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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154825/the-scf-ubiquitin-ligase-slimb-controls-nerfin-1-turnover-in-drosophila
#1
Xiaohui Lin, Feng Wang, Yuanpei Li, Chaojun Zhai, Guiping Wang, Xiaoting Zhang, Yang Gao, Tao Yi, Dan Sun, Shian Wu
The C2H2 type zinc-finger transcription factor Nerfin-1 expresses dominantly in Drosophila nervous system and plays an important role in early axon guidance decisions and preventing neurons dedifferentiation. Recently, increasing reports indicated that INSM1 (homologue to nerfin-1 in mammals) is a useful marker for prognosis of neuroendocrine tumors. The dynamic expression of Nerfin-1 is regulated post-transcriptionally by multiple microRNAs; however, its post-translational regulation is still unclear. Here we showed that the protein turnover of Nerfin-1 is regulated by Slimb, the substrate adaptor of SCF(Slimb) ubiquitin ligase complex...
November 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152127/minocycline-treatment-increases-resistance-to-oxidative-stress-and-extends-lifespan-in-drosophila-via-foxo
#2
Gang Jun Lee, Jin Ju Lim, Seogang Hyun
Minocycline is a semi-synthetic tetracycline derivative antibiotic that has received increasing attention for its non-antibiotic properties, mainly anti-inflammatory, tumor-suppressive, and neuroprotective effects. Drosophila is a widely used genetically tractable model organism for studying organismal aging by virtue of its short lifespan and ease of cultivation. In this study, we examined the effects of minocycline on Drosophila lifespan and its associated traits. Minocycline-supplemented food significantly extended lifespan in both Canton S and w(1118) Drosophila strains...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149408/function-of-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-in-organ-growth-lessons-from-drosophila-studies
#3
Kwang-Wook Choi, Sung-Tae Hong, Thao Phuong Le
Regulation of cell growth and proliferation is crucial for development and function of organs in all animals. Genetic defects in growth control can lead to developmental disorders and cancers. Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins implicated in cancer. Recent studies have revealed multiple roles of TCTP in diverse cellular events, but TCTP functions in vivo are poorly understood in vertebrate systems. We have used Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, as a model organism for genetic dissection of Tctp function...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141951/selector-genes-display-tumor-cooperation-and-inhibition-in-drosophila-epithelium-in-a-developmental-context-dependent-manner
#4
Ram Prakash Gupta, Anjali Bajpai, Pradip Sinha
During animal development, selector genes determine identities of body segments and those of individual organs. Selector genes are also misexpressed in cancers, although their contributions to tumor progression per se remain poorly understood. Using a model of cooperative tumorigenesis, we show that gain of selector genes results in tumor cooperation, but in only select developmental domains of the wing, haltere and eye-antennal imaginal discs of Drosophila larva. Thus, the field selector, Eyeless (Ey), and the segment selector, Ultrabithorax (Ubx), readily cooperate to bring about neoplastic transformation of cells displaying somatic loss of the tumor suppressor, Lgl, but in only those developmental domains that express the homeo-box protein, Homothorax (Hth), and/or the Zinc-finger protein, Teashirt (Tsh)...
November 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124738/transcripts-immunoprecipitated-with-sxl-protein-in-primordial-germ-cells-of-drosophila-embryos
#5
Ryoma Ota, Shumpei Morita, Masanao Sato, Shuji Shigenobu, Makoto Hayashi, Satoru Kobayashi
In Drosophila, Sex lethal (Sxl), an RNA binding protein, is required for induction of female sexual identity in both somatic and germline cells. Although the Sxl-dependent feminizing pathway in the soma was previously elucidated, the downstream targets for Sxl in the germline remained elusive. To identify these target genes, we selected transcripts associated with Sxl in primordial germ cells (PGCs) of embryos using RNA immunoprecipitation coupled to sequencing (RIP-seq) analysis. A total of 308 transcripts encoded by 282 genes were obtained...
November 10, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107812/proteolytic-maturation-of-drosophila-neuroligin-3-by-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-converting-enzyme-in-the-nervous-system
#6
Jun Wu, Nana Tao, Yao Tian, Guanglin Xing, Huihui Lv, Junhai Han, Chengqi Lin, Wei Xie
BACKGROUND: The functions of autism-associated Neuroligins (Nlgs) are modulated by their post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage. A previous study has shown that there are different endogenous forms of DNlg3 in Drosophila, indicating it may undergo proteolytic processing. However, the molecular mechanism underlying DNlg3 proteolytic processing is unknown. Here, we report a novel proteolytic mechanism that is essential for DNlg3 maturation and function in the nervous system...
