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Drosophila immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520752/antimicrobial-peptides-extend-lifespan-in-drosophila
#1
Gerrit Loch, Ingo Zinke, Tetsushi Mori, Pilar Carrera, Jonas Schroer, Haruko Takeyama, Michael Hoch
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important defense molecules of the innate immune system. High levels of AMPs are induced in response to infections to fight pathogens, whereas moderate levels induced by metabolic stress are thought to shape commensal microbial communities at barrier tissues. We expressed single AMPs in adult flies either ubiquitously or in the gut by using the inducible GeneSwitch system to tightly regulate AMP expression. We found that activation of single AMPs, including Drosocin, resulted in a significant extension of Drosophila lifespan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510293/a-test-for-y-linked-additive-and-epistatic-effects-on-surviving-bacterial-infections-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Ian C Kutch, Kenneth M Fedorka
Y and W chromosomes offer a theoretically powerful way for sexual dimorphism to evolve. Consistent with this possibility, Drosophila melanogaster Y-chromosomes can influence gene regulation throughout the genome; particularly immune-related genes. In order for Y-linked regulatory variation (YRV) to contribute to adaptive evolution it must be comprised of additive genetic variance, such that variable Ys induce consistent phenotypic effects within the local gene pool. We assessed the potential for Y-chromosomes to adaptively shape gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial defense by introgressing Ys across multiple genetic haplotypes from the same population...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506893/macpf-cdc-proteins-in-development-insights-from-drosophila-torso-like
#3
REVIEW
Travis K Johnson, Michelle A Henstridge, Coral G Warr
The Membrane Attack Complex Perforin-like/Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin (MACPF) superfamily is an ancient and biologically diverse group of proteins that are best known for pore-forming roles in mammalian immunity and bacterial pathogenesis. Intriguingly, however, some eukaryotic proteins which contain the MACPF domain that defines this family do not act in attack or defence, and instead have distinct developmental functions. It remains unclear whether these proteins function via pore formation or have a different mechanism of action...
May 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503170/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-high-throughput-model-for-host-microbiota-interactions
#4
Mark Trinder, Brendan A Daisley, Josh S Dube, Gregor Reid
Microbiota research often assumes that differences in abundance and identity of microorganisms have unique influences on host physiology. To test this concept mechanistically, germ-free mice are colonized with microbial communities to assess causation. Due to the cost, infrastructure challenges, and time-consuming nature of germ-free mouse models, an alternative approach is needed to investigate host-microbial interactions. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) can be used as a high throughput in vivo screening model of host-microbiome interactions as they are affordable, convenient, and replicable...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498729/the-distinct-function-of-tep2-and-tep6-in-the-immune-defense-of-drosophila-melanogaster-against-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#5
Upasana Shokal, Hannah Kopydlowski, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Previous and recent investigations on the innate immune response of Drosophila have identified certain mechanisms that promote pathogen elimination. However, the function of Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the fly still remains elusive. Recently we have shown the contribution of TEP4 in the antibacterial immune defense of Drosophila against non-pathogenic E. coli, and the pathogens Photorhabdus luminescens and P. asymbiotica. Here we studied the function of Tep genes in both humoral and cellular immunity upon E...
May 12, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497117/rna-interference-restricts-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-multiple-insect-systems
#6
Isabelle Dietrich, Stephanie Jansen, Gamou Fall, Stephan Lorenzen, Martin Rudolf, Katrin Huber, Anna Heitmann, Sabine Schicht, El Hadji Ndiaye, Mick Watson, Ilaria Castelli, Benjamin Brennan, Richard M Elliott, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Anna-Bella Failloux, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl, Stefanie C Becker
The emerging bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted to humans and livestock by a large number of mosquito species. RNA interference (RNAi) has been characterized as an important innate immune defense mechanism used by mosquitoes to limit replication of positive-sense RNA flaviviruses and togaviruses; however, little is known about its role against negative-strand RNA viruses such as RVFV. We show that virus-specific small RNAs are produced in infected mosquito cells, in Drosophila melanogaster cells, and, most importantly, also in RVFV vector mosquitoes...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476910/the-immune-phenotype-of-three-drosophila-leukemia-models
#7
Badrul Arefin, Martin Kunc, Robert Krautz, Ulrich Theopold
Many leukemia patients suffer from dysregulation of their immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and leading to general weakening (cachexia). Both adaptive and innate immunity are affected. The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster has an innate immune system including cells of the myeloid lineage (hemocytes). To study Drosophila immunity and physiology during leukemia we established three models by driving expression of a dominant-active version of the Ras oncogene (Ras(V12) ) alone or combined with knockdowns of tumor suppressors in Drosophila hemocytes...
