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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792886/t-grasp-a-targeted-grasp-for-assessing-neuronal-connectivity
#1
Harold K Shearin, Casey D Quinn, Robert D Mackin, Ian S Macdonald, R Steven Stowers
BACKGROUND: Understanding how behaviors are generated by neural circuits requires knowledge of the synaptic connections between the composite neurons. Methods for mapping synaptic connections, such as electron microscopy and paired recordings, are labor intensive and alternative methods are thus desirable. NEW METHOD: Development of a targeted GFP Reconstitution Across Synaptic Partners(GRASP) method, t-GRASP, for assessing neural connectivity is described. RESULTS: Numerous different pre-synaptic and post-synaptic/dendritic proteins were tested for enhancing the specificity of GRASP signal to synaptic regions...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791746/molecular-and-cellular-characterization-of-nachr-subtypes-in-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-mouse-hypothalamus
#2
Cali A Calarco, Zhiying Li, Seth R Taylor, Somin Lee, Wenliang Zhou, Jeffrey M Friedman, Yann S Mineur, Cecilia Gotti, Marina R Picciotto
Nicotine, acting through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), increases the firing rate of both orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC), yet nicotine and other nAChR agonists decrease food intake in mice. Viral-mediated knockdown of β4 nAChR subunit in all neuronal cell types in the ARC prevents the nicotinic agonist cytisine from decreasing food intake, but it is not known whether the β4 subunit is selectively expressed in anorexogenic neurons or how other nAChR subtypes are distributed in this nucleus...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791036/neuroplasticity-in-cholinergic-neurons-of-the-laterodorsal-tegmental-nucleus-contributes-to-the-development-of-cocaine-addiction
#3
Katsuyuki Kaneda
The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is a brainstem nucleus that sends cholinergic, glutamatergic, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic projections to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a key brain region associated with reward information processing and reinforcement learning, and thus, with addiction induced by drugs of abuse, including cocaine. Recent studies have revealed that the LDT, in addition to the VTA, plays important roles in the development and expression of cocaine-induced addiction and stress-induced enhancement of addictive behaviors...
May 23, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787606/profiling-neurotransmitters-in-a-crustacean-neural-circuit-for-locomotion
#4
Anna C Schneider, Henriette A Seichter, Susanne Neupert, A Maren Hochhaus, Carmen R Smarandache-Wellmann
Locomotor systems are widely used to study rhythmically active neural networks. These networks have to be coordinated in order to produce meaningful behavior. The crayfish swimmeret system is well suited to investigate such coordination of distributed neural oscillators because the neurons and their connectivity for generating and especially for coordinating the motor output are identified. The system maintains a fixed phase lag between the segmental oscillators, independent of cycle period. To further the understanding of the system's plasticity for keeping the phase lag fixed, we profiled the neurotransmitters used by the Coordinating Neurons, which are necessary and sufficient for coordination of the segmental oscillators...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784588/brain-stimulation-patterns-emulating-endogenous-thalamocortical-input-to-parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons-reduce-nociception-in-mice
#5
Yeowool Huh, Dahee Jung, Taeyoon Seo, Sukkyu Sun, Su Hyun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Sooyoung Chung, Chong-Hyun Kim, Youngwoo Kwon, Marom Bikson, Yong-An Chung, Jeansok J Kim, Jeiwon Cho
BACKGROUND: The bursting pattern of thalamocortical (TC) pathway dampens nociception. Whether brain stimulation mimicking endogenous patterns can engage similar sensory gating processes in the cortex and reduce nociceptive behaviors remains uninvestigated. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the role of cortical parvalbumin expressing (PV) interneurons within the TC circuit in gating nociception and their selective response to TC burst patterns. We then tested if transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) patterned on endogenous nociceptive TC bursting modulate nociceptive behaviors...
May 18, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780307/parvalbumin-and-gaba-microcircuits-in-the-mouse-superior-colliculus
#6
Claudio A Villalobos, Qiong Wu, Psyche H Lee, Paul J May, Michele A Basso
The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) is a sensorimotor midbrain structure responsible for orienting behaviors. Although many SC features are known, details of its intrinsic microcircuits are lacking. We used transgenic mice expressing reporter genes in parvalbumin-positive (PV+ ) and gamma aminobutyric acid-positive (GABA+ ) neurons to test the hypothesis that PV+ neurons co-localize GABA and form inhibitory circuits within the SC. We found more PV+ neurons in the superficial compared to the intermediate SC, although a larger percentage of PV+ neurons co-expressed GABA in the latter...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780165/a-medial-prefrontal-cortex-nucleus-acumens-corticotropin-releasing-factor-circuitry-for-neuropathic-pain-increased-susceptibility-to-opioid-reward
#7
Yuanzhong Kai, Yanhua Li, Tingting Sun, Weiwei Yin, Yu Mao, Jie Li, Wen Xie, Shi Chen, Likui Wang, Juan Li, Zhi Zhang, Wenjuan Tao
Recent studies have shown that persistent pain facilitates the response to morphine reward. However, the circuit mechanism underlying this process remains ambiguous. In this study, using chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve in mice, we found that persistent neuropathic pain reduced the minimum number of morphine conditioning sessions required to induce conditioned place preference (CPP) behavior. This dose of morphine had no effect on the pain threshold. In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which is involved in both pain and emotion processing, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) expressing neuronal activity was increased in CCI mice...
