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Biomechanical strength

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913176/rotary-ultrasonic-bone-drilling-improved-pullout-strength-and-reduced-damage
#1
Vishal Gupta, Pulak M Pandey, Vadim V Silberschmidt
Bone drilling is one of the most common operations used to repair fractured parts of bones. During a bone drilling process, microcracks are generated on the inner surface of the drilled holes that can detrimentally affect osteosynthesis and healing. This study focuses on the investigation of microcracks and pullout strength of cortical-bone screws in drilled holes. It compares conventional surgical bone drilling (CSBD) with rotary ultrasonic bone drilling (RUBD), a novel approach employing ultrasonic vibration with a diamond-coated hollow tool...
November 29, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910295/combined-application-of-prophylactic-corneal-cross-linking-and-laser-in-situ-keratomileusis-a-review-of-literature
#2
REVIEW
Tommy C Y Chan, Alex L K Ng, Karen K W Chan, George P M Cheng, Ian Y H Wong, Vishal Jhanji
Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is safe and effective laser refractive procedures in treating refractive errors. However, regression of treatment and iatrogenic keratectasia remain to be a major concern, especially in treating thin cornea with high ametropia. Collagen cross-linking (CXL) is an effective method in stopping keratoconus progression through increasing the biomechanical strength of the cornea. Adjuvant cross-linking to refractive procedures can theoretically help prevent regression and reduce the risk of keratectasia development by increasing the mechanical stability of cornea...
December 2, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908411/boron-supplementation-improves-bone-health-of-non-obese-diabetic-mice
#3
Renata Dessordi, Adriano Levi Spirlandeli, Ariane Zamarioli, José Batista Volpon, Anderson Marliere Navarro
Diabetes Mellitus is a condition that predisposes a higher risk for the development of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of boron supplementation on bone microstructure and strength in control and non-obese diabetic mice for 30days. The animals were supplemented with 40μg/0,5ml of boron solution and controls received 0,5ml of distilled water daily. We evaluated the biochemical parameters: total calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and boron; bone analysis: bone computed microtomography, and biomechanical assay with a three point test on the femur...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906473/tensile-comparison-of-polydioxanone-polyglyconate-and-barbed-glycolide-trimethylene-carbonate-suture-in-canine-cadaveric-tensor-fascia-lata
#4
Naomi Shimizu, John Tarlton, Ed Friend, Ivan Doran, Kevin Parsons
OBJECTIVE: To compare the mode of failure, load at yield, ultimate load to failure and stiffness of non-barbed polydioxanone, non-barbed polyglyconate and barbed glycolide-trimethylene carbonate (GTC) suture in canine cadaveric fascia. STUDY DESIGN: Ex vivo biomechanical study. SAMPLE POPULATION: 18 fascia lata specimens from 9 canine cadavers. METHODS: 6 fascia lata specimens were sutured with polydioxanone, 6 with polyglyconate, and 6 with barbed GTC suture...
December 1, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902168/biomechanical-comparison-of-pullout-strengths-of-five-cortical-screw-types-an-innovative-measurement-method
#5
Ahmet Karakaşlı, Nihat Acar, Mehmet Hilal Özcanhan, Fatih Ertem
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess five different cortical screw types using artificial femurs, under equated testing conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the maximum force needed to cause deformation at screw-bone interface using fourth generation composite femurs by conducting separate pullout tests for each screw type. We normalized obtained results with traditional methods and cross-comparison. To conduct pullout tests dependent on screw dimensions, we eliminated the effect of bicortical bone thickness by equalizing the conditions of screw insertion...
December 2016: Eklem Hastalıkları Ve Cerrahisi, Joint Diseases & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901383/security-and-biomechanical-strength-of-three-end-pass-configurations-for-the-terminal-end-of-intradermal-closures-performed-with-unidirectional-barbed-suture-material-in-dogs
#6
Penny J Regier, Daniel D Smeak, Kirk C McGilvray
OBJECTIVE To compare security of continuous intradermal suture lines closed by use of barbed suture with 3 end-pass configurations or without an end-pass configuration. SAMPLE 40 full-thickness, 4-cm-long, parasagittal wounds in canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Each continuous intradermal closure was terminated with 1 of 3 end-pass techniques or without an end-pass configuration (control group). A servohydraulic machine applied tensile load perpendicular to the long axis of the suture line. A load-displacement curve was generated for each sample; maximum load, displacement, stiffness, mode of construct failure, and load at first suture slippage at termination (ie, terminal end of the suture line) were recorded...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895574/robot-assisted-rehabilitation-of-ankle-plantar-flexors-spasticity-a-3-month-study-with-proprioceptive-neuromuscular-facilitation
#7
Zhihao Zhou, Yao Sun, Ninghua Wang, Fan Gao, Kunlin Wei, Qining Wang
In this paper, we aim to investigate the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)-based rehabilitation for ankle plantar flexors spasticity by using a Robotic Ankle-foot Rehabilitation System (RARS). A modified robot-assisted system was proposed, and seven poststroke patients with hemiplegic spastic ankles participated in a 3-month robotic PNF training. Their impaired sides were used as the experimental group, while their unimpaired sides as the control group. A robotic intervention for the experimental group started from a 2-min passive stretching to warming-up or relaxing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles and also ended with the same one...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894941/one-year-of-abaloparatide-a-selective-peptide-activator-of-the-pth1-receptor-increased-bone-mass-and-strength-in-ovariectomized-rats
#8
Aurore Varela, Luc Chouinard, Elisabeth Lesage, Robert Guldberg, Susan Y Smith, Paul J Kostenuik, Gary Hattersley
Abaloparatide is a novel 34 amino acid peptide selected to be a potent and selective activator of the parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTHR1) signaling pathway. The effects of 12months of abaloparatide treatment on bone mass, bone strength and bone quality was assessed in osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats. SD rats were subjected to OVX or sham surgery at 6months of age and left untreated for 3months to allow OVX-induced bone loss. Eighteen OVX rats were sacrificed after this bone depletion period, and the remaining OVX rats received daily s...
