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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055138/effects-of-a-bone-graft-substitute-consisting-of-porous-gradient-ha-zro2-and-gelatin-chitosan-slow-release-hydrogel-containing-bmp-2-and-bmscs-on-lumbar-vertebral-defect-repair-in-rhesus-monkey
#1
Rong-Xue Shao, Ren-Fu Quan, Tuo Wang, Wei-Bin Du, Gao-Yong Jia, Dong Wang, Long-Bao Lv, Cai-Yin Xu, Xi-Cheng Wei, Jin-Fu Wang, Di-Sheng Yang
Dense biomaterial plays an important role in bone replacement. However, it fails to induce bone-cell migration into graft material. In the present study, a novel bone-graft substitute (BGS) consisting of porous gradient HA/ZrO2 composite (PGHC) and gelatin/chitosan slow-release hydrogel containing BMP-2 and BMSCs was designed and prepared to repair lumbar vertebral defects. The morphological characteristics of the BGS evaluated by scanning electron microscope showed that it had a three-dimensional network structure with uniformly distributed chitosan microspheres on the surfaces of the graft material and the interior of the pores...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053076/protective-effect-of-biodegradable-nerve-conduit-against-peripheral-nerve-adhesion-after-neurolysis
#2
Kosuke Shintani, Takuya Uemura, Kiyohito Takamatsu, Takuya Yokoi, Ema Onode, Mitsuhiro Okada, Hiroaki Nakamura
OBJECTIVE Peripheral nerve adhesion caused by extraneural and intraneural scar formation after neurolysis leads to nerve dysfunction. The authors previously developed a novel very flexible biodegradable nerve conduit composed of poly(L-lactide) and poly(ε-caprolactone) for use in peripheral nerve regeneration. In the present study, they investigated the effect of protective nerve wrapping on preventing adhesion in a rat sciatic nerve adhesion model. METHODS Rat sciatic nerves were randomly assigned to one of the following four groups: a no-adhesion group, which involved neurolysis alone without an adhesion procedure; an adhesion group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis, but no treatment was subsequently administered; a nerve wrap group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis and protective nerve wrapping was then performed with the nerve conduit; and a hyaluronic acid (HA) group, in which the adhesion procedure was performed after neurolysis and nerve wrapping was then performed with a 1% sodium HA viscous solution...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043110/neurodynamic-mobilization-and-foam-rolling-improved-delayed-onset-muscle-soreness-in-a-healthy-adult-population-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
Blanca Romero-Moraleda, Roy La Touche, Sergio Lerma-Lara, Raúl Ferrer-Peña, Víctor Paredes, Ana Belén Peinado, Daniel Muñoz-García
OBJECTIVES: Compare the immediate effects of a Neurodynamic Mobilization (NM) treatment or foam roller (FR) treatment after DOMS. DESIGN: Double blind randomised clinical trial. SETTING: The participants performed 100 drop jumps (5 sets of 20 repetitions, separated by 2 min rests) from a 0.5-m high box in a University biomechanics laboratory to induce muscle soreness. The participants were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced fashion to either a FR or NM treatment group...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043073/predator-and-prey-functional-traits-understanding-the-adaptive-machinery-driving-predator-prey-interactions
#4
REVIEW
Oswald Schmitz
Predator-prey relationships are a central component of community dynamics. Classic approaches have tried to understand and predict these relationships in terms of consumptive interactions between predator and prey species, but characterizing the interaction this way is insufficient to predict the complexity and context dependency inherent in predator-prey relationships. Recent approaches have begun to explore predator-prey relationships in terms of an evolutionary-ecological game in which predator and prey adapt to each other through reciprocal interactions involving context-dependent expression of functional traits that influence their biomechanics...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037534/biomechanical-comparison-of-three-different-plate-configurations-for-comminuted-clavicle-midshaft-fracture-fixation
#5
Gokcer Uzer, Fatih Yildiz, Suat Batar, Ergun Bozdag, Hacer Kuduz, Kerem Bilsel
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the fixation rigidity of anterior, anterosuperior, and superior plates in the treatment of comminuted midshaft clavicle fractures. METHODS: Six-hole titanium alloy plates were produced according to anatomic features of fourth-generation artificial clavicle models for anterior (group I; n = 14), anterosuperior (group II; n = 14), and superior (group III; n = 14) fixation. After plate fixation, 5-mm segments were resected from the middle third of each clavicle to create comminuted fracture models...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033262/primary-stability-of-different-plate-positions-and-the-role-of-bone-substitute-in-open-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy
#6
Ryohei Takeuchi, Jung Woon-Hwa, Hiroyuki Ishikawa, Yuichiro Yamaguchi, Katsunari Osawa, Yasushi Akamatsu, Koichi Kuroda
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical fixation strengths of anteromedial and medial plate positions in osteotomy, and clarify the effects of bone substitute placement into the osteotomy site. METHODS: Twenty-eight sawbone tibia models were used. Four different models were prepared: Group A, the osteotomy site was open and the plate position was anteromedial; Group B, bone substitutes were inserted into the osteotomy site and the plate position was anteromedial; Group C, the osteotomy site was open and the plate position was medial; and Group D, bone substitutes were inserted into the osteotomy site and the plate position was medial...
