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Drosophila immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086750/a-genome-wide-scan-for-genes-under-balancing-selection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Myriam Croze, Andreas Wollstein, Vedran Božičević, Daniel Živković, Wolfgang Stephan, Stephan Hutter
BACKGROUND: In the history of population genetics balancing selection has been considered as an important evolutionary force, yet until today little is known about its abundance and its effect on patterns of genetic diversity. Several well-known examples of balancing selection have been reported from humans, mice, plants, and parasites. However, only very few systematic studies have been carried out to detect genes under balancing selection. We performed a genome scan in Drosophila melanogaster to find signatures of balancing selection in a derived (European) and an ancestral (African) population...
January 13, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079523/symbiont-induced-odorant-binding-proteins-mediate-insect-host-hematopoiesis
#2
Joshua B Benoit, Aurélien Vigneron, Nichole A Broderick, Yineng Wu, Jennifer S Sun, John R Carlson, Serap Aksoy, Brian L Weiss
Symbiotic bacteria assist in maintaining homeostasis of the animal immune system. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie symbiont-mediated host immunity are largely unknown. Tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) house maternally transmitted symbionts that regulate the development and function of their host's immune system. Herein we demonstrate that the obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia, up-regulates expression of odorant binding protein six in the gut of intrauterine tsetse larvae. This process is necessary and sufficient to induce systemic expression of the hematopoietic RUNX transcription factor lozenge and the subsequent production of crystal cells, which actuate the melanotic immune response in adult tsetse...
January 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077262/virus-innexins-induce-alterations-in-insect-cell-and-tissue-function
#3
Daniel K Hasegawa, Stephanie L Erickson, Bradley M Hersh, Matthew W Turnbull
Polydnaviruses are dsDNA viruses that induce immune and developmental alterations in their caterpillar hosts. Characterization of polydnavirus gene families and family members is necessary to understand mechanisms of pathology and evolution of these viruses, and may aid to elucidate the role of host homologues if present. For example, the polydnavirus vinnexin gene family encodes homologues of insect gap junction genes (innexins) that are expressed in host immune cells (hemocytes). While the roles of Innexin proteins and gap junctions in insect immunity are largely unclear, we previously demonstrated that Vinnexins form functional gap junctions and alter the junctional characteristics of a host Innexin when co-expressed in paired Xenopus oocytes...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069434/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-a-tep-gene-from-a-crustacean-reveals-its-transcriptional-regulation-mediated-by-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jnk-pathways-and-its-broad-protective-roles-against-multiple-pathogens
#4
Chaozheng Li, Haoyang Li, Bang Xiao, Yonggui Chen, Sheng Wang, Kai Lǚ, Bin Yin, Sedong Li, Jianguo He
Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are present in a wide range of species from deuterostomes to protostomes and are thought to be involved in innate immunity. In the current study, a TEP gene homologous to insect TEPs (iTEP) from the crustacean Litopenaeus vannamei, named LvTEP1, is cloned and functionally characterized. The open reading frame (ORF) of LvTEP1 is 4383 bp in length, encoding a polypeptide of 1460 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 161.1 kDa LvTEP1, which is most similar to other TEPs from insects, contains some conserved sequence features, including a N-terminal signal peptide, a canonical thioester (TE) motif, and a C-terminal distinctive cysteine signature...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069431/small-rna-seq-analysis-reveals-microrna-regulation-of-the-imd-pathway-during-escherichia-coli-infection-in-drosophila
#5
Shengjie Li, Li Shen, Lianjie Sun, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Drosophila have served as a model for research on innate immunity for decades. However, knowledge of the post-transcriptional regulation of immune gene expression by microRNAs (miRNAs) remains rudimentary. In the present study, using small RNA-seq and bioinformatics analysis, we identified 67 differentially expressed miRNAs in Drosophila infected with Escherichia coli compared to injured flies at three time-points. Furthermore, we found that 21 of these miRNAs were potentially involved in the regulation of Imd pathway-related genes...
