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Drosophila immunity

Sara Magalhães, Élio Sucena
One of the major challenges in evolutionary biology is to unravel the genetic basis of adaptation. This issue has been gaining momentum in recent years with the accelerated development of novel genetic and genomic techniques and resources. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cogni et al. (2016) address the genetic basis of resistance to two viruses in Drosophila melanogaster using a panel of recombinant inbred lines with unprecedented resolution allowing detection of rare alleles and/or alleles of small effect...
October 2016: Molecular Ecology
Lipika Bhattacharjee, Deepjyoti Singh, Janesh Kumar Gautam, Ashis Kumar Nandi
Protease inhibitors and their cognate proteases regulate growth, development and defense. Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) constitute a large family of genes in most metazoans and plants. Drosophila NECROTIC (NEC) gene and its homologues in the mammalian system are well-characterized serpins, which play a role in regulating proteases that participate in cell death pathways. Though the Arabidopsis genome contains several serpin homologs, biological function is not known for most of them. Here we show that two Arabidopsis serpins, AtSRP4 and AtSRP5, are closest sequence homologue of Drosophila NEC protein, and are involved in stress-induced cell death and defense...
October 6, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Kuldeep Gupta, Rini Dhawan, Mithilesh Kajla, Tripti Misra, Sanjeev Kumar, Lalita Gupta
Anopheles mosquito transmits Plasmodium, the malaria causing parasite. Different species of Anopheles mosquito dominate in a particular geographical location and are capable of transmitting specific strains of Plasmodium. It is important to understand the biology of different anophelines to control the parasite transmission. STAT is an evolutionary conserved transcription factor that regulates the parasite development in African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Unlike Drosophila and Aedes aegypti, where a single STAT gene plays an important role in immunity, An...
September 21, 2016: Gene
Punyatirtha Dey, Kanika Mendiratta, Joy Bose, Amitabh Joshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Journal of Genetics
Ravikumar Hosamani, Ryan Leib, Shilpa R Bhardwaj, Christopher M Adams, Sharmila Bhattacharya
Altered gravity conditions, such as experienced by organisms during spaceflight, are known to cause transcriptomic and proteomic changes. We describe the proteomic changes in whole adult Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) but focus specifically on the localized changes in the adult head in response to chronic hypergravity (3 g) treatment. Canton S adult female flies (2 to 3 days old) were exposed to chronic hypergravity for 9 days and compared with 1 g controls. After hypergravity treatment, either whole flies (body + head) or fly-head-only samples were isolated and evaluated for quantitative comparison of the two gravity conditions using an isobaric tagging liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
Maria D Purice, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Advanced age is the greatest risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but the mechanisms that render the senescent brain vulnerable to disease are unclear. Glial immune responses provide neuroprotection in a variety of contexts. Thus, we explored how glial responses to neurodegeneration are altered with age. Here we show that glia-axon phagocytic interactions change dramatically in the aged Drosophila brain. Aged glia clear degenerating axons slowly due to low phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling and, subsequently, reduced expression of the conserved phagocytic receptor Draper/MEGF10...
September 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Otto Morris, Xi Liu, Celia Domingues, Christopher Runchel, Andrea Chai, Shaherin Basith, Tencho Tenev, Haiyang Chen, Sangdun Choi, Giuseppa Pennetta, Nicolas Buchon, Pascal Meier
Pattern recognition receptors are activated following infection and trigger transcriptional programs important for host defense. Tight regulation of NF-κB activation is critical to avoid detrimental and misbalanced responses. We describe Pickle, a Drosophila nuclear IκB that integrates signaling inputs from both the Imd and Toll pathways by skewing the transcriptional output of the NF-κB dimer repertoire. Pickle interacts with the NF-κB protein Relish and the histone deacetylase dHDAC1, selectively repressing Relish homodimers while leaving other NF-κB dimer combinations unscathed...
September 14, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Tiina Susanna Salminen, Mika Rämet
Immune responses must be tightly controlled to avoid host damage. In Drosophila, two NF-κB signaling pathways, Toll and Imd, mediate host immune responses. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Morris et al. (2016) introduce Pickle, a nuclear IκB that inhibits Drosophila immune signaling by modulating the NF-κB Relish.
September 14, 2016: Cell Host & Microbe
Srijit Das, Seong Lin Teoh
The incidence of lung cancers has increased globally. Increased exposure to tobacco, passive smoking, less consumption of vegetables and fruits and occupational exposure to asbestos, arsenic and chromium are the main risk factors. The pathophysiology of lung cancer is complex and not well understood. Various microRNAs, genes and pathways are associated with lung cancers. The genes involved in lung cancers produce proteins involved in cell growth, differentiation, different cell cycles, apoptosis, immune modulation, tumor spread and progression...
September 7, 2016: Current Drug Targets
Jiang-Feng Lan, Li-Juan Zhao, Shun Wei, Yuan Wang, Li Lin, Xin-Cang Li
Drosophila Toll and mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of evolutionarily conserved immune receptors that play a crucial role in the first-line defense against intruded pathogens. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a member of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, is an important factor that participates in TLR signaling and other physiological processes. However, in crustaceans, whether ATF4 homologs were involved in TLR signaling remains unclear. In the current study, we identified a Toll homolog PcToll2 and a novel ATF4 homolog PcATF4 from Procambarus clarkii, and analyzed the likely regulatory activity of PcATF4 in PcToll2 signaling...