May 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465230/molecular-characterization-and-expression-analysis-of-turtle-protein-in-silkworm-that-is-associated-with-nosema-bombycis-infection
#8
Feng Zhu, Shengyan Xiao, Yonghong Zhang, Yulan Shao, Fenfen Tang, Shiliang Chen, Xingrong Bai
In this report, we describe the cloning and characterization of a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF); i.e., Turtle. The cDNA of Turtle was cloned from the silkworm Bombyx mori using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. Three isoforms of Bombyx Turtle were obtained, including Bmtutl-464, Bmtutl-519, and Bmtutl-810. The three isoforms had identical 27-amino acid signal peptides and four extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig) domains (IgI-IgIV). Sequence similarity and phylogenic analysis indicated that Bmtutl-810 belongs to the group of insect Turtle isoforms and shares 76...
April 30, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451923/mifepristone-ru486-acts-in-drosophila-melanogaster-females-to-counteract-the-life-span-shortening-and-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-male-sex-peptide
#9
John Tower, Gary N Landis, Jie Shen, Rachelle Choi, Yang Fan, Dasul Lee, Jaemin Song
Males with null mutation of Sex Peptide (SP) gene were compared to wild-type males for the ability to cause physiological changes in females that could be reversed by mifepristone. Males from wild-type strains decreased median female life span by average -51%. Feeding mifepristone increased life span of these females by average +106%. In contrast, SP-null males did not decrease female life span, and mifepristone increased median life span of these females by average +14%, which was equivalent to the effect of mifepristone in virgin females (average +16%)...
June 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450373/rnaseq-analysis-of-the-drosophila-response-to-the-entomopathogenic-nematode-steinernema
#10
Shruti Yadav, Sean Daugherty, Amol Carl Shetty, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Drosophila melanogaster is an outstanding model to study the molecular and functional basis of host-pathogen interactions. Currently our knowledge of microbial infections in D. melanogaster is well understood, however the response of flies to nematode infections is still in its infancy. Here we have used the potent parasitic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae that lives in mutualism with its endosymbiotic bacteria X. nematophila to examine the transcriptomic basis of the interaction between D. melanogaster and entomopathogenic nematodes...
April 26, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449654/inter-and-intra-species-variation-in-genome-wide-gene-expression-of-drosophila-in-response-to-parasitoid-wasp-attack
#11
Laura Salazar-Jaramillo, Kirsten M Jalvingh, Ammerins de Haan, Ken Kraaijeveld, Henk Buermans, Bregje Wertheim
BACKGROUND: Parasitoid resistance in Drosophila varies considerably, among and within species. An immune response, lamellocyte-mediated encapsulation, evolved in a subclade of Drosophila and was subsequently lost in at least one species within this subclade. While the mechanisms of resistance are fairly well documented in D. melanogaster, much less is known for closely related species. Here, we studied the inter- and intra-species variation in gene expression after parasitoid attack in Drosophila...
April 27, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448516/natural-variation-of-pirna-expression-affects-immunity-to-transposable-elements
#12
Sergei Ryazansky, Elizaveta Radion, Anastasia Mironova, Natalia Akulenko, Yuri Abramov, Valeriya Morgunova, Maria Y Kordyukova, Ivan Olovnikov, Alla Kalmykova
In the Drosophila germline, transposable elements (TEs) are silenced by PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) that originate from distinct genomic regions termed piRNA clusters and are processed by PIWI-subfamily Argonaute proteins. Here, we explore the variation in the ability to restrain an alien TE in different Drosophila strains. The I-element is a retrotransposon involved in the phenomenon of I-R hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genomes of R strains do not contain active I-elements, but harbour remnants of ancestral I-related elements...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445733/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-immunity-in-the-brain-determines-fly-lifespan-in-healthy-aging-and-age-related-neurodegeneration
#13
Ilias Kounatidis, Stanislava Chtarbanova, Yang Cao, Margaret Hayne, Dhruv Jayanth, Barry Ganetzky, Petros Ligoxygakis
During aging, innate immunity progresses to a chronically active state. However, what distinguishes those that "age well" from those developing age-related neurological conditions is unclear. We used Drosophila to explore the cost of immunity in the aging brain. We show that mutations in intracellular negative regulators of the IMD/NF-κB pathway predisposed flies to toxic levels of antimicrobial peptides, resulting in early locomotor defects, extensive neurodegeneration, and reduced lifespan. These phenotypes were rescued when immunity was suppressed in glia...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438980/host-and-bacterial-factors-control-susceptibility-of-drosophila-melanogaster-to-coxiella-burnetii-infection
#14
Reginaldo G Bastos, Zachary P Howard, Aoi Hiroyasu, Alan G Goodman
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, a zoonotic disease that threatens both human and animal health. Due to the paucity of experimental animal models, little is known about how host factors interface with bacterial components and affect pathogenesis. Here we used Drosophila melanogaster, in conjunction with the BSL2 Nine Mile phase II (NMII) clone 4 strain of C. burnetii, as a model to investigate host and bacterial components implicated in infection. We demonstrated that adult Drosophila are susceptible to C...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426766/activated-entomopathogenic-nematode-infective-juveniles-release-lethal-venom-proteins
