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Drosophila immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768167/when-the-gut-gets-tough-the-enterocytes-get-going
#1
Grischa Y Chen, Janelle S Ayres
It is assumed that collateral damage from the immune system drives intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) expulsion during enteric infections. In this issue of Immunity, Zhai et al. (2018) describe how Drosophila's canonical immune deficiency (Imd) pathway programs IEC delamination in the gut.
May 15, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760446/allatostatin-c-modulates-nociception-and-immunity-in-drosophila
#2
Nathaniel D Bachtel, Gary A Hovsepian, Douglas F Nixon, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Bacterial induced inflammatory responses cause pain through direct activation of nociceptive neurons, and the ablation of these neurons leads to increased immune infiltration. In this study, we investigated nociceptive-immune interactions in Drosophila and the role these interactions play during pathogenic bacterial infection. After bacterial infection, we found robust upregulation of ligand-gated ion channels and allatostatin receptors involved in nociception, which potentially leads to hyperalgesia. We further found that Allatostatin-C Receptor 2 (AstC-R2) plays a crucial role in host survival during infection with the pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens...
May 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760073/regulation-of-myeloid-cell-phagocytosis-by-lrrk2-via-wave2-complex-stabilization-is-altered-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Kwang Soo Kim, Paul C Marcogliese, Jungwoo Yang, Steve M Callaghan, Virginia Resende, Elizabeth Abdel-Messih, Connie Marras, Naomi P Visanji, Jana Huang, Michael G Schlossmacher, Laura Trinkle-Mulcahy, Ruth S Slack, Anthony E Lang, David S Park
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 ( LRRK2 ) has been implicated in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), yet its pathogenic role remains unclear. A previous screen in Drosophila identified Scar/WAVE (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein-family verproline) proteins as potential genetic interactors of LRRK2 Here, we provide evidence that LRRK2 modulates the phagocytic response of myeloid cells via specific modulation of the actin-cytoskeletal regulator, WAVE2. We demonstrate that macrophages and microglia from LRRK2-G2019S PD patients and mice display a WAVE2-mediated increase in phagocytic response, respectively...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752064/cell-specific-imd-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-responses-enable-simultaneous-antibacterial-immunity-and-intestinal-epithelial-cell-shedding-upon-bacterial-infection
#4
Zongzhao Zhai, Jean-Philippe Boquete, Bruno Lemaitre
Intestinal infection triggers potent immune responses to combat pathogens and concomitantly drives epithelial renewal to maintain barrier integrity. Current models propose that epithelial renewal is primarily driven by damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we found that in Drosophila, the Imd-NF-κB pathway controlled enterocyte (EC) shedding upon infection, via a mechanism independent of ROS-associated apoptosis. Mechanistically, the Imd pathway synergized with JNK signaling to induce epithelial cell shedding specifically in the context of bacterial infection, requiring also the reduced expression of the transcription factor GATAe...
May 3, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746571/p38b-and-jak-stat-signaling-protect-against-invertebrate-iridescent-virus-6-infection-in-drosophila
#5
Cara West, Neal Silverman
The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model system for the study of innate immunity in vector insects as well as mammals. For vector insects, it is particularly important to understand all aspects of their antiviral immune defenses, which could eventually be harnessed to control the transmission of human pathogenic viruses. The immune responses controlling RNA viruses in insects have been extensively studied, but the response to DNA virus infections is poorly characterized. Here, we report that infection of Drosophila with the DNA virus Invertebrate Iridescent Virus 6 (IIV-6) triggers JAK-STAT signaling and the robust expression of the Turandots, a gene family encoding small secreted proteins...
