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Laurent brochard

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035541/hydration-phase-diagram-of-clay-particles-from-molecular-simulations
#1
Tulio Honorio, Laurent Brochard, Matthieu Vandamme
Adsorption plays a fundamental role in the behavior of clays. Due to the confinement between clay solid layers at the nanoscale, adsorbed water is structured in layers, which can occupy a specific volume. The transition between these states is intimately related to key features of clay thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior. In this paper, we consider the hydration states of clays as phases and the transition between these states, as phase changes. The thermodynamic formulation supporting this idea is presented. Then, results from grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of sodium-montmorillonite are used to derive hydration phase diagrams...
October 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991086/bowel-dysfunction-related-to-spina-bifida-keep-it-simple
#2
Charlène Brochard, Benoît Peyronnet, Anne Dariel, Hélène Ménard, Andréa Manunta, Alain Ropert, Michel Neunlist, Guillaume Bouguen, Laurent Siproudhis
BACKGROUND: Although care of urological disorders in spina bifida is well established, there is yet no agreement on a standardized approach to bowel dysfunction in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess bowel dysfunction using validated instruments and the risk factors in adults with spina bifida. DESIGN: A multidisciplinary team prospectively collected patient data, focusing on anorectal and urological symptoms...
November 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986852/effect-of-inspiratory-synchronization-during-pressure-controlled-ventilation-on-lung-distension-and-inspiratory-effort
#3
Nuttapol Rittayamai, François Beloncle, Ewan C Goligher, Lu Chen, Jordi Mancebo, Jean-Christophe M Richard, Laurent Brochard
BACKGROUND: In pressure-controlled (PC) ventilation, tidal volume (V T) and transpulmonary pressure (P L ) result from the addition of ventilator pressure and the patient's inspiratory effort. PC modes can be classified into fully, partially, and non-synchronized modes, and the degree of synchronization may result in different V T and P L despite identical ventilator settings. This study assessed the effects of three PC modes on V T, P L , inspiratory effort (esophageal pressure-time product, PTPes), and airway occlusion pressure, P 0...
October 6, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985479/mechanical-ventilation-in-adults-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-summary-of-the-experimental-evidence-for-the-clinical-practice-guideline
#4
Lorenzo Del Sorbo, Ewan Goligher, Daniel F McAuley, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Laurent J Brochard, Luciano Gattinoni, Arthur S Slutsky, Eddy Fan
RATIONALE: The ATS/ESICM/SCCM guidelines on mechanical ventilation in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome provide treatment recommendations derived from a thorough analysis of the clinical evidence on six clinical interventions. However, each of the recommendations contains areas of uncertainty and controversy, which may affect their appropriate clinical application. OBJECTIVES: To provide a critical review of the experimental evidence surrounding the pathophysiology of ventilator-induced lung injury to help clinicians apply the clinical recommendations to individual patients...
October 6, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957568/presentations-and-outcomes-of-juvenile-dermatomyositis-patients-admitted-to-intensive-care-units
#5
Alix Besançon, Karine Brochard, Laurent Dupic, Cyril Gitiaux, Marianne Delville, Saoussen Krid, Pierre Quartier, Elsa Saire, Rémi Salomon, Cécile Talbotec, Christine Bodemer, Brigitte Bader-Meunier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950040/fecal-incontinence-in-patients-with-spina-bifida-the-target-is-the-rectum
#6
Charlène Brochard, Alain Ropert, Benoît Peyronnet, Hélène Ménard, Andréa Manunta, Michel Neunlist, Guillaume Bouguen, Laurent Siproudhis
AIMS: The prevalence rate of severe fecal incontinence (FI) in adults with spina bifida (SB) is high. The physiological basis of FI in SB has not been clearly established, which contributes to inadequate care. The aim was to better characterize a large cohort of adults with special consideration of anorectal physiology. METHODS: A multidisciplinary team from a French referral centre for SB prospectively collected data on patients who had an anorectal manometry. Factors associated with severe FI (Cleveland clinical incontinence score ≥ 9) were assessed in a multivariate analysis model...
