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Drosophila immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149207/evolution-of-the-metabolome-in-response-to-selection-for-increased-immunity-in-populations-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#1
Navdeep Gogna, Rakesh Sharma, Vanika Gupta, Kavita Dorai, N G Prasad
We used NMR-based metabolomics to test two hypotheses-(i) there will be evolved differences in the metabolome of selected and control populations even under un-infected conditions and (ii) post infection, the metabolomes of the selected and control populations will respond differently. We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for increased survivorship (I) against a gram-negative pathogen. We subjected the selected (I) and their control populations (S) to three different treatments: (1) infected with heat-killed bacteria (i), (2) sham infected (s), and (3) untreated (u)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146985/drosophila-muscles-regulate-the-immune-response-against-wasp-infection-via-carbohydrate-metabolism
#2
Hairu Yang, Dan Hultmark
We recently found that JAK/STAT signaling in skeletal muscles is important for the immune response of Drosophila larvae against wasp infection, but it was not clear how muscles could affect the immune response. Here we show that insulin signaling is required in muscles, but not in fat body or hemocytes, during larval development for an efficient encapsulation response and for the formation of lamellocytes. This effect requires TOR signaling. We show that muscle tissue affects the immune response by acting as a master regulator of carbohydrate metabolism in the infected animal, via JAK/STAT and insulin signaling in the muscles, and that there is indirect positive feedback between JAK/STAT and insulin signaling in the muscles...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146454/beyond-immunity-the-imd-pathway-as-a-coordinator-of-host-defense-organismal-physiology-and-behavior
#3
Zongzhao Zhai, Xiaoshan Huang, Yulong Yin
The humoral arm of host defense in Drosophila relies on two evolutionarily conserved NFκB signaling cascades, the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) pathways. The Imd signaling pathway senses and neutralizes Gram-negative bacteria. Its activity is tightly adjusted, allowing the host to simultaneously prevent infection by pathogenic bacteria and tolerate beneficial gut microbiota. Over-activation of Imd signaling is detrimental at least in part by causing gut dysbiosis that further exacerbates intestinal pathologies...
November 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141990/rna-sequencing-of-drosophila-melanogaster-head-tissue-on-high-sugar-and-high-fat-diets
#4
Wayne Hemphill, Osvaldo Rivera, Matthew Talbert
Obesity has been shown to increase risk for cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes. In addition, it has been implicated in aggravation of neurological conditions such as Alzheimer's. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, a physiological state mimicking diet-induced obesity can be induced by subjecting fruit flies to a solid medium disproportionately higher in sugar than protein or that has been supplemented with a rich source of saturated fat. These flies can exhibit increased circulating glucose levels, increased triglyceride content, insulin-like peptide resistance, and behavior indicative of neurological decline...
November 15, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141015/nematocytes-discovery-and-characterization-of-a-novel-anculeate-hemocyte-in-drosophila-falleni-and-drosophila-phalerata
#5
Julianna Bozler, Balint Z Kacsoh, Giovanni Bosco
Immune challenges, such as parasitism, can be so pervasive and deleterious that they constitute an existential threat to a species' survival. In response to these ecological pressures, organisms have developed a wide array of novel behavioral, cellular, and molecular adaptations. Research into these immune defenses in model systems has resulted in a revolutionary understanding of evolution and functional biology. As the field has expanded beyond the limited number of model organisms our appreciation of evolutionary innovation and unique biology has widened as well...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130360/autophagy-and-innate-immunity-insights-from-invertebrate-model-organisms
#6
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Malene Hansen, Emily Troemel
Macroautophagy/autophagy is a fundamental intracellular degradation process with multiple roles in immunity, including direct elimination of intracellular microorganisms via 'xenophagy.' In this review, we summarize studies from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans that highlight the roles of autophagy in innate immune responses to viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens. Research from these genetically tractable invertebrates has uncovered several conserved immunological paradigms, such as direct targeting of intracellular pathogens by xenophagy and regulation of autophagy by pattern recognition receptors in D...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128494/the-shrimp-hormone-receptor-acts-as-an-anti-apoptosis-and-anti-inflammatory-factor-in-innate-immunity
#7
Zhi Wang, Baozhen Sun, Fei Zhu
Previously, we found that the expression of several genes, including HR, varied in Drosophila melanogaster after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. In this present study, we further investigated the role of HR in Kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus and determined its anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammation role in the innate immune system. We successfully identified a partial sequence (866 bp in length) of the M. japonicus hormone receptor ligand binding domain (mjHR_LBD/mjHR). The 5' end of mjHR was successfully obtained; the open reading frame (ORF) ran from 33 to 701 bp, and encoded a protein containing 222 amino acids...