January 6, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060516/glycosylation-characterization-of-an-influenza-h5n7-hemagglutinin-series-with-engineered-glycosylation-patterns-implications-for-structure-function-relationships
#6
Lisa M Parsons, Yanming An, Robert P de Vries, Cornelis A M de Haan, John F Cipollo
The glycosylation patterns of four recombinant H5 hemagglutinins (HAs) derived from A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03 (H5N7) have been characterized. The proteins were expressed in (i) HEK293T cells to produce complex glycoforms, (ii) HEK293T cells treated with Vibrio cholera neuraminidase to provide asialo-complex glycoforms, (iii) HEK293S GnTI(-) cells with predominantly the canonical Man5GlcNAc2 glycoform, and (iv) Drosophila S2 insect cells producing primarily paucimannose glycoforms. Previously, these HAs were used to investigate the effect of different glycosylation states on the immune responses in chicken and mouse systems...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057304/drosophila-as-a-model-for-human-diseases-focus-on-innate-immunity-in-barrier-epithelia
#7
P Bergman, S Seyedoleslami Esfahani, Y Engström
Epithelial immunity protects the host from harmful microbial invaders but also controls the beneficial microbiota on epithelial surfaces. When this delicate balance between pathogen and symbiont is disturbed, clinical disease often occurs, such as in inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, or atopic dermatitis, which all can be in part linked to impairment of barrier epithelia. Many innate immune receptors, signaling pathways, and effector molecules are evolutionarily conserved between human and Drosophila...
2017: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009836/metabolomics-with-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-model-of-surviving-sepsis
#8
Veli Bakalov, Roland Amathieu, Mohamed N Triba, Marie-Jeanne Clément, Laura Reyes Uribe, Laurence Le Moyec, Ata Murat Kaynar
Patients surviving sepsis demonstrate sustained inflammation, which has been associated with long-term complications. One of the main mechanisms behind sustained inflammation is a metabolic switch in parenchymal and immune cells, thus understanding metabolic alterations after sepsis may provide important insights to the pathophysiology of sepsis recovery. In this study, we explored metabolomics in a novel Drosophila melanogaster model of surviving sepsis using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), to determine metabolite profiles...
December 21, 2016: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974438/transcriptome-analysis-of-drosophila-melanogaster-third-instar-larval-ring-glands-points-to-novel-functions-and-uncovers-a-cytochrome-p450-required-for-development
#9
Danielle Christesen, Ying Ting Yang, Jason Somers, Charles Robin, Tamar Sztal, Phillip Batterham, Trent Perry
In Drosophila melanogaster larvae the ring gland is a control center that orchestrates major developmental transitions. It is a composite organ, consisting of the prothoracic gland, the corpus allatum and the corpora cardiaca, each of which synthesizes and secretes a different hormone. Until now, the ring gland's broader developmental roles beyond endocrine secretion have not been explored. RNA sequencing and analysis of a new transcriptome resource from D. melanogaster wandering third instar larval ring glands has provided a fascinating insight into the diversity of developmental signalling in this organ...
December 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974298/mir-958-inhibits-toll-signaling-and-drosomycin-expression-via-directly-targeting-toll-and-dif-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Shengjie Li, Yao Li, Li Shen, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Drosophila melanogaster is widely used as a model system to study innate immunity and signaling pathways related to innate immunity, including the Toll signaling pathway. Although this pathway is well-studied, the precise mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation of key components of the Toll signaling pathway by microRNAs (miRNAs) remain obscure. In this study we used an in silico strategy in combination with the Gal80(ts)-Gal4 driver system to identify microRNA-958 (miR-958) as a candidate Toll pathway regulating miRNA in Drosophila...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932997/characterization-of-reproductive-dormancy-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Olga I Kubrak, Lucie Kučerová, Ulrich Theopold, Sören Nylin, Dick R Nässel
Insects are known to respond to seasonal and adverse environmental changes by entering dormancy, also known as diapause. In some insect species, including Drosophila melanogaster, dormancy occurs in the adult organism and postpones reproduction. This adult dormancy has been studied in female flies where it is characterized by arrested development of ovaries, altered nutrient stores, lowered metabolism, increased stress and immune resistance and drastically extended lifespan. Male dormancy, however, has not been investigated in D...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929462/methods-to-examine-the-lymph-gland-and-hemocytes-in-drosophila-larvae
#12
Theresa A Reimels, Cathie M Pfleger
Many parallels exist between the Drosophila and mammalian hematopoietic systems, even though Drosophila lack the lymphoid lineage that characterize mammalian adaptive immunity. Drosophila and mammalian hematopoiesis occur in spatially and temporally distinct phases to produce several blood cell lineages. Both systems maintain reservoirs of blood cell progenitors with which to expand or replace mature lineages. The hematopoietic system allows Drosophila and mammals to respond to and to adapt to immune challenges...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927200/tribbles-ortholog-nipi-3-and-bzip-transcription-factor-cebp-1-regulate-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-intestinal-immune-surveillance-pathway
#13
Deborah L McEwan, Rhonda L Feinbaum, Nicholas Stroustrup, Wilhelm Haas, Annie L Conery, Anthony Anselmo, Ruslan Sadreyev, Frederick M Ausubel
BACKGROUND: Many pathogens secrete toxins that target key host processes resulting in the activation of immune pathways. The secreted Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxin Exotoxin A (ToxA) disrupts intestinal protein synthesis, which triggers the induction of a subset of P. aeruginosa-response genes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. RESULTS: We show here that one ToxA-induced C. elegans gene, the Tribbles pseudokinase ortholog nipi-3, is essential for host survival following exposure to P...
