keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neuron, circuit, behavior

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530664/flexible-information-routing-by-transient-synchrony
#1
Agostina Palmigiano, Theo Geisel, Fred Wolf, Demian Battaglia
Perception, cognition and behavior rely on flexible communication between microcircuits in distinct cortical regions. The mechanisms underlying rapid information rerouting between such microcircuits are still unknown. It has been proposed that changing patterns of coherence between local gamma rhythms support flexible information rerouting. The stochastic and transient nature of gamma oscillations in vivo, however, is hard to reconcile with such a function. Here we show that models of cortical circuits near the onset of oscillatory synchrony selectively route input signals despite the short duration of gamma bursts and the irregularity of neuronal firing...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530663/a-cerebellum-like-circuit-in-the-auditory-system-cancels-responses-to-self-generated-sounds
#2
Shobhit Singla, Conor Dempsey, Richard Warren, Armen G Enikolopov, Nathaniel B Sawtell
The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) integrates auditory nerve input with a diverse array of sensory and motor signals processed in circuitry similar to that of the cerebellum. Yet how the DCN contributes to early auditory processing has been a longstanding puzzle. Using electrophysiological recordings in mice during licking behavior, we show that DCN neurons are largely unaffected by self-generated sounds while remaining sensitive to external acoustic stimuli. Recordings in deafened mice, together with neural activity manipulations, indicate that self-generated sounds are cancelled by non-auditory signals conveyed by mossy fibers...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530225/a-canonical-neural-mechanism-for-behavioral-variability
#3
Ran Darshan, William E Wood, Susan Peters, Arthur Leblois, David Hansel
The ability to generate variable movements is essential for learning and adjusting complex behaviours. This variability has been linked to the temporal irregularity of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. However, how neuronal irregularity actually translates into behavioural variability is unclear. Here we combine modelling, electrophysiological and behavioural studies to address this issue. We demonstrate that a model circuit comprising topographically organized and strongly recurrent neural networks can autonomously generate irregular motor behaviours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521140/distinct-sources-of-deterministic-and-stochastic-components-of-action-timing-decisions-in-rodent-frontal-cortex
#4
Masayoshi Murakami, Hanan Shteingart, Yonatan Loewenstein, Zachary F Mainen
The selection and timing of actions are subject to determinate influences such as sensory cues and internal state as well as to effectively stochastic variability. Although stochastic choice mechanisms are assumed by many theoretical models, their origin and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated this issue by studying how neural circuits in the frontal cortex determine action timing in rats performing a waiting task. Electrophysiological recordings from two regions necessary for this behavior, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and secondary motor cortex (M2), revealed an unexpected functional dissociation...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521132/linking-neurons-to-network-function-and-behavior-by-two-photon-holographic-optogenetics-and-volumetric-imaging
#5
Marco Dal Maschio, Joseph C Donovan, Thomas O Helmbrecht, Herwig Baier
We introduce a flexible method for high-resolution interrogation of circuit function, which combines simultaneous 3D two-photon stimulation of multiple targeted neurons, volumetric functional imaging, and quantitative behavioral tracking. This integrated approach was applied to dissect how an ensemble of premotor neurons in the larval zebrafish brain drives a basic motor program, the bending of the tail. We developed an iterative photostimulation strategy to identify minimal subsets of channelrhodopsin (ChR2)-expressing neurons that are sufficient to initiate tail movements...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511980/reward-loss-and-the-basolateral-amygdala-a-function-in-reward-comparisons
#6
Katsuyoshi Kawasaki, Iván Annicchiarico, Amanda C Glueck, Ignacio Morón, Mauricio R Papini
The neural circuitry underlying behavior in reward loss situations is poorly understood. We considered two such situations: reward devaluation (from large to small rewards) and reward omission (from large rewards to no rewards). There is evidence that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays a role in the negative emotion accompanying reward loss. However, little is known about the function of the basolateral nucleus (BLA) in reward loss. Two hypotheses of BLA function in reward loss, negative emotion and reward comparisons, were tested in an experiment involving pretraining excitotoxic BLA lesions followed by training in four tasks: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), autoshaping (AS) acquisition and extinction, anticipatory negative contrast (ANC), and open field testing (OF)...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510528/identification-of-octopaminergic-neurons-that-modulate-sleep-suppression-by-male-sex-drive
#7
Daniel R Machado, Dinis Js Afonso, Alexandra R Kenny, Arzu Öztu Rk-Çolak, Emilia H Moscato, Benjamin Mainwaring, Matthew Kayser, Kyunghee Koh
Molecular and circuit mechanisms for balancing competing drives are not well understood. While circadian and homeostatic mechanisms generally ensure sufficient sleep at night, other pressing needs can overcome sleep drive. Here, we demonstrate that the balance between sleep and sex drives determines whether male flies sleep or court, and identify a subset of octopaminergic neurons (MS1) that regulate sleep specifically in males. When MS1 neurons are activated, isolated males sleep less, and when MS1 neurons are silenced, the normal male sleep suppression in female presence is attenuated and mating behavior is impaired...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508035/flashing-lights-induce-prolonged-distortions-in-visual-cortical-responses-and-visual-perception
#8
