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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900010/a-novel-mutation-of-the-fat2-gene-in-spinal-meningioma
#1
Genshu Tate, Koji Kishimoto, Toshiyuki Mitsuya
Meningiomas may be classified as neurofibromin 2 (NF2)-associated and non-NF2 meningiomas depending on the presence or absence of molecular alterations in the NF2 gene. One of the characteristic histological features of meningiomas is the whorl formation of neoplastic arachnoid cells. NF2 is a human homolog of the Drosophila gene, Merlin (Mer). In humans, NF2 is the gene responsible for the disease neurofibromatosis type II, which results in the development of brain tumors, including acoustic neurinoma and meningioma...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898892/transcriptome-analyses-identify-five-transcription-factors-differentially-expressed-in-the-hypothalamus-of-post-versus-prepubertal-brahman-heifers
#2
M R S Fortes, L T Nguyen, M M D C A Weller, A Cánovas, A Islas-Trejo, L R Porto-Neto, A Reverter, S A Lehnert, G B Boe-Hansen, M G Thomas, J F Medrano, S S Moore
Puberty onset is a developmental process influenced by genetic determinants, environment, and nutrition. Mutations and regulatory gene networks constitute the molecular basis for the genetic determinants of puberty onset. The emerging knowledge of these genetic determinants presents opportunities for innovation in the breeding of early pubertal cattle. This paper presents new data on hypothalamic gene expression related to puberty in (Brahman) in age- and weight-matched heifers. Six postpubertal heifers were compared with 6 prepubertal heifers using whole-genome RNA sequencing methodology for quantification of global gene expression in the hypothalamus...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856247/the-drosophila-f-box-protein-slimb-controls-dsmurf-protein-turnover-to-regulate-the-hippo-pathway
#3
Liangchang Hu, Ping Wang, Runan Zhao, Shanshan Li, Feng Wang, Chaojie Li, Lei Cao, Shian Wu
SMAD ubiquitination regulatory factors 1 and 2 (Smurf1/2) are members of the HECT domain E3 ligase family which play crucial roles in the regulation of cell cycle progression, planar cell polarity, cancer metastasis and cell apoptosis. We recently showed that the Drosophila homolog dSmurf controls the stability of Warts kinase to regulate the Hippo pathway. In the current study, we found that the F-box protein Slimb controls dSmurf protein level to regulate the Hippo pathway. Slimb physically associates with dSmurf as revealed by co-immunoprecipitation assay in S2 cells...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835572/sprouty2-inhibits-amphiregulin-induced-down-regulation-of-e-cadherin-and-cell-invasion-in-human-ovarian-cancer-cells
#4
Jung-Chien Cheng, Hsun-Ming Chang, Siyuan Xiong, Wai-Kin So, Peter C K Leung
Similar to Drosophila Sprouty (SPRY), mammalian SPRY proteins inhibit the receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated activation of cellular signaling pathways. SPRY2 expression levels have been shown to be down-regulated in human ovarian cancer, and patients with low SPRY2 expression have significantly poorer survival than those with high SPRY2 expression. In addition, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in human ovarian cancer and is associated with more aggressive clinical behavior and a poor prognosis...
November 7, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834607/somatic-recombination-in-adult-tissues-what-is-there-to-learn
#5
Katarzyna Siudeja, Allison J Bardin
Somatic recombination is essential to protect genomes of somatic cells from DNA damage but it also has important clinical implications, as it is a driving force of tumorigenesis leading to inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Despite this importance, our knowledge about somatic recombination in adult tissues remains very limited. Our recent work, using the Drosophila adult midgut has demonstrated that spontaneous events of mitotic recombination accumulate in aging adult intestinal stem cells and result in frequent loss of heterozygosity (LOH)...
November 11, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826870/hippo-signaling-in-mitosis-an-updated-view-in-light-of-the-men-pathway
#6
Alexander Hergovich
The Hippo pathway is an essential tumor suppressor signaling network that coordinates cell proliferation, death, and differentiation in higher eukaryotes. Intriguingly, the core components of the Hippo pathway are conserved from yeast to man, with the yeast analogs of mammalian MST1/2 (fly Hippo), MOB1 (fly Mats), LATS1/2 (fly Warts), and NDR1/2 (fly Tricornered) functioning as essential components of the mitotic exit network (MEN). Here, we update our previous summary of mitotic functions of Hippo core components in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals, with particular emphasis on similarities between the yeast MEN pathway and mitotic Hippo signaling...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814354/scribbled-optimizes-bmp-signaling-through-its-receptor-internalization-to-the-rab5-endosome-and-promote-robust-epithelial-morphogenesis
#7
Jinghua Gui, Yunxian Huang, Osamu Shimmi
Epithelial cells are characterized by apical-basal polarity. Intrinsic factors underlying apical-basal polarity are crucial for tissue homeostasis and have often been identified to be tumor suppressors. Patterning and differentiation of epithelia are key processes of epithelial morphogenesis and are frequently regulated by highly conserved extrinsic factors. However, due to the complexity of morphogenesis, the mechanisms of precise interpretation of signal transduction as well as spatiotemporal control of extrinsic cues during dynamic morphogenesis remain poorly understood...
November 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768082/the-drosophila-imaginal-disc-tumor-model-visualization-and-quantification-of-gene-expression-and-tumor-invasiveness-using-genetic-mosaics
#8
Juliane Mundorf, Mirka Uhlirova
Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a powerful experimental system for functional and mechanistic studies of tumor development and progression in the context of a whole organism. Sophisticated techniques to generate genetic mosaics facilitate induction of visually marked, genetically defined clones surrounded by normal tissue. The clones can be analyzed through diverse molecular, cellular and omics approaches. This study describes how to generate fluorescently labeled clonal tumors of varying malignancy in the eye/antennal imaginal discs (EAD) of Drosophila larvae using the Mosaic Analysis with a Repressible Cell Marker (MARCM) technique...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693589/probing-phosphoethanolamine-containing-lipids-in-membranes-with-duramycin-cinnamycin-and-aegerolysin-proteins
#9
Françoise Hullin-Matsuda, Asami Makino, Motohide Murate, Toshihide Kobayashi
In this mini-review, we summarize current knowledge about the lipid-binding characteristics of two types of toxins used to visualize the membrane distribution of phosphoethanolamine-containing lipid species: the glycerophospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and the sphingolipid, ceramide phosphoethanolamine (CPE). The lantibiotic cinnamycin and the structurally-related peptide duramycin produced by some Gram-positive bacteria were among the first toxins characterized by their specificity for PE which is widely present in animal kingdoms from bacteria to mammals...
September 28, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664524/assessment-of-the-mutagenic-recombinogenic-and-carcinogenic-potential-of-fipronil-insecticide-in-somatic-cells-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Cássio Resende de Morais, Ana Maria Bonetti, Stephan Malfitano Carvalho, Alexandre Azenha Alves de Rezende, Galber Rodrigues Araujo, Mário Antônio Spanó
Fipronil (FP) is an insecticide that belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family and is used to control pests by blocking GABA receptor at the entrance channel of the chlorine neurons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenic, recombinogenic and carcinogenic potential of FP. The mutagenic and recombinogenic effects were evaluated using the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) on wing cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Third instar larvae from standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses were treated with different concentrations of FP (0...
December 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643538/coordinate-redeployment-of-prc1-proteins-suppresses-tumor-formation-during-drosophila-development
#11
Vincent Loubiere, Anna Delest, Aubin Thomas, Boyan Bonev, Bernd Schuettengruber, Satish Sati, Anne-Marie Martinez, Giacomo Cavalli
Polycomb group proteins form two main complexes, PRC2 and PRC1, which generally coregulate their target genes. Here we show that PRC1 components act as neoplastic tumor suppressors independently of PRC2 function. By mapping the distribution of PRC1 components and trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys27 (H3K27me3) across the genome, we identify a large set of genes that acquire PRC1 in the absence of H3K27me3 in Drosophila larval tissues. These genes massively outnumber canonical targets and are mainly involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, signaling and polarity...
September 19, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628948/the-emerging-role-of-the-hippo-pathway-in-lung-cancers-clinical-implications
#12
Srijit Das, Seong Lin Teoh
The incidence of lung cancers has increased globally. Increased exposure to tobacco, passive smoking, less consumption of vegetables and fruits and occupational exposure to asbestos, arsenic and chromium are the main risk factors. The pathophysiology of lung cancer is complex and not well understood. Various microRNAs, genes and pathways are associated with lung cancers. The genes involved in lung cancers produce proteins involved in cell growth, differentiation, different cell cycles, apoptosis, immune modulation, tumor spread and progression...
September 7, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27626672/drosophila-cancer-models-identify-functional-differences-between-ret-fusions
#13
Sarah Levinson, Ross L Cagan
We generated and compared Drosophila models of RET fusions CCDC6-RET and NCOA4-RET. Both RET fusions directed cells to migrate, delaminate, and undergo EMT, and both resulted in lethality when broadly expressed. In all phenotypes examined, NCOA4-RET was more severe than CCDC6-RET, mirroring their effects on patients. A functional screen against the Drosophila kinome and a library of cancer drugs found that CCDC6-RET and NCOA4-RET acted through different signaling networks and displayed distinct drug sensitivities...
