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Drosophila immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916526/the-mitochondrial-lon-protease-is-required-for-age-specific-and-sex-specific-adaptation-to-oxidative-stress
#1
Laura C D Pomatto, Caroline Carney, Brenda Shen, Sarah Wong, Kelly Halaszynski, Matthew P Salomon, Kelvin J A Davies, John Tower
Multiple human diseases involving chronic oxidative stress show a significant sex bias, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a possible molecular mechanism for the sex bias in physiological adaptation to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster females but not males adapt to hydrogen peroxide stress, whereas males but not females adapt to paraquat (superoxide) stress. Stress adaptation in each sex requires the conserved mitochondrial Lon protease and is associated with sex-specific expression of Lon protein isoforms and proteolytic activity...
November 23, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894253/latitudinal-clines-in-gene-expression-and-cis-regulatory-element-variation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#2
Punita Juneja, Andrew Quinn, Francis M Jiggins
BACKGROUND: Organisms can rapidly adapt to their environment when colonizing a new habitat, and this could occur by changing protein sequences or by altering patterns of gene expression. The importance of gene expression in driving local adaptation is increasingly being appreciated, and cis-regulatory elements (CREs), which control and modify the expression of the nearby genes, are predicted to play an important role. Here we investigate genetic variation in gene expression in immune-challenged Drosophila melanogaster from temperate and tropical or sub-tropical populations in Australia and United States...
November 28, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893816/mir-34-modulates-innate-immunity-and-ecdysone-signaling-in-drosophila
#3
Xiao-Peng Xiong, Krishna Kurthkoti, Kung-Yen Chang, Jian-Liang Li, Xingjie Ren, Jian-Quan Ni, Tariq M Rana, Rui Zhou
microRNAs are endogenous small regulatory RNAs that modulate myriad biological processes by repressing target gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Here we show that the conserved miRNA miR-34 regulates innate immunity and ecdysone signaling in Drosophila. miR-34 over-expression activates antibacterial innate immunity signaling both in cultured cells and in vivo, and flies over-expressing miR-34 display improved survival and pathogen clearance upon Gram-negative bacterial infection; whereas miR-34 knockout animals are defective in antibacterial defense...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884706/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-a-novel-sp%C3%A3-tzle-gene-in-litopenaeus-vannamei
#4
Kai Yuan, Feng-Hua Yuan, Shao-Ping Weng, Jian-Guo He, Yi-Hong Chen
Shrimp innate immunity is the first line of resistance against pathogenic bacteria. The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-NF-κB pathway is vital in this immunity process. In this study, a novel Spätzle gene (LvSpz4) of Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned and functionally characterized. The open reading frame of LvSpz4 was 918 bp, which encoded a putative protein with 305 amino acids. LvSpz4 was most expressed in the gills of L. vannamei. This expression was induced by Vibrio alginolyticus or Staphylococcus aureus infection or lipopolysaccharide stimulation...
November 21, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878268/crocus-sativus-l-protects-against-sds%C3%A2-induced-intestinal-damage-and-extends-lifespan-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#5
Zonglin Liu, Yuchen Chen, Hong Zhang, Li Hua Jin
Medicinal plants are important sources of potentially therapeutic biochemical drugs. Crocus sativus L. has been used to treat various diseases in China, the Republic of Korea and Japan. The present study investigated the protective effect of C. sativus L. extract in Drosophila melanogaster intestinal immunity. Wild‑type flies were fed standard cornmeal‑yeast medium and used as controls, and flies supplemented with 1% C. sativus L. aqueous extract in standard medium were used as the experimental group...
November 15, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871832/genome-wide-mirna-screening-reveals-mir-310-family-members-negatively-regulate-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster-via-co-targeting-drosomycin
#6
Yao Li, Shengjie Li, Ruimin Li, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs...
November 18, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871813/gut-microbiota-in-drosophila-melanogaster-interacts-with-wolbachia-but-does-not-contribute-to-wolbachia-mediated-antiviral-protection
#7
Yixin H Ye, Andrei Seleznev, Heather A Flores, Megan Woolfit, Elizabeth A McGraw
Animals experience near constant infection with microorganisms. A significant proportion of these microbiota reside in the alimentary tract. There is a growing appreciation for the roles gut microbiota play in host biology. The gut microbiota of insects, for example, have been shown to help the host overcome pathogen infection either through direct competition or indirectly by stimulating host immunity. These defenses may also be supplemented by coinfecting maternally inherited microbes such as Wolbachia. The presence of Wolbachia in a host can delay and/or reduce death caused by RNA viruses...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871362/actin-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-that-signals-tissue-injury-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#8
Naren Srinivasan, Oliver Gordon, Susan Ahrens, Anna Franz, Safia Deddouche, Probir Chakravarty, David Phillips, Ali A Yunus, Michael K Rosen, Rita S Valente, Luis Teixeira, Barry Thompson, Marc S Dionne, Will Wood, Caetano Reis E Sousa
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are molecules released by dead cells that trigger sterile inflammation and, in vertebrates, adaptive immunity. Actin is a DAMP detected in mammals by the receptor, DNGR-1, expressed by dendritic cells (DCs). DNGR-1 is phosphorylated by Src-family kinases and recruits the tyrosine kinase Syk to promote DC cross-presentation of dead cell-associated antigens. Here we report that actin is also a DAMP in invertebrates that lack DCs and adaptive immunity. Administration of actin to Drosophila melanogaster triggers a response characterised by selective induction of STAT target genes in the fat body through the cytokine Upd3 and its JAK/STAT-coupled receptor, Domeless...