Genki Minamisawa, Kenta Funayama, Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Norio Matsuki, Yuji Ikegaya
The primary sensory neocortex generates an internal representation of the environment, and its circuit reorganization is thought to lead to a modification of sensory perception. This reorganization occurs primarily through activity-dependent plasticity and has been well documented in animals during early developmental stages. Here, we describe a new method for the noninvasive induction of long-term plasticity in the mature brain: simple transient visual stimuli (i.e., flashing lights) can be used to induce prolonged modifications in visual cortical processing and visually driven behaviors...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507136/ocd-candidate-gene-slc1a1-eaat3-impacts-basal-ganglia-mediated-activity-and-stereotypic-behavior
#9
Isaac D Zike, Muhammad O Chohan, Jared M Kopelman, Emily N Krasnow, Daniel Flicker, Katherine M Nautiyal, Michael Bubser, Christoph Kellendonk, Carrie K Jones, Gregg Stanwood, Kenji Fransis Tanaka, Holly Moore, Susanne E Ahmari, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition with inadequate treatment options that leave most patients with substantial residual symptoms. Structural, neurochemical, and behavioral findings point to a significant role for basal ganglia circuits and for the glutamate system in OCD. Genetic linkage and association studies in OCD point to SLC1A1, which encodes the neuronal glutamate/aspartate/cysteine transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)/excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAC1)...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506879/a-new-platform-for-long-term-tracking-and-recording-of-neural-activity-and-simultaneous-optogenetic-control-in-freely-behaving-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Yuko Kagawa-Nagamura, Masamichi Ohkura, Xianfeng Fei, Min Chen, Koichi Hashimoto, Junichi Nakai
BACKGROUND: Real-time recording and manipulation of neural activity in freely behaving animals can greatly advance our understanding of how neural circuits regulate behavior. Ca(2+) imaging and optogenetic manipulation with optical probes are key technologies for this purpose. However, integrating the two optical approaches with behavioral analysis has been technically challenging. NEW METHOD: Here, we developed a new imaging system, ICaST (Integrated platform for Ca(2+) imaging, Stimulation, and Tracking), which combines an automatic worm tracking system and a fast-scanning laser confocal microscope, to image neurons of interest in freely behaving C...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504671/reduced-sensory-synaptic-excitation-impairs-motor-neuron-function-via-kv2-1-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#11
Emily V Fletcher, Christian M Simon, John G Pagiazitis, Joshua I Chalif, Aleksandra Vukojicic, Estelle Drobac, Xiaojian Wang, George Z Mentis
Behavioral deficits in neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to the selective dysfunction of vulnerable neurons via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Although vulnerable neurons are embedded in neuronal circuits, the contributions of their synaptic partners to disease process are largely unknown. Here we show that, in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a reduction in proprioceptive synaptic drive leads to motor neuron dysfunction and motor behavior impairments. In SMA mice or after the blockade of proprioceptive synaptic transmission, we observed a decrease in the motor neuron firing that could be explained by the reduction in the expression of the potassium channel Kv2...
May 15, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503133/behavioral-senescence-and-aging-related-changes-in-motor-neurons-and-brain-neuromodulator-levels-are-ameliorated-by-lifespan-extending-reproductive-dormancy-in-drosophila
#12
Sifang Liao, Susan Broughton, Dick R Nässel
The lifespan of Drosophilamelanogaster can be extended substantially by inducing reproductive dormancy (also known as diapause) by lowered temperature and short days. This increase of longevity is accompanied by lowered metabolism and increased stress tolerance. We ask here whether behavioral senescence is ameliorated during adult dormancy. To study this we kept flies for seven or more weeks in normal rearing conditions or in diapause conditions and compared to 1-week-old flies in different behavioral assays of sleep, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502844/a-novel-approach-to-map-induced-activation-of-neuronal-networks-using-chemogenetics-and-functional-neuroimaging-in-rats-a-proof-of-concept-study-on-the-mesocorticolimbic-system
#13
Theresia J M Roelofs, Jeroen P H Verharen, Geralda A F van Tilborg, Linde Boekhoudt, Annette van der Toorn, Johannes W de Jong, Mieneke C M Luijendijk, Willem M Otte, Roger A H Adan, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Linking neural circuit activation at whole-brain level to neuronal activity at cellular level remains one of the major challenges in neuroscience research. We set up a novel functional neuroimaging approach to map global effects of locally induced activation of specific midbrain projection neurons using chemogenetics (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD)-technology) combined with pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) in the rat mesocorticolimbic system. Chemogenetic activation of DREADD-targeted mesolimbic or mesocortical pathways, i...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502746/diminishing-fear-optogenetic-approach-toward-understanding-neural-circuits-of-fear-control
#14
REVIEW
Natalia V Luchkina, Vadim Y Bolshakov
Understanding complex behavioral processes, both learned and innate, requires detailed characterization of the principles governing signal flow in corresponding neural circuits. Previous studies were hampered by the lack of appropriate tools needed to address the complexities of behavior-driving micro- and macrocircuits. The development and implementation of optogenetic methodologies revolutionized the field of behavioral neuroscience, allowing precise spatiotemporal control of specific, genetically defined neuronal populations and their functional connectivity both in vivo and ex vivo, thus providing unprecedented insights into the cellular and network-level mechanisms contributing to behavior...