May 21, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779950/the-striatum-organizes-3d-behavior-via-moment-to-moment-action-selection
#8
Jeffrey E Markowitz, Winthrop F Gillis, Celia C Beron, Shay Q Neufeld, Keiramarie Robertson, Neha D Bhagat, Ralph E Peterson, Emalee Peterson, Minsuk Hyun, Scott W Linderman, Bernardo L Sabatini, Sandeep Robert Datta
Many naturalistic behaviors are built from modular components that are expressed sequentially. Although striatal circuits have been implicated in action selection and implementation, the neural mechanisms that compose behavior in unrestrained animals are not well understood. Here, we record bulk and cellular neural activity in the direct and indirect pathways of dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as mice spontaneously express action sequences. These experiments reveal that DLS neurons systematically encode information about the identity and ordering of sub-second 3D behavioral motifs; this encoding is facilitated by fast-timescale decorrelations between the direct and indirect pathways...
May 10, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779942/transformation-of-a-spatial-map-across-the-hippocampal-lateral-septal-circuit
#9
David Tingley, György Buzsáki
The hippocampus constructs a map of the environment. How this "cognitive map" is utilized by other brain regions to guide behavior remains unexplored. To examine how neuronal firing patterns in the hippocampus are transmitted and transformed, we recorded neurons in its principal subcortical target, the lateral septum (LS). We observed that LS neurons carry reliable spatial information in the phase of action potentials, relative to hippocampal theta oscillations, while the firing rates of LS neurons remained uninformative...
May 15, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779878/a-role-for-mouse-primary-visual-cortex-in-motion-perception
#10
Tiago Marques, Mathew T Summers, Gabriela Fioreze, Marina Fridman, Rodrigo F Dias, Marla B Feller, Leopoldo Petreanu
Visual motion is an ethologically important stimulus throughout the animal kingdom. In primates, motion perception relies on specific higher-order cortical regions. Although mouse primary visual cortex (V1) and higher-order visual areas show direction-selective (DS) responses, their role in motion perception remains unknown. Here, we tested whether V1 is involved in motion perception in mice. We developed a head-fixed discrimination task in which mice must report their perceived direction of motion from random dot kinematograms (RDKs)...
May 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779875/three-dimensional-representation-of-motor-space-in-the-mouse-superior-colliculus
#11
Jonathan J Wilson, Nicolas Alexandre, Caterina Trentin, Marco Tripodi
From the act of exploring an environment to that of grasping a cup of tea, animals must put in register their motor acts with their surrounding space. In the motor domain, this is likely to be defined by a register of three-dimensional (3D) displacement vectors, whose recruitment allows motion in the direction of a target. One such spatially targeted action is seen in the head reorientation behavior of mice, yet the neural mechanisms underlying these 3D behaviors remain unknown. Here, by developing a head-mounted inertial sensor for studying 3D head rotations and combining it with electrophysiological recordings, we show that neurons in the mouse superior colliculus are either individually or conjunctively tuned to the three Eulerian components of head rotation...
May 15, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779874/a-gabaergic-feedback-shapes-dopaminergic-input-on-the-drosophila-mushroom-body-to-promote-appetitive-long-term-memory
#12
Alice Pavlowsky, Johann Schor, Pierre-Yves Plaçais, Thomas Preat
Memory consolidation is a crucial step for long-term memory (LTM) storage. However, we still lack a clear picture of how memory consolidation is regulated at the neuronal circuit level. Here, we took advantage of the well-described anatomy of the Drosophila olfactory memory center, the mushroom body (MB), to address this question in the context of appetitive LTM. The MB lobes, which are made by the fascicled axons of the MB intrinsic neurons, are organized into discrete anatomical modules, each covered by the terminals of a defined type of dopaminergic neuron (DAN) and the dendrites of a corresponding type of MB output neuron (MBON)...
May 9, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775590/social-isolation-co-opts-fear-and-aggression-circuits
#13
Jose Rodriguez-Romaguera, Garret D Stuber
Social isolation is a stressful condition that often leads to maladaptive behaviors. In this issue of Cell, Zelikowsky et al. find that chronic social isolation stress triggers an increase in neuronal tachykinin signaling across distinct brain regions that mediate fear and aggression, elucidating the neural basis of these maladaptive responses.
May 17, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772201/the-neural-basis-of-timing-distributed-mechanisms-for-diverse-functions
#14
REVIEW
Joseph J Paton, Dean V Buonomano
Timing is critical to most forms of learning, behavior, and sensory-motor processing. Converging evidence supports the notion that, precisely because of its importance across a wide range of brain functions, timing relies on intrinsic and general properties of neurons and neural circuits; that is, the brain uses its natural cellular and network dynamics to solve a diversity of temporal computations. Many circuits have been shown to encode elapsed time in dynamically changing patterns of neural activity-so-called population clocks...
