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Hypertension intracranial review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788483/persisting-embryonal-infundibular-recess-peir-two-case-reports-and-systematic-literature-review
#1
Francesco Belotti, Isabella Lupi, Mirco Cosottini, Claudia Ambrosi, Roberto Gasparotti, Fausto Bogazzi, Marco M Fontanella, Francesco Doglietto
Context: The persisting embryonal infundibular recess (PEIR) is a rare anomaly of the floor of the third ventricle with a debated pathogenesis. It can be a cause of misdiagnosis in case of cystic lesions of the sellar and suprasellar area. Objective: To describe two recently evaluated cases and provide a systematic literature review. Evidence acquisition and Case Descriptions: PEIR has been previously reported in 6 adult patients. As in some cases it was associated to hydrocephalus and/or empty sella, a possible role of altered intracranial pressure in PEIR formation has been postulated...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777016/clinical-utility-of-electronic-alberta-stroke-program-early-computed-tomography-score-software-in-the-enchanted-trial-database
#2
Simon Nagel, Xia Wang, Cheryl Carcel, Thompson Robinson, Richard I Lindley, John Chalmers, Craig S Anderson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical utility of electronic Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (e-ASPECTS), an automated system for quantifying signs of infarction, was evaluated in a large database of thrombolyzed patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: All baseline noncontrast computed tomographic scans of patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke who participated in the alteplase dose arm of the randomized controlled trial ENCHANTED (Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study) were reviewed; poor quality and large (>6 mm) slice thickness were excluded...
May 18, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774193/predictable-values-of-decompressive-craniectomy-in-patients-with-acute-subdural-hematoma-comparison-between-decompressive-craniectomy-after-craniotomy-group-and-craniotomy-only-group
#3
Hyunjun Kim, Sang-Jun Suh, Ho-Jun Kang, Min-Seok Lee, Yoon-Soo Lee, Jeong-Ho Lee, Dong-Gee Kang
Objective: Patients with traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) often require surgical treatment. Among patients who primarily underwent craniotomy for the removal of hematoma, some consequently developed aggressive intracranial hypertension and brain edema, and required secondary decompressive craniectomy (DC). To avoid reoperation, we investigated factors which predict the requirement of DC by comparing groups of ASDH patients who did and did not require DC after craniotomy. Methods: The 129 patients with ASDH who underwent craniotomy from September 2007 to September 2017 were reviewed...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767632/reply-to-comment-on-invasive-and-noninvasive-means-of-measuring-intracranial-pressure-a-review
#4
Xuan Zhang, Joshua E Medow, Bermans J Iskandar, Fa Wang, Mehdi Shokoueinejad, Joyce Koueik, John G Webster
In their comments, Drs. De Bernardo and Rosa stated that our paper was missing several references
 related to optic nerve sheath diameter ONSD assessments. Specifically, they state that we neglected to
 mention that ultrasound has been used since the 1970s, that we did not emphasize the role of
 Standardized A scans, and they reference some of their publications in which they emphasize the
 importance of these scans in diagnosing optic nerve lesions and benign intracranial hypertension...
May 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730051/multimodal-management-of-severe-herpes-simplex-virus-encephalitis-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
J Todeschi, A Gubian, T Wirth, H-A Coca, F Proust, H Cebula
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most frequent sporadic encephalitis in the world. In severe cases of HSE, the pathology usually progresses with an increase in intracranial pressure secondary to cerebral edema and/or hemorrhagic necrosis. Currently no high-power studies exist regarding the management of severe HSE and most of the papers reported in the literature are case reports. Decompressive craniectomy, effective in some cases of pharmaco-resistant intracranial hypertension (ICH) resulting from other causes, may be suggested in severe HSE, with several good results reported in the literature...
May 2, 2018: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722746/spot-sign-in-acute-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#6
Zalan Khan, Premkumar Nattanmai, Pravin George, Christopher R Newey
INTRODUCTION: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Current treatment paradigms focus on correcting hypertension and coagulopathy to prevent hematoma expansion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is becoming more common in the hyperactive phase of ICH management. The finding of contrast extravasation (ie, spot sign) on MRI may be a marker of active bleeding. We present a case of MRI spot sign and review of the literature. CASE REPORT: We present a patient on oral coumadin for history of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus who presented with a right basal ganglia hemorrhage...