September 13, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603780/lgl1-is-required-for-olfaction-and-development-of-olfactory-bulb-in-mice
#14
Zhenzu Li, Tingting Zhang, Zhuchun Lin, Congzhe Hou, Jian Zhang, Yuqin Men, Huashun Li, Jiangang Gao
Lethal giant larvae 1 (Lgl1) was initially identified as a tumor suppressor in Drosophila and functioned as a key regulator of epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division. In this study, we generated Lgl1 conditional knockout mice mediated by Pax2-Cre, which is expressed in olfactory bulb (OB). Next, we examined the effects of Lgl1 loss in the OB. First, we determined the expression patterns of Lgl1 in the neurogenic regions of the embryonic dorsal region of the LGE (dLGE) and postnatal OB. Furthermore, the Lgl1 conditional mutants exhibited abnormal morphological characteristics of the OB...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591754/the-smaug-rna-binding-protein-is-essential-for-microrna-synthesis-during-the-drosophila-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#15
Hua Luo, Xiao Li, Julie M Claycomb, Howard D Lipshitz
Metazoan embryos undergo a maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) during which maternal gene products are eliminated and the zygotic genome becomes transcriptionally active. During this process RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) target maternal mRNAs for degradation. In Drosophila, the Smaug (SMG), Brain tumor (BRAT) and Pumilio (PUM) RBPs bind to and direct the degradation of largely distinct subsets of maternal mRNAs. SMG has also been shown to be required for zygotic synthesis of mRNAs and several members of the miR-309 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) during the MZT...
September 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585295/in-vivo-genetic-dissection-of-tumor-growth-and-the-warburg-effect
#16
Cheng-Wei Wang, Arunima Purkayastha, Kevin T Jones, Shivani K Thaker, Utpal Banerjee
A well-characterized metabolic landmark for aggressive cancers is the reprogramming from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, referred to as the Warburg effect. Models mimicking this process are often incomplete due to genetic complexities of tumors and cell lines containing unmapped collaborating mutations. In order to establish a system where individual components of oncogenic signals and metabolic pathways can be readily elucidated, we induced a glycolytic tumor in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc by activating the oncogene PDGF/VEGF-receptor (Pvr)...
September 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584724/epithelial-tumors-originate-in-tumor-hotspots-a-tissue-intrinsic-microenvironment
#17
Yoichiro Tamori, Emiko Suzuki, Wu-Min Deng
Malignant tumors are caused by uncontrolled proliferation of transformed mutant cells that have lost the ability to maintain tissue integrity. Although a number of causative genetic backgrounds for tumor development have been discovered, the initial steps mutant cells take to escape tissue integrity and trigger tumorigenesis remain elusive. Here, we show through analysis of conserved neoplastic tumor-suppressor genes (nTSGs) in Drosophila wing imaginal disc epithelia that tumor initiation depends on tissue-intrinsic local cytoarchitectures, causing tumors to consistently originate in a specific region of the tissue...
September 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575697/the-beneficial-role-of-extracellular-reactive-oxygen-species-in-apoptosis-induced-compensatory-proliferation
#18
Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann
Apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) maintains tissue homeostasis following massive stress-induced cell death. During this phenomenon, dying cells induce proliferation of the surviving cells to compensate for the tissue loss, and thus restore organ size. Along with wound healing and tissue regeneration, AiP also contributes to tumor repopulation following radiation or chemotherapy. There are several models of AiP. Using an "undead" AiP model that causes hyperplastic overgrowth of Drosophila epithelial tissue, we recently demonstrated that extracellular reactive oxygen species (eROS) are produced by undead epithelial cells, and are necessary for inducing AiP and overgrowth...
August 15, 2016: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573785/recapitulating-human-gastric-cancer-pathogenesis-experimental-models-of-gastric-cancer
#19
Lin Ding, Mohamad El Zaatari, Juanita L Merchant
This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569208/foxd1-aldh1a3-signaling-is-a-determinant-for-the-self-renewal-and-tumorigenicity-of-mesenchymal-glioma-stem-cells
#20
Peng Cheng, Jia Wang, Indrayani Waghmare, Stefania Sartini, Vito Coviello, Zhuo Zhang, Sung-Hak Kim, Ahmed Mohyeldin, Marat S Pavlyukov, Mutsuko Minata, Claudia L L Valentim, Rishi Raj Chhipa, Krishna P L Bhat, Biplab Dasgupta, Concettina La Motta, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Ichiro Nakano
Glioma stem-like cells (GSC) with tumor-initiating activity orchestrate the cellular hierarchy in glioblastoma and engender therapeutic resistance. Recent work has divided GSC into two subtypes with a mesenchymal (MES) GSC population as the more malignant subtype. In this study, we identify the FOXD1-ALDH1A3 signaling axis as a determinant of the MES GSC phenotype. The transcription factor FOXD1 is expressed predominantly in patient-derived cultures enriched with MES, but not with the proneural GSC subtype...
August 28, 2016: Cancer Research
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