#15
Dihong Lu, Marissa Macchietto, Dennis Chang, Mirayana M Barros, James Baldwin, Ali Mortazavi, Adler R Dillman
Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are unique parasites due to their symbiosis with entomopathogenic bacteria and their ability to kill insect hosts quickly after infection. It is widely believed that EPNs rely on their bacterial partners for killing hosts. Here we disproved this theory by demonstrating that the in vitro activated infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema carpocapsae (a well-studied EPN species) release venom proteins that are lethal to several insects including Drosophila melanogaster. We confirmed that the in vitro activation is a good approximation of the in vivo process by comparing the transcriptomes of individual in vitro and in vivo activated IJs...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425174/costs-and-benefits-of-sub-lethal-drosophila-c-virus-infection
#16
Vanika Gupta, Charlotte Stewart, Samuel S C Rund, Katy Monteith, Pedro F Vale
Viruses are major evolutionary drivers of insect immune systems. Much of our knowledge of insect immune responses derives from experimental infections using the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Most experiments, however, employ lethal pathogen doses through septic injury, frequently overwhelming host physiology. While this approach has revealed several immune mechanisms, it is less informative about the fitness costs hosts may experience during infection in the wild. Using both systemic and oral infection routes we find that even apparently benign, sub-lethal infections with the horizontally transmitted Drosophila C Virus (DCV) can cause significant physiological and behavioral morbidity that is relevant for host fitness...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418397/bap180-baf180-is-required-to-maintain-homeostasis-of-intestinal-innate-immune-response-in-drosophila-and-mice
#17
Xiaomeng He, Junjing Yu, Min Wang, Yang Cheng, Yanan Han, Shuo Yang, Guizhi Shi, Lei Sun, Ying Fang, Si-Tang Gong, Zhong Wang, Yang-Xin Fu, Lei Pan, Hong Tang
Immune homeostasis is a prerequisite to protective immunity against gastrointestinal infections. In Drosophila, immune deficiency (IMD) signalling (tumour necrosis factor receptor/interleukin-1 receptor, TNFR/IL-1R in mammals) is indispensable for intestinal immunity against invading bacteria. However, how this local antimicrobial immune response contributes to inflammatory regulation remains poorly defined. Here, we show that flies lacking intestinal Bap180 (a subunit of the chromatin-remodelling switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex) are susceptible to infection as a result of hyper-inflammation rather than bacterial overload...
April 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418029/tmcactin-plays-an-important-role-in-gram-negative-and-positive-bacterial-infection-by-regulating-expression-of-7-amp-genes-in-tenebrio-molitor
#18
Yong Hun Jo, Yu Jung Kim, Ki Beom Park, Jeong Hwan Seong, Soo Gon Kim, Soyi Park, Mi Young Noh, Yong Seok Lee, Yeon Soo Han
Cactin was originally identified as an interactor of the Drosophila IκB factor Cactus and shown to play a role in controlling embryonic polarity and regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. While subsequent studies have identified the roles for Cactin in the mammalian immune response, the immune function of Cactin in insects has not been described yet. Here, we identified a Cactin gene from the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (TmCactin) and characterized its functional role in innate immunity. TmCactin was highly expressed in prepupa to last instar stages, and its expression was high in the integument and Malpighian tubules of last instar larvae and adults...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413160/interaction-between-familial-transmission-and-a-constitutively-active-immune-system-shapes-gut-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Rupal Mistry, Ilias Kounatidis, Petros Ligoxygakis
Resident gut bacteria are constantly influencing the immune system. Yet the role of the immune system in shaping microbiota composition during an organism's lifespan has remained unclear. Experiments in mice have been inconclusive due to differences in husbandry schemes that led to conflicting results. We used Drosophila as a genetically tractable system with simpler gut bacterial population structure and streamlined genetic backgrounds and established cross schemes to address this issue. We found that depending on their genetic background, young flies had microbiota of different diversities that converged with age to the same Acetobacteraceae-dominated pattern in healthy flies...
April 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411220/the-global-transcription-factor-lrp-is-both-essential-for-and-inhibitory-to-xenorhabdus-nematophila-insecticidal-activity
#20
Ángel M Casanova-Torres, Upasana Shokal, Neta Morag, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Heidi Goodrich-Blair
In the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, cell-to-cell variation in the abundance of the Lrp transcription factor leads to virulence modulation: low Lrp levels are associated with a virulent phenotype and suppression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in Manduca sexta insects, while cells that lack lrp or express high Lrp levels are virulence attenuated and elicit AMP expression. To better understand the basis of these phenotypes we examined X. nematophila expressing fixed Lrp levels. Unlike the lrp null mutant, the high-lrp strain is fully virulent in Drosophila melanogaster suggesting that these two strains have distinct underlying causes of virulence attenuation in M...
April 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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