November 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871341/functional-analysis-of-a-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcription-factor-in-the-immune-defense-of-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel-diptera-tephritidae
#9
Z Shi, H Liang, Y Hou
Although some novel antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been successfully isolated from Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, the mechanisms underlying the induction of these peptides are still elusive. The homolog of NF-κB transcription factor Relish, designated as BdRelish, was cloned from B. dorsalis. The full length cDNA of BdRelish is 3954 bp with an open reading frame that encodes 1013 amino acids. Similar to Drosophila Relish and the mammalian p100, it is a compound protein containing a conserved Rel homology domain, an IPT (Ig-like, plexins, transcription factors) domain and an IκB-like domain (four ankyrin repeats), the nuclear localization signal RKRRR is also detected at the residues 449-453, suggesting that it has homology to Relish and it is a member of the Rel family of transcription activator proteins...
November 22, 2016: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863506/interleukin-37-limits-monosodium-urate-crystal-induced-innate-immune-responses-in-human-and-murine-models-of-gout
#10
Lei Liu, Yu Xue, Yingfeng Zhu, Dandan Xuan, Xue Yang, Minrui Liang, Juan Wang, Xiaoxia Zhu, Jiong Zhang, Hejian Zou
BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL)-37 has emerged as a fundamental inhibitor of innate immunity. Acute gout is a self-limiting inflammatory response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. In the current study, we assessed the preventive and therapeutic effect of recombinant human IL-37 (rhIL-37) in human and murine gout models. METHODS: We investigated the expression of IL-37 in patients with active and inactive gouty arthritis and assessed the effect of rhIL-37 in human and murine gout models: a human monocyte cell line (THP-1) and human synovial cells (containing macrophage-like and fibroblast-like synoviocytes) exposed to MSU crystals, a peritoneal murine model of gout and a murine gouty arthritis model...
November 18, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856350/achilles-is-a-circadian-clock-controlled-gene-that-regulates-immune-function-in-drosophila
#11
Jiajia Li, Erin E Terry, Edith Fejer, Diana Gamba, Natalie Hartmann, Joseph Logsdon, Daniel Michalski, Lisa E Rois, Maria J Scuderi, Michael Kunst, Michael E Hughes
The circadian clock is a transcriptional/translational feedback loop that drives the rhythmic expression of downstream mRNAs. Termed "clock-controlled genes," these molecular outputs of the circadian clock orchestrate cellular, metabolic, and behavioral rhythms. As part of our on-going work to characterize key upstream regulators of circadian mRNA expression, we have identified a novel clock-controlled gene in Drosophila melanogaster, Achilles (Achl), which is rhythmic at the mRNA level in the brain and which represses expression of anti-microbial peptides in the immune system...
November 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851920/readapting-the-role-of-pgrp-sd-in-bacterial-sensing-and-immune-activation
#12
Amanda Monahan, Anni Kleino, Neal Silverman
Contradictory to previous reports, Iatsenko et al. (2016) reveal that PGRP-SD regulates the Imd signaling pathway rather than the Toll pathway in Drosophila and shed light on a decade-old mystery of conflicting structural and phenotypic data.
November 15, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851910/pgrp-sd-an-extracellular-pattern-recognition-receptor-enhances-peptidoglycan-mediated-activation-of-the-drosophila-imd-pathway
#13
Igor Iatsenko, Shu Kondo, Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx, Bruno Lemaitre
Activation of the innate immune response in Metazoans is initiated through the recognition of microbes by host pattern-recognition receptors. In Drosophila, diaminopimelic acid (DAP)-containing peptidoglycan from Gram-negative bacteria is detected by the transmembrane receptor PGRP-LC and by the intracellular receptor PGRP-LE. Here, we show that PGRP-SD acted upstream of PGRP-LC as an extracellular receptor to enhance peptidoglycan-mediated activation of Imd signaling. Consistent with this, PGRP-SD mutants exhibited impaired activation of the Imd pathway and increased susceptibility to DAP-type bacteria...