October 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105522/orb2-as-modulator-of-brat-and-their-role-at-the-neuromuscular-junction
#7
Elena Santana, Sergio Casas-Tintó
How synapses are built and dismantled is a central question in neurobiology. A wide range of proteins and processes from gene transcription to protein degradation are involved. Orb2 regulates mRNA translation depending on its monomeric or oligomeric state to modulate nervous system development and memory. Orb2 is expressed in Drosophila larval brain and neuromuscular junction (NMJ), Orb2 knockdown causes a reduction of synapse number and defects in neuronal morphology. Brain tumor (Brat) is an Orb2 target; it is expressed in larval brain related with cell growth and proliferation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080790/scalloped-a-member-of-the-hippo-tumor-suppressor-pathway-controls-mushroom-body-size-in-drosophila-brain-by-non-canonical-regulation-of-neuroblast-proliferation
#8
Basavanahalli Nanjundaiah Rohith, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty Shyamala
Cell proliferation, growth and survival are three different basic processes which converge at determining a fundamental property -the size of an organism. Scalloped (Sd) is the first characterised transcriptional partner to Yorkie (Yki), the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway which is a highly potential and evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size. Here we have studied the hypomorphic effect of sd on the development of Mushroom Bodies (MBs) in Drosophila brain. We show that, sd non-function results in an increase in the size of MBs...
November 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069438/loss-of-heparan-sulfate-in-the-niche-leads-to-tumor-like-germ-cell-growth-in-the-drosophila-testis
#9
Daniel C Levings, Hiroshi Nakato
The stem cell niche normally prevents aberrant stem cell behaviors that lead to cancer formation. Recent studies suggest that some cancers are derived from endogenous populations of adult stem cells that have somehow escaped from normal control by the niche. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the niche retains stem cells locally and tightly controls their divisions are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of heparan sulfate (HS), a class glygosaminoglycan chains, in the Drosophila germline stem cell niche prevents tumor formation in the testis...
October 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065309/pwp1-mediates-nutrient-dependent-growth-control-through-nucleolar-regulation-of-ribosomal-gene-expression
#10
Ying Liu, Jaakko Mattila, Sami Ventelä, Leena Yadav, Wei Zhang, Nicole Lamichane, Jari Sundström, Otto Kauko, Reidar Grénman, Markku Varjosalo, Jukka Westermarck, Ville Hietakangas
Ribosome biogenesis regulates animal growth and is controlled by nutrient-responsive mTOR signaling. How ribosome biogenesis is regulated during the developmental growth of animals and how nutrient-responsive signaling adjusts ribosome biogenesis in this setting have remained insufficiently understood. We uncover PWP1 as a chromatin-associated regulator of developmental growth with a conserved role in RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated rRNA transcription. We further observed that PWP1 epigenetically maintains the rDNA loci in a transcription-competent state...
October 23, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035383/extracellular-nme-proteins-a-player-or-a-bystander
#11
Patrizia Romani, Marilena Ignesti, Giuseppe Gargiulo, Tien Hsu, Valeria Cavaliere
The Nm23/NME gene family has been under intensive study since Nm23H1/NME1 was identified as the first metastasis suppressor. Inverse correlation between the expression levels of NME1/2 and prognosis has indeed been demonstrated in different tumor cohorts. Interestingly, the presence of NME proteins in the extracellular environment in normal and tumoral conditions has also been noted. In many reported cases, however, these extracellular NME proteins exhibit anti-differentiation or oncogenic functions, contradicting their canonical anti-metastatic action...
October 16, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983086/can-intestinal-microbiota-be-associated-with-non-intestinal-cancers
#12
Camille Jacqueline, Lionel Brazier, Dominique Faugère, François Renaud, Frédéric Thomas, Benjamin Roche
While the role of intestinal microbiota is increasingly recognized in the etiology of digestive cancers, its effects on the development of cancer in other parts of the body have been little studied. Through new-generation sequencing, we aimed to identify an association between the structure of intestinal microbiota and the presence of eye disc tumor in Drosophila larvae. First, we observed a parental effect on the diversity and structure of bacterial communities. Second, we identified a bacterial signature (at the family level) of cancer: cancerous larvae host a significantly lower relative abundance of Bacillaceae than individuals that did not develop the tumor...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974923/drosophila-exoribonuclease-nibbler-is-a-tumor-suppressor-acts-within-the-rna-i-machinery-and-is-not-enriched-in-the-nuage-during-early-oogenesis
#13
Casimiro Castillejo-López, Xiaoli Cai, Khalid Fahmy, Stefan Baumgartner
BACKGROUND: micro RNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of many biological pathways. A plethora of steps are required to form, from a precursor, the mature miRNA that eventually acts on its target RNA to repress its expression or to inhibit translation. Recently, Drosophila nibbler (nbr) has been shown to be an important player in the maturation process of miRNA and piRNA. Nbr is an exoribonuclease which helps to shape the 3' end of miRNAs by trimming the 3' overhang to a final length...
