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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443051/detecting-anastasis-in-vivo-by-caspasetracker-biosensor
#1
Ho Man Tang, Ming Chiu Fung, Ho Lam Tang
Anastasis (Greek for "rising to life") is a recently discovered cell recovery phenomenon whereby dying cells can reverse late-stage cell death processes that are generally assumed to be intrinsically irreversible. Promoting anastasis could in principle rescue or preserve injured cells that are difficult to replace such as cardiomyocytes or neurons, thereby facilitating tissue recovery. Conversely, suppressing anastasis in cancer cells, undergoing apoptosis after anti-cancer therapies, may ensure cancer cell death and reduce the chances of recurrence...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435938/transgene-like-animal-models-using-intronic-micrornas
#2
Shi-Lung Lin, Shin-Ju E Chang, Shao-Yao Ying
Transgenic animal models are valuable tools for testing gene functions and drug mechanisms in vivo. They are also the best similitude for a human body for etiological and pathological research of diseases. All pharmaceutically developed medicines must be proven to be safe and effective in animals before approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in clinical trials. To this end, the transgenic animal models of diseases serve as the front line of drug evaluation. However, there is currently no transgenic animal model for microRNA (miRNA)-related research...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427074/lipids-in-the-cell-organisation-regulates-function
#3
REVIEW
Ana L Santos, Giulio Preta
Lipids are fundamental building blocks of all cells and play important roles in the pathogenesis of different diseases, including inflammation, autoimmune disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The lipid composition of different organelles can vary substantially from cell to cell, but increasing evidence demonstrates that lipids become organised specifically in each compartment, and this organisation is essential for regulating cell function. For example, lipid microdomains in the plasma membrane, known as lipid rafts, are platforms for concentrating protein receptors and can influence intra-cellular signalling...
February 9, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420531/differential-roles-of-the-drosophila-emt-inducing-transcription-factors-snail-and-serpent-in-driving-primary-tumour-growth
#4
Kyra Campbell, Gaëlle Lebreton, Xavier Franch-Marro, Jordi Casanova
Several transcription factors have been identified that activate an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which endows cells with the capacity to break through basement membranes and migrate away from their site of origin. A key program in development, in recent years it has been shown to be a crucial driver of tumour invasion and metastasis. However, several of these EMT-inducing transcription factors are often expressed long before the initiation of the invasion-metastasis cascade as well as in non-invasive tumours...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408853/axin-phosphorylation-in-both-wnt-off-and-wnt-on-states-requires-the-tumor-suppressor-apc
#5
Ofelia Tacchelly-Benites, Zhenghan Wang, Eungi Yang, Hassina Benchabane, Ai Tian, Michael P Randall, Yashi Ahmed
The aberrant activation of Wnt signal transduction initiates the development of 90% of colorectal cancers, the majority of which arise from inactivation of the tumor suppressor Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). In the classical model for Wnt signaling, the primary role of APC is to act, together with the concentration-limiting scaffold protein Axin, in a "destruction complex" that directs the phosphorylation and consequent proteasomal degradation of the transcriptional activator β-catenin, thereby preventing signaling in the Wnt-off state...
February 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394249/functional-analysis-of-the-c-elegans-cyld-1-gene-reveals-extensive-similarity-with-its-human-homolog
#6
Paul Hadweh, Iro Chaitoglou, Maria Joao Gravato-Nobre, Petros Ligoxygakis, George Mosialos, Eudoxia Hatzivassiliou
The human cylindromatosis tumor suppressor (HsCyld) has attracted extensive attention due to its association with the development of multiple types of cancer. HsCyld encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme (HsCYLD) with a broad range of functions that include the regulation of several cell growth, differentiation and death pathways. HsCyld is an evolutionarily conserved gene. Homologs of HsCyld have been identified in simple model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) which offer extensive possibilities for functional analyses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386328/the-big-bang-of-tissue-growth-apical-cell-constriction-turns-into-tissue-expansion
#7
Florence Janody
How tissue growth is regulated during development and cancer is a fundamental question in biology. In this issue, Tsoumpekos et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201705104) and Forest et al. (2018. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201705107) identify Big bang (Bbg) as an important growth regulator of the Drosophila melanogaster wing imaginal disc.
January 31, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386086/up-regulation-of-mir-324-5p-inhibits-proliferation-and-invasion-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-targeting-elavl1
#8
Chijiang Gu, Mingyuan Zhang, Weiliang Sun, Changzheng Dong
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common clinical cancer, which remains incurable in most cases. MiRNAs are reported to playa part in development of various tumors. In the present study, we found that miR-324-5p was down-regulated in colorectal cancer cells while ELAV (Embryonic Lethal, Abnormal Vision, Drosophila)-Like Protein 1 (ELAVL1) showed a higher expression. MiR-324-5p transfection significantly inhibited the proliferation as well as invasion in both SW620 and SW480 cells. MiR-324-5p mimics transfection markedly decreased the expression of ELAVL1...
