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Neuron, circuit, behavior

Chang-Hui Tsao, Chien-Chun Chen, Chen-Han Lin, Hao-Yu Yang, Suewei Lin
The fruit fly can evaluate its energy state and decide whether to pursue food-related cues. Here, we reveal that the mushroom body (MB) integrates hunger and satiety signals to control food-seeking behavior. We have discovered five pathways in the MB essential for hungry flies to locate and approach food. Blocking the MB-intrinsic Kenyon cells (KCs) and the MB output neurons (MBONs) in these pathways impairs food-seeking behavior. Starvation bi-directionally modulates MBON responses to a food odor, suggesting that hunger and satiety controls occur at the KC-to-MBON synapses...
March 16, 2018: ELife
Marion Griton, Jan Pieter Konsman
Although the immune and nervous systems have long been considered independent biological systems, they turn out to mingle and interact extensively. The present review summarizes recent insights into the neural pathways activated by and involved in infection-induced inflammation and discusses potential clinical applications. The simplest activation concerns a reflex action within C-fibers leading to neurogenic inflammation. Low concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial fragments may also act on these afferent nerve fibers to signal the central nervous system and bring about early fever, hyperalgesia and sickness behavior...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Tao Tan, Wei Wang, Haitao Xu, Zhilin Huang, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yu-Chen Lu, Yu-Jun Wang, Bin Lu, Ming Chen, Ping Zheng, Jing-Gen Liu
Itch is an unpleasant sensation that initiates scratching behavior. Itch-scratch reaction is a complex phenomenon whose occurrence implicates supraspinal structures required for regulation of sensory, emotional, cognitive, and motivational aspects. However, the central mechanisms underlying the processing of itch and the interplay of the supraspinal regions and spinal cord in regulating itch-scratch processes are poorly understood. Here, we have identified that the neural projections from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to dorsal medial striatum (DMS) constitute a critical circuit element for regulating itch-related behaviors in the brain of male C57BL/6J mice...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
John J Marshall, Jian Xu, Anis Contractor
Kainate receptors are members of the glutamate receptor family that function both by generating ionotropic currents through an integral ion channel pore, and through coupling to downstream metabotropic signaling pathways. They are highly expressed in the striatum yet their roles in regulating striatal synapses are not known. Using mice of both sexes we demonstrate that GluK2 containing kainate receptors expressed in direct pathway Spiny Projection Neurons (dSPNs) inhibit glutamate release at corticostriatal synapses in the dorsolateral striatum...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mary E Orczykowski, Kevin R Arndt, Lauren E Palitz, Brian C Kramer, Monica A Pessina, Adrian L Oblak, Seth P Finklestein, Farzad Mortazavi, Douglas L Rosene, Tara L Moore
Stroke results in enduring damage to the brain which is accompanied by innate neurorestorative processes, such as reorganization of surviving circuits. Nevertheless, patients are often left with permanent residual impairments. Cell based therapy is an emerging therapeutic that may function to enhance the innate neurorestorative capacity of the brain. We previously evaluated human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in our non-human primate model of cortical injury limited to the hand area of primary motor cortex...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Vipan K Parihar, Mattia Maroso, Amber Syage, Barrett D Allen, Maria C Angulo, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L Limoli
Of the many perils associated with deep space travel to Mars, neurocognitive complications associated with cosmic radiation exposure are of particular concern. Despite these realizations, whether and how realistic doses of cosmic radiation cause cognitive deficits and neuronal circuitry alterations several months after exposure remains unclear. In addition, even less is known about the temporal progression of cosmic radiation-induced changes transpiring over the duration of a time period commensurate with a flight to Mars...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Lei Liu, Wataru Ito, Alexei Morozov
Region and cell-type restricted expression of light-activated ion channels is the indispensable tool to study properties of synapses in specific circuits and to monitor synaptic alterations by various stimuli including neuromodulators and behaviors, both ex vivo and in vivo . These analyses require the light-activated proteins or viral vectors for their delivery that do not interfere with the phenomenon under study. Here, we report a case of such interference in which the high-level expression of channelrhodopsin-2 introduced in the somatostatin-positive GABAergic neurons of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex by an adeno-associated virus vector weakens the presynaptic GABAb receptor-mediated suppression of GABA release...
