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Drosophila immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809832/phagocytosis-assay-for-apoptotic-cells-in-drosophila-embryos
#1
Saori Nonaka, Aki Hori, Yoshinobu Nakanishi, Takayuki Kuraishi
The molecular mechanisms underlying the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells need to be elucidated in more detail because of its role in immune and inflammatory intractable diseases. We herein developed an experimental method to investigate phagocytosis quantitatively using the fruit fly Drosophila, in which the gene network controlling engulfment reactions is evolutionally conserved from mammals. In order to accurately detect and count engulfing and un-engulfing phagocytes using whole animals, Drosophila embryos were homogenized to obtain dispersed cells including phagocytes and apoptotic cells...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791163/nonlinear-disease-tolerance-curves-reveal-distinct-components-of-host-responses-to-viral-infection
#2
Vanika Gupta, Pedro F Vale
The ability to tolerate infection is a key component of host defence and offers potential novel therapeutic approaches for infectious diseases. To yield successful targets for therapeutic intervention, it is important that the analytical tools employed to measure disease tolerance are able to capture distinct host responses to infection. Here, we show that commonly used methods that estimate tolerance as a linear relationship should be complemented with more flexible, nonlinear estimates of this relationship which may reveal variation in distinct components such as host vigour, sensitivity to increases in pathogen loads, and the severity of the infection...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764795/participation-of-14-3-3%C3%AE%C2%B5-and-14-3-3%C3%AE-proteins-in-the-phagocytosis-component-of-cellular-immune-response-in-aedes-mosquito-cell-lines
#3
Abel Trujillo-Ocampo, Febe Elena Cázares-Raga, Rosa María Del Angel, Fernando Medina-Ramírez, Leopoldo Santos-Argumedo, Mario H Rodríguez, Fidel de la Cruz Hernández-Hernández
BACKGROUND: Better knowledge of the innate immune system of insects will improve our understanding of mosquitoes as potential vectors of diverse pathogens. The ubiquitously expressed 14-3-3 protein family is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals, and at least two isoforms of 14-3-3, the ε and ζ, have been identified in insects. These proteins have been shown to participate in both humoral and cellular immune responses in Drosophila. As mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are the primary vectors for arboviruses, causing several diseases such as dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika and chikungunya fevers, cell lines derived from these mosquitoes, Aag-2 from Aedes aegypti and C6/36 HT from Aedes albopictus, are currently used to study the insect immune system...
August 1, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757479/the-functions-of-the-hippo-signaling-pathway-in-immune-cells
#4
Yu Shujuan, Geng Jing, Chen Lanfen
The Hippo signaling pathway, first identified in Drosophila, has emerged as a critical regulator for controlling the size of organs. Activation of the Hippo signaling pathway negatively regulates the Yorkie ortholog YAP in multiple organs, important in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis during development. The Serine/Threonine protein kinases MST1 and MST2, mammalian homologs of the Drosophila Hippo kinase, play central roles in the Hippo signaling pathway in mammals. Recent studies reveal that non-canonical Hippo signaling pathways are also involved in the regulation of various other biological processes, particularly the important roles of MST1 and MST2 kinases in immune cell activation, adhesion, migration, growth, and apoptosis...
July 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756953/gut-microbiota-modifies-olfactory-guided-microbial-preferences-and-foraging-decisions-in-drosophila
#5
Adam Chun-Nin Wong, Qiao-Ping Wang, Juliano Morimoto, Alistair M Senior, Mathieu Lihoreau, G Gregory Neely, Stephen J Simpson, Fleur Ponton
The gut microbiota affects a wide spectrum of host physiological traits, including development [1-5], germline [6], immunity [7-9], nutrition [4, 10, 11], and longevity [12, 13]. Association with microbes also influences fitness-related behaviors such as mating [14] and social interactions [15, 16]. Although the gut microbiota is evidently important for host wellbeing, how hosts become associated with particular assemblages of microbes from the environment remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that the gut microbiota can modify microbial and nutritional preferences of Drosophila melanogaster...
August 7, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752110/escherichia-coli-infection-of-drosophila
#6
Charles Tracy, Helmut Krämer
Following septic insults, healthy insects, just like vertebrates, mount a complex immune response to contain and destroy pathogens. The failure to efficiently clear bacterial infections in immuno-compromised fly mutants leads to higher mortality rates which provide a powerful indicator for genes with important roles in innate immunity. The following protocol is designed to reproducibly inject a known amount of non-pathogenic E. coli into otherwise sterile flies and to measure the survival of flies after infection...
