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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644841/low-dimensional-spike-rate-models-derived-from-networks-of-adaptive-integrate-and-fire-neurons-comparison-and-implementation
#1
Moritz Augustin, Josef Ladenbauer, Fabian Baumann, Klaus Obermayer
The spiking activity of single neurons can be well described by a nonlinear integrate-and-fire model that includes somatic adaptation. When exposed to fluctuating inputs sparsely coupled populations of these model neurons exhibit stochastic collective dynamics that can be effectively characterized using the Fokker-Planck equation. This approach, however, leads to a model with an infinite-dimensional state space and non-standard boundary conditions. Here we derive from that description four simple models for the spike rate dynamics in terms of low-dimensional ordinary differential equations using two different reduction techniques: one uses the spectral decomposition of the Fokker-Planck operator, the other is based on a cascade of two linear filters and a nonlinearity, which are determined from the Fokker-Planck equation and semi-analytically approximated...
June 23, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641115/feature-integration-drives-probabilistic-behavior-in-the-drosophila-escape-response
#2
Catherine R von Reyn, Aljoscha Nern, W Ryan Williamson, Patrick Breads, Ming Wu, Shigehiro Namiki, Gwyneth M Card
Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640923/how-much-detail-is-needed-in-modeling-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-figure-8-coil-measurements-and-brain-simulations
#3
Petar I Petrov, Stefano Mandija, Iris E C Sommer, Cornelis A T van den Berg, Sebastiaan F W Neggers
BACKGROUND: Despite TMS wide adoption, its spatial and temporal patterns of neuronal effects are not well understood. Although progress has been made in predicting induced currents in the brain using realistic finite element models (FEM), there is little consensus on how a magnetic field of a typical TMS coil should be modeled. Empirical validation of such models is limited and subject to several limitations. METHODS: We evaluate and empirically validate models of a figure-of-eight TMS coil that are commonly used in published modeling studies, of increasing complexity: simple circular coil model; coil with in-plane spiral winding turns; and finally one with stacked spiral winding turns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640825/olfactory-learning-without-the-mushroom-bodies-spiking-neural-network-models-of-the-honeybee-lateral-antennal-lobe-tract-reveal-its-capacities-in-odour-memory-tasks-of-varied-complexities
#4
HaDi MaBouDi, Hideaki Shimazaki, Martin Giurfa, Lars Chittka
The honeybee olfactory system is a well-established model for understanding functional mechanisms of learning and memory. Olfactory stimuli are first processed in the antennal lobe, and then transferred to the mushroom body and lateral horn through dual pathways termed medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). Recent studies reported that honeybees can perform elemental learning by associating an odour with a reward signal even after lesions in m-ALT or blocking the mushroom bodies. To test the hypothesis that the lateral pathway (l-ALT) is sufficient for elemental learning, we modelled local computation within glomeruli in antennal lobes with axons of projection neurons connecting to a decision neuron (LHN) in the lateral horn...
June 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638316/a-new-generation-of-brain-computer-interfaces-driven-by-discovery-of-latent-eeg-fmri-linkages-using-tensor-decomposition
#5
Gopikrishna Deshpande, D Rangaprakash, Luke Oeding, Andrzej Cichocki, Xiaoping P Hu
A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a setup permitting the control of external devices by decoding brain activity. Electroencephalography (EEG) has been extensively used for decoding brain activity since it is non-invasive, cheap, portable, and has high temporal resolution to allow real-time operation. Due to its poor spatial specificity, BCIs based on EEG can require extensive training and multiple trials to decode brain activity (consequently slowing down the operation of the BCI). On the other hand, BCIs based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are more accurate owing to its superior spatial resolution and sensitivity to underlying neuronal processes which are functionally localized...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634442/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-evokes-pyramidal-neuron-axon-initial-segment-plasticity-and-diffuse-presynaptic-inhibitory-terminal-loss
#6
Michal Vascak, Jianli Sun, Matthew Baer, Kimberle M Jacobs, John T Povlishock
The axon initial segment (AIS) is the site of action potential (AP) initiation, thus a crucial regulator of neuronal activity. In excitatory pyramidal neurons, the high density of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV1.6) at the distal AIS regulates AP initiation. A surrogate AIS marker, ankyrin-G (ankG) is a structural protein regulating neuronal functional via clustering voltage-gated ion channels. In neuronal circuits, changes in presynaptic input can alter postsynaptic output via AIS structural-functional plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634436/dual-coding-theory-explains-biphasic-collective-computation-in-neural-decision-making
#7
Bryan C Daniels, Jessica C Flack, David C Krakauer
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628104/active-dendritic-integration-as-a-mechanism-for-robust-and-precise-grid-cell-firing
#8
Christoph Schmidt-Hieber, Gabija Toleikyte, Laurence Aitchison, Arnd Roth, Beverley A Clark, Tiago Branco, Michael Häusser
Understanding how active dendrites are exploited for behaviorally relevant computations is a fundamental challenge in neuroscience. Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex are an attractive model system for addressing this question, as the computation they perform is clear: they convert synaptic inputs into spatially modulated, periodic firing. Whether active dendrites contribute to the generation of the dual temporal and rate codes characteristic of grid cell output is unknown. We show that dendrites of medial entorhinal cortex neurons are highly excitable and exhibit a supralinear input-output function in vitro, while in vivo recordings reveal membrane potential signatures consistent with recruitment of active dendritic conductances...