May 2018: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721718/an-up-to-date-review-of-pseudotumor-cerebri-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
John Glenn Burkett, Jessica Ailani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), and benign intracranial hypertension are all terms that have been used for a neurologic syndrome consisting of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), headache and vision loss without mass lesion or underlying infection or malignancy. In this review article, categorization, diagnostic criteria, symptom management strategies, and disease treatment options for pseudotumor cerebri syndrome will be discussed...
May 2, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716538/ventriculoperitoneal-shunts-in-non-hiv-cryptococcal-meningitis
#8
Jia Liu, Zhuo-Lin Chen, Min Li, Chuan Chen, Huan Yi, Li Xu, Feng Tan, Fu-Hua Peng
BACKGROUND: Persistent and uncontrollable intracranial hypertension (ICH) and difficulty in reducing Cryptococcus count are severe problems in cryptococcal meningitis (CM) patients. The therapeutic effects of ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS) in non-HIV CM patients are not fully known, and the procedure is somewhat unusual. Here, our study offers a review to investigate the role of VPS in non-HIV CM. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 23 non-HIV CM patients with and without ventriculomegaly from 2010 to 2016...
May 1, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688821/risk-of-postoperative-complications-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-following-skull-base-surgery
#9
Phillip Huyett, Ryan J Soose, Amy E Schell, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda, Paul A Gardner, Carl H Snyderman, Eric W Wang
Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) presents several challenges in skull base surgery, including increased intracranial pressure, worsened OSA with nasal packing, and avoidance of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy postoperatively. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of postoperative complications in a skull base population with OSA in which PAP therapy is withheld. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods Medical records of 414 adult patients undergoing anterior skull base procedures between January 1, 2014, and January 7, 2017, were retrospectively reviewed...
April 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674324/indications-for-the-performance-of-intracranial-endovascular-neurointerventional-procedures-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#10
REVIEW
Clifford J Eskey, Philip M Meyers, Thanh N Nguyen, Sameer A Ansari, Mahesh Jayaraman, Cameron G McDougall, J Kevin DeMarco, William A Gray, David C Hess, Randall T Higashida, Dilip K Pandey, Constantino Peña, Hermann C Schumacher
Intracranial endovascular interventions provide effective and minimally invasive treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. This area of expertise has continued to gain both wider application and greater depth as new and better techniques are developed and as landmark clinical studies are performed to guide their use. Some of the greatest advances since the last American Heart Association scientific statement on this topic have been made in the treatment of ischemic stroke from large intracranial vessel occlusion, with more effective devices and large randomized clinical trials showing striking therapeutic benefit...
April 19, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671295/monitoring-the-injured-brain
#11
Anna T Mazzeo, Deepak K Gupta
Traumatic brain injury can be defined as the most complex disease in the most complex organ. When an acute brain injury occurs, several pathophysiological cascades are triggered, leading to further exacerbation of the primary damage. A number of events potentially occurring after TBI can compromise the availability or utilization of energy substrates in the brain, ultimately leading to brain energy crisis. The frequent occurrence of secondary insults in the acute phase after TBI, such as intracranial hypertension, hypotension, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hyperthermia, seizures, can then increase cerebral damage, and adversely affect outcome...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627171/comparison-of-nicardipine-with-clevidipine-in-the-management-of-hypertension-in-acute-cerebrovascular-diseases
#12
Zachary Rosenfeldt, Katelyn Conklen, Breck Jones, Don Ferrill, Maithili Deshpande, Fazeel M Siddiqui
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In acute stroke, hypertension worsens outcomes. Guidelines do not mention a preferred antihypertensive agent. This present study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of nicardipine and clevidipine in acute stroke. METHODS: This retrospective review compared nicardipine with clevidipine for hypertension in acute stroke patients from March 17, 2015 to December 23, 2016. Ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke types were evaluated. Patients were excluded if under 18 years, had traumatic brain injury, had intracranial neoplasm, were on dialysis, had both study drugs during the stroke admission, or the study drug was infused for less than 1 hour...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626002/evaluating-off-label-uses-of-acetazolamide
#13
REVIEW
Megan A Van Berkel, Jessica L Elefritz
PURPOSE: Current off-label uses of acetazolamide in hospitalized patients are reviewed. SUMMARY: Acetazolamide is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor typically used for indications including epilepsy, glaucoma, edema, and altitude sickness but it may be prescribed in hospitalized patients for off-label indications. It inhibits carbonic anhydrase, which leads to reduced hydrogen ion secretion in the proximal renal tubule, resulting in increased bicarbonate and cation excretion and causing urinary alkalization and diuresis...