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746736/defensive-repertoire-of-drosophila-larvae-in-response-to-toxic-fungi
#7
Monika Trienens, Ken Kraaijeveld, Bregje Wertheim
Chemical warfare including insecticidal secondary metabolites is a well-known strategy for environmental microbes to monopolize a food source. Insects in turn have evolved behavioural and physiological defences to eradicate or neutralize the harmful microorganisms. We studied the defensive repertoire of insects in this interference competition by combining behavioural and developmental assays with whole-transcriptome time-series analysis. Confrontation with the toxic filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans severely reduced the survival of Drosophila melanogaster larvae...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739398/transcriptome-analysis-of-ifm-specific-actin-and-myosin-nulls-in-drosophila-melanogaster-unravels-lesion-specific-expression-blueprints-across-muscle-mutations
#8
Aditi Madan, Divesh Thimmaiya, Ari Franco-Cea, Mohammed Aiyaz, Prabodh Kumar, John C Sparrow, Upendra Nongthomba
Muscle contraction is a highly fine-tuned process that requires the precise and timely construction of large protein sub-assemblies to form sarcomeres. Mutations in many genes encoding constituent proteins of this macromolecular machine result in defective functioning of the muscle tissue. However, the pathways underlying muscle degeneration, and manifestation of myopathy phenotypes are not well understood. In this study, we explored transcriptional alterations that ensue from the absence of the two major muscle proteins - myosin and actin - using the Drosophila indirect flight muscles...
July 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733113/a-heterologous-prime-boost-ebola-virus-vaccine-regimen-induces-durable-neutralizing-antibody-response-and-prevents-ebola-virus-like-particle-entry-in-mice
#9
Tan Chen, Dapeng Li, Yufeng Song, Xi Yang, Qingwei Liu, Xia Jin, Dongming Zhou, Zhong Huang
Ebola virus (EBOV) is one of the most virulent pathogens known to humans. Neutralizing antibodies play a major role in the protection against EBOV infections. Thus, an EBOV vaccine capable of inducing a long-lasting neutralizing antibody response is highly desirable. We report here that a heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimen can elicit durable EBOV-neutralizing antibody response in mice. A chimpanzee serotype 7 adenovirus expressing EBOV GP (denoted AdC7-GP) was generated and used for priming. A truncated version of EBOV GP1 protein (denoted GP1t) was produced at high levels in Drosophila S2 cells and used for boosting...
July 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723556/peroxisome-mediated-metabolism-is-required-for-immune-response-to-microbial-infection
#10
Francesca Di Cara, Avinash Sheshachalam, Nancy E Braverman, Richard A Rachubinski, Andrew J Simmonds
The innate immune response is critical for animal homeostasis and is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. This response depends on specialized cells that recognize, internalize, and destroy microbial invaders through phagocytosis. This is coupled to autonomous or non-autonomous cellular signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine production. Lipids are known signaling factors in this process, as the acute phase response of macrophages is accompanied by systemic lipid changes that help resolve inflammation...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719799/mesencephalic-astrocyte-derived-neurotrophic-factor-manf-a-new-player-in-endoplasmic-reticulum-diseases-structure-biology-and-therapeutic-roles
#11
Yeawon Kim, Sun-Ji Park, Ying Maggie Chen
Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), a newly identified 18-kDa soluble protein, localizes to the luminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whose stress can stimulate MANF expression and secretion. In Drosophila and zebrafish, MANF regulates dopaminergic neuron development. In contrast, in mice, MANF deficiency leads to diabetes and activation of the unfolded protein response. Recent studies in rodent models have demonstrated that MANF mitigates diabetes, exerts neurotrophic function in neurodegenerative disease, protects cardiomyocytes and neurons in myocardial infarction and cerebral ischemia, respectively, and promotes immune cell phenotype switch from proinflammatory macrophages to prorepair anti-inflammatory macrophages...
June 29, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715804/oligopeptide-transporters-of-the-slc15-family-are-dispensable-for-peptidoglycan-sensing-and-transport-in-drosophila
#12
Florence Capo, Delphine Chaduli, Annelise Viallat-Lieutaud, Bernard Charroux, Julien Royet
Peptidoglycan (PGN) detection by PGN recognition proteins (PGRP) is the main trigger of the antibacterial immune response in Drosophila. Depending on the type of immune cell, PGN can be sensed either at the cell membrane by PGRP-LC or inside the cell by PGRP-LE, which plays a role similar to that of Nod2 in mammals. Previous work, mainly in cell cultures, has shown that oligopeptide transporters of the SLC15 family are essential for the delivery of PGN for Nod2 detection inside of the cells, and that this function might be conserved in flies...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706521/evolution-and-function-of-thioester-containing-proteins-and-the-complement-system-in-the-innate-immune-response
#13
REVIEW
Upasana Shokal, Ioannis Eleftherianos
The innate immune response is evolutionary conserved among organisms. The complement system forms an important and efficient immune defense mechanism. It consists of plasma proteins that participate in microbial detection, which ultimately results in the production of various molecules with antimicrobial activity. Thioester-containing proteins (TEPs) are a superfamily of secreted effector proteins. In vertebrates, certain TEPs act in the innate immune response by promoting recruitment of immune cells, phagocytosis, and direct lysis of microbial invaders...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706002/micrornas-that-contribute-to-coordinating-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#14
Magda L Atilano, Marcus Glittenberg, Annabel Monteiro, Richard Copley, Petros Ligoxygakis
Small noncoding RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression related to host defences. Here, we have used Drosophila melanogaster to explore the contribution of individual or clusters of miRNAs in countering systemic C. albicans infection. From a total of 72 tested, we identify six miRNAs allelic mutant backgrounds that modulate the survival response to infection and ability to control pathogen number. These mutants also exhibit dysregulation of the Toll pathway target transcripts Drosomycin (Drs) and Immune-Induced Molecule 1 (IM1)...