June 19, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618562/evolution-of-moments-and-correlations-in-nonrenewal-escape-time-processes
#9
Wilhelm Braun, Rüdiger Thul, André Longtin
The theoretical description of nonrenewal stochastic systems is a challenge. Analytical results are often not available or can be obtained only under strong conditions, limiting their applicability. Also, numerical results have mostly been obtained by ad hoc Monte Carlo simulations, which are usually computationally expensive when a high degree of accuracy is needed. To gain quantitative insight into these systems under general conditions, we here introduce a numerical iterated first-passage time approach based on solving the time-dependent Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) to describe the statistics of nonrenewal stochastic systems...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617660/circuits-for-action-and-cognition-a-view-from-the-superior-colliculus
#10
Michele A Basso, Paul J May
The superior colliculus is one of the most well-studied structures in the brain, and with each new report, its proposed role in behavior seems to increase in complexity. Forty years of evidence shows that the colliculus is critical for reorienting an organism toward objects of interest. In monkeys, this involves saccadic eye movements. Recent work in the monkey colliculus and in the homologous optic tectum of the bird extends our understanding of the role of the colliculus in higher mental functions, such as attention and decision making...
June 15, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615332/different-roles-for-inhibition-in-the-rhythm-generating-respiratory-network
#11
Kameron Decker Harris, Tatiana Dashevskiy, Joshua Mendoza, Alfredo J Garcia, Jan-Marino Ramirez, Eric Shea-Brown
Unraveling the interplay of excitation and inhibition within rhythm-generating networks remains a fundamental issue in neuroscience. We use a biophysical model to investigate the different roles of local and long-range inhibition in the respiratory network, a key component of which is the pre-Bötzinger complex inspiratory microcircuit. Increasing inhibition within the microcircuit results in a limited number of out-of-phase neurons before rhythmicity and synchrony degenerate. Thus, unstructured local inhibition is destabilizing and cannot support the generation of more than one rhythm...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613391/evaluation-of-five-diffeomorphic-image-registration-algorithms-for-mouse-brain-magnetic-resonance-microscopy
#12
Zhenrong Fu, Lan Lin, Miao Tian, Jingxuan Wang, Baiwen Zhang, Pingping Chu, Shaowu Li, Muhammad Mohsin Pathan, Yulin Deng, Shuicai Wu
The development of genetically engineered mouse models for neuronal diseases and behavioural disorders have generated a growing need for small animal imaging. High-resolution magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) provides powerful capabilities for noninvasive studies of mouse brains, while avoiding some limits associated with the histological procedures. Quantitative comparison of structural images is a critical step in brain imaging analysis, which highly relies on the performance of image registration techniques...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611617/prediction-of-the-seizure-suppression-effect-by-electrical-stimulation-via-a-computational-modeling-approach
#13
Sora Ahn, Sumin Jo, Sang Beom Jun, Hyang Woon Lee, Seungjun Lee
In this paper, we identified factors that can affect seizure suppression via electrical stimulation by an integrative study based on experimental and computational approach. Preferentially, we analyzed the characteristics of seizure-like events (SLEs) using our previous in vitro experimental data. The results were analyzed in two groups classified according to the size of the effective region, in which the SLE was able to be completely suppressed by local stimulation. However, no significant differences were found between these two groups in terms of signal features or propagation characteristics (i...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602817/on-memories-neural-ensembles-and-mental-flexibility
#14
Dimitris A Pinotsis, Scott L Brincat, Earl K Miller
Memories are assumed to be represented by groups of co-activated neurons, called neural ensembles. Describing ensembles is a challenge: complexity of the underlying micro-circuitry is immense. Current approaches use a piecemeal fashion, focusing on single neurons and employing local measures like pairwise correlations. We introduce an alternative approach that identifies ensembles and describes the effective connectivity between them in a holistic fashion. It also links the oscillatory frequencies observed in ensembles with the spatial scales at which activity is expressed...