May 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735663/linked-genetic-variation-and-not-genome-structure-causes-widespread-differential-expression-associated-with-chromosomal-inversions
#6
Iskander Said, Ashley Byrne, Victoria Serrano, Charis Cardeno, Christopher Vollmers, Russell Corbett-Detig
Chromosomal inversions are widely thought to be favored by natural selection because they suppress recombination between alleles that have higher fitness on the same genetic background or in similar environments. Nonetheless, few selected alleles have been characterized at the molecular level. Gene expression profiling provides a powerful way to identify functionally important variation associated with inversions and suggests candidate phenotypes. However, altered genome structure itself might also impact gene expression by influencing expression profiles of the genes proximal to inversion breakpoint regions or by modifying expression patterns genome-wide due to rearranging large regulatory domains...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730580/toll-like-receptors-in-immunity-and-inflammatory-diseases-past-present-and-future
#7
REVIEW
Kumar Vijay
The immune system is a very diverse system of the host that evolved during evolution to cope with various pathogens present in the vicinity of environmental surroundings inhabited by multicellular organisms ranging from achordates to chordates (including humans). For example, cells of immune system express various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that detect danger via recognizing specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and mount a specific immune response. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of these PRRs expressed by various immune cells...
May 3, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727694/a-high-sugar-diet-affects-cellular-and-humoral-immune-responses-in-drosophila
#8
Shichao Yu, Gaoqun Zhang, Li Hua Jin
A high-sugar diet (HSD) induces Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, which severely threaten human health. The Drosophila T2D model has been constructed to study the mechanisms of insulin resistance, diet-induced cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens and parasites. However, few studies have focused on the relationship between a HSD and the innate immune response in Drosophila. In this study, we fed flies a high-sucrose diet and observed defects in the phagocytosis of latex beads and B...
May 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726930/functional-variants-in-tbx2-are-associated-with-a-syndromic-cardiovascular-and-skeletal-developmental-disorder
#9
Ning Liu, Kelly Schoch, Xi Luo, Loren Pena, Venkata Hemanjani Bhavana, Mary K Kukolich, Sarah Stringer, Zöe Powis, Kelly Radtke, Cameron Mroske, Kristen Deak, Marie T McDonald, Allyn McConkie-Rosell, M Louise Markert, Peter G Kranz, Nicholas Stong, Anna C Need, David Bick, Michelle D Amaral, Elizabeth A Worthey, Shawn Levy, Michael F Wangler, Hugo J Bellen, Shashi Vandana, Shinya Yamamoto
The seventeen genes of the T-box family are transcriptional regulators that are involved in all stages of embryonic development, including craniofacial, brain, heart, skeleton and immune system. Malformation syndromes have been linked to many of the T-box genes. For example, haploinsufficiency of TBX1 is responsible for many structural malformations in DiGeorge syndrome caused by a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion. We report four individuals with an overlapping spectrum of craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac anomalies, skeletal malformations, immune deficiency, endocrine abnormalities and developmental impairments, reminiscent of DiGeorge syndrome, who are heterozygotes for TBX2 variants...
May 2, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723993/defense-mechanisms-against-viral-infection-in-drosophila-rnai-and-non-rnai
#10
REVIEW
Luc Swevers, Jisheng Liu, Guy Smagghe
RNAi is considered a major antiviral defense mechanism in insects, but its relative importance as compared to other antiviral pathways has not been evaluated comprehensively. Here, it is attempted to give an overview of the antiviral defense mechanisms in Drosophila that involve both RNAi and non-RNAi. While RNAi is considered important in most viral infections, many other pathways can exist that confer antiviral resistance. It is noted that very few direct recognition mechanisms of virus infections have been identified in Drosophila and that the activation of immune pathways may be accomplished indirectly through cell damage incurred by viral replication...