May 16, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768943/early-reduced-behavioral-activity-induced-by-large-strokes-affects-the-efficiency-of-enriched-environment-in-rats
#15
Anna-Sophia Wahl, Eva Erlebach, Biagio Brattoli, Uta Büchler, Julia Kaiser, Benjamin V Ineichen, Alice C Mosberger, Shirin Schneeberger, Stefan Imobersteg, Martin Wieckhorst, Martina Stirn, Aileen Schroeter, Bjoern Ommer, Martin E Schwab
The majority of stroke patients develop post-stroke fatigue, a symptom which impairs motivation and diminishes the success of rehabilitative interventions. We show that large cortical strokes acutely reduce activity levels in rats for 1-2 weeks as a physiological response paralleled by signs of systemic inflammation. Rats were exposed early (1-2 weeks) or late (3-4 weeks after stroke) to an individually monitored enriched environment to stimulate self-controlled high-intensity sensorimotor training. A group of animals received Anti-Nogo antibodies for the first two weeks after stroke, a neuronal growth promoting immunotherapy already in clinical trials...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766048/phasic-stimulation-of-midbrain-dopamine-neuron-activity-reduces-salt-consumption
#16
Eleanor C Sandhu, Anushka B P Fernando, Elaine E Irvine, Kyoko Tossell, Michelle Kokkinou, Justyna Glegola, Mark A Smith, Oliver D Howes, Dominic J Withers, Mark A Ungless
Salt intake is an essential dietary requirement, but excessive consumption is implicated in hypertension and associated conditions. Little is known about the neural circuit mechanisms that control motivation to consume salt, although the midbrain dopamine system, which plays a key role in other reward-related behaviors, has been implicated. We, therefore, examined the effects on salt consumption of either optogenetic excitation or chemogenetic inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in male mice...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765307/a-novel-integrative-mechanism-in-anxiolytic-behavior-induced-by-galanin-2-neuropeptide-y-y1-receptor-interactions-on-medial-paracapsular-intercalated-amygdala-in-rats
#17
Manuel Narváez, Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Luis Santín, Carmelo Millón, Belén Gago, Antonio Flores-Burgess, Miguel A Barbancho, Miguel Pérez de la Mora, José Narváez, Zaida Díaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
Anxiety is evoked by a threatening situation and display adaptive or defensive behaviors, found similarly in animals and humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y1 receptor (NPYY1R) and Galanin (GAL) receptor 2 (GALR2) interact in several regions of the limbic system, including the amygdala. In a previous study, GALR2 enhanced NPYY1R mediated anxiolytic actions on spatiotemporal parameters in the open field and elevated plus maze, involving the formation of GALR2/NPYY1R heteroreceptor complexes in the amygdala. Moreover, the inclusion of complementary ethological parameters provides a more comprehensive profile on the anxiolytic effects of a treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761601/postnatal-development-of-cholinergic-input-to-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-of-the-mouse
#18
Guela Sokhadze, Peter Whitney Campbell, William Guido
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a shell-like structure comprised of GABAergic neurons, gates signal transmission between thalamus and cortex. While TRN is innervated by axon collaterals of thalamocortical and corticothalamic neurons, other ascending projections modulate activity during different behavioral states such as attention, arousal, and sleep-wake cycles. One of the largest arise from cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and brainstem. Despite its integral role, little is known about how or when cholinergic innervation and synapse formation occurs...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760681/sex-steroids-adult-neurogenesis-and-inflammation-in-cns-homeostasis-degeneration-and-repair
#19
REVIEW
Tracy A Larson
Sex steroidal hormones coordinate the development and maintenance of tissue architecture in many organs, including the central nervous systems (CNS). Within the CNS, sex steroids regulate the morphology, physiology, and behavior of a wide variety of neural cells including, but not limited to, neurons, glia, endothelial cells, and immune cells. Sex steroids spatially and temporally control distinct molecular networks, that, in turn modulate neural activity, synaptic plasticity, growth factor expression and function, nutrient exchange, cellular proliferation, and apoptosis...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760181/corticosterone-signaling-and-a-lateral-habenula-ventral-tegmental-area-circuit-modulate-compulsive-self-injurious-behavior-in-a-rat-model
#20
Yujie Guo, Xun Tang, Jichuan Zhang, Sen Jin, Jinnan Li, Lufeng Ding, Keming Zhang, Chaoyu Yang, Hua Zhou, Xiaobin He, Fuqiang Xu, Guo-Qiang Bi, Lin Xu, Pak-Ming Lau
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is commonly observed in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as nonclinical populations with stress related mental health problems. However, the exact circuitry mechanisms underlying SIB have remained unclear. Here we established a rat model of SIB with bilateral injection of muscimol into entopeduncular nucleus (EP). Following the muscimol injection, the male rats exhibited stereotypic self-biting behavior that lasted for hours and often resulted in wounds of various severities, in a dose-dependent manner...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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