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Drosophila immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636161/infinity-sperm-storage-the-gift-that-keeps-on-giving
#1
Gauthier Schang, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Samantha C Lean, Alexandra L Nguyen, Osvaldo Bogado Pascottini
Female Drosophila retain sperm for up to two weeks post-copulation in a network of storage organs includng the bursa, the seminal receptacle, and the spermathecae. This image shows the seminal receptacle of a Drosophila melanogaster female, 2-hrs post-copulation between a LHM (wild-type) female with a Protamine B (green), β-Tubulin (blue) fluorescently tagged male, whose sperm can be visualized within the female. This 'infinity' structure of the seminal receptacle resembles the tubular coil that allows for the storage of very long sperm relative to female body size -up to 20 times the length of the female in some Drosophila species...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634323/intestinal-microbial-dysbiosis-aggravates-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-drosophila
#2
Shih-Cheng Wu, Zih-Syuan Cao, Kuo-Ming Chang, Jyh-Lyh Juang
Neuroinflammation caused by local deposits of Aβ42 in the brain is key for the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer's disease. However, inflammation in the brain is not always a response to local primary insults. Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which is recently emerging as a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, can also initiate a brain inflammatory response. It still remains unclear however, whether enteric dysbiosis also contributes to Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that in a Drosophila Alzheimer's disease model, enterobacteria infection exacerbated progression of Alzheimer's disease by promoting immune hemocyte recruitment to the brain, thereby provoking TNF-JNK mediated neurodegeneration...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633893/genes-encoding-cuticular-proteins-are-components-of-the-nimrod-gene-cluster-in-drosophila
#3
Gyöngyi Cinege, János Zsámboki, Maite Vidal-Quadras, Anne Uv, Gábor Csordás, Viktor Honti, Erika Gábor, Zoltán Hegedűs, Gergely I B Varga, Attila L Kovács, Gábor Juhász, Michael J Williams, István Andó, Éva Kurucz
The Nimrod gene cluster, located on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, is the largest synthenic unit of the Drosophila genome. Nimrod genes show blood cell specific expression and code for phagocytosis receptors that play a major role in fruit fly innate immune functions. We previously identified three homologous genes (vajk-1, vajk-2 and vajk-3) located within the Nimrod cluster, which are unrelated to the Nimrod genes, but are homologous to a fourth gene (vajk-4) located outside the cluster...
June 17, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621429/the-sumo-targeted-ubiquitin-ligase-dgrn-is-essential-for-drosophila-innate-immunity
#4
Bella Koltun, Eliza Shackelford, François Bonnay, Nicolas Matt, Jean Marc Reichhart, Amir Orian
The ability of metazoans to combat pathogenic infection involves both systemic and local responses to the invading pathogens. Ubiquitin and SUMO pathways molecularly regulate the response to infection, immune signaling and gene expression. Here, we report that Degringolade (Dgrn, CG10981), a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase connecting the two pathways, is essential for the innate immunity response in Drosophila. dgrn(DK) null and heterozygous mutant adult flies are severely immune-compromised and succumb rapidly to both pathogenic bacteria and fungi infections...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621308/inhalation-toxicity-of-indoor-air-pollutants-in-drosophila-melanogaster-using-integrated-transcriptomics-and-computational-behavior-analyses
#5
Hyun-Jeong Eom, Yuedan Liu, Gyu-Suk Kwak, Muyoung Heo, Kyung Seuk Song, Yun Doo Chung, Tae-Soo Chon, Jinhee Choi
We conducted an inhalation toxicity test on the alternative animal model, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate potential hazards of indoor air pollution. The inhalation toxicity of toluene and formaldehyde was investigated using comprehensive transcriptomics and computational behavior analyses. The ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) based on microarray data suggests the involvement of pathways related to immune response, stress response, and metabolism in formaldehyde and toluene exposure based on hub molecules...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600967/mechanisms-of-cell-competition-emerging-from-drosophila-studies
#6
Nicholas E Baker
Cell competition was described in Drosophila as the loss from mosaic tissues of otherwise viable cells heterozygous for Ribosomal protein mutations ('Minutes'). Cell competition has now been described to occur between multiple other genotypes, such as cells differing in myc expression levels, or mutated for neoplastic tumor suppressors. Recent studies implicate innate immunity components, and possibly mechanical stress, compression and cell intercalation as a consequence of differential growth rates in competitive cell death...
