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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320364/cardiometabolic-effects-of-psychotropic-medications
#1
REVIEW
Oluchi Abosi, Sneha Lopes, Samantha Schmitz, Jess G Fiedorowicz
Background Many psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression convey an excess burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The medications used to treat these conditions may further adversely affect cardiovascular risk and exacerbate health disparities for vulnerable populations. There is a clinical need to appreciate the cardiometabolic adverse effects of psychotropic medications. Methods This paper reviews the most relevant cardiometabolic effects of psychotropic medications, organized around the components of metabolic syndrome...
January 10, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317062/could-the-screening-for-correct-oral-health-reduce-the-impact-of-death-due-to-bolus-asphyxia-in-adult-patients-a-forensic-case-report
#2
Isabella Aquila, Santo Gratteri, Matteo A Sacco, Emilio Nuzzolese, Vittorio Fineschi, Paola Frati, Pietrantonio Ricci
INTRODUCTION: "Bolus death" or "Café Coronary syndrome" refers to death due to asphyxia caused by an occlusion of the upper airways due to food. In this kind of asphyxia, the food bolus obstructs the larynx or the bronchial branches. This kind of event often affects subjects with acute intoxication due to alcohol or drugs, or with edentulism and with neurological or psychiatric diseases. CASE REPORT: An elderly woman, suffering from schizophrenia, was found dead in her house due to food bolus asphyxia...
January 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302750/decreased-plasma-agmatine-levels-in-autistic-subjects
#3
Erman Esnafoglu, İlhan İrende
Agmatine is a polyamine endogenously synthesized from arginine and is considered to be a new neurotransmitter. Agmatine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases such as anxiety disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Agmatine also possesses anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, antiapoptotic, antioxidant, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Furthermore, agmatine inhibits the nitric oxide synthase enzyme and exerts antagonist effects on NMDA, alpha-2, and imidazoline receptors. Considering these characteristics, the present study investigated whether agmatine plays a role in the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302190/plasma-complement-component-4-increases-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#4
Jinxue Wei, Ye Liu, Liansheng Zhao, Xiao Yang, Peiyan Ni, Yingcheng Wang, Tao Li, Xiaohong Ma
Elevation of plasma inflammatory factors in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been repeatedly observed, but contradictory results have also been reported. Alteration of complement components in MDD may also contribute to the pathophysiology of MDD by participating in inflammation. The recent findings that complement component 4 (C4) was involved in neural synapse elimination and associated with schizophrenia implicated the potential roles of C4 in MDD. In this study, we analyzed the plasma concentration of complement C4 and inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon-α, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, of 53 patients with MDD and 60 healthy individuals...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285684/socioeconomic-disparities-and-metabolic-risk-in-veterans-with-serious-mental-illness
#5
Stanley N Caroff, Shirley H Leong, Daisy Ng-Mak, E Cabrina Campbell, Rosalind M Berkowitz, Krithika Rajagopalan, Chien-Chia Chuang, Antony Loebel
Socioeconomic disparities were assessed in predicting metabolic risk among veterans with serious mental illness. Veterans with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or bipolar disorders were identified in VISN 4 facilities from 10/1/2010 to 9/30/2012. Differences between patients with and without metabolic syndrome were compared using t-tests, Chi square tests and multivariate logistic regressions. Among 10,132 veterans with mental illness, 48.8% had metabolic syndrome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that patients with metabolic syndrome were significantly more likely to be older, male, African-American, married, and receiving disability pensions but less likely to be homeless...
December 28, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239218/the-influence-of-aripiprazole-and-venlafaxine-on-the-antidepressant-like-effect-observed-in-prenatally-stressed-rats-animal-model-of-depression
#6
P Ratajczak, K Kus, M Skurzyńska, E Nowakowska
Depression is a nosological entity which may appear alone or concomitantly (e.g. in schizophrenia). Analysis of data from both clinical and experimental studies allows a conclusion that atypical antipsychotics, such as aripiprazole (ARI), may also be effective in treating depression in addition to antidepressants. The aim of the studies was to determine antidepressant efficacy of ARI, venlafaxine (VEN) and combined therapy using both drugs, in prenatally stressed rats (animal depression model) and control group...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230398/insulin-signaling-deficiency-produces-immobility-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-that-models-diminished-motivation-states-in-man-and-responds-to-antidepressants
#7
Julie Dagenhardt, Angeline Trinh, Halen Sumner, Jeffrey Scott, Eric Aamodt, Donard S Dwyer
Defects in insulin signaling have been reported in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, which also share certain negative symptoms such as avolition, anhedonia, and apathy. These symptoms reflect diminished motivational states, which have been modeled in rodents as increased immobility in the forced swimming test. We have discovered that loss-of-function mutations in the insulin receptor (daf-2) and syntaxin (unc-64) genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, brief food deprivation, and exposure to DMSO produce immobility and avolition in non-dauer adults...