November 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121087/the-gram-negative-sensing-receptor-pgrp-lc-contributes-to-grooming-induction-in-drosophila
#8
Aya Yanagawa, Claudine Neyen, Bruno Lemaitre, Frédéric Marion-Poll
Behavioral resistance protects insects from microbial infection. However, signals inducing insect hygiene behavior are still relatively unexplored. Our previous study demonstrated that olfactory signals from microbes enhance insect hygiene behavior, and gustatory signals even induce the behavior. In this paper, we postulated a cross-talk between behavioral resistance and innate immunity. To examine this hypothesis, we employed a previously validated behavioral test to examine the function of taste signals in inducing a grooming reflex in decapitated flies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109235/glial-draper-rescues-a%C3%AE-toxicity-in-a-drosophila-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Arpita Ray, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and reactive gliosis. Glial cells offer protection against AD by engulfing extracellular Aβ peptides, but the repertoire of molecules required for glial recognition and destruction of Aβ are still unclear. Here, we show that the highly conserved glial engulfment receptor Draper/MEGF10 provides neuroprotection in an AD model of Drosophila (both sexes). Neuronal expression of human Aβ42(arc) in adult flies results in robust Aβ accumulation, neurodegeneration, locomotor dysfunction, and reduced lifespan...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108998/unexpected-role-of-the-imd-pathway-in-drosophila-gut-defense-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Aki Hori, Shoichiro Kurata, Takayuki Kuraishi
In this study, fruit fly of the genus Drosophila is utilized as a suitable model animal to investigate the molecular mechanisms of innate immunity. To combat orally transmitted pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the Drosophila gut is armed with the peritrophic matrix, which is a physical barrier composed of chitin and glycoproteins: the Duox system that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn sterilize infected microbes, and the IMD pathway that regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which in turn control ROS-resistant pathogens...
November 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108021/hippo-tgf-%C3%AE-and-src-mapk-pathways-regulate-transcription-of-the-upd3-cytokine-in-drosophila-enterocytes-upon-bacterial-infection
#11
Philip Houtz, Alessandro Bonfini, Xi Liu, Jonathan Revah, Aurélien Guillou, Mickael Poidevin, Korneel Hens, Hsin-Yi Huang, Bart Deplancke, Yu-Chen Tsai, Nicolas Buchon
Cytokine signaling is responsible for coordinating conserved epithelial regeneration and immune responses in the digestive tract. In the Drosophila midgut, Upd3 is a major cytokine, which is induced in enterocytes (EC) and enteroblasts (EB) upon oral infection, and initiates intestinal stem cell (ISC) dependent tissue repair. To date, the genetic network directing upd3 transcription remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we have identified the key infection-responsive enhancers of the upd3 gene and show that distinct enhancers respond to various stresses...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097655/kenny-mediates-selective-autophagic-degradation-of-the-ikk-complex-to-control-innate-immune-responses
#12
Radu Tusco, Anne-Claire Jacomin, Ashish Jain, Bridget S Penman, Kenneth Bowitz Larsen, Terje Johansen, Ioannis P Nezis
Selective autophagy is a catabolic process with which cellular material is specifically targeted for degradation by lysosomes. The function of selective autophagic degradation of self-components in the regulation of innate immunity is still unclear. Here we show that Drosophila Kenny, the homolog of mammalian IKKγ, is a selective autophagy receptor that mediates the degradation of the IκB kinase complex. Selective autophagic degradation of the IκB kinase complex prevents constitutive activation of the immune deficiency pathway in response to commensal microbiota...
November 2, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097443/a-facilitated-diffusion-mechanism-establishes-the-drosophila-dorsal-gradient
#13
Sophia N Carrell, Michael D O'Connell, Thomas Jacobsen, Amy E Allen, Stephanie M Smith, Gregory T Reeves
The transcription factor NF-κB plays an important role in the immune system, apoptosis, and inflammation. Dorsal, a Drosophila homolog of NF-κB, patterns the dorsal-ventral axis in the blastoderm embryo. During this stage, Dorsal is sequestered outside the nucleus by the IκB homolog Cactus. Toll signaling on the ventral side breaks the Dorsal/Cactus complex, allowing Dorsal to enter the nucleus to regulate target genes. Fluorescent data show that Dorsal accumulates on the ventral side of the syncytial blastoderm...
November 2, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096245/glial-contributions-to-neuronal-health-and-disease-new-insights-from-drosophila
#14
REVIEW
Mary A Logan
Glial cells are essential for proper formation and maintenance of the nervous system. During development, glia keep neuronal cell numbers in check and ensure that mature neural circuits are appropriately sculpted by engulfing superfluous cells and projections. In the adult brain, glial cells offer metabolic sustenance and provide critical immune support in the face of acute and chronic challenges. Dysfunctional glial immune activity is believed to contribute to age-related cognitive decline, as well as neurodegenerative disease risk, but we still know surprisingly little about the specific molecular pathways that govern glia-neuron communication in the healthy or diseased brain...