December 7, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916526/the-mitochondrial-lon-protease-is-required-for-age-specific-and-sex-specific-adaptation-to-oxidative-stress
#14
Laura C D Pomatto, Caroline Carney, Brenda Shen, Sarah Wong, Kelly Halaszynski, Matthew P Salomon, Kelvin J A Davies, John Tower
Multiple human diseases involving chronic oxidative stress show a significant sex bias, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a possible molecular mechanism for the sex bias in physiological adaptation to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster females but not males adapt to hydrogen peroxide stress, whereas males but not females adapt to paraquat (superoxide) stress. Stress adaptation in each sex requires the conserved mitochondrial Lon protease and is associated with sex-specific expression of Lon protein isoforms and proteolytic activity...
January 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894253/latitudinal-clines-in-gene-expression-and-cis-regulatory-element-variation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Punita Juneja, Andrew Quinn, Francis M Jiggins
BACKGROUND: Organisms can rapidly adapt to their environment when colonizing a new habitat, and this could occur by changing protein sequences or by altering patterns of gene expression. The importance of gene expression in driving local adaptation is increasingly being appreciated, and cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which control and modify the expression of the nearby genes, are predicted to play an important role. Here we investigate genetic variation in gene expression in immune-challenged Drosophila melanogaster from temperate and tropical or sub-tropical populations in Australia and United States...
November 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893816/mir-34-modulates-innate-immunity-and-ecdysone-signaling-in-drosophila
#16
Xiao-Peng Xiong, Krishna Kurthkoti, Kung-Yen Chang, Jian-Liang Li, Xingjie Ren, Jian-Quan Ni, Tariq M Rana, Rui Zhou
microRNAs are endogenous small regulatory RNAs that modulate myriad biological processes by repressing target gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Here we show that the conserved miRNA miR-34 regulates innate immunity and ecdysone signaling in Drosophila. miR-34 over-expression activates antibacterial innate immunity signaling both in cultured cells and in vivo, and flies over-expressing miR-34 display improved survival and pathogen clearance upon Gram-negative bacterial infection; whereas miR-34 knockout animals are defective in antibacterial defense...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884706/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-novel-sp%C3%A3-tzle-gene-in-litopenaeus-vannamei
#17
Kai Yuan, Feng-Hua Yuan, Shao-Ping Weng, Jian-Guo He, Yi-Hong Chen
Shrimp innate immunity is the first line of resistance against pathogenic bacteria. The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-NF-κB pathway is vital in this immunity process. In this study, a novel Spätzle gene (LvSpz4) of Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned and functionally characterized. The open reading frame of LvSpz4 was 918 bp, which encoded a putative protein with 305 amino acids. LvSpz4 was most expressed in the gills of L. vannamei. This expression was induced by Vibrio alginolyticus or Staphylococcus aureus infection or lipopolysaccharide stimulation...
March 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878268/crocus-sativus-l-protects-against-sds%C3%A2-induced-intestinal-damage-and-extends-lifespan-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Zonglin Liu, Yuchen Chen, Hong Zhang, Li Hua Jin
Medicinal plants are important sources of potentially therapeutic biochemical drugs. Crocus sativus L. has been used to treat various diseases in China, the Republic of Korea and Japan. The present study investigated the protective effect of C. sativus L. extract in Drosophila melanogaster intestinal immunity. Wild‑type flies were fed standard cornmeal‑yeast medium and used as controls, and flies supplemented with 1% C. sativus L. aqueous extract in standard medium were used as the experimental group...
December 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871832/genome-wide-mirna-screening-reveals-mir-310-family-members-negatively-regulate-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster-via-co-targeting-drosomycin
#19
Yao Li, Shengjie Li, Ruimin Li, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs...
March 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871813/gut-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster-interacts-with-wolbachia-but-does-not-contribute-to-wolbachia-mediated-antiviral-protection
#20
Yixin H Ye, Andrei Seleznev, Heather A Flores, Megan Woolfit, Elizabeth A McGraw
Animals experience near constant infection with microorganisms. A significant proportion of these microbiota reside in the alimentary tract. There is a growing appreciation for the roles gut microbiota play in host biology. The gut microbiota of insects, for example, have been shown to help the host overcome pathogen infection either through direct competition or indirectly by stimulating host immunity. These defenses may also be supplemented by coinfecting maternally inherited microbes such as Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia in a host can delay and/or reduce death caused by RNA viruses...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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