January 31, 2018: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383166/gram-domain-containing-protein-1b-gramd1b-a-novel-component-of-the-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-functions-in-gastric-carcinogenesis
#9
Puja Khanna, Pei Jou Chua, Belinda Shu Ee Wong, Changhong Yin, Aye Aye Thike, Wei Keat Wan, Puay Hoon Tan, Gyeong Hun Baeg
Dysregulated JAK/STAT signaling has been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of gastric cancer. However, downstream effectors of STAT signaling that facilitate gastric carcinogenesis remain to be explored. We previously identified the Drosophila ortholog of human GRAMD1B in our genome-wide RNAi screen to identify novel components of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in Drosophila. Here, we examined the involvement of GRAMD1B in JAK/STAT-associated gastric carcinogenesis. We found that GRAMD1B expression is positively regulated by JAK/STAT signaling and GRAMD1B inhibition decreases STAT3 levels, suggesting the existence of a positive feedback loop...
December 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382756/loss-of-capicua-alters-early-t-cell-development-and-predisposes-mice-to-t-cell-lymphoblastic-leukemia-lymphoma
#10
Qiumin Tan, Lorenzo Brunetti, Maxime W C Rousseaux, Hsiang-Chih Lu, Ying-Wooi Wan, Jean-Pierre Revelli, Zhandong Liu, Margaret A Goodell, Huda Y Zoghbi
Capicua (CIC) regulates a transcriptional network downstream of the RAS/MAPK signaling cascade. In Drosophila, CIC is important for many developmental processes, including embryonic patterning and specification of wing veins. In humans, CIC has been implicated in neurological diseases, including spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) and a neurodevelopmental syndrome. Additionally, we and others have reported mutations in CIC in several cancers. However, whether CIC is a tumor suppressor remains to be formally tested...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372960/-control-of-the-gene-activity-by-polycomb-and-trithorax-group-proteins-in-drosophila
#11
D A Chetverina, P V Elizar’ev, D V Lomaev, P G Georgiev, M M Erokhin
Combinatorial expression of the genes in multicellular organisms leads to the development of different cell types. The important epigenetic regulators of higher eukaryotes are the Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins. These factors control the transcription of a large number of genes involved in various cellular processes. Dysregulation of PcG and TrxG systems leads to developmental abnormalities and cancer. This review focuses on the main characteristics and properties of the Drosophila PRE elements...
February 2017: Genetika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371099/pleiotropic-and-novel-phenotypes-in-the-drosophila-gut-caused-by-mutation-of-drop-dead
#12
Sean Conway, Christine L Sansone, Anika Benske, Kaitlin Kentala, Johan Billen, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Edward M Blumenthal
Normal gut function is vital for animal survival, and deviations from such function can contribute to malnutrition, inflammation, increased susceptibility to pathogens, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, mutation of the gene drop-dead (drd) results in defective gut function, as measured by enlargement of the crop and reduced food movement through the gut, and drd mutation also causes the unrelated phenotypes of neurodegeneration, early adult lethality and female sterility...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369778/reinterpreting-polarity-and-cancer-the-changing-landscape-from-tumor-suppression-to-tumor-promotion
#13
REVIEW
Yasuhiro Saito, Ridhdhi R Desai, Senthil K Muthuswamy
Cell polarity is a fundamental property used to generate asymmetry and structure in all cells. Cancer is associated with loss of cell and tissue structure. While observations made in model system such as Drosophila, identify polarity regulators as tumor suppressors that cause inappropriate cell division, studies in mammalian epithelia do not always support such a causative contribution. Our analysis of published cancer dataset shows that many polarity genes, including PARD6B, SCRIB, PRKCI, DLG1, DLG2, DLG5 and LLGL2, are frequently amplified in multiple cancers raising the possibility that mammalian epithelia may have evolved to use polarity proteins in multiple ways where they may have tumor promoting functions...
January 21, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361610/mir-9a-mediates-the-role-of-lethal-giant-larvae-as-an-epithelial-growth-inhibitor-in-drosophila
#14
Scott G Daniel, Atlantis D Russ, Kathryn M Guthridge, Ammad I Raina, Patricia S Estes, Linda M Parsons, Helena E Richardson, Joyce A Schroeder, Daniela C Zarnescu
Drosophila lethal giant larvae (lgl) encodes a conserved tumor suppressor with established roles in cell polarity, asymmetric division, and proliferation control. Lgl's human orthologs, HUGL1 and HUGL2, are altered in human cancers, however, its mechanistic role as a tumor suppressor remains poorly understood. Based on a previously established connection between Lgl and Fragile X protein (FMRP), a miRNA associated translational regulator, we hypothesized that Lgl may exert its role as a tumor suppressor by interacting with the miRNA pathway...
