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Antidepressants schizophrenia

Nam-In Kang, Jong-Il Park, Yong-Ku Kim, Jong-Chul Yang
OBJECTIVE: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the most abundant and important neurotrophins, is known to be involved in the development, survival, maintenance, and plasticity of neurons in the nervous system. Some studies have suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia. Similarly, it is likely that the alteration of BDNF may be associated with the neuro-modulation that contributes to the development of somatization disorder...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Viacheslav Terevnikov, Jan-Henry Stenberg, Jari Tiihonen, Mark Burkin, Grigori Joffe
AIM: Sexual dysfunction, common in schizophrenia, may be further exaggerated by antipsychotics, especially those of First Generation (FGAs), and antidepressants, such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRs). Mirtazapine, an antidepressant characterized by its different action mechanism compared with that of the majority of other antidepressants, may improve SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in patients with depression. It is unknown, however, whether mirtazapine improves sexual functioning in schizophrenia...
October 5, 2016: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Monika Szkultecka-Dębek, Katarzyna Miernik, Jarosław Stelmachowski, Miro Jakovljević, Vlado Jukić, Kaire Aadamsoo, Sven Janno, István Bitter, Judit Tolna, Marek Jarema, Slobodan Jankovic, Jan Pecenak, Livia Vavrusova, Rok Tavčar, Jacek Walczak, Darren Talbot, Joanna Augustyńska
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to analyze how schizophrenia is pharmacologically treated in seven CEE countries: Croatia, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Slovenia. METHODS: Psychiatrists from selected centers in each of participating countries were asked to complete a pre-defined questionnaire on their current clinical practice. Information on protocols and resource utilization in schizophrenia treatment was included and derived from randomly selected patient medical records...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Kasper Adelborg, Jens Sundbøll, Poul Videbech, Erik L Grove
Arterial and venous thromboembolism are common causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Mental disorders are also highly prevalent with a lifetime risk of experiencing any psychiatric disease ranging between 32 % and 37 %. Depression and schizophrenia may increase the risk of thromboembolism through genetic, behavioral, and biological mechanisms. Treatment of psychiatric patients with psychotropic drugs is imperative to improve quality of life and to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, studies have shown that psychotropic drugs themselves may modify the risk of arterial and venous thromboembolism, which should be taken into consideration when using these drugs in clinical practice...
September 17, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kyeon Raab, Peter Kirsch, Daniela Mier
Detecting and evaluating emotional information from facial expressions as a basis for behavioural adaption belong to the core social-cognitive abilities of mankind. Dysfunctions in emotional face processing are observed in several major psychiatric disorders like depression and schizophrenia. In search for psychiatric disease biomarkers using the imaging genetics approach, serotonergic gene polymorphisms have been associated with altered brain circuit activation during emotional face processing. Especially the 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism has been extensively investigated in association with emotion regulation processes...
September 1, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
María Conchita Ocaña-Zurita, Isela E Juárez-Rojop, Alma Genis, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zárate, Thelma Beatriz González-Castro, María Lilia López-Narváez, María Elena de la O de la O, Humberto Nicolini
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to observe potential drug-drug interactions in the medication of Mexican schizophrenic patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective and cross-sectional study that was carried out in a psychiatric clinic. Only the prescriptions of patients with schizophrenia whose diagnoses were based on the DSM-IV instrument were included in this study. The Drug Interactions Checker software ( ) was used in this study to analyse potential drug-drug interactions...
November 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
David A Gorelick
BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit psychoactive substance world-wide, yet no medication is approved for the treatment of intoxication, withdrawal, or cannabis use disorder (CUD). OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively review the current state of knowledge. METHOD: Search of the PubMed electronic data base and review of reference lists of relevant articles to identify controlled clinical trials of pharmacological treatment. RESULTS: The search identified 4 trials for specific intoxication symptoms (none for global intoxication), 7 trials for withdrawal, and 12 phase II trials for CUD...