May 1, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721509/anthocyanins-function-as-anti-inflammatory-agents-in-a-drosophila-model-for-adipose-tissue-macrophage-infiltration
#11
Alice Valenza, Carola Bonfanti, Maria Enrica Pasini, Paola Bellosta
Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that bioactive foods like flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds derived from fruits and vegetables, exert a protective action against obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and Adipocyte Tissue Macrophage infiltration (ATM). All these pathologies are characterized by increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and in proinflammatory cytokines that have been shown to favor the migration of immune cells, particularly of macrophages, in metabolically active organs like the liver and adipose tissue, that in Drosophila are constituted by a unique organ: the fat body...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719271/sticking-steering-squeezing-and-shearing-cell-movements-driven-by-heterotypic-mechanical-forces
#12
REVIEW
Anna Labernadie, Xavier Trepat
During development, the immune response and cancer, cells of different types interact mechanically. Here we review how such heterotypic mechanical interactions enable cell movements. We begin by analyzing the heterotypic forces that single cells use to adhere and squeeze through tight barriers, as in the case of leucocyte extravasation and cancer metastasis. We next focus on the different mechanisms by which adjacent tissues influence each other's movements, with particular emphasis on dragging forces during dorsal closure in Drosophila and shearing forces during gastrulation in zebrafish...
April 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709775/characterization-of-cathepsin-d-from-eriocheir-sinensis-involved-in-spiroplasma-eriocheiris-infection
#13
Mingxiao Ning, Meijun Yuan, Min Liu, Qi Gao, Panpan Wei, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Cathepsin D (catD) belongs to a lysosomal aspartic protease superfamily. The full-length catD cDNA from the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (EscatD) was 2748 bp and contained a 1158-bp ORF encoding a protein of 385 amino acids, including a signal peptide and two N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EscatD was clustered into a single group, together with other catD for crustaceans. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that EscatD was expressed mainly in the eyes, hemocytes, intestine and nerve and was expressed weakly in heart, muscle and gills...
April 23, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707694/analysis-of-immune-related-genes-during-nora-virus-infection-of-drosophila-melanogaster-using-next-generation-sequencing
#14
Wilfredo Lopez, Alexis M Page, Darby J Carlson, Brad L Ericson, Matyas F Cserhati, Chittibabu Guda, Kimberly A Carlson
Drosophila melanogaster depends upon the innate immune system to regulate and combat viral infection. This is a complex, yet widely conserved process that involves a number of immune pathways and gene interactions. In addition, expression of genes involved in immunity are differentially regulated as the organism ages. This is particularly true for viruses that demonstrate chronic infection, as is seen with Nora virus. Nora virus is a persistent non-pathogenic virus that replicates in a horizontal manner in D...
2018: AIMS Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702691/extracellular-adenosine-modulates-host-pathogen-interactions-through-regulation-of-systemic-metabolism-during-immune-response-in-drosophila
#15
Adam Bajgar, Tomas Dolezal
Phagocytosis by hemocytes, Drosophila macrophages, is essential for resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae in adult flies. Activated macrophages require an increased supply of energy and we show here that a systemic metabolic switch, involving the release of glucose from glycogen, is required for effective resistance to S. pneumoniae. This metabolic switch is mediated by extracellular adenosine, as evidenced by the fact that blocking adenosine signaling in the adoR mutant suppresses the systemic metabolic switch and decreases resistance to infection, while enhancing adenosine effects by lowering adenosine deaminase ADGF-A increases resistance to S...
April 27, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677000/stress-resistance-and-lifespan-enhanced-by-downregulation-of-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-in-the-imd-pathway
#16
Yuh-Ru Lin, Hardik Parikh, Yongkyu Park
Biological behaviors and longevity of ectothermic animals are remarkably influenced by ambient temperature. Development at 18°C significantly enhances the stress resistance of adult flies with more accumulation of nutrients (especially fat) in the body than development at 25°C. Gene expression analysis between the flies developed at 18°C and 25°C revealed that the Immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, including the downstream antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), is downregulated in the flies developed at 18°C. When hypomorphic imd mutant flies with reduced AMP expressions were developed at 25°C, they showed induced stress resistance with higher fat content in the body similar to the wild-type flies developed at 18°C...