July 13, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705899/a-novel-function-for-the-i%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-cactus-in-promoting-dorsal-nuclear-localization-and-activity-in-the-drosophila-embryo
#15
Maira Arruda Cardoso, Marcio Fontenele, Bomyi Lim, Paulo Mascarello Bisch, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Helena Marcolla Araujo
The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo, Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here, we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and on Dorsal target genes...
August 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705811/proprotein-convertase-furin1-expression-in-the-drosophila-fat-body-is-essential-for-a-normal-antimicrobial-peptide-response-and-bacterial-host-defense
#16
Saara Aittomäki, Susanna Valanne, Tapio Lehtinen, Sampsa Matikainen, Tuula A Nyman, Mika Rämet, Marko Pesu
Invading pathogens provoke robust innate immune responses in Dipteran insects, such as Drosophila melanogaster In a systemic bacterial infection, a humoral response is induced in the fat body. Gram-positive bacteria trigger the Toll signaling pathway, whereas gram-negative bacterial infections are signaled via the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway. We show here that the RNA interference-mediated silencing of Furin1-a member of the proprotein convertase enzyme family-specifically in the fat body, results in a reduction in the expression of antimicrobial peptides...
July 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700947/acute-dietary-restriction-acts-via-tor-pp2a-and-myc-signaling-to-boost-innate-immunity-in-drosophila
#17
Jung-Eun Lee, Morsi Rayyan, Allison Liao, Isaac Edery, Scott D Pletcher
Dietary restriction promotes health and longevity across taxa through mechanisms that are largely unknown. Here, we show that acute yeast restriction significantly improves the ability of adult female Drosophila melanogaster to resist pathogenic bacterial infections through an immune pathway involving downregulation of target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling, which stabilizes the transcription factor Myc by increasing the steady-state level of its phosphorylated forms through decreased activity of protein phosphatase 2A...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700600/ethanol-confers-differential-protection-against-generalist-and-specialist-parasitoids-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#18
Zachary R Lynch, Todd A Schlenke, Levi T Morran, Jacobus C de Roode
As parasites coevolve with their hosts, they can evolve counter-defenses that render host immune responses ineffective. These counter-defenses are more likely to evolve in specialist parasites than generalist parasites; the latter face variable selection pressures between the different hosts they infect. Natural populations of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are commonly threatened by endoparasitoid wasps in the genus Leptopilina, including the specialist L. boulardi and the generalist L. heterotoma, and both wasp species can incapacitate the cellular immune response of D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669782/the-drosophila-melanogaster-tribbles-pseudokinase-is-necessary-for-proper-memory-formation
#19
Holly LaFerriere, Troy Zars
The tribbles (trbl) pseudokinases play important roles in signaling and physiology in multiple contexts, ranging from innate immunity to cancer, suggesting fundamental cellular functions for the trbls' gene products. Despite expression of the trbl pseudokinases in the nervous systems of invertebrate and vertebrate animals, and evidence that they have a function within mouse and human dopamine neurons, there is no clear case for a function of a Trbl protein that influences behavior. Indeed, the first and only evidence for this type of function comes from Drosophila melanogaster, where a mutation of the single trbl gene was identified in a genetic screen for short-term memory mutant flies...
June 29, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668769/microbial-influence-on-drosophila-biology
#20
REVIEW
M E Martino, D Ma, F Leulier
Commensal bacteria profoundly affect the biology of their animal partners. Drosophila melanogaster has been broadly used to study microbiota effects on invertebrates, whose findings are frequently applicable to translational studies. The beneficial role of commensal microbes on Drosophila biology is extensively described, ranging from growth to metabolism, immunity and even behaviour. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. Studies continue to discover new layers of complexity in the host-bacteria partnership that constantly changes depending on a plethora of different variables...
June 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
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