October 12, 2017: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032860/biomechanical-comparison-of-two-different-locking-plates-for-open-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy
#7
Nienke van Egmond, Dennis Janssen, Gerjon Hannink, Nico Verdonschot, Albert van Kampen
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical stability of a relatively thin locking plate (FlexitSystem implant) with a relatively firm locking plate (TomoFix implant), both used for opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. METHODS: Seven fresh frozen paired human cadaveric tibiae were used. The opening wedge high tibial osteotomies in the left tibiae were fixated with the FlexitSystem implant and in the right tibiae with the TomoFix implant. The tibiae were CT-scanned to determine the bone mineral density...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032307/biomechanical-properties-of-different-techniques-used-in-vitro-for-suturing-mid-substance-achilles-tendon-ruptures
#8
Carlos De la Fuente, Carlos Cruz-Montecinos, Helen L Schimidt, Hugo Henríquez, Sebastián Ruidiaz, Felipe P Carpes
BACKGROUND: The Dresden technique preserves the paratenon during Achilles tendon repair and may improve the plantarflexor mechanism when combined with mobilization during early rehabilitation. However, the surgical repair design for Achilles tendon ruptures can affect rates of re-rupture or lengthening. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the biomechanical properties of the Krackow, Double-Kessler, Double-Dresden, and Triple-Dresden techniques used for repairing mid-substance Achilles tendon ruptures during cyclical and maximum traction...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031337/physiologic-changes-of-the-musculoskeletal-system-with-aging-a-brief-review
#9
REVIEW
Walter R Frontera
Aging is one of the important challenges of modern society. Advanced adult age is associated with changes in many physiologic systems. Of particular interest is the musculoskeletal system because it directly contributes to mobility and functional independence. Skeletal muscle mass and strength decline with age. These changes are mostly due to a reduction in the number of muscle fibers and cellular and molecular changes that reduce the force-generation process. Bone mass and architecture are compromised and may result in fractures...
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025603/triangular-block-bridge-method-for-surgical-treatment-of-complex-proximal-humeral-fractures-theoretical-concept-surgical-technique-and-clinical-results
#10
Raffaele Russo, Daniela D'Auria, Michele Ciccarelli, Giuseppe Della Rotonda, Gesualdo D'Elia, Bruno Siciliano
INTRODUCTION: Criteria for classification, indication and choice of a surgical device to treat proximal humeral fractures are still controversial. We report an original technique based on a mechanical concept with a structural principle of a triangle as a rigid body applied to the humeral head fractures in association with other devices. This retrospective study aims to describe in detail the surgical technique and results at long time follow up. METHODS AND MATERIAL: We analysed two series of 101 patients with proximal humeral fractures (mean age, 52...
October 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024060/loss-of-dnmt3b-in-chondrocytes-leads-to-delayed-endochondral-ossification-and-fracture-repair
#11
Cuicui Wang, Yousef Abu-Amer, Regis J O'Keefe, Jie Shen
Despite advanced understanding of signaling mediated by local and systemic factors, the role of epigenetic factors in the regulation of bone regeneration remains vague. The DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b have tissue specific expression patterns and create unique methylation signatures to regulate gene expression. Using a stabilized murine tibia fracture model we find that Dnmt3b is induced early in fracture healing, peaks at 10 days post fracture (dpf), and declines to nearly undetectable levels by 28 dpf...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022123/assessment-of-a-closed-wash-system-developed-for-processing-living-donor-femoral-heads
#12
M J Eagle, J Man, P Rooney, T A McQuillan, G Galea, J N Kearney
NHS Blood and Transplant Tissue and Eye Services (TES) and Scottish National Blood Transfusion Services Tissues and Cells Directorate (TCD) currently bank whole, frozen femoral head bone from living donors who are undergoing primary hip replacement surgery. When required, the bone is issued to a surgeon still frozen on dry ice (- 79 °C). Consequently, the femoral head bone is not processed, is not sterilised and at the time of issue, it contains donor blood, bone marrow and associated cells. We have previously shown that, cut, shaped and washed bone from deceased donors can be processed to remove up to 99...
October 11, 2017: Cell and Tissue Banking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016393/biomechanical-implications-of-training-volume-and-intensity-in-aging-runners
#13
Max R Paquette, Paul DeVita, D S Blaise Williams
Running speed is slower in middle-aged compared to younger runners due to reduced ankle but not hip and knee kinetic output. Running-specific training helps attenuate age-related declines in measures of endurance, muscle strength and gait speed. Considering the adaptability of the human body in response to imposed stresses, maintaining training volume and intensity may play a role in modifying running biomechanics in middle-aged runners. PURPOSE: To compare running biomechanics between young and middle-aged runners when controlling for the confounding effects of training volume and intensity...