November 25, 2016: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893850/a-convenient-in-vivo-model-using-small-interfering-rna-silencing-to-rapidly-assess-skeletal-gene-function
#9
Wen Zhang, Can Liu, Bao Hai, Guohong Du, Hong Wang, Huijie Leng, Yingsheng Xu, Chunli Song
It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA) injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1-2 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887949/pharmacological-effects-of-a-recombinant-hpth-1-34-derived-peptide-on-ovariectomized-rats
#10
Wang Chunxiao, Gu Chengying, Jin Liang, Shi Xiaoming, Guo Feng, Yuan Junting, Wu Wenhui, Wang Yu, Liu Jingjing
A recombinant peptide Pro-Pro-[Arg(11)]hPTH(1-34)-Pro-Pro, was designed, biosynthesized, and purified in our lab (generated by substituting Arg for Leu at position 11 and adding -Pro-Pro to the carboxyl terminus of hPTH(1-34)-peptide), and reported to be capable of enhancing serum calcium level in chicken. In this investigation, we studied its impact on the structure, component, and biomechanical properties of rat bones. The pharmacological effect of Pro-Pro-[Arg(11)]hPTH(1-34)-Pro-Pro was investigated to evaluate its therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteoporosis, one of the most prevalent and rapidly spreading diseases in the world...
November 23, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887036/customized-mandibular-reconstruction-plates-improve-mechanical-performance-in-a-mandibular-reconstruction-model
#11
Ralf Gutwald, Raimund Jaeger, Floor M Lambers
The purpose of this paper was to analyze the biomechanical performance of customized mandibular reconstruction plates with optimized strength. The best locations for increasing bar widths were determined with a sensitivity analysis. Standard and customized plates were mounted on mandible models and mechanically tested. Maximum stress in the plate could be reduced from 573 to 393 MPa (-31%) by increasing bar widths. The median fatigue limit was significantly greater (p < 0.001) for customized plates (650 ± 27 N) than for standard plates (475 ± 27 N)...
November 25, 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885329/physical-performance-outcomes-and-biomechanical-correlates-from-the-32-week-yoga-empowers-seniors-study
#12
Man-Ying Wang, Gail A Greendale, Sean S-Y Yu, George J Salem
Background. Yoga Empowers Seniors Study (YESS) quantified physical demands associated with yoga performance using biomechanical methods. This study evaluated the efficacy of the program on physical function outcomes. Methods. Twenty community-dwelling older adults aged 70.7 ± 3.8 years attended biweekly 60-minute Hatha yoga classes for 32 weeks. Four domains of the physical measurements including (1) functional performance, (2) flexibility, (3) muscle strength, and (4) balance were taken at the baseline, 16-week and 32-week time points...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882697/biomechanical-properties-of-an-implanted-engineered-tubular-gut-sphincter-complex
#13
Elie Zakhem, Mostafa El Bahrawy, Giuseppe Orlando, Khalil N Bitar
Neuromuscular diseases of the gut alter the normal motility patterns. Although surgical intervention remains the standard treatment, preservation of the sphincter attached to the rest of the gut is challenging. The present study aimed to evaluate a bioengineered gut-sphincter complex following its subcutaneous implantation for 4 weeks in rats. Engineered innervated human smooth muscle sheets and innervated human sphincters with a predefined alignment were placed around tubular scaffolds to create a gut-sphincter complex...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881916/osseointegration-of-nanohydroxyapatite-or-nano-calcium-silicate-incorporated-polyetheretherketone-bioactive-composites-in-vivo
#14
Rui Ma, Zhifeng Yu, Songchao Tang, Yongkang Pan, Jie Wei, Tingting Tang
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) exhibits appropriate biomechanical strength as well as good biocompatibility and stable chemical properties but lacks bioactivity and cannot achieve highly efficient osseointegration after implantation. Incorporating bioceramics into the PEEK matrix is a feasible approach for improving its bioactivity. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) and nano-calcium silicate (n-CS) were separately incorporated into PEEK to prepare n-HA/PEEK and n-CS/PEEK biocomposites, respectively, using a compounding and injection-molding technique, and the in vitro degradation characteristics were evaluated...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881831/the-effect-of-suture-anchor-insertion-angle-on-calcaneus-pullout-strength-challenging-the-deadman-s-angle
#15
William M Weiss, Ramon P Saucedo, John D Robinson, Chung-Chieh Jason Lo, Randal P Morris, Vinod K Panchbhavi
: Background Refractory cases of Achilles tendinopathy amenable to surgery may include reattachment of the tendon using suture anchors. However, there is paucity of information describing the optimal insertion angle to maximize the tendon footprint and anchor stability in the calcaneus. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the fixation strength of suture anchors inserted at 90° and 45° (the Deadman's angle) relative to the primary compressive trabeculae of the calcaneus. Methods A total of 12 matched pairs of adult cadaveric calcanei were excised and potted to approximate their alignment in vivo...
