks that perform tasks with fewer neurons and greater noise robustness than traditional least-squares (FORCE) approaches...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414944/posterior-parietal-cortex-represents-sensory-history-and-mediates-its-effects-on-behaviour
#14
Athena Akrami, Charles D Kopec, Mathew E Diamond, Carlos D Brody
Many models of cognition and of neural computations posit the use and estimation of prior stimulus statistics: it has long been known that working memory and perception are strongly impacted by previous sensory experience, even when that sensory history is not relevant to the current task at hand. Nevertheless, the neural mechanisms and regions of the brain that are necessary for computing and using such prior experience are unknown. Here we report that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical locus for the representation and use of prior stimulus information...
February 7, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414777/a-cross-domain-charge-interaction-governs-the-activity-of-no-synthase
#15
Mohammad Mahfuzul Haque, Jesus Tejero, Mekki Bayachou, Claire T Kenney, Dennis J Stuehr
NO synthase (NOS) enzymes perform inter-domain electron transfer reactions during catalysis that may rely on complementary charge interactions at domain-domain interfaces. Guided by our previous results and a computer-generated domain docking model, we assessed the importance of cross-domain charge interactions in the FMN to heme electron transfer in neuronal NOS (nNOS). We reversed the charge of three residues (Glu-762, Glu-816, Glu-819) that form an electronegative triad on the FMN domain, and then individually reversed the charges of three electropositive residues (Lys-423, Lys-620, Lys-660) on the oxygenase domain (NOSoxy), to potentially restore a cross-domain charge interaction with the triad, but in reversed polarity...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414535/unsupervised-heart-rate-estimation-in-wearables-with-liquid-states-and-a-probabilistic-readout
#16
Anup Das, Paruthi Pradhapan, Willemijn Groenendaal, Prathyusha Adiraju, Raj Thilak Rajan, Francky Catthoor, Siebren Schaafsma, Jeffrey L Krichmar, Nikil Dutt, Chris Van Hoof
Heart-rate estimation is a fundamental feature of modern wearable devices. In this paper we propose a machine learning technique to estimate heart-rate from electrocardiogram (ECG) data collected using wearable devices. The novelty of our approach lies in (1) encoding spatio-temporal properties of ECG signals directly into spike train and using this to excite recurrently connected spiking neurons in a Liquid State Machine computation model; (2) a novel learning algorithm; and (3) an intelligently designed unsupervised readout based on Fuzzy c-Means clustering of spike responses from a subset of neurons (Liquid states), selected using particle swarm optimization...
January 12, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414533/a-border-ownership-model-based-on-computational-electromagnetism
#17
Zaem Arif Zainal, Shunji Satoh
The mathematical relation between a vector electric field and its corresponding scalar potential field is useful to formulate computational problems of lower/middle-order visual processing, specifically related to the assignment of borders to the side of the object: so-called border ownership (BO). BO coding is a key process for extracting the objects from the background, allowing one to organize a cluttered scene. We propose that the problem is solvable simultaneously by application of a theorem of electromagnetism, i...
January 10, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409838/deciphering-the-microstructure-of-hippocampal-subfields-with-in-vivo-dti-and-noddi-applications-to-experimental-multiple-sclerosis
#18
Amandine Crombe, Vincent Planche, Gerard Raffard, Julien Bourel, Nadège Dubourdieu, Aude Panatier, Hikaru Fukutomi, Vincent Dousset, Stephane Oliet, Bassem Hiba, Thomas Tourdias
The hippocampus contains distinct populations of neurons organized into separate anatomical subfields and layers with differential vulnerability to pathological mechanisms. The ability of in vivo neuroimaging to pinpoint regional vulnerability is especially important for better understanding of hippocampal pathology at the early stage of neurodegenerative disorders and for monitoring future therapeutic strategies. This is the case for instance in multiple sclerosis whose neurodegenerative component can affect the hippocampus from the early stage...
January 31, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407904/development-of-cdk-targeted-scoring-functions-for-prediction-of-binding-affinity
#19
Nayara Maria Bernhardt Levin, Val Oliveira Pintro, Gabriela Bitencourt-Ferreira, Bruna Boldrini de Mattos, Ariadne de Castro Silvério, Walter Filgueira de Azevedo
Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) is an interesting biological macromolecule due to its role in cell cycle progression, transcription control, and neuronal development, to mention the most studied biological activities. Furthermore, the availability of hundreds of structural studies focused on the intermolecular interactions of CDK with competitive inhibitors makes possible to develop computational models to predict binding affinity, where the atomic coordinates of binary complexes involving CDK and ligands can be used to train a machine learning model...
February 1, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398575/rigor-and-reproducibility-in-research-with-transcranial-electrical-stimulation-an-nimh-sponsored-workshop
#20
REVIEW
Marom Bikson, Andre R Brunoni, Leigh E Charvet, Vincent P Clark, Leonardo G Cohen, Zhi-De Deng, Jacek Dmochowski, Dylan J Edwards, Flavio Frohlich, Emily S Kappenman, Kelvin O Lim, Colleen Loo, Antonio Mantovani, David P McMullen, Lucas C Parra, Michele Pearson, Jessica D Richardson, Judith M Rumsey, Pejman Sehatpour, David Sommers, Gozde Unal, Eric M Wassermann, Adam J Woods, Sarah H Lisanby
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric disorders are a leading source of disability and require novel treatments that target mechanisms of disease. As such disorders are thought to result from aberrant neuronal circuit activity, neuromodulation approaches are of increasing interest given their potential for manipulating circuits directly. Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) with direct currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) or alternating currents (transcranial alternating current stimulation, tACS) represent novel, safe, well-tolerated, and relatively inexpensive putative treatment modalities...
December 29, 2017: Brain Stimulation
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