October 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991829/sepsis-reduces-bone-strength-before-morphologic-changes-are-identifiable
#14
Zudin A Puthucheary, Yao Sun, Kaiyang Zeng, Lien Hong Vu, Zhi Wei Zhang, Ryan Z L Lim, Nicholas S Y Chew, Matthew E Cove
OBJECTIVES: Survivors of critical illness have an increased prevalence of bone fractures. However, early changes in bone strength, and their relationship to structural changes, have not been described. We aimed to characterize early changes in bone functional properties in critical illness and their relationship to changes in bone structure, using a sepsis rodent model. DESIGN: Experimental study. SETTING: Animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Adult Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 6, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989101/securing-extraocular-muscles-in-strabismus-surgery-laboratory-analysis-of-biomechanical-parameters-related-to-the-suture
#15
Steven E Brooks
PURPOSE: To investigate the tensile properties of several components used to secure extraocular muscle to sclera in strabismus surgery to determine potential failure points. METHODS: A digital force gauge measured the tensile strength of intact or damaged 6-0 Vicryl suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ), as well as threads tied in a 2-1-1 or 2-1-1-1 surgeon's knot configuration. Human sclera was used to test the resistance to drag of knotted and unknotted 6-0 Vicryl suture thread through partial thickness sclera...
October 5, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987400/minimum-distance-of-suture-anchors-used-for-rotator-cuff-repair-without-decreasing-the-pullout-strength-a-biomechanical-study
#16
Jun Kawakami, Nobuyuki Yamamoto, Hideaki Nagamoto, Eiji Itoi
PURPOSE: To investigate the minimum distance between the anchors without decreasing the pullout strength using the polyurethane foams and the porcine bones. METHODS: Metal screw-type anchors and PEEK (polyether ether ketone) coil-type anchors were used. Two same-type suture anchors were placed into the polyurethane foams and porcine bones. The polyurethane foams were 3 different densities simulating severe osteoporosis, osteoporosis, and normal bone. The distances between the centers of anchors were set at 4, 6, 8, and 10 mm...
October 5, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985577/characteristics-of-clinical-measurements-between-biomechanical-responders-and-non-responders-to-a-shoe-designed-for-knee-osteoarthritis
#17
Yongwook Kim, Jim Richards, Roy H Lidtke, Renato Trede
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of biomechanical and clinical measurements in relation to the knee adduction moment when wearing a standard shoe and a shoe design for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (Flex-OA). METHODS: Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-two healthy individuals (64 knees) using a ten camera motion analysis system and four force plates. Subjects performed 5 walking trials under the two conditions and the magnitude of individuals' biomechanical responses where explored in relation to the clinical assessment of the Foot Posture Index, hip rotation range, strength of hip rotators, and active ankle-foot motion, all of which have been described as possible compensation mechanisms in knee osteoarthritis...
September 29, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982537/collagen-iv-trafficking-the-inside-out-and-beyond-story
#18
REVIEW
Alexa Chioran, Sebastian Duncan, Andrew Catalano, Theodore J Brown, Maurice J Ringuette
Collagen IV networks endow basement membranes (BMs) with remarkable tensile strength and function as morphoregulatory substrata for diverse tissue-specific developmental events. A complex repertoire of intracellular and extracellular molecular interactions are required for collagen IV secretion and supramolecular assembly into BMs. These include intracellular chaperones such as Heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47) and the chaperone-binding trafficking protein Transport and Golgi organization protein 1 (Tango1). Mutations in these proteins lead to compromised collagen IV protomer stability and secretion, leading to defective BM assembly and function...
October 2, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981787/the-strength-of-plants-theory-and-experimental-methods-to-measure-the-mechanical-properties-of-stems
#19
Darshil U Shah, Thomas P S Reynolds, Michael H Ramage, Christine Raines
From the stems of agricultural crops to the structural trunks of trees, studying the mechanical behaviour of plant stems is critical for both commerce and science. Plant scientists are also increasingly relying on mechanical test data for plant phenotyping. Yet there are neither standardized methods nor systematic reviews of current methods for the testing of herbaceous stems. We discuss the architecture of plant stems and highlight important micro- and macrostructural parameters that need to be controlled and accounted for when designing test methodologies, or that need to be understood in order to explain observed mechanical behaviour...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971694/biomechanical-comparison-of-intramedullary-fibular-nail-versus-plate-and-screw-fixation
#20
George Smith, Samuel Peter Mackenzie, Robert James Wallace, Tom Carter, Timothy Oliver White
BACKGROUND: Clinical evidence has shown that percutaneous ankle fracture fixation using an intramedullary fibular nail results in good outcomes at 1 year and reduces postoperative wound complications in patients with vulnerable soft tissues. Confirmatory biomechanical evidence of its strength when used to secure a supination external rotation (SER) IV (AO/OTA 44B-type) fracture, compared with traditional plates and screws, is currently lacking. METHODS: Twenty cadaveric lower limbs (10 cadavers) had a SER IV injury surgically created...
September 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
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