April 19, 2018: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675803/drosophila-s2-cell-culture-in-a-wave-bioreactor-potential-for-scaling-up-the-production-of-the-recombinant-rabies-virus-glycoprotein
#17
Monize Caiado Decarli, Diogo Peres Dos Santos, Renato Mancini Astray, Daniella Cristina Ventini-Monteiro, Soraia Attie Calil Jorge, Daniela Matilde Correia, Juliana de Sá da Silva, Mayra Pereira Rocca, Hélio Langoni, Benedito Donizete Menozzi, Carlos Augusto Pereira, Claudio Alberto Torres Suazo
The transmembrane rabies virus glycoprotein (RVGP) is the main antigen of vaccine formulations used around the world to prevent rabies, the most lethal preventable infectious disease known. The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of a bioreactor using wave-induced agitation in the initial steps of scaling up the rRVGP production process by a Drosophila melanogaster S2 cell line to produce rRVGP in sufficient quantities for immunization and characterization studies. Taking advantage of some remarkable features recognized in Drosophila S2 cells for scaling the culture process, a robust recombinant lineage (S2MtRVGPH-His) engineered by our group for the expression of rRVGP using a copper-inducible promoter was used in the bioreactor cultures...
April 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665376/insect-cell-produced-recombinant-protein-subunit-vaccines-protect-against-zika-virus-infection
#18
Panke Qu, Wei Zhang, Dapeng Li, Chao Zhang, Qingwei Liu, Xueyang Zhang, Xuesong Wang, Wenlong Dai, Yongfen Xu, Qibin Leng, Jin Zhong, Xia Jin, Zhong Huang
Infection with Zika virus (ZIKV) may lead to severe neurologic disorders. It is of significant importance and urgency to develop safe and effective vaccines to prevent ZIKV infection. Here we report the development of ZIKV subunit vaccines based on insect cell-produced recombinant proteins. The N-terminal approximately 80% region (designated as E80) and the domain III (designated as EDIII) of ZIKV envelope (E) protein were efficiently produced as secreted proteins in a Drosophila S2 cell expression system. Both E80 and EDIII could inhibit ZIKV infection in vitro, suggesting that they may have folded properly to display native conformations...
April 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615551/the-biology-of-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligases-in-drosophila-development-immunity-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Mona Abed, Eliya Bitman-Lotan, Amir Orian
The ubiquitin and SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) pathways modify proteins that in turn regulate diverse cellular processes, embryonic development, and adult tissue physiology. These pathways were originally discovered biochemically in vitro, leading to a long-standing challenge of elucidating both the molecular cross-talk between these pathways and their biological importance. Recent discoveries in Drosophila established that ubiquitin and SUMO pathways are interconnected via evolutionally conserved SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) proteins...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598827/integrated-biology-approach-reveals-molecular-and-pathological-interactions-among-alzheimer-s-a%C3%AE-42-tau-trem2-and-tyrobp-in-drosophila-models
#20
Michiko Sekiya, Minghui Wang, Naoki Fujisaki, Yasufumi Sakakibara, Xiuming Quan, Michelle E Ehrlich, Philip L De Jager, David A Bennett, Eric E Schadt, Sam Gandy, Kanae Ando, Bin Zhang, Koichi M Iijima
BACKGROUND: Cerebral amyloidosis, neuroinflammation, and tauopathy are key features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but interactions among these features remain poorly understood. Our previous multiscale molecular network models of AD revealed TYROBP as a key driver of an immune- and microglia-specific network that was robustly associated with AD pathophysiology. Recent genetic studies of AD further identified pathogenic mutations in both TREM2 and TYROBP. METHODS: In this study, we systematically examined molecular and pathological interactions among Aβ, tau, TREM2, and TYROBP by integrating signatures from transgenic Drosophila models of AD and transcriptome-wide gene co-expression networks from two human AD cohorts...
March 29, 2018: Genome Medicine
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