June 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592670/tetranychus-urticae-mites-do-not-mount-an-induced-immune-response-against-bacteria
#7
Gonçalo Santos-Matos, Nicky Wybouw, Nelson E Martins, Flore Zélé, Maria Riga, Alexandre B Leitão, John Vontas, Miodrag Grbić, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Sara Magalhães, Élio Sucena
The genome of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae, a herbivore, is missing important elements of the canonical Drosophila immune pathways necessary to fight bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether spider mites can mount an immune response and survive bacterial infection. In other chelicerates, bacterial infection elicits a response mediated by immune effectors leading to the survival of infected organisms. In T. urticae, infection by either Escherichia coli or Bacillus megaterium did not elicit a response as assessed through genome-wide transcriptomic analysis...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586288/genomic-signatures-of-local-adaptation-in-the-drosophila-immune-response
#8
Angela M Early, Andrew G Clark
As environments and pathogen landscapes shift, host defenses must evolve to remain effective. Due to this selection pressure, among-species comparisons of genetic sequence data often find immune genes to be among the fastest evolving genes across the genome. The full extent and nature of these immune adaptations, however, remain largely unexplored. In a recent study, we analyzed patterns of selection within distinct components of the Drosophila melanogaster immune pathway. While we found evidence of positive selection within some immune processes, immune genes were not universally characterized by signatures of strong selection...
June 6, 2017: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578396/neonicotinoid-induced-pathogen-susceptibility-is-mitigated-by-lactobacillus-plantarum-immune-stimulation-in-a-drosophila-melanogaster-model
#9
Brendan A Daisley, Mark Trinder, Tim W McDowell, Hylke Welle, Josh S Dube, Sohrab N Ali, Hon S Leong, Mark W Sumarah, Gregor Reid
Pesticides are used extensively in food production to maximize crop yields. However, neonicotinoid insecticides exert unintentional toxicity to honey bees (Apis mellifera) that may partially be associated with massive population declines referred to as colony collapse disorder. We hypothesized that imidacloprid (common neonicotinoid; IMI) exposure would make Drosophila melanogaster (an insect model for the honey bee) more susceptible to bacterial pathogens, heat stress, and intestinal dysbiosis. Our results suggested that the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway is necessary for D...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577391/shrimp-tab1-interacts-with-tak1-and-p38-and-activates-the-host-innate-immune-response-to-bacterial-infection
#10
Sheng Wang, Mengqiao Li, Bin Yin, Haoyang Li, Bang Xiao, Kai Lǚ, Zhijian Huang, Sedong Li, Jianguo He, Chaozheng Li
Mammalian TAB1 has been previously identified as transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) binding protein, which functions as the activator of TAK1 and p38. This report, for the first time, identified and characterized the homolog of TAB1 in shrimp, to be specific, the homolog gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, containing a 1560-bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a putative protein of 519 amino acids with the conserved PP2Cc (Serine/threonine phosphatases, family 2C, catalytic) domain in N-terminal and a TAK1 binding motif in C-terminus, has been cloned and named LvTAB1...
May 31, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541576/rapidly-evolving-toll-3-4-genes-encode-male-specific-toll-like-receptors-in-drosophila
#11
Tera C Levin, Harmit S Malik
Animal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have evolved through a pattern of duplication and divergence. Whereas mammalian TLRs directly recognize microbial ligands, Drosophila Tolls bind endogenous ligands downstream of both developmental and immune signaling cascades. Here, we find that most Toll genes in Drosophila evolve slowly with little gene turnover (gains/losses), consistent with their important roles in development and indirect roles in microbial recognition. In contrast, we find that the Toll-3/4 genes have experienced an unusually rapid rate of gene gains and losses, resulting in lineage-specific Toll-3/4s and vastly different gene repertoires among Drosophila species, from zero copies (e...
May 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541519/reduced-sleep-during-social-isolation-leads-to-cellular-stress-and-induction-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-upr
#12
Marishka K Brown, Ewa Strus, Nirinjini Naidoo
Study Objectives: Social isolation has a multitude of negative consequences on human health including the ability to endure challenges to the immune system, sleep amount and efficiency, and general morbidity and mortality. These adverse health outcomes are conserved in other social species. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, social isolation leads to increased aggression, impaired memory and reduced amounts of daytime sleep. There is a correlation between molecules affected by social isolation and those implicated in sleep in Drosophila...
