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Drosophila immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338042/a-pharmacological-screen-for-compounds-that-rescue-the-developmental-lethality-of-a-drosophila-atm-mutant
#1
Stacey A Rimkus, David A Wassarman
Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by mutation of the A-T mutated (ATM) gene. ATM encodes a protein kinase that is activated by DNA damage and phosphorylates many proteins, including those involved in DNA repair, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. Characteristic biological and molecular functions of ATM observed in mammals are conserved in Drosophila melanogaster. As an example, conditional loss-of-function ATM alleles in flies cause progressive neurodegeneration through activation of the innate immune response...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329646/effects-of-gardenia-jasminoides-extracts-on-cognition-and-innate-immune-response-in-an-adult-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Wei-Wei Ma, Ye Tao, Yan-Ying Wang, I-Feng Peng
Herbal extracts have been extensively used worldwide for their application on memory improvement, especially among aged and memory-deficit populations. In the present study, the memory loss induced by human Abeta protein over-expression in fruitfly Alzheimer's disease (AD) model was rescued by multiple extracts from Gardenia jasminoides. Three extracts that rich with gardenia yellow, geniposide, and gardenoside components showed distinct rescue effect on memory loss. Further investigation on adding gardenoside into a formula of Ganoderma lucidum, Panax notoginseng and Panax ginseng (GPP) also support its therapeutic effects on memory improvement...
December 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322640/conserved-roles-of-osiris-genes-in-insect-development-polymorphism-and-protection
#3
Chris R Smith, Claire Morandin, Moataz Noureddine, Swati Pant
Much of the variation among insects is derived from the different ways that chitin has been molded to form rigid structures, both internal and external. In this study, we identify a highly conserved expression pattern in an insect-only gene family, the Osiris genes, that is essential for development, but also plays a significant role in phenotypic plasticity and in immunity/toxicity responses. The majority of Osiris genes exist in a highly syntenic cluster, and the cluster itself appears to have arisen very early in the evolution of insects...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321302/rapid-seasonal-evolution-in-innate-immunity-of-wild-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Emily L Behrman, Virginia M Howick, Martin Kapun, Fabian Staubach, Alan O Bergland, Dmitri A Petrov, Brian P Lazzaro, Paul S Schmidt
Understanding the rate of evolutionary change and the genetic architecture that facilitates rapid adaptation is a current challenge in evolutionary biology. Comparative studies show that genes with immune function are among the most rapidly evolving genes across a range of taxa. Here, we use immune defence in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster to understand the rate of evolution in natural populations and the genetics underlying rapid change. We probed the immune system using the natural pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and Providencia rettgeri to measure post-infection survival and bacterial load of wild D...
January 10, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321168/tools-allowing-independent-visualization-and-genetic-manipulation-of-drosophilamelanogaster-macrophages-and-surrounding-tissues
#5
Attila Gyoergy, Marko Roblek, Aparna Ratheesh, Katarina Valoskova, Vera Belyaeva, Stephanie Wachner, Yutaka Matsubayashi, Besaiz J Sánchez-Sánchez, Brian Stramer, Daria E Siekhaus
Drosophila melanogaster plasmatocytes, the phagocytic cells among hemocytes, are essential for immune responses, but also play key roles from early development to death through their interactions with other cell types. They regulate homeostasis and signaling during development, stem cell proliferation, metabolism, cancer, wound responses and aging, displaying intriguing molecular and functional conservation with vertebrate macrophages. Given the relative ease of genetics in Drosophila compared to vertebrates, tools permitting visualization and genetic manipulation of plasmatocytes and surrounding tissues independently at all stages would greatly aid in fully understanding these processes, but are lacking...
January 10, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306967/identification-of-tarsal-less-peptides-from-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#6
Guangli Cao, Yongchang Gong, Xiaolong Hu, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Lixu Huang, Lei Yu, Jian Xu, Kun Li, Mian Sahib Zar, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
The polycistronic and non-canonical gene tarsal-less (tal, known as pri) was reported to be required for embryonic and imaginal development in Drosophila; however, there are few reports of the tal gene in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we cloned a tal-like (Bmtal) gene, and a sequence analysis showed that the Bmtal cDNA (1661 bp) contains five small open reading frames (smORFs) (A1, A2, A3, A4, and B) that encode short peptides of 11-12 (A1-A4) amino acid residues containing an LDPTG(E)L(Q)(V)Y motif that is conserved in Drosophila Tal, as well as a 32-amino-acid B peptide...
January 6, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305978/gene-expression-profiling-provides-insights-into-the-immune-mechanism-of-plutella-xylostella-midgut-to-microbial-infection
#7
Junhan Lin, Xiaofeng Xia, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Jinhong Shen, Yong Li, Hailan Lin, Shanshan Tang, Liette Vasseur, Minsheng You
Insect gut immunity plays a key role in defense against microorganism infection. The knowledge of insect gut immunity has been obtained mostly from Drosophila melanogaster. Little is known about gut immunity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), a pest destroying cruciferous crops worldwide. In this study, expressions of the immune-related genes in the midgut of P. xylostella orally infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris were profiled by RNA-seq and qRT-PCR approaches...