November 23, 2016: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871820/enhanced-bone-formation-in-sheep-vertebral-bodies-after-minimally-invasive-treatment-with-a-novel-plga-fiber-reinforced-brushite-cement
#16
Stefan Maenz, Olaf Brinkmann, Elke Kunisch, Victoria Horbert, Francesca Gunnella, Sabine Bischoff, Harald Schubert, Andre Sachse, Long Xin, Jens Günster, Bernhard Illerhaus, Klaus D Jandt, Jörg Bossert, Raimund W Kinne, Matthias Bungartz
BACKGROUND: Injectable, brushite-forming calcium phosphate cements (CPC) show potential for bone replacement, but they exhibit low mechanical strength. This study tested a CPC reinforced with poly (l-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) fibers in a minimally-invasive, sheep lumbar vertebroplasty model. PURPOSE: To test the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenic potential of a PLGA fiber-reinforced, brushite-forming CPC in a sheep large animal model. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective experimental animal study METHODS: Bone defects (diameter 5 mm) were placed in aged, osteopenic female sheep and left empty (L2) or injected with pure CPC (L3) or PLGA-fiber-reinforced CPC (L4; fiber diameter 25 µm; length 1 mm; 10% (w/w))...
November 15, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871481/impacts-of-contracted-endodontic-cavities-on-instrumentation-efficacy-and-biomechanical-responses-in-maxillary-molars
#17
Brent Moore, Konstantinos Verdelis, Anil Kishen, Thuan Dao, Shimon Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Recently, we reported that in mandibular molars contracted endodontic cavities (CECs) improved fracture strength compared with traditional endodontic cavities (TECs) but compromised instrumentation efficacy in distal canals. This study assessed the impacts of CECs on instrumentation efficacy and axial strain responses in maxillary molars. METHODS: Eighteen extracted intact maxillary molars were imaged with micro-computed tomographic imaging (12-μm voxel), assigned to CEC or TEC groups (n = 9/group), and accessed accordingly...
December 2016: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871421/mesenchymal-stem-cell-bearing-sutures-for-tendon-repair-and-healing-in-the-foot-and-ankle
#18
REVIEW
Eric W Tan, Lew C Schon
Improving the quality and strength of soft tissue repairs remains an important area of orthopedic research and innovation. The need for immobilization and early motion is an important balance essential for the successful treatment of tendon repair and reconstruction. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-bearing sutures represent an emerging biological augmentation to traditional suture repair. Two previous large studies using stem cell sutures in rat Achilles tendon models have demonstrated early increased biomechanical strength and significantly increased ultimate failure strength...
December 2016: Foot and Ankle Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870339/zygomatic-arch-cortical-area-and-diet-in-haplorhines
#19
Hallie Edmonds
The influence that various types of ingested foods have on the form (size and shape) of specific features of the masticatory system is an area in which many questions remain unanswered. The bony zygomatic arch, the focus of this study, is directly linked to the masticatory system because it serves as the anchor for the masseter muscle, a primary muscle of chewing and source of masticatory force. However, the influence of diet and the forces associated with different diet types on the arch's internal bone architecture is not well understood...
December 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861981/conflicting-demands-on-angiosperm-xylem-tradeoffs-among-storage-transport-and-biomechanics
#20
REVIEW
R Brandon Pratt, Anna L Jacobsen
The secondary xylem of woody plants transports water, mechanically supports the plant body, and stores resources. These three functions are interdependent giving rise to tradeoffs in function. Understanding the relationships among these functions and their structural basis forms the context in which to interpret xylem evolution. The tradeoff between xylem transport efficiency and safety from cavitation has been carefully examined with less focus on other functions, particularly storage. Here, we synthesize data on all three xylem functions in angiosperm branch xylem in the context of tradeoffs...
November 8, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
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