November 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225337/divergent-effects-of-acute-and-repeated-quetiapine-treatment-on-dopamine-neuron-activity-in-normal-vs-chronic-mild-stress-induced-hypodopaminergic-states
#8
REVIEW
Jared L Moreines, Zoe L Owrutsky, Kimberly G Gagnon, Anthony A Grace
Clinical evidence supports the use of second-generation dopamine D2 receptor antagonists (D2RAs) as adjunctive therapy or in some cases monotherapy in patients with depression. However, the mechanism for the clinical antidepressant effect of D2RAs remains unclear. Specifically, given accumulating evidence for decreased ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine system function in depression, an antidepressant effect of a medication that is expected to further reduce dopamine system activity seems paradoxical. In the present paper we used electrophysiological single unit recordings of identified VTA dopamine neurons to characterize the impact of acute and repeated administration of the D2RA quetiapine at antidepressant doses in non-stressed rats and those exposed to the chronic mild stress (CMS) rodent depression model, the latter modeling the hypodopaminergic state observed in patients with depression...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215304/weight-gain-changes-in-patients-with-aripiprazole-monotherapy-compared-with-aripiprazole-antidepressant-polypharmacy-in-an-outpatient-sample
#9
Charles Nguyen, Andrei Novac, Jessica Hazen, Pamela Howard, Ryan Tieu, Robert G Bota
OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to evaluate the weight gain effect within a community-based population of patients with diagnoses of depression, mood disorder, and schizophrenia receiving aripiprazole over a period of at least 6 months. METHOD: The four million members of Kaiser Permanente of Southern California (KPSC) were queried for a four-year period between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2013. The initial cohort comprised 25,682 KPSC members who received at least one dispense of aripiprazole...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205993/should-patients-with-schizophrenia-receive-antidepressants
#10
Viacheslav Terevnikov, Jan-Henry Stenberg, Grigori Joffe
Antipsychotics play a key role in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, and monotherapy is effective for most patients. Achieving an optimal treatment response is, however, often difficult. Combining an antidepressant drug to the antipsychotic regimen could potentially improve treatment outcomes, although the evidence supporting the use of such combinations is limited and contradictory. Positive evidence has mostly been obtained from the efficacy of antidepressants acting on monoamine receptors on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203131/electroconvulsive-therapy-and-subsequent-epilepsy-in-patients-with-affective-disorders-a-register-based-danish-cohort-study
#11
Fie Krossdal Bøg, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Merete Osler
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) might increase the risk of epilepsy but the few patient studies with retrospective data from medical records do not support the hypothesis. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between ECT and subsequent incident epilepsy in patients with affective disorder. We also explored whether any association varied with number of ECTs and time since last treatment. METHODS: All 169,457 patients with first hospital contact for an affective disorder between January 2005 and December 2015 were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry and followed for incident epilepsy from January 2005 until November 2016...
November 26, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152847/a-case-study-in-identifying-targeted-patients-population-in-major-depressive-disorder-by-enhanced-enrichment-design
#12
Peter Zhang, Kevin Carroll, Mary Hobart, Carole Augustine, Gary Koch
Despite advances in clinical trial design, failure rates near 80% in phase 2 and 50% in phase 3 have recently been reported. The challenges to successful drug development are particularly acute in central nervous system trials such as for pain, schizophrenia, mania, and depression because high-placebo response rates lessen assay sensitivity, diminish estimated treatment effect sizes, and thereby decrease statistical power. This paper addresses the importance of rigorous patient selection in major depressive disorder trials through an enhanced enrichment paradigm...
November 19, 2017: Pharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147729/regulation-of-human-research-with-lsd-in-the-united-states-1949-1987
#13
REVIEW
Katherine R Bonson
Human research with hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has been ongoing in the USA since 1949. During the 1960s, LSD was investigated for a variety of psychiatric indications, including the following: as an aid in treatment of schizophrenia; as a means of creating a "model psychosis"; as a direct antidepressant; and as an adjunct to psychotherapy. Studies with all drugs, including LSD, have always been conducted under federal regulatory controls, including the 1938 Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FDCA; which ensured the safety of drugs) and the 1962 Kefauver-Harris Amendments to the FDCA (which described appropriate scientific methodology and ensured drug efficacy)...
November 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102759/preclinical-profile-of-a-dopamine-d1-potentiator-suggests-therapeutic-utility-in-neurological-and-psychiatric-disorders
#14
Robert F Bruns, Stephen N Mitchell, Keith A Wafford, Alex J Harper, Elaine A Shanks, Guy Carter, Michael J O'Neill, Tracey K Murray, Brian J Eastwood, John M Schaus, James P Beck, Junliang Hao, Jeffrey M Witkin, Xia Li, Eyassu Chernet, Jason S Katner, Hong Wang, John W Ryder, Meghane E Masquelin, Linda K Thompson, Patrick L Love, Deanna L Maren, Julie F Falcone, Michelle M Menezes, Linli Zhang, Charles R Yang, Kjell A Svensson
DETQ, an allosteric potentiator of the dopamine D1 receptor, was tested in therapeutic models that were known to respond to D1 agonists. Because of a species difference in affinity for DETQ, all rodent experiments used transgenic mice expressing the human D1 receptor (hD1 mice). When given alone, DETQ reversed the locomotor depression caused by a low dose of reserpine. DETQ also acted synergistically with L-DOPA to reverse the strong hypokinesia seen with a higher dose of reserpine. These results indicate potential as both monotherapy and adjunct treatment in Parkinson's disease...