September 26, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948309/do-we-need-randomized-clinical-trials-in-extracorporeal-respiratory-support-we-are-not-sure
#7
EDITORIAL
Jean-Louis Vincent, Laurent J Brochard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 25, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940670/deoxygenation-of-inspiratory-muscles-during-cycling-hyperpnoea-and-loaded-breathing-in-health-and-disease-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Takako Tanaka, Nada Basoudan, Luana T Melo, Lisa Wickerson, Laurent J Brochard, Ewan C Goligher, W Darlene Reid
Assessing inspiratory muscle deoxygenation and blood flow can provide insight into anaerobic stress, recruitment strategies and mechanisms of inspiratory muscle limitation. Therefore, this review aimed to synthesize measurements of inspiratory muscle oxyhaemoglobin (O2 Hb), deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb), blood volume and flow of the inspiratory muscles acquired via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cycling, hyperpnoea and loaded breathing in healthy non-athletes, healthy athletes and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or chronic heart failure (CHF)...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930478/mechanical-ventilation-induced-diaphragm-atrophy-strongly-impacts-clinical-outcomes
#9
Ewan C Goligher, Martin Dres, Eddy Fan, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Damon C Scales, Margaret S Herridge, Stefannie Vorona, Michael C Sklar, Nuttapol Rittayamai, Ashley Lanys, Alistair Murray, Deborah Brace, Cristian Urrea, W Darlene Reid, George Tomlinson, Arthur S Slutsky, Brian P Kavanagh, Laurent J Brochard, Niall D Ferguson
Rationale Diaphragm dysfunction worsens outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients but the clinical impact of potentially preventable changes in diaphragm structure and function due to mechanical ventilation is unknown. Objectives To determine whether diaphragm atrophy developing during mechanical ventilation leads to prolonged ventilation. Methods Diaphragm thickness was measured daily by ultrasound in adults requiring invasive mechanical ventilation; inspiratory effort was assessed by thickening fraction...
September 20, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926124/reliability-of-urinary-cytology-and-cystoscopy-for-the-screening-and-diagnosis-of-bladder-cancer-in-patients-with-neurogenic-bladder-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Quentin Alimi, Juliette Hascoet, Andrea Manunta, Solène-Florence Kammerer-Jacquet, Grégory Verhoest, Charlène Brochard, Lucas Freton, Jacques Kerdraon, Nelly Senal, Laurent Siproudhis, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Benjamin Brucker, Xavier Gamé, Benoit Peyronnet
AIMS: To assess the reliability of urinary cytology and cystoscopy to screen and diagnose bladder cancer in patients with NB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search of the Medline and Embase databases was performed in April 2017. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers. A narrative synthesis was made. RESULTS: Out of 220 records assessed, 15 were included in this systematic review. All studies were prospective or retrospective series with no control group...
September 19, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917004/critical-illness-associated-diaphragm-weakness
#11
REVIEW
Martin Dres, Ewan C Goligher, Leo M A Heunks, Laurent J Brochard
Diaphragm weakness is highly prevalent in critically ill patients. It may exist prior to ICU admission and may precipitate the need for mechanical ventilation but it also frequently develops during the ICU stay. Several risk factors for diaphragm weakness have been identified; among them sepsis and mechanical ventilation play central roles. We employ the term critical illness-associated diaphragm weakness to refer to the collective effects of all mechanisms of diaphragm injury and weakness occurring in critically ill patients...
September 15, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899408/respiratory-support-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-an-expert-opinion
#12
REVIEW
Davide Chiumello, Laurent Brochard, John J Marini, Arthur S Slutsky, Jordi Mancebo, V Marco Ranieri, B Taylor Thompson, Laurent Papazian, Marcus J Schultz, Marcelo Amato, Luciano Gattinoni, Alain Mercat, Antonio Pesenti, Daniel Talmor, Jean-Louis Vincent
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common condition in intensive care unit patients and remains a major concern, with mortality rates of around 30-45% and considerable long-term morbidity. Respiratory support in these patients must be optimized to ensure adequate gas exchange while minimizing the risks of ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of this expert opinion document is to review the available clinical evidence related to ventilator support and adjuvant therapies in order to provide evidence-based and experience-based clinical recommendations for the management of patients with ARDS...
September 12, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870355/mechanical-ventilation-state-of-the-art
#13
REVIEW
Tài Pham, Laurent J Brochard, Arthur S Slutsky
Mechanical ventilation is the most used short-term life support technique worldwide and is applied daily for a diverse spectrum of indications, from scheduled surgical procedures to acute organ failure. This state-of-the-art review provides an update on the basic physiology of respiratory mechanics, the working principles, and the main ventilatory settings, as well as the potential complications of mechanical ventilation. Specific ventilatory approaches in particular situations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are detailed along with protective ventilation in patients with normal lungs...
September 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860265/official-ers-ats-clinical-practice-guidelines-noninvasive-ventilation-for-acute-respiratory-failure
#14
Bram Rochwerg, Laurent Brochard, Mark W Elliott, Dean Hess, Nicholas S Hill, Stefano Nava, Paolo Navalesi, Massimo Antonelli, Jan Brozek, Giorgio Conti, Miquel Ferrer, Kalpalatha Guntupalli, Samir Jaber, Sean Keenan, Jordi Mancebo, Sangeeta Mehta, Suhail Raoof
Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is widely used in the acute care setting for acute respiratory failure (ARF) across a variety of aetiologies. This document provides European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society recommendations for the clinical application of NIV based on the most current literature.The guideline committee was composed of clinicians, methodologists and experts in the field of NIV. The committee developed recommendations based on the GRADE (Grading, Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methodology for each actionable question...
August 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842719/ten-tips-to-facilitate-understanding-and-clinical-use-of-esophageal-pressure-manometry
#15
Takeshi Yoshida, Laurent Brochard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 25, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828360/transpulmonary-pressure-importance-and-limits
#16
REVIEW
Domenico Luca Grieco, Lu Chen, Laurent Brochard
Transpulmonary pressure (PL) is computed as the difference between airway pressure and pleural pressure and separates the pressure delivered to the lung from the one acting on chest wall and abdomen. Pleural pressure is measured as esophageal pressure (PES) through dedicated catheters provided with esophageal balloons. We discuss the role of PL in assessing the effects of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the supine position, directly measured PL represents the pressure acting on the alveoli and airways...
July 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767269/reply-to-can-the-wind-definition-classify-all-invasively-ventilated-patients
#17
Gaëtan Béduneau, Tài Pham, Laurent Brochard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742375/continuous-negative-abdominal-pressure-recruits-lungs-at-lower-distending-pressures
#18
Takeshi Yoshida, Doreen Engelberts, Gail Otulakowski, Bhushan Katira, Martin Post, Niall D Ferguson, Laurent Brochard, Marcelo B P Amato, Brian P Kavanagh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728412/role-of-interfaces-in-elasticity-and-failure-of-clay-organic-nanocomposites-toughening-upon-interface-weakening
#19
György Hantal, Laurent Brochard, Roland J-M Pellenq, Franz-Joseph Ulm, Benoit Coasne
Synthetic organic-inorganic composites constitute a new class of engineering materials finding applications in an increasing range of fields. The interface between the constituting phases plays a pivotal role in the enhancement of mechanical properties. In exfoliated clay-organic nanocomposites, individual, high aspect ratio clay sheets are dispersed in the organic matrix providing large interfaces and hence efficient stress transfer. In this study, we aim at elucidating molecular-scale reinforcing mechanisms in a series of model clay-organic composite systems by means of reactive molecular simulations...
August 3, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633598/metabolism-of-inhaled-methylethylketone-in-rats
#20
Frédéric Cosnier, Stéphane Grossmann, Hervé Nunge, Céline Brochard, Samuel Muller, Anne-Marie Lambert-Xolin, Sylvie Sebillaud, Benoît Rieger, Aurélie Thomas, Marie-Josèphe Décret, Manuella Burgart, Laurent Gaté, Benoît Cossec, Pierre Campo
Methylethylketone (MEK) is widely used in industry, often in combination with other compounds. Although nontoxic, it can make other chemicals harmful. This study investigates the fate of MEK in rat blood, brain and urine as well as its hepatic metabolism following inhalation over 1 month (at 20, 200 or 1400 ppm). MEK did not significantly accumulate in the organism: blood concentrations were similar after six-hour or 1-month inhalation periods, and brain concentrations only increased slightly after 1 month's exposure...
February 28, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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