April 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619550/perspectives-on-diagnosis-and-management-of-adult-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension
#14
Irini Chatziralli, Panagiotis Theodossiadis, George Theodossiadis, Ioannis Asproudis
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to shed light into the diagnostic challenges regarding idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), giving more emphasis to the role of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in IIH, while it also presents recent advances in the management of IIH. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed was performed for studies about the diagnosis and management of IIH published before June 30, 2017. Then, a comprehensive review of the eligible studies and the relevant references was performed...
April 4, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602894/apixaban-induced-subdural-bleeding-case-presentation-and-literature-review
#15
Eman Alayad, Sami Khairy, Ahmed Aloraidi
Apixaban is a factor Xa inhibitor which is a non-vitamin K dependent oral anticoagulant known tocause the lowest rate of intracranial bleeding among the same kind of inibitors. In this paper, we report a rare case in a 60-year-old man with a history of hypertension and oligodendroglioma on apixaban for deep venous thrombosis who presented to our hospital with decreased level of consciousness and slurred speech with rapid deterioration. We highlight the risk of subdural bleeding requiring immediate neurosurgical intervention due to apixaban, with literature review...
March 30, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559063/early-craniectomy-improves-intracranial-and-cerebral-perfusion-pressure-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Casey J Allen, Daniel J Baldor, Mena M Hanna, Nicholas Namias, M Ross Bullock, Jonathan R Jagid, Kenneth G Proctor
After traumatic brain injury, decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a second-tier, late therapy for refractory intracranial hypertension. We hypothesize that early DC, based on CT evidence of intracranial hypertension, improves intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). From September 2008 to January 2015, 286 traumatic brain injury patients requiring invasive ICP monitoring at a single Level I trauma center were reviewed. DC and non-DC patients were propensity score matched 1:1, based on demographics, hemodynamics, injury severity score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), transfusion requirements, and need for vasopressor therapy...
March 1, 2018: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556806/cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-after-carotid-revascularization-and-acute-ischemic-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Kathryn F Kirchoff-Torres, Ekaterina Bakradze
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a rare but significant complication after carotid revascularization and is increasingly recognized after acute stroke treatments. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology and pathophysiology of CHS, clinical presentation including ipsilateral headache, seizures, and focal neurological deficits, and radiographic presentation. We propose preventive therapies with emphasis on acute stroke post-thrombectomy hyperperfusion. RECENT FINDINGS: CHS was first described after carotid revascularization but is now also reported in patients with acute ischemic stroke...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556793/cerebral-haemodynamics-effects-of-systemic-arterial-pulsatile-function-and-hypertension
#18
REVIEW
Alberto Avolio, Mi Ok Kim, Audrey Adji, Sumudu Gangoda, Bhargava Avadhanam, Isabella Tan, Mark Butlin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concepts of pulsatile arterial haemodynamics, including relationships between oscillatory blood pressure and flow in systemic arteries, arterial stiffness and wave propagation phenomena have provided basic understanding of underlying haemodynamic mechanisms associated with elevated arterial blood pressure as a major factor of cardiovascular risk, particularly the deleterious effects of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. This topical review assesses the effects of pulsatility of blood pressure and flow in the systemic arteries on the brain...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554002/cerebrospinal-fluid-pressure-reduction-results-in-dynamic-changes-in-optic-nerve-angle-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Ranliang Hu, John Holbrook, Nancy J Newman, Valerie Biousse, Beau B Bruce, Deqiang Qiu, John Oshinski, Amit M Saindane
BACKGROUND: Optic nerve sheath tortuosity is a previously reported, but incompletely characterized, finding in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). We hypothesized that optic nerve angle (ONA), as a quantitative measure of tortuosity, would change dynamically with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure status of patients with IIH immediately before and after lumbar puncture (LP). METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected IIH referred for MRI and diagnostic LP were prospectively enrolled in this single institution, institutional review board-approved study...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532345/predictor-variables-of-abnormal-imaging-findings-of-syncope-in-the-emergency-department
#20
Kerem Ozturk, Esra Soylu, Cem Bilgin, Bahattin Hakyemez, Mufit Parlak
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the pathological findings and to analyze clinical predictors of abnormal imaging findings in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with syncope. METHODS: The database was retrospectively reviewed for all patients who underwent cranial computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), having the symptom of syncope. Patients were included only if they were from the emergency department and excluded if were under 18 years of age, had known recent intracranial pathology, known brain tumor, or having a history of trauma...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
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