November 15, 2016: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844061/lithium-responsive-seizure-like-hyperexcitability-is-caused-by-a-mutation-in-the-drosophila-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-gene-paralytic
#14
Garrett A Kaas, Junko Kasuya, Patrick Lansdon, Atsushi Ueda, Atulya Iyengar, Chun-Fang Wu, Toshihiro Kitamoto
Shudderer (Shu) is an X-linked dominant mutation in Drosophila melanogaster identified more than 40 years ago. A previous study showed that Shu caused spontaneous tremors and defects in reactive climbing behavior, and that these phenotypes were significantly suppressed when mutants were fed food containing lithium, a mood stabilizer used in the treatment of bipolar disorder (Williamson, 1982). This unique observation suggested that the Shu mutation affects genes involved in lithium-responsive neurobiological processes...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815361/survey-of-global-genetic-diversity-within-the-drosophila-immune-system
#15
Angela M Early, J Roman Arguello, Margarida Cardoso-Moreira, Srikanth Gottipati, Jennifer K Grenier, Andrew G Clark
Numerous studies across a wide range of taxa have demonstrated that immune genes are routinely among the most rapidly evolving genes in the genome. This observation, however, does not address what proportion of immune genes undergo strong selection during adaptation to novel environments. Here, we determine the extent of very recent divergence in genes with immune function across five populations of Drosophila melanogaster and find that immune genes do not show an overall trend of recent rapid adaptation. Our population-based approach uses a set of carefully matched control genes to account for the effects of demography and local recombination rate, allowing us to identify whether specific immune functions are putative targets of strong selection...
November 4, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811341/the-insect-derived-antimicrobial-peptide-metchnikowin-targets-fusarium-graminearum-%C3%AE-1-3-glucanosyltransferase-gel1-which-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-cell-wall-integrity
#16
Mohammad-Reza Bolouri Moghaddam, Andreas Vilcinskas, Mohammad Rahnamaeian
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are essential components of the insect innate immune system. Their diversity provides protection against a broad spectrum of microbes and they have several distinct modes of action. Insect-derived AMPs are currently being developed for both medical and agricultural applications, and their expression in transgenic crops confers resistance against numerous plant pathogens. The antifungal peptide metchnikowin (Mtk), which was originally discovered in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, is of particular interest because it has potent activity against economically important phytopathogenic fungi of the phylum Ascomycota, such as Fusarium graminearum, but it does not harm beneficial fungi such as the mycorrhizal basidiomycete Piriformospora indica...
November 3, 2016: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789295/effect-of-stress-on-heat-shock-protein-levels-immune-response-and-survival-to-fungal-infection-of-mamestra-brassicae-larvae
#17
E H Richards, M P Dani, Y Lu, T Butt, R J Weaver
Although the utilisation of fungal biological control agents to kill insect pests is desirable, it is known that the outcome of infection may be influenced by a number of criteria, including whether or not the target insect is stressed. In the current work, topical treatment of larvae of the lepidopteran pest, Mamestra brassicae, with conidia of Beauveria bassiana, followed by a heat stress (HS; 37°C for 1h) 48h later, resulted in a similar level of larval survival to that occurring for no heat stress (No-HS), fungus-treated larvae...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780230/the-drosophila-cd36-homologue-croquemort-is-required-to-maintain-immune-and-gut-homeostasis-during-development-and-aging
#18
Aurélien Guillou, Katia Troha, Hui Wang, Nathalie C Franc, Nicolas Buchon
Phagocytosis is an ancient mechanism central to both tissue homeostasis and immune defense. Both the identity of the receptors that mediate bacterial phagocytosis and the nature of the interactions between phagocytosis and other defense mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that Croquemort (Crq), a Drosophila member of the CD36 family of scavenger receptors, is required for microbial phagocytosis and efficient bacterial clearance. Flies mutant for crq are susceptible to environmental microbes during development and succumb to a variety of microbial infections as adults...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777986/transcription-factor-dlx3-induces-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-promoter-activity
#19
June Ho Shin, Mikel D Haggadone, John B Sunwoo
The Distal-less (Dlx) homeobox transcription factors (TFs) play a prominent role in regulating multiple facets of vertebrate biology. Though widely studied as mediators of tissue development, recent work has uncovered a role for this TF family in modulating the vertebrate hematopoietic compartment. Pertinent to our study, murine Dlx1-3 are expressed in an innate lymphocyte population known as natural killer (NK) cells, and they are implicated to assume a functional role in the NK cell maturation pathway. However, Dlx target genes are poorly understood...
September 2016: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776480/immune-genes-and-divergent-antimicrobial-peptides-in-flies-of-the-subgenus-drosophila
#20
Mark A Hanson, Phineas T Hamilton, Steve J Perlman
BACKGROUND: Drosophila is an important model for studying the evolution of animal immunity, due to the powerful genetic tools developed for D. melanogaster. However, Drosophila is an incredibly speciose lineage with a wide range of ecologies, natural histories, and diverse natural enemies. Surprisingly little functional work has been done on immune systems of species other than D. melanogaster. In this study, we examine the evolution of immune genes in the speciose subgenus Drosophila, which diverged from the subgenus Sophophora (that includes D...
October 24, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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