June 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602353/visuomotor-coupling-shapes-the-functional-development-of-mouse-visual-cortex
#15
Alexander Attinger, Bo Wang, Georg B Keller
The emergence of sensory-guided behavior depends on sensorimotor coupling during development. How sensorimotor experience shapes neural processing is unclear. Here, we show that the coupling between motor output and visual feedback is necessary for the functional development of visual processing in layer 2/3 (L2/3) of primary visual cortex (V1) of the mouse. Using a virtual reality system, we reared mice in conditions of normal or random visuomotor coupling. We recorded the activity of identified excitatory and inhibitory L2/3 neurons in response to transient visuomotor mismatches in both groups of mice...
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600233/effect-of-tissue-heterogeneity-on-the-transmembrane-potential-of-type-1-spiral-ganglion-neurons-a-simulation-study
#16
Kiran Sriperumbudur, Hans Wilhelm Pau, Ursula van Rienen
Electric stimulation of the auditory nerve by cochlear implants has been a successful clinical intervention to treat the sensory neural deafness. In this pathological condition of the cochlea, type-1 spiral ganglion neurons in Rosenthal's canal play a vital role in the action potential initiation. Various morphological studies of the human temporal bones suggest that the spiral ganglion neurons are surrounded by heterogeneous structures formed by a variety of cells and tissues. However, the existing simulation models have not considered the tissue heterogeneity in the Rosenthal's canal while studying the electric field interaction with spiral ganglion neurons...
June 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597491/hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-pattern-separation-a-meta-analysis-of-behavioral-data
#17
Thiago F A França, Alexandre M Bitencourt, Naiana R Maximilla, Daniela M Barros, José M Monserrat
The generation of new neurons in the hippocampus of adult mammals has become a widely accepted phenomenon, but the functional significance of the adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is not fully understood. One of the main hypotheses currently investigated suggests that neurogenesis contributes to pattern separation in the dentate gyrus. Many behavioral studies were conducted aiming to test this hypothesis using rodents as animal model. In those studies, researches ablated neurogenesis in the animals and subsequently evaluate them in tests of behavioral pattern separation, that is, behaviors that are thought to rely on the computational process of pattern separation...
June 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596602/measuring-multisensory-integration-from-reaction-times-to-spike-counts
#18
Hans Colonius, Adele Diederich
A neuron is categorized as "multisensory" if there is a statistically significant difference between the response evoked, e.g., by a crossmodal stimulus combination and that evoked by the most effective of its components separately. Being responsive to multiple sensory modalities does not guarantee that a neuron has actually engaged in integrating its multiple sensory inputs: it could simply respond to the stimulus component eliciting the strongest response in a given trial. Crossmodal enhancement is commonly expressed as a proportion of the strongest mean unisensory response...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596301/modeling-elucidates-how-refractory-period-can-provide-profound-nonlinear-gain-control-to-graded-potential-neurons
#19
Zhuoyi Song, Yu Zhou, Mikko Juusola
Refractory period (RP) plays a central role in neural signaling. Because it limits an excitable membrane's recovery time from a previous excitation, it can restrict information transmission. Classically, RP means the recovery time from an action potential (spike), and its impact to encoding has been mostly studied in spiking neurons. However, many sensory neurons do not communicate with spikes but convey information by graded potential changes. In these systems, RP can arise as an intrinsic property of their quantal micro/nanodomain sampling events, as recently revealed for quantum bumps (single photon responses) in microvillar photoreceptors...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595052/hierarchy-of-information-processing-in-the-brain-a-novel-intrinsic-ignition-framework
#20
REVIEW
Gustavo Deco, Morten L Kringelbach
A general theory of brain function has to be able to explain local and non-local network computations over space and time. We propose a new framework to capture the key principles of how local activity influences global computation, i.e., describing the propagation of information and thus the broadness of communication driven by local activity. More specifically, we consider the diversity in space (nodes or brain regions) over time using the concept of intrinsic ignition, which are naturally occurring intrinsic perturbations reflecting the capability of a given brain area to propagate neuronal activity to other regions in a given brain state...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
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