October 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091025/reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-toll-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-the-drosophila-hematopoietic-niche-confers-resistance-to-wasp-parasitism
#15
Isabelle Louradour, Anurag Sharma, Ismael Morin-Poulard, Manon Letourneau, Alain Vincent, Michèle Crozatier, Nathalie Vanzo
Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in the adult mammalian bone marrow ensure blood cell renewal. Their cellular microenvironment, called 'niche', regulates hematopoiesis both under homeostatic and immune stress conditions. In the Drosophila hematopoietic organ, the lymph gland, the posterior signaling center (PSC) acts as a niche to regulate the hematopoietic response to immune stress such as wasp parasitism. This response relies on the differentiation of lamellocytes, a cryptic cell type, dedicated to pathogen encapsulation and killing...
November 1, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074090/the-role-of-a-single-gene-encoding-the-single-von-willebrand-factor-c-domain-protein-svc-in-bumblebee-immunity-extends-beyond-antiviral-defense
#16
Haidong Wang, Guy Smagghe, Ivan Meeus
The Single von Willebrand factor C-domain proteins (SVCs) are a group of short proteins mainly found in arthropods. They are proposed to be responsive in relation to environmental challenges including the nutritional status, bacterial and viral infections. The SVC protein Vago acts as a cross-talk molecule between the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway and the Jak/STAT pathway upon viral infection in Drosophila melanogaster and Culex mosquito cells. Unlike flies and mosquitoes that possess diverse SVCs, most bee species only have one of which the function remains unclear...
October 23, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066397/molecular-cloning-and-analysis-of-pgrp-l1-and-imd-from-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#17
Ming-Yue Zhan, Pei-Jin Yang, Xiang-Jun Rao
Peptidoglycan is one of the major components of bacterial cell wall. The innate immune system of insects utilizes a group of peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) for the recognition of specific peptidoglycans and activating immune signaling pathways. In Drosophila melanogaster, PGRP-LC and IMD (immune deficiency) are two important signaling molecules of the IMD pathway. Here we cloned and characterized PGRP-L1 and IMD from the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (BmPGRP-L1 and BmIMD). BmPGRP-L1 gene consists of five exons that encodes a polypeptide of 304 amino acids with a transmembrane region and an extracellular PGRP domain...
October 21, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049362/parallel-and-costly-changes-to-cellular-immunity-underlie-the-evolution-of-parasitoid-resistance-in-three-drosophila-species
#18
John E McGonigle, Alexandre B Leitão, Sarah Ommeslag, Sophie Smith, Jonathan P Day, Francis M Jiggins
A priority for biomedical research is to understand the causes of variation in susceptibility to infection. To investigate genetic variation in a model system, we used flies collected from single populations of three different species of Drosophila and artificially selected them for resistance to the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi, and found that survival rates increased 3 to 30 fold within 6 generations. Resistance in all three species involves a large increase in the number of the circulating hemocytes that kill parasitoids...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049360/the-bacterial-virulence-factor-caga-induces-microbial-dysbiosis-that-contributes-to-excessive-epithelial-cell-proliferation-in-the-drosophila-gut
#19
Tiffani Alvey Jones, Diane Z Hernandez, Zoë C Wong, Anica M Wandler, Karen Guillemin
Gut microbiota facilitate many aspects of human health and development, but dysbiotic microbiota can promote hyperplasia and inflammation and contribute to human diseases such as cancer. Human patients infected with the gastric cancer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori have altered microbiota; however, whether dysbiosis contributes to disease in this case is unknown. Many H. pylori human disease phenotypes are associated with a potent virulence protein, CagA, which is translocated into host epithelial cells where it alters cell polarity and manipulates host-signaling pathways to promote disease...
October 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045898/peptidoglycan-sensing-receptors-trigger-the-formation-of-functional-amyloids-of-the-adaptor-protein-imd-to-initiate-drosophila-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#20
Anni Kleino, Nancy F Ramia, Gunes Bozkurt, Yanfang Shen, Himani Nailwal, Jing Huang, Johanna Napetschnig, Monique Gangloff, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Hao Wu, Jixi Li, Neal Silverman
In the Drosophila immune response, bacterial derived diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan binds the receptors PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE, which through interaction with the adaptor protein Imd leads to activation of the NF-κB homolog Relish and robust antimicrobial peptide gene expression. PGRP-LC, PGRP-LE, and Imd each contain a motif with some resemblance to the RIP Homotypic Interaction Motif (RHIM), a domain found in mammalian RIPK proteins forming functional amyloids during necroptosis. Here we found that despite sequence divergence, these Drosophila cryptic RHIMs formed amyloid fibrils in vitro and in cells...
October 17, 2017: Immunity
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