December 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360576/scribble-scrib-knockdown-induces-tumorigenesis-by-modulating-drp1-parkin-mediated-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-the-wing-imaginal-tissues-of-drosophila
#15
Amarish Kumar Yadav, Saripella Srikrishna
scrib loss of function is associated with various human-cancers. Most of the human-cancers have been characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction with elevated oxidative stress. However, the role of scrib to mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer has not been investigated earlier. Here, we have shown that scrib knockdown leads to mitochondrial depolarization, fragmentation and perinuclear-clustering along with disruption of the redox homeostasis. Moreover, the scrib abrogated tumor showed the elevation of Drp-1 and reduced expression of Marf, which suggests enhanced mitochondrial-fission...
January 19, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348307/non-mammalian-models-of-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2
#16
REVIEW
Tirtha K Das, Ross L Cagan
Twenty-five years ago, RET was identified as the primary driver of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) syndrome. MEN2 is characterized by several transformation events including pheochromocytoma, parathyroid adenoma and, especially penetrant, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Overall, MTC is a rare but aggressive type of thyroid cancer for which no effective treatment currently exists. Surgery, radiation, radioisotope treatment and chemotherapeutics have all shown limited success, and none of these approaches have proven durable in advanced disease...
February 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323461/n-benzyl-substitution-of-polyhydroxypyrrolidines-the-way-to-selective-inhibitors-of-golgi-%C3%AE-mannosidase-ii
#17
Sergej Šesták, Maroš Bella, Tomáš Klunda, Soňa Gurská, Petr Džubák, Florian Wöls, Iain Bh Wilson, Vladimir Sladek, Marián Hajdúch, Monika Polakova, Juraj Kóňa
Inhibition of biosynthesis of complex N-glycans in Golgi apparatus influence progress of tumor growth and metastasis. Golgi α-mannosidase II (GMII) has become a therapeutic target for a drug with anticancer activities. One critical task for successful application GMII drugs in medicine treatment is to reduce their unwanted co-inhibition with lysosomal α-mannosidase (LMan) by which suffer all known potent GMII inhibitors. A series of novel N-substituted polyhydroxypyrrolidines was synthesized and tested with modeled GH38 α-mannosidases from Drosophila melanogaster (GMIIb and LManII)...
January 11, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321168/tools-allowing-independent-visualization-and-genetic-manipulation-of-drosophilamelanogaster-macrophages-and-surrounding-tissues
#18
Attila Gyoergy, Marko Roblek, Aparna Ratheesh, Katarina Valoskova, Vera Belyaeva, Stephanie Wachner, Yutaka Matsubayashi, Besaiz J Sánchez-Sánchez, Brian Stramer, Daria E Siekhaus
Drosophila melanogaster plasmatocytes, the phagocytic cells among hemocytes, are essential for immune responses, but also play key roles from early development to death through their interactions with other cell types. They regulate homeostasis and signaling during development, stem cell proliferation, metabolism, cancer, wound responses and aging, displaying intriguing molecular and functional conservation with vertebrate macrophages. Given the relative ease of genetics in Drosophila compared to vertebrates, tools permitting visualization and genetic manipulation of plasmatocytes and surrounding tissues independently at all stages would greatly aid in fully understanding these processes, but are lacking...
January 10, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318543/a-simple-cell-based-assay-for-the%C3%A2-detection-of-surface-protein-shedding-by-rhomboid-proteases
#19
Angela Moncada-Pazos, Adam Graham Grieve
Rhomboids are intramembrane serine proteases that cleave their substrates within or immediately adjacent to their transmembrane domains, a process known as regulated intramembrane proteolysis. In eukaryotes, two main types of rhomboid proteases can be distinguished based on their subcellular localization: mitochondrial rhomboids and secretase-type rhomboids that target the secretory pathway. The latter class can cleave and release the extracellular domain of all epidermal growth factor-like proteins in Drosophila and can liberate epidermal growth factor (EGF) in mammals, in a process known as ectodomain shedding...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312571/systematic-analysis-reveals-tumor-enhancing-and-suppressing-micrornas-in-drosophila-epithelial-tumors
#20
Zhiqiang Shu, Yi-Chun Huang, William H Palmer, Yoichiro Tamori, Gengqiang Xie, Hui Wang, Nan Liu, Wu-Min Deng
Despite their emergence as an important class of noncoding RNAs involved in cancer cell transformation, invasion, and migration, the precise role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tumorigenesis remains elusive. To gain insights into how miRNAs contribute to primary tumor formation, we conducted an RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of Drosophila wing disc epithelial tumors induced by knockdown of a neoplastic tumor-suppressor gene (nTSG) lethal giant larvae (lgl), combined with overexpression of an active form of oncogene Ras (RasV12 ), and identified 51 mature miRNAs that changed significantly in tumorous discs...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
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