January 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077651/exploring-the-relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-positive-symptom-severity-in-persons-at-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#15
Fernando Caravaggio, Gary Brucato, Lawrence S Kegeles, Eugénie Lehembre-Shiah, Leigh Y Arndt, Tiziano Colibazzi, Ragy Girgis
Metabolic health and positive symptom severity has been investigated in schizophrenia, but not in clinical high risk (CHR) patients. We hypothesized that greater body mass index (BMI) in CHR patients would be related to less positive symptoms. We examined this relationship in CHR patients being treated with 1) no psychotropic medications (n = 58), 2) an antipsychotic (n = 14), or 3) an antidepressant without an antipsychotic (n = 10). We found no relationship between BMI and positive symptoms in unmedicated CHR patients, the majority of whom had a narrow BMI range between 20 and 30...
November 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075577/effects-of-hint1-deficiency-on-emotional-like-behaviors-in-mice-under-chronic-immobilization-stress
#16
Liankang Sun, Peng Liu, Fei Liu, Yuan Zhou, Zheng Chu, Yuqi Li, Guang Chu, Ying Zhang, Jiabei Wang, Yong-Hui Dang
BACKGROUND: Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) is regarded as a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor and is closely associated with diverse neuropsychiatric diseases. Moreover, HINT1 is related to gender-specific acute behavior changes in schizophrenia and in response to nicotine. Stress has a range of molecular effects in emotional disorders, which can cause a reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus, resulting in hippocampal atrophy and neuronal cell loss...
October 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033796/laminar-and-cellular-distribution-of-monoamine-receptors-in-rat-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#17
REVIEW
Noemí Santana, Francesc Artigas
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is deeply involved in higher brain functions, many of which are altered in psychiatric conditions. The PFC exerts a top-down control of most cortical and subcortical areas through descending pathways and is densely innervated by axons emerging from the brainstem monoamine cell groups, namely, the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively), the ventral tegmental area and the locus coeruleus (LC). In turn, the activity of these cell groups is tightly controlled by afferent pathways arising from layer V PFC pyramidal neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021759/effects-of-gladiolus-dalenii-on-the-stress-induced-behavioral-neurochemical-and-reproductive-changes-in-rats
#18
David Fotsing, Gwladys T Ngoupaye, Agnes C Ouafo, Stephanie K J Njapdounke, Yongabi A Kenneth, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
Gladiolus dalenii is a plant commonly used in many regions of Cameroon as a cure for various diseases like headaches, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and mood disorders. Recent studies have revealed that the aqueous extract of G. dalenii (AEGD) exhibited antidepressant-like properties in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the AEGD could protect from the stress-induced behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive changes in rats. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the effect of the AEGD on behavioral, neurochemical, and reproductive characteristics, using female rats subjected to chronic immobilization stress...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017334/brexpiprazole-a-new-leaf-on-the-partial-dopamine-agonist-branch
#19
Judy Hope, David Castle, Nicholas A Keks
OBJECTIVES: Brexpiprazole is a new dopamine partial agonist antipsychotic in the same class as aripiprazole. This paper will briefly review brexpiprazole and compare it with aripiprazole. CONCLUSIONS: Brexpiprazole and aripiprazole are both partial agonists at dopamine D2, and serotonin 5-HT1A and antagonists at serotonin 5-HT2A and noradrenergic α1B receptors. However, the two drugs are significantly different in potencies at various receptors; neurochemical profiles predict that brexpiprazole may be comparable with aripiprazole in its antipsychotic efficacy but may cause less akathisia, extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) and activation...
October 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988045/prescribing-practices-in-southeastern-europe-focus-on-benzodiazepine-prescription-at-discharge-from-nine-university-psychiatric-hospitals
#20
Nadja P Maric, Milan Latas, Sanja Andric Petrovic, Ivan Soldatovic, Slavica Arsova, Danijel Crnkovic, Dragoslava Gugleta, Aleksandar Ivezic, Vladimir Janjic, Dalibor Karlovic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski, Alma Mihaljevic-Peles, Antoni Novotni, Bojana Pejuskovic, Branimir Radmanovic, Djendji Siladji Mladenovic, Violeta M Slavkovic, Zoran Stimac, Olivera Zikic
There is much concern about the widespread long-term use of benzodiazepines. Our manuscript addressed its use in the region of Southeastern Europe, which seems extensive, but insufficiently explored. At nine university psychiatric hospitals (Croatia, Macedonia and Serbia), we retrospectively analyzed discharge summary documents to find the prevalence of discharge benzodiazepine prescriptions and the prescribed benzodiazepine doses. This study included 1047 adult subjects and showed that 81.9% of them had benzodiazepines prescribed in the discharge summary document, with high mean daily dose of around 5mg lorazepam equivalents...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
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