August 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Michael J Morris, Elisa S Na, Anita E Autry, Lisa M Monteggia
DNA methylation has been shown to impact certain forms of synaptic and behavioral plasticity that have been implicated in the development in psychiatric disorders. DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) enzymes that continue to be expressed in postmitotic neurons in the forebrain. Using a conditional forebrain knockout of DNMT1 or DNMT3a we assessed the role of these DNMTs in anxiety and depressive-like behavior in mice using an array of behavioral testing paradigms. Forebrain deletion of DNMT1 had anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties as assessed by elevated plus maze, novelty suppressed feeding, forced swim, and social interaction tests...
November 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Andrea Milelli, Eleonora Turrini, Elena Catanzaro, Francesca Maffei, Carmela Fimognari
Preclinical Research A novel and promising approach to overcome the limits of single-target therapy is represented by the multitarget approach. This strategy aims to simultaneously modulate several targets involved in the pathophysiology of a multifactorial disease, with the potential to enhance therapeutic effectiveness and improve drug safety. Although there has been a marked growth in the design of multitarget drugs (MTDs) in the last years in the context of anti-Alzheimer and anti-cancer drug discovery, a parallel expansion was not observed in antipsychotic drugs, even that for psychiatric disorders there is a cogent medical need for new treatments...
August 19, 2016: Drug Development Research
Miroslav Adzic, Zeljka Brkic, Sonja Bulajic, Milos Mitic, Marija B Radojcic
Preclinical Research Mitochondria are cell organelles crucial to the production of cellular energy. Several lines of evidence have indicated that mitochondrial dysfunction could be related to the pathophysiology of CNS diseases including bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia. These changes include impaired energy metabolism in the brain, co-morbidity with mitochondrial diseases, the effects of psychotropics on mitochondrial function, increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion in the brain, and association with mtDNA polymorphisms...
August 19, 2016: Drug Development Research
Dana Kamaradova, Klara Latalova, Jan Prasko, Radim Kubinek, Kristyna Vrbova, Barbora Mainerova, Andrea Cinculova, Marie Ociskova, Michaela Holubova, Jarmila Smoldasova, Anezka Tichackova
INTRODUCTION: Self-stigma plays a role in many areas of the patient's life. Furthermore, it also discourages therapy. The aim of our study was to examine associations between self-stigma and adherence to treatment and discontinuation of medication in patients from various diagnostic groups. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved outpatients attending the Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic. The level of self-stigma was measured with the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness and adherence with the Drug Attitude Inventory...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
Chenjuan Tao, Weiwei Yan, Yuan Li, Xiaodong Lu
Cognitive deficits are a core symptom of schizophrenia. It is controversial whether antidepressants could improve cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia patients. The present study was designed to identify the therapeutic effect of antidepressants on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In the present study, adolescent rats were repeatedly exposed to dizocilpine, which can induce cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Then these rats were treated by six antidepressants (fluvoxamine, sertraline, paroxetine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, mirtazapine) or vehicle...
October 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Monica M Marcus, Carl Björkholm, Anna Malmerfelt, Annie Möller, Ninni Påhlsson, Åsa Konradsson-Geuken, Kristin Feltmann, Kent Jardemark, Björn Schilström, Torgny H Svensson
Nicotine has been found to improve cognition and reduce negative symptoms in schizophrenia and a genetic and pathophysiological link between the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and schizophrenia has been demonstrated. Therefore, there has been a large interest in developing drugs affecting the α7 nAChRs for schizophrenia. In the present study we investigated, in rats, the effects of a selective α7 agonist (PNU282987) and a α7 positive allosteric modulator (PAM; NS1738) alone and in combination with the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone for their utility as adjunct treatment in schizophrenia...
September 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Leslie Citrome
Cariprazine is an antipsychotic medication and received approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in September 2015. Cariprazine is a dopamine D3 and D2 receptor partial agonist, with a preference for the D3 receptor. Cariprazine is also a partial agonist at the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and acts as an antagonist at 5-HT2B and 5-HT2A receptors. The recommended dose range of cariprazine for the treatment of schizophrenia is 1.5-6 mg/d; the starting dose of 1.5 mg/d is potentially therapeutic...