April 2018: Neurophotonics
Anita Burgos, Ken Honjo, Tomoko Ohyama, Cheng Sam Qian, Grace Ji-Eun Shin, Daryl M Gohl, Marion Silies, W Daniel Tracey, Marta Zlatic, Albert Cardona, Wesley B Grueber
Rapid and efficient escape behaviors in response to noxious sensory stimuli are essential for protection and survival. Yet, how noxious stimuli are transformed to coordinated escape behaviors remains poorly understood. In Drosophila larvae, noxious stimuli trigger sequential body bending and corkscrew-like rolling behavior. We identified a population of interneurons in the nerve cord of Drosophila , termed Down-and-Back (DnB) neurons, that are activated by noxious heat, promote nociceptive behavior, and are required for robust escape responses to noxious stimuli...
March 12, 2018: ELife
T G Adams, B Kelmendi, C A Brake, P Gruner, C L Badour, C Pittenger
Individuals with OCD often identify psychosocial stress as a factor that exacerbates their symptoms, and many trace the onset of symptoms to a stressful period of life or a discrete traumatic incident. However, the pathophysiological relationship between stress and OCD remains poorly characterized: it is unclear whether trauma or stress is an independent cause of OCD symptoms, a triggering factor that interacts with a preexisting diathesis, or simply a nonspecific factor that can exacerbate OCD along with other aspects of psychiatric symptomatology...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
Bo-Mi Song, Chi-Hon Lee
Many visual animals exploit spectral information for seeking food and mates, for identifying preys and predators, and for navigation. Animals use chromatic information in two ways. "True color vision," the ability to discriminate visual stimuli on the basis of their spectral content independent of brightness, is thought to play an important role in object identification. In contrast, "wavelength-specific behavior," which is strongly dependent on brightness, often associates with foraging, navigation, and other species-specific needs...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Kelli A Fagan, Jintao Luo, Ross C Lagoy, Frank C Schroeder, Dirk R Albrecht, Douglas S Portman
Biological sex, a fundamental dimension of internal state, can modulate neural circuits to generate behavioral variation. Understanding how and why circuits are tuned by sex can provide important insights into neural and behavioral plasticity. Here we find that sexually dimorphic behavioral responses to C. elegans ascaroside sex pheromones are implemented by the functional modulation of shared chemosensory circuitry. In particular, the sexual state of a single sensory neuron pair, ADF, determines the nature of an animal's behavioral response regardless of the sex of the rest of the body...
March 3, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Kun Zhu, Bo Yuan, Ming Hu, Cheng-Jun Li, Jie-Hua Xu, Gai-Feng Feng, Yong Liu, Jian-Xin Liu
Pilocarpine-induced acute seizures strongly induce aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis, characterized by increased proliferation of neural progenitors and abnormal integrations of newly generated granule cells - hilar ectopic granule cells (EGCs), mossy fibre sprouting (MFS), and hilar basal dendrites (HBDs), which may disturb hippocampal neuronal circuits and thus contribute to cognitive impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and animal models. Previous studies via ablating hippocampal neurogenesis after acute seizures produced inconsistent results regarding the development of long-term cognitive impairment...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Pauline M Hilt, Pasquale Cardellicchio
Motor inhibition and attentional processing are tightly linked. Recent neurophysiological studies have shown that both processes might rely on similar cognitive and neural mechanisms (Wessel and Aron, Neuron 93:259-280, 2017). However, it remains unclear whether attentional reorientation influences inhibition of a subsequent action. Therefore, we combined two tasks that are commonly used in the motor inhibition and visual attention reorientation field [respectively: the stop-signal task (Logan and Cowan, Psychol Rev 91:295-327, 1984) and the Posner endogenous cueing paradigm (Posner, Q J Exp Psychol 32(1):3-25, 1980)] to investigate how different aspects of visual attention modulate subsequent voluntary inhibition...
March 8, 2018: Psychological Research
Jared W Young, Zackary A Cope, Benedetto Romoli, Esther Schrurs, Aniek Joosen, Jordy van Enkhuizen, Richard F Sharp, Davide Dulcis
Developing novel therapeutics for bipolar disorder (BD) has been hampered by limited mechanistic knowledge how sufferers switch between mania and depression-how the same brain can switch between extreme states-described as the "holy grail" of BD research. Strong evidence implicates seasonally-induced switching between states, with mania associated with summer-onset, depression with winter-onset. Determining mechanisms of and sensitivity to such switching is required. C57BL/6J and dopamine transporter hypomorphic (DAT-HY 50% expression) mice performed a battery of psychiatry-relevant behavