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Drosophila immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932814/the-gut-commensal-microbiome-of-drosophila-melanogaster-is-modified-by-the-endosymbiont-wolbachia
#1
Rama K Simhadri, Eva M Fast, Rong Guo, Michaela J Schultz, Natalie Vaisman, Luis Ortiz, Joanna Bybee, Barton E Slatko, Horacio M Frydman
Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria and the gut microbiome have independently been shown to affect several aspects of insect biology, including reproduction, development, life span, stem cell activity, and resistance to human pathogens, in insect vectors. This work shows that Wolbachia bacteria, which reside mainly in the fly germline, affect the microbial species present in the fly gut in a lab-reared strain. Drosophila melanogaster hosts two main genera of commensal bacteria-Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. Wolbachia-infected flies have significantly reduced titers of Acetobacter...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924205/the-multifunctional-polydnavirus-tnbvank1-protein-impact-on-host-apoptotic-pathway
#2
Rosanna Salvia, Gerarda Grossi, Angela Amoresano, Carmen Scieuzo, Marisa Nardiello, Chiara Giangrande, Ilaria Laurenzana, Vitalba Ruggieri, Sabino A Bufo, S Bradleigh Vinson, Monica Carmosino, David Neunemann, Heiko Vogel, Pietro Pucci, Patrizia Falabella
Toxoneuron nigriceps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) is an endophagous parasitoid of the larval stages of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). The bracovirus associated with this wasp (TnBV) is currently being studied. Several genes expressed in parasitised host larvae have been isolated and their possible roles partly elucidated. TnBVank1 encodes an ankyrin motif protein similar to insect and mammalian IκB, an inhibitor of the transcription nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Here we show that, when TnBVank1 was stably expressed in polyclonal Drosophila S2 cells, apoptosis is induced...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923062/tissue-resident-stem-cell-activity-a-view-from-the-adult-drosophila-gastrointestinal-tract
#3
REVIEW
Qiang Liu, Li Hua Jin
The gastrointestinal tract serves as a fast-renewing model for unraveling the multifaceted molecular mechanisms underlying remarkably rapid cell renewal, which is exclusively fueled by a small number of long-lived stem cells and their progeny. Stem cell activity is the best-characterized aspect of mucosal homeostasis in mitotically active tissues, and the dysregulation of regenerative capacity is a hallmark of epithelial immune defects. This dysregulation is frequently associated with pathologies ranging from chronic enteritis to malignancies in humans...
September 18, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899644/transcriptomics-reveals-tissue-organ-specific-differences-in-gene-expression-in-the-starfish-patiria-pectinifera
#4
Chan-Hee Kim, Hye-Jin Go, Hye Young Oh, Yong Hun Jo, Maurice R Elphick, Nam Gyu Park
Starfish (Phylum Echinodermata) are of interest from an evolutionary perspective because as deuterostomian invertebrates they occupy an "intermediate" phylogenetic position with respect to chordates (e.g. vertebrates) and protostomian invertebrates (e.g. Drosophila). Furthermore, starfish are model organisms for research on fertilization, embryonic development, innate immunity and tissue regeneration. However, large-scale molecular data for starfish tissues/organs are limited. To provide a comprehensive genetic resource for the starfish Patiria pectinifera, we report de novo transcriptome assemblies and global gene expression analysis for six P...
September 9, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893190/canonical-and-non-canonical-jak-stat-transcriptional-targets-may-be-involved-in-distinct-and-overlapping-cellular-processes
#5
Amy Tsurumi, Connie Zhao, Willis X Li
BACKGROUND: The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway has been well-characterized as a crucial signal transduction cascade that regulates vital biological responses including development, immunity and oncogenesis. Additionally to its canonical pathway that uses the phosphorylated form of the STAT transcription factor, recently the non-canonical pathway involving heterochromatin formation by unphosphorylated STAT was recently uncovered. Considering the significant role of the JAK/STAT pathway, we used the simple Drosophila system in which the non-canonical pathway was initially characterized, to compare putative canonical versus non-canonical transcriptional targets across the genome...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889977/novel-organelles-with-elements-of-bacterial-and-eukaryotic-secretion-systems-weaponize-parasites-of-drosophila
#6
Mary Ellen Heavner, Johnny Ramroop, Gwenaelle Gueguen, Girish Ramrattan, Georgia Dolios, Michael Scarpati, Jonathan Kwiat, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Rong Wang, Shaneen Singh, Shubha Govind
The evolutionary success of parasitoid wasps, a highly diverse group of insects widely used in biocontrol, depends on a variety of life history strategies in conflict with those of their hosts [1]. Drosophila melanogaster is a natural host of parasitic wasps of the genus Leptopilina. Attack by L. boulardi (Lb), a specialist wasp to flies of the melanogaster group, activates NF-κB-mediated humoral and cellular immunity. Inflammatory blood cells mobilize and encapsulate Lb eggs and embryos [2-5]. L. heterotoma (Lh), a generalist wasp, kills larval blood cells and actively suppresses immune responses...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889015/functional-characterization-of-a-reactive-oxygen-species-modulator-1-gene-in-litopenaeus-vannamei
#7
Hong-Hui He, Yi-Miao Chi, Kai Yuan, Xiao-Yun Li, Shao-Ping Weng, Jian-Guo He, Yi-Hong Chen
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) imparts a dual effect on multicellular organisms, wherein high levels are usually harmful, and low levels could facilitate in combating pathogenic microorganisms; therefore, the regulation of ROS production is critical. Previous studies have suggested that ROS contributes to resistance to the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei. However, the regulation of ROS metabolism in L. vannamei remains elusive. In the present study, we proved that the overexpression of L...
September 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874758/sex-specific-routes-to-immune-senescence-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Marco Kubiak, Matthew C Tinsley
Animal immune systems change dramatically during the ageing process, often accompanied by major increases in pathogen susceptibility. However, the extent to which senescent elevations in infection mortality are causally driven by deteriorations in canonical systemic immune processes is unclear. We studied Drosophila melanogaster and compared the relative contributions of impaired systemic immune defences and deteriorating barrier defences to increased pathogen susceptibility in aged flies. To assess senescent changes in systemic immune response efficacy we injected one and four-week old flies with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana and studied subsequent mortality; whereas to include the role of barrier defences we infected flies by dusting the cuticle with fungal spores...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874153/thioester-containing-proteins-regulate-the-toll-pathway-and-play-a-role-in-drosophila-defence-against-microbial-pathogens-and-parasitoid-wasps
#9
Anna Dostálová, Samuel Rommelaere, Mickael Poidevin, Bruno Lemaitre
BACKGROUND: Members of the thioester-containing protein (TEP) family contribute to host defence in both insects and mammals. However, their role in the immune response of Drosophila is elusive. In this study, we address the role of TEPs in Drosophila immunity by generating a mutant fly line, referred to as TEPq (Δ) , lacking the four immune-inducible TEPs, TEP1, 2, 3 and 4. RESULTS: Survival analyses with TEPq (Δ) flies reveal the importance of these proteins in defence against entomopathogenic fungi, Gram-positive bacteria and parasitoid wasps...
September 5, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867469/tmsr-c-scavenger-receptor-class-c-plays-a-pivotal-role-in-antifungal-and-antibacterial-immunity-in-the-coleopteran-insect-tenebrio-molitor
#10
Soo Gon Kim, Yong Hun Jo, Jeong Hwan Seong, Ki Beom Park, Mi Young Noh, Jun Ho Cho, Hye Jin Ko, Chang Eun Kim, Hamisi Tindwa, Bharat Bhusan Patnaik, In Seok Bang, Yong Seok Lee, Yeon Soo Han
Scavenger receptors (SRs) constitute a family of membrane-bound receptors that bind to multiple ligands. The SR family of proteins is involved in removing cellular debris, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, and pathogens. Specifically, class C scavenger receptors (SR-C) have also been reported to be involved in phagocytosis of gram-positive and -negative bacteria in Drosophila and viruses in shrimp. However, reports are unavailable regarding the role of SR-C in antifungal immune mechanisms in insects. In this study, a full-length Tenebrio molitor SR-C (TmSR-C) sequence was obtained by 5'- and 3'-Rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR)...
September 1, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853394/tumor-promoting-function-of-apoptotic-caspases-by-an-amplification-loop-involving-ros-macrophages-and-jnk-in-drosophila
#11
Andreas Bergmann, Ernesto Perez, Jillian L Lindblad
Apoptosis and its molecular mediators, the caspases, have long been regarded as tumor suppressors and one hallmark of cancer is "Evading Apoptosis". However, recent work has suggested that apoptotic caspases can also promote proliferation and tumor growth under certain conditions. How caspases promote proliferation and how cells are protected from the potentially harmful action of apoptotic caspases is largely unknown. Here, we show that although caspases are activated in a well-studied neoplastic tumor model in Drosophila, oncogenic mutations of the proto-oncogene Ras (Ras(V12)) maintain tumorous cells in an "undead"-like condition and transform caspases from tumor suppressors into tumor promotors...
August 30, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841136/modulation-of-occluding-junctions-alters-the-hematopoietic-niche-to-trigger-immune-activation
#12
Rohan J Khadilkar, Wayne Vogl, Katharine Goodwin, Guy Tanentzapf
Stem cells are regulated by signals from their microenvironment, or niche. During Drosophila hematopoiesis, a niche regulates prohemocytes to control hemocyte production. Immune challenges activate cell-signalling to initiate the cellular and innate immune response. Specifically, certain immune challenges stimulate the niche to produce signals that induce prohemocyte differentiation. However, the mechanisms that promote prohemocyte differentiation subsequent to immune challenges are poorly understood. Here we show that bacterial infection induces the cellular immune response by modulating occluding-junctions at the hematopoietic niche...
August 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834743/constitutive-immune-activity-promotes-tumorigenesis-in-drosophila-intestinal-progenitor%C3%A2-cells
#13
Kristina Petkau, Meghan Ferguson, Silvia Guntermann, Edan Foley
Gut innate immune defenses control bacterial populations and protect the host interior from invasion. Although excess intestinal immune activity frequently promotes inflammatory illnesses, we know little about the consequences of chronic innate immune activity exclusively in endodermal gut cells of an otherwise normal animal. To address this question, we examined the consequences of persistent inflammatory signals in adult fly intestinal progenitor cells. We found that constitutive immune activity disrupts expression of homeostatic regulators such as Notch pathway components and induces hyperplasia throughout the gut...
August 22, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830950/host-cell-s-phase-restricts-legionella-pneumophila-intracellular-replication-by-destabilizing-the-membrane-bound-replication-compartment
#14
Dennise A de Jesús-Díaz, Connor Murphy, Asaf Sol, Marion Dorer, Ralph R Isberg
Legionella pneumophila grows within cells ranging from environmental amoebae to human macrophages. In spite of this conserved strategy of pathogenesis, identification of host factors that restrict L. pneumophila intracellular replication has not been extended outside components of the mammalian innate immune response. We performed a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) screen against more than 50% of the Drosophila melanogaster annotated open reading frames (ORFs) to identify host cell factors that restrict L. pneumophila The majority of analyzed dsRNAs that stimulated L...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830760/sex-specific-effects-of-social-isolation-on-ageing-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Thomas Leech, Steven M Sait, Amanda Bretman
Social environments can have a major impact on ageing profiles in many animals. However, such patterns in variation in ageing and their underlying mechanisms are not well understood, particularly because both social contact and isolation can be stressful. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster fruitflies to examine sex-specific effects of social contact. We kept flies in isolation versus same-sex pairing throughout life, and measured actuarial (lifespan) and functional senescence (declines in climbing ability)...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809832/phagocytosis-assay-for-apoptotic-cells-in-drosophila-embryos
#16
Saori Nonaka, Aki Hori, Yoshinobu Nakanishi, Takayuki Kuraishi
The molecular mechanisms underlying the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells need to be elucidated in more detail because of its role in immune and inflammatory intractable diseases. We herein developed an experimental method to investigate phagocytosis quantitatively using the fruit fly Drosophila, in which the gene network controlling engulfment reactions is evolutionally conserved from mammals. In order to accurately detect and count engulfing and un-engulfing phagocytes using whole animals, Drosophila embryos were homogenized to obtain dispersed cells including phagocytes and apoptotic cells...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791163/nonlinear-disease-tolerance-curves-reveal-distinct-components-of-host-responses-to-viral-infection
#17
Vanika Gupta, Pedro F Vale
The ability to tolerate infection is a key component of host defence and offers potential novel therapeutic approaches for infectious diseases. To yield successful targets for therapeutic intervention, it is important that the analytical tools employed to measure disease tolerance are able to capture distinct host responses to infection. Here, we show that commonly used methods that estimate tolerance as a linear relationship should be complemented with more flexible, nonlinear estimates of this relationship which may reveal variation in distinct components such as host vigour, sensitivity to increases in pathogen loads, and the severity of the infection...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764795/participation-of-14-3-3%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-14-3-3%C3%AE-proteins-in-the-phagocytosis-component-of-cellular-immune-response-in-aedes-mosquito-cell-lines
#18
Abel Trujillo-Ocampo, Febe Elena Cázares-Raga, Rosa María Del Angel, Fernando Medina-Ramírez, Leopoldo Santos-Argumedo, Mario H Rodríguez, Fidel de la Cruz Hernández-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Better knowledge of the innate immune system of insects will improve our understanding of mosquitoes as potential vectors of diverse pathogens. The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 protein family is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals, and at least two isoforms of 14-3-3, the ε and ζ, have been identified in insects. These proteins have been shown to participate in both humoral and cellular immune responses in Drosophila. As mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the primary vectors for arboviruses, causing several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya fevers, cell lines derived from these mosquitoes, Aag-2 from Aedes aegypti and C6/36 HT from Aedes albopictus, are currently used to study the insect immune system...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757479/the-functions-of-the-hippo-signaling-pathway-in-immune-cells
#19
Shu-juan Yu, Jing Geng, Lan-fen Chen
The Hippo signaling pathway, first identified in Drosophila, has emerged as a critical regulator for controlling the size of organs. Activation of the Hippo signaling pathway negatively regulates the Yorkie ortholog YAP in multiple organs, important in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis during development. The Serine/Threonine protein kinases MST1 and MST2, mammalian homologs of the Drosophila Hippo kinase, play central roles in the Hippo signaling pathway in mammals. Recent studies reveal that non-canonical Hippo signaling pathways are also involved in the regulation of various other biological processes, particularly the important roles of MST1 and MST2 kinases in immune cell activation, adhesion, migration, growth, and apoptosis...
July 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756953/gut-microbiota-modifies-olfactory-guided-microbial-preferences-and-foraging-decisions-in-drosophila
#20
Adam Chun-Nin Wong, Qiao-Ping Wang, Juliano Morimoto, Alistair M Senior, Mathieu Lihoreau, G Gregory Neely, Stephen J Simpson, Fleur Ponton
The gut microbiota affects a wide spectrum of host physiological traits, including development [1-5], germline [6], immunity [7-9], nutrition [4, 10, 11], and longevity [12, 13]. Association with microbes also influences fitness-related behaviors such as mating [14] and social interactions [15, 16]. Although the gut microbiota is evidently important for host wellbeing, how hosts become associated with particular assemblages of microbes from the environment remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that the gut microbiota can modify microbial and nutritional preferences of Drosophila melanogaster...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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