September 10, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shannon Hateley, Ravikumar Hosamani, Shilpa R Bhardwaj, Lior Pachter, Sharmila Bhattacharya
Altered gravity can perturb normal development and induce corresponding changes in gene expression. Understanding this relationship between the physical environment and a biological response is important for NASA's space travel goals. We use RNA-Seq and qRT-PCR techniques to profile changes in early Drosophila melanogaster pupae exposed to chronic hypergravity (3g, or three times Earth's gravity). During the pupal stage, D. melanogaster rely upon gravitational cues for proper development. Assessing gene expression changes in the pupae under altered gravity conditions helps highlight gravity-dependent genetic pathways...
September 10, 2016: Genomics
David A Meekins, Michael R Kanost, Kristin Michel
Serpins are the largest known family of serine proteinase inhibitors and perform a variety of physiological functions in arthropods. Herein, we review the field of serpins in arthropod biology, providing an overview of current knowledge and topics of interest. Serpins regulate insect innate immunity via inhibition of serine proteinase cascades that initiate immune responses such as melanization and antimicrobial peptide production. In addition, several serpins with anti-pathogen activity are expressed as acute-phase serpins in insects upon infection...
September 4, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Anjali Roy, Mansi Srivastava, Uzma Saqib, Dongfang Liu, Syed M Faisal, Subi Sugathan, Suman Bishnoi, Mirza S Baig
Inflammation is set off when innate immune cells detect infection or tissue injury. Tight control of the severity, duration, and location of inflammation is an absolute requirement for an appropriate balance between clearance of injured tissue and pathogens versus damage to host cells. Impeding the risk associated with the imbalance in the inflammatory response requires precise identification of potential therapeutic targets involved in provoking the inflammation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) primarily known for the pathogen recognition and subsequent immune responses are being investigated for their pathogenic role in various chronic diseases...
August 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Lin Ding, Mohamad El Zaatari, Juanita L Merchant
This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
L J Kay, T K Smulders-Srinivasan, M Soundararajan
The dual-specificity tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation-regulated kinase DYRK1A, also known as Down syndrome (DS) kinase, is a dosage-dependent signaling kinase that was originally shown to be highly expressed in DS patients as a consequence of trisomy 21. Although this was evident some time ago, it is only in recent investigations that the molecular roles of DYRK1A in a wide range of cellular processes are becoming increasingly apparent. Since initial knowledge on DYRK1A became evident through minibrain mnb, the Drosophila homolog of DYRK1A, this review will first summarize the scientific reports on minibrain and further expand on the well-established neuronal functions of mammalian and human DYRK1A...
2016: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
Linnea Sandin, Liza Bergkvist, Sangeeta Nath, Claudia Kielkopf, Camilla Janefjord, Linda Helmfors, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Hongyun Li, Camilla Nilsberth, Brett Garner, Ann-Christin Brorsson, Katarina Kågedal
Genetic polymorphisms of immune genes that associate with higher risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) have led to an increased research interest on the involvement of the immune system in AD pathogenesis. A link between amyloid pathology and immune gene expression was suggested in a genome-wide gene expression study of transgenic amyloid mouse models. In this study, the gene expression of lysozyme, a major player in the innate immune system, was found to be increased in a comparable pattern as the amyloid pathology developed in transgenic mouse models of AD...
October 2016: FEBS Journal
Christie A Bader, Tetyana Shandala, Elizabeth A Carter, Angela Ivask, Taryn Guinan, Shane M Hickey, Melissa V Werrett, Phillip J Wright, Peter V Simpson, Stefano Stagni, Nicolas H Voelcker, Peter A Lay, Massimiliano Massi, Sally E Plush, Douglas A Brooks
Lipids have an important role in many aspects of cell biology, including membrane architecture/compartment formation, intracellular traffic, signalling, hormone regulation, inflammation, energy storage and metabolism. Lipid biology is therefore integrally involved in major human diseases, including metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, heart disease, immune disorders and cancers, which commonly display altered lipid transport and metabolism. However, the investigation of these important cellular processes has been limited by the availability of specific tools to visualise lipids in live cells...
2016: PloS One
Claudine Neyen, Christopher Runchel, Fanny Schüpfer, Pascal Meier, Bruno Lemaitre
The innate immune system needs to distinguish between harmful and innocuous stimuli to adapt its activation to the level of threat. How Drosophila mounts differential immune responses to dead and live Gram-negative bacteria using the single peptidoglycan receptor PGRP-LC is unknown. Here we describe rPGRP-LC, an alternative splice variant of PGRP-LC that selectively dampens immune response activation in response to dead bacteria. rPGRP-LC-deficient flies cannot resolve immune activation after Gram-negative infection and die prematurely...
October 2016: Nature Immunology
Francesca Di Cara, Kirst King-Jones
Biological clocks allow organisms to anticipate daily environmental changes such as temperature fluctuations, abundance of daylight, and nutrient availability. Many circadian-controlled physiological states are coordinated by the release of systemically acting hormones, including steroids and insulin [1-7]. Thus, hormones relay circadian outputs to target tissues, and disrupting these endocrine rhythms impairs human health by affecting sleep patterns, energy homeostasis, and immune functions [8-10]. It is largely unclear, however, whether circadian circuits control hormone levels indirectly via central timekeeping neurons or whether peripheral endocrine clocks can modulate hormone synthesis directly...
September 26, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Jinling Feng, Lingling Zhao, Min Jin, Tingting Li, Lei Wu, Yihong Chen, Qian Ren
Toll receptors are evolutionary ancient families of pattern recognition receptors with crucial roles in invertebrate innate immune response. In this study, we identified a Toll receptor (MrToll) from giant freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii). The full-length cDNA of MrToll is 4257 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 1367 amino acids. MrToll contains 17 LRR domains, a transmembrane domain, and a TIR domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MrToll was grouped with Drosophila Toll7 and other arthropod Tolls...
October 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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