January 3, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305333/identification-of-a-clip-domain-serine-proteinase-involved-in-immune-defense-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#8
Zhihao Jia, Mengqiang Wang, Huan Zhang, Xiudan Wang, Zhao Lv, Lingling Wang, Linsheng Song
Clip-domain serine proteinase is an important serine proteinase family involved in many biological processes, which is only found in invertebrates. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of a clip domain serine proteinase (designed as EsCDSP) gene was cloned from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. It was of 1488 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1134 bp encoding a polypeptide of 377 amino acids. There were a signal peptide, a clip domain, and a Tryp_SPc domain in the deduced amino acid sequences of EsCDSP...
January 2, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248385/a-cytosolic-sensor-pmddx41-mediates-antiviral-immune-response-in-black-tiger-shrimp-penaeus-monodon
#9
Suthinee Soponpong, Piti Amparyup, Anchalee Tassanakajon
DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp)-box polypeptide 41 (DDX41), a receptor belonging to the DExD family, has recently been identified as an intracellular DNA sensor in vertebrates. Here, we report on the identification and functional characterization of PmDDX41, the first cytosolic DNA sensor in shrimp. By searching a Penaeus monodon expressed sequence tag (EST) database (http://pmonodon.biotec.or.th), three cDNA fragments exhibiting similarity to DDX41 in various species were identified and assembled, resulting in a complete open reading frame of PmDDX41 that contains 1868-bp and encodes a putative protein of 620 amino acids...
December 14, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247995/overview-of-the-il-1-family-in-innate-inflammation-and-acquired-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Charles A Dinarello
The interleukin-1 (IL-1) family of cytokines and receptors is unique in immunology because the IL-1 family and Toll-like receptor (TLR) families share similar functions. More than any other cytokine family, the IL-1 family is primarily associated with innate immunity. More than 95% of living organisms use innate immune mechanisms for survival whereas less than 5% depend on T- and B-cell functions. Innate immunity is manifested by inflammation, which can function as a mechanism of host defense but when uncontrolled is detrimental to survival...
January 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234354/differential-microbial-diversity-in-drosophila-melanogaster-are-fruit-flies-potential-vectors-of-opportunistic-pathogens
#11
Luis A Ramírez-Camejo, Génesis Maldonado-Morales, Paul Bayman
Drosophila melanogaster has become a model system to study interactions between innate immunity and microbial pathogens, yet many aspects regarding its microbial community and interactions with pathogens remain unclear. In this study wild D. melanogaster were collected from tropical fruits in Puerto Rico to test how the microbiota is distributed and to compare the culturable diversity of fungi and bacteria. Additionally, we investigated whether flies are potential vectors of human and plant pathogens. Eighteen species of fungi and twelve species of bacteria were isolated from wild flies...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232712/bioinformatic-analysis-reveals-new-determinants-of-antigenic-14-3-3-proteins-and-a-novel-antifungal-strategy
#12
Jenna E McGowan, Jacqueline Kratch, Saurabh Chattopadhyay, Bina Joe, Heather R Conti, Ritu Chakravarti
The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 family of proteins is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals. Their involvement in humoral and cellular immune responses is emerging through studies in drosophila and humans. In humans, a select group of 14-3-3 isoforms are antigenic; however the determinants of their antigenicity are not known. Here, we show that although mammalian 14-3-3 proteins are mostly conserved, subtle differences between their isoforms may give rise to their antigenicity. We observed syntenic relations among all the isoforms of 14-3-3 for mammals, but not with that of birds or amphibians...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229844/cytokine-signaling-through-drosophila-mthl10-ties-lifespan-to-environmental-stress
#13
Eui Jae Sung, Masasuke Ryuda, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Outa Uryu, Masanori Ochiai, Molly E Cook, Na Young Yi, Huanchen Wang, James W Putney, Gary S Bird, Stephen B Shears, Yoichi Hayakawa
A systems-level understanding of cytokine-mediated, intertissue signaling is one of the keys to developing fundamental insight into the links between aging and inflammation. Here, we employed Drosophila, a routine model for analysis of cytokine signaling pathways in higher animals, to identify a receptor for the growth-blocking peptide (GBP) cytokine. Having previously established that the phospholipase C/Ca2+ signaling pathway mediates innate immune responses to GBP, we conducted a dsRNA library screen for genes that modulate Ca2+ mobilization in Drosophila S3 cells...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220418/plant-mediated-female-transcriptomic-changes-post-mating-in-a-tephritid-fruit-fly-bactrocera-tryoni
#14
Kumaran Nagalingam, Chloé A van der Burg, Yujia Qin, Stephen L Cameron, Anthony R Clarke, Peter J Prentis
Female post-mating behaviours are regulated by complex factors involving males, females and the environment. In insects, plant secondary compounds that males actively forage for, may indirectly modify female behaviours by altering male behaviour and physiology. In the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, females mated with males previously fed on plant-derived phenylpropanoids (= 'lures' based on usage in tephritid literature), have longer mating refractoriness, greater fecundity and reduced longevity than females mated with non-lure fed males...