2016: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
Christina M Hough, F Saverio Bersani, Synthia H Mellon, Elissa S Epel, Victor I Reus, Daniel Lindqvist, Jue Lin, Laura Mahan, Rebecca Rosser, Heather Burke, John Coetzee, J Craig Nelson, Elizabeth H Blackburn, Owen M Wolkowitz
Short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) may be associated with several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD). Short LTL has previously been associated with poor response to psychiatric medications in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, but no studies have prospectively assessed the relationship of LTL to SSRI response in MDD. We assessed pre-treatment LTL, depression severity (using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS]), and self-reported positive and negative affect in 27 healthy, unmedicated adults with MDD...
July 2016: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Aviva Breuer, Christeene G Haj, Manoela V Fogaça, Felipe V Gomes, Nicole Rodrigues Silva, João Francisco Pedrazzi, Elaine A Del Bel, Jaime C Hallak, José A Crippa, Antonio W Zuardi, Raphael Mechoulam, Francisco S Guimarães
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major Cannabis sativa constituent, which does not cause the typical marijuana psychoactivity. However, it has been shown to be active in a numerous pharmacological assays, including mice tests for anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression and schizophrenia. In human trials the doses of CBD needed to achieve effects in anxiety and schizophrenia are high. We report now the synthesis of 3 fluorinated CBD derivatives, one of which, 4'-F-CBD (HUF-101) (1), is considerably more potent than CBD in behavioral assays in mice predictive of anxiolytic, antidepressant, antipsychotic and anti-compulsive activity...
2016: PloS One
Domenico De Berardis
Cariprazine (RGH-188) is a novel antipsychotic drug that exerts partial agonism of dopamine D2/D3 receptors with preferential binding to D3 receptor, antagonism of 5HT2B receptors and partial agonism of 5HT1A. Currently, cariprazine is in late-stage clinical development (phase III clinical trials) in patients with schizophrenia (S) and in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), as well as an adjunctive treatment in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and drug-resistant MDD. Cariprazine has completed phase III trials for the acute treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar mania, phase II trials for the bipolar depression and MDD whilst it is undergoing phase III trials as an adjunct to antidepressants...
June 30, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Mariyan K Topolov, Damianka P Getova
Cognition is a group of mental processes that includes the capacity to perceive, think, learn and to study, and the capacity of the brain to analyze information and program adaptive behaviour. Although there has been an appreciable evolution in the therapy of psychoses in the last twenty-five years, cognitive disturbances still persist in spite of antipsychotic treatment. The cognitive decay disrupts the ability of clinically diagnosed patients with psychoses, mainly schizophrenia, to learn and to memorize skills that are useful for their family and social relationships...
March 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Gary Remington, George Foussias, Gagan Fervaha, Ofer Agid, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, Jimmy Lee, Margaret Hahn
Interest in the negative symptoms of schizophrenia has increased rapidly over the last several decades, paralleling a growing interest in functional, in addition to clinical, recovery, and evidence underscoring the importance negative symptoms play in the former. Efforts continue to better define and measure negative symptoms, distinguish their impact from that of other symptom domains, and establish effective treatments as well as trials to assess these. Multiple interventions have been the subject of investigation, to date, including numerous pharmacological strategies, brain stimulation, and non-somatic approaches...
2016: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
Barbara Gellén, Katalin Völgyi, Balázs András Györffy, Boróka Balogh, Zsuzsa Darula, Hunyadi-Gulyás Éva, Péter Baracskay, András Czurkó, István Hernádi, Gábor Juhász, Árpád Dobolyi, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi
: Neonatal rodents chronically treated with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine show depression-like behavior, which persists throughout adulthood. Therefore, this animal model is suitable to investigate the pathomechanism of depression, which is still largely unknown at the molecular level beyond monoaminergic dysfunctions. Here, we describe protein level changes in the prefrontal cortex of neonatally clomipramine-treated adult rats correlating with behavioral abnormalities. Clomipramine was administered to rat pups twice daily between postnatal days 8-21, while controls received saline injections...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
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