May 25, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539433/slc46-family-transporters-facilitate-cytosolic-innate-immune-recognition-of-monomeric-peptidoglycans
#13
Donggi Paik, Amanda Monahan, Daniel R Caffrey, Roland Elling, William E Goldman, Neal Silverman
Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), a monomer of DAP-type peptidoglycan from Bordetella pertussis, causes cytopathology in the respiratory epithelia of mammals and robustly triggers the Drosophila Imd pathway. PGRP-LE, a cytosolic innate immune sensor in Drosophila, directly recognizes TCT and triggers the Imd pathway, yet the mechanisms by which TCT accesses the cytosol are poorly understood. In this study, we report that CG8046, a Drosophila SLC46 family transporter, is a novel transporter facilitating cytosolic recognition of TCT, and plays a crucial role in protecting flies against systemic Escherichia coli infection...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520752/antimicrobial-peptides-extend-lifespan-in-drosophila
#14
Gerrit Loch, Ingo Zinke, Tetsushi Mori, Pilar Carrera, Jonas Schroer, Haruko Takeyama, Michael Hoch
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important defense molecules of the innate immune system. High levels of AMPs are induced in response to infections to fight pathogens, whereas moderate levels induced by metabolic stress are thought to shape commensal microbial communities at barrier tissues. We expressed single AMPs in adult flies either ubiquitously or in the gut by using the inducible GeneSwitch system to tightly regulate AMP expression. We found that activation of single AMPs, including Drosocin, resulted in a significant extension of Drosophila lifespan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510293/a-test-for-y-linked-additive-and-epistatic-effects-on-surviving-bacterial-infections-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Ian C Kutch, Kenneth M Fedorka
Y and W chromosomes offer a theoretically powerful way for sexual dimorphism to evolve. Consistent with this possibility, Drosophila melanogaster Y-chromosomes can influence gene regulation throughout the genome; particularly immune-related genes. In order for Y-linked regulatory variation (YRV) to contribute to adaptive evolution it must be comprised of additive genetic variance, such that variable Ys induce consistent phenotypic effects within the local gene pool. We assessed the potential for Y-chromosomes to adaptively shape gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial defense by introgressing Ys across multiple genetic haplotypes from the same population...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506893/macpf-cdc-proteins-in-development-insights-from-drosophila-torso-like
#16
REVIEW
Travis K Johnson, Michelle A Henstridge, Coral G Warr
The Membrane Attack Complex Perforin-like/Cholesterol-Dependent Cytolysin (MACPF) superfamily is an ancient and biologically diverse group of proteins that are best known for pore-forming roles in mammalian immunity and bacterial pathogenesis. Intriguingly, however, some eukaryotic proteins which contain the MACPF domain that defines this family do not act in attack or defence, and instead have distinct developmental functions. It remains unclear whether these proteins function via pore formation or have a different mechanism of action...
May 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503170/drosophila-melanogaster-as-a-high-throughput-model-for-host-microbiota-interactions
#17
Mark Trinder, Brendan A Daisley, Josh S Dube, Gregor Reid
Microbiota research often assumes that differences in abundance and identity of microorganisms have unique influences on host physiology. To test this concept mechanistically, germ-free mice are colonized with microbial communities to assess causation. Due to the cost, infrastructure challenges, and time-consuming nature of germ-free mouse models, an alternative approach is needed to investigate host-microbial interactions. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) can be used as a high throughput in vivo screening model of host-microbiome interactions as they are affordable, convenient, and replicable...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498729/the-distinct-function-of-tep2-and-tep6-in-the-immune-defense-of-drosophila-melanogaster-against-the-pathogen-photorhabdus
#18
Upasana Shokal, Hannah Kopydlowski, Ioannis Eleftherianos
Previous and recent investigations on the innate immune response of Drosophila have identified certain mechanisms that promote pathogen elimination. However, the function of Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) in the fly still remains elusive. Recently we have shown the contribution of TEP4 in the antibacterial immune defense of Drosophila against non-pathogenic E. coli, and the pathogens Photorhabdus luminescens and P. asymbiotica. Here we studied the function of Tep genes in both humoral and cellular immunity upon E...
May 12, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497117/rna-interference-restricts-rift-valley-fever-virus-in-multiple-insect-systems
#19
Isabelle Dietrich, Stephanie Jansen, Gamou Fall, Stephan Lorenzen, Martin Rudolf, Katrin Huber, Anna Heitmann, Sabine Schicht, El Hadji Ndiaye, Mick Watson, Ilaria Castelli, Benjamin Brennan, Richard M Elliott, Mawlouth Diallo, Amadou A Sall, Anna-Bella Failloux, Esther Schnettler, Alain Kohl, Stefanie C Becker
The emerging bunyavirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is transmitted to humans and livestock by a large number of mosquito species. RNA interference (RNAi) has been characterized as an important innate immune defense mechanism used by mosquitoes to limit replication of positive-sense RNA flaviviruses and togaviruses; however, little is known about its role against negative-strand RNA viruses such as RVFV. We show that virus-specific small RNAs are produced in infected mosquito cells, in Drosophila melanogaster cells, and, most importantly, also in RVFV vector mosquitoes...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476910/the-immune-phenotype-of-three-drosophila-leukemia-models
#20
Badrul Arefin, Martin Kunc, Robert Krautz, Ulrich Theopold
Many leukemia patients suffer from dysregulation of their immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and leading to general weakening (cachexia). Both adaptive and innate immunity are affected. The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster has an innate immune system including cells of the myeloid lineage (hemocytes). To study Drosophila immunity and physiology during leukemia we established three models by driving expression of a dominant-active version of the Ras oncogene (Ras(V12) ) alone or combined with knockdowns of tumor suppressors in Drosophila hemocytes...
May 5, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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