May 11, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502656/temporal-cohorts-of-lineage-related-neurons-perform-analogous-functions-in-distinct-sensorimotor-circuits
#15
Christopher C Wreden, Julia L Meng, Weidong Feng, Wanhao Chi, Zarion D Marshall, Ellie S Heckscher
Neuronal stem cell lineages are the fundamental developmental units of the brain, and neuronal circuits are the fundamental functional units of the brain. Determining lineage-circuitry relationships is essential for deciphering the developmental logic of circuit assembly. While the spatial distribution of lineage-related neurons has been investigated in a few brain regions [1-9], an important, but unaddressed question is whether temporal information that diversifies neuronal progeny within a single lineage also impacts circuit assembly...
May 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501498/the-role-of-sleep-in-the-plasticity-of-the-olfactory-system
#16
REVIEW
Masahiro Yamaguchi
The central olfactory system mediates a variety of odor-guided behaviors crucial for maintenance of animal life. The olfactory neural circuit must be highly plastic to ensure that it responds appropriately to changing odor circumstances. Recent studies have revealed that the processing of odor information changes drastically during waking and sleep and that neural activity during sleep plays pivotal roles in the structural reorganization and functional plasticity of the olfactory system. While olfactory information from the external world is efficiently transferred to the olfactory cortex (OC) via the olfactory bulb (OB) during waking, this information flow is attenuated during slow-wave sleep: during slow-wave sleep, the OC neurons exhibit synchronous discharges without odor input under the entrainment of sharp waves in the local field potential recording...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498919/chemicogenetic-restoration-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-to-amygdala-pathway-ameliorates-stress-induced-deficits
#17
Jing Wei, Ping Zhong, Luye Qin, Tao Tan, Zhen Yan
Corticosteroid stress hormones exert a profound impact on cognitive and emotional processes. Understanding the neuronal circuits that are altered by chronic stress is important for counteracting the detrimental effects of stress in a brain region- and cell type-specific manner. Using the chemogenetic tool, Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs), which enables the remote, noninvasive and long-lasting modulation of cellular activity and signal transduction in discrete neuronal populations in vivo, we sought to identify the specific pathways that play an essential role in stress responses...
May 11, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497110/accumbal-cholinergic-interneurons-differentially-influence-motivation-related-to-satiety-signaling
#18
Teemu Aitta-Aho, Benjamin U Phillips, Elpiniki Pappa, Y Audrey Hay, Fiona Harnischfeger, Christopher J Heath, Lisa M Saksida, Tim J Bussey, John Apergis-Schoute
Satiety, rather than all or none, can instead be viewed as a cumulative decrease in the drive to eat that develops over the course of a meal. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is known to play a critical role in this type of value reappraisal, but the underlying circuits that influence such processes are unclear. Although NAc cholinergic interneurons (CINs) comprise only a small proportion of NAc neurons, their local impact on reward-based processes provides a candidate cell population for investigating the neural underpinnings of satiety...
March 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494967/visualizing-calcium-flux-in-freely-moving-nematode-embryos
#19
Evan L Ardiel, Abhishek Kumar, Joseph Marbach, Ryan Christensen, Rishi Gupta, William Duncan, Jonathan S Daniels, Nico Stuurman, Daniel Colón-Ramos, Hari Shroff
The lack of physiological recordings from Caenorhabditis elegans embryos stands in stark contrast to the comprehensive anatomical and gene expression datasets already available. Using light-sheet fluorescence microscopy to address the challenges associated with functional imaging at this developmental stage, we recorded calcium dynamics in muscles and neurons and developed analysis strategies to relate activity and movement. In muscles, we found that the initiation of twitching was associated with a spreading calcium wave in a dorsal muscle bundle...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494862/asynchronous-cholinergic-drive-correlates-with-excitation-inhibition-imbalance-via-a-neuronal-ca-2-sensor-protein
#20
Keming Zhou, Salvatore J Cherra, Alexandr Goncharov, Yishi Jin
Excitation-inhibition imbalance in neural networks is widely linked to neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. However, how genetic factors alter neuronal activity, leading to excitation-inhibition imbalance, remains unclear. Here, using the C. elegans locomotor circuit, we examine how altering neuronal activity for varying time periods affects synaptic release pattern and animal behavior. We show that while short-duration activation of excitatory cholinergic neurons elicits a reversible enhancement of presynaptic strength, persistent activation results to asynchronous and reduced cholinergic drive, inducing imbalance between endogenous excitation and inhibition...
May 9, 2017: Cell Reports
keyword
keyword
5198
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"