2018: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963499/apontic-directly-activates-hedgehog-and-cyclin-e-for-proper-organ-growth-and-patterning
#14
Xian-Feng Wang, Yang Shen, Qian Cheng, Chong-Lei Fu, Zi-Zhang Zhou, Susumu Hirose, Qing-Xin Liu
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and Cyclin E are key players in cell proliferation and organ development. Hyperactivation of hh and cyclin E has been linked to several types of cancer. However, coordination of the expression of hh and cyclin E was not well understood. Here we show that an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic (Apt) directly activates hh and cyclin E through its binding site in the promoter regions of hh and cyclin E. This Apt-dependent proper expression of hh and cyclin E is required for cell proliferation and development of the Drosophila wing...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947795/stable-mob1-interaction-with-hippo-mst-is-not-essential-for-development-and-tissue-growth-control
#15
Yavuz Kulaberoglu, Kui Lin, Maxine Holder, Zhongchao Gai, Marta Gomez, Belul Assefa Shifa, Merdiye Mavis, Lily Hoa, Ahmad A D Sharif, Celia Lujan, Ewan St John Smith, Ivana Bjedov, Nicolas Tapon, Geng Wu, Alexander Hergovich
The Hippo tumor suppressor pathway is essential for development and tissue growth control, encompassing a core cassette consisting of the Hippo (MST1/2), Warts (LATS1/2), and Tricornered (NDR1/2) kinases together with MOB1 as an important signaling adaptor. However, it remains unclear which regulatory interactions between MOB1 and the different Hippo core kinases coordinate development, tissue growth, and tumor suppression. Here, we report the crystal structure of the MOB1/NDR2 complex and define key MOB1 residues mediating MOB1's differential binding to Hippo core kinases, thereby establishing MOB1 variants with selective loss-of-interaction...
September 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935704/the-splicing-co-factor-barricade-tat-sf1-is-required-for-cell-cycle-and-lineage-progression-in-drosophila-neural-stem-cells
#16
Monika K Abramczuk, Thomas R Burkard, Vivien Rolland, Victoria Steinmann, Peter Duchek, Yanrui Jiang, Sebastian Wissel, Heinrich Reichert, Juergen A Knoblich
Stem cells need to balance self-renewal and differentiation for correct tissue development and homeostasis. Defects in this balance can lead to developmental defects or tumor formation. In recent years, mRNA splicing has emerged as one important mechanism regulating cell fate decisions. Here we address the role of the evolutionary conserved splicing co-factor Barricade (Barc)/Tat-SF1/CUS2 in Drosophila neural stem cell (neuroblast) lineage formation. We show that Barc is required for the generation of neurons during Drosophila brain development by ensuring correct neural progenitor proliferation and differentiation...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916802/local-juvenile-hormone-activity-regulates-gut-homeostasis-and-tumor-growth-in-adult-drosophila
#17
M M Rahman, X Franch-Marro, J L Maestro, D Martin, A Casali
Hormones play essential roles during development and maintaining homeostasis in adult organisms, regulating a plethora of biological processes. Generally, hormones are secreted by glands and perform a systemic action. Here we show that Juvenile Hormones (JHs), insect sesquiterpenoids synthesized by the corpora allata, are also synthesized by the adult Drosophila gut. This local, gut specific JH activity, is synthesized by and acts on the intestinal stem cell and enteroblast populations, regulating their survival and cellular growth through the JH receptors Gce/Met and the coactivator Tai...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912546/phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase-maintains-glycolysis-driven-growth-in-drosophila-tumors
#18
Rashid Hussain, Zeeshan Shaukat, Mahwish Khan, Robert Saint, Stephen L Gregory
Tumors frequently fail to pass on all their chromosomes correctly during cell division, and this chromosomal instability (CIN) causes irregular aneuploidy and oxidative stress in cancer cells. Our objective was to test knockdowns of metabolic enzymes in Drosophila to find interventions that could exploit the differences between normal and CIN cells to block CIN tumor growth without harming the host animal. We found that depleting by RNAi or feeding the host inhibitors against phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was able to block the growth of CIN tissue in a brat tumor explant model...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870988/a-fluorescent-toolkit-for-spatiotemporal-tracking-of-apoptotic-cells-in-living-drosophila-tissues
#19
Sonia Schott, Arnaud Ambrosini, Audrey Barbaste, Corinne Benassayag, Mélanie Gracia, Amsha Proag, Mégane Rayer, Bruno Monier, Magali Suzanne
Far from being passive, apoptotic cells influence their environment. For example, they promote tissue folding, myoblast fusion and modulate tumor growth. Understanding the role of apoptotic cells necessitates their efficient tracking within living tissues, a task that is currently challenging. In order to easily spot apoptotic cells in developing Drosophila tissues, we generated a series of fly lines expressing different fluorescent sensors of caspase activity. We show that three of these reporters (GFP-, Cerulean- and Venus-derived molecules) are detected specifically in apoptotic cells and throughout the whole process of programmed cell death...
October 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859078/the-wagr-syndrome-gene-prrg4-is-a-functional-homologue-of-the-commissureless-axon-guidance-gene
#20
Elizabeth D Justice, Sarah J Barnum, Thomas Kidd
WAGR syndrome is characterized by Wilm's tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and intellectual disabilities. WAGR is caused by a chromosomal deletion that includes the PAX6, WT1 and PRRG4 genes. PRRG4 is proposed to contribute to the autistic symptoms of WAGR syndrome, but the molecular function of PRRG4 genes remains unknown. The Drosophila commissureless (comm) gene encodes a short transmembrane protein characterized by PY motifs, features that are shared by the PRRG4 protein. Comm intercepts the Robo axon guidance receptor in the ER/Golgi and targets Robo for degradation, allowing commissural axons to cross the CNS midline...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
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