December 6, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198775/dynamic-mirna-mrna-regulations-are-essential-for-maintaining-drosophila-immune-homeostasis-during-micrococcus-luteus-infection
#15
Guanyun Wei, Lianjie Sun, Ruimin Li, Lei Li, Jiao Xu, Fei Ma
Pathogen bacteria infections can lead to dynamic changes of microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression profiles, which may control synergistically the outcome of immune responses. To reveal the role of dynamic miRNA-mRNA regulation in Drosophila innate immune responses, we have detailedly analyzed the paired miRNA and mRNA expression profiles at three time points during Drosophila adult males with Micrococcus luteus (M. luteus) infection using RNA- and small RNA-seq data. Our results demonstrate that differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs represent extensively dynamic changes over three time points during Drosophila with M...
November 30, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193237/cloning-and-analysis-of-peptidoglycan-recognition-protein-lc-and-immune-deficiency-from-the-diamondback-moth-plutella-xylostella
#16
Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan (PGN) exists in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as a component of the cell wall. PGN is an important target to be recognized by the innate immune system of animals. PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) are responsible for recognizing PGNs. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are critical for activating the Imd pathway. Here, we report the cloning and analysis of PGRP-LC and IMD (PxPGRP-LC and PxIMD) from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), the insect pest of cruciferous vegetables...
November 28, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191166/the-insect-pathogenic-bacterium-xenorhabdus-innexi-has-attenuated-virulence-in-multiple-insect-model-hosts-yet-encodes-a-potent-mosquitocidal-toxin
#17
Il-Hwan Kim, Sudarshan K Aryal, Dariush T Aghai, Ángel M Casanova-Torres, Kai Hillman, Michael P Kozuch, Erin J Mans, Terra J Mauer, Jean-Claude Ogier, Jerald C Ensign, Sophie Gaudriault, Walter G Goodman, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, Adler R Dillman
BACKGROUND: Xenorhabdus innexi is a bacterial symbiont of Steinernema scapterisci nematodes, which is a cricket-specialist parasite and together the nematode and bacteria infect and kill crickets. Curiously, X. innexi expresses a potent extracellular mosquitocidal toxin activity in culture supernatants. We sequenced a draft genome of X. innexi and compared it to the genomes of related pathogens to elucidate the nature of specialization. RESULTS: Using green fluorescent protein-expressing X...
December 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176735/interplay-between-trauma-and-pseudomonas-entomophila-infection-in-flies-a-central-role-of-the-jnk-pathway-and-of-creba
#18
Ramy Ragheb, Alexandre Chuyen, Magali Torres, Arnaud Defaye, Denis Seyres, Laurent Kremmer, Nicolas Fernandez-Nunez, Hervé Tricoire, Pascal Rihet, Catherine Nguyen, Laurence Röder, Laurent Perrin
In mammals, both sterile wounding and infection induce inflammation and activate the innate immune system, and the combination of both challenges may lead to severe health defects, revealing the importance of the balance between the intensity and resolution of the inflammatory response for the organism's fitness. Underlying mechanisms remain however elusive. Using Drosophila, we show that, upon infection with the entomopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas entomophila (Pe), a sterile wounding induces a reduced resistance and increased host mortality...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166596/the-gcn2-atf4-signaling-pathway-induces-4e-bp-to-bias-translation-and-boost-antimicrobial-peptide-synthesis-in-response-to-bacterial-infection
#19
Deepika Vasudevan, Nicholas K Clark, Jessica Sam, Victoria C Cotham, Beatrix Ueberheide, Michael T Marr, Hyung Don Ryoo
Bacterial infection often leads to suppression of mRNA translation, but hosts are nonetheless able to express immune response genes through as yet unknown mechanisms. Here, we use a Drosophila model to demonstrate that antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production during infection is paradoxically stimulated by the inhibitor of cap-dependent translation, 4E-BP (eIF4E-binding protein; encoded by the Thor gene). We found that 4E-BP is induced upon infection with pathogenic bacteria by the stress-response transcription factor ATF4 and its upstream kinase, GCN2...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155284/the-dynamic-evolution-of-drosophila-innubila-nudivirus
#20
Tom Hill, Robert L Unckless
Viruses coevolve with their hosts to overcome host resistance and gain the upper hand in the evolutionary arms race. Drosophila innubila nudivirus (DiNV) is a double stranded DNA virus, closely related to Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus (OrNV) and Kallithea virus. DiNV is the first DNA virus found to naturally infect Drosophila and therefore has the potential to be developed as a model for DNA virus immune defense and host/virus coevolution within its well-studied host system. Here we sequence and annotate the genome of DiNV and identify signatures of adaptation, revealing clues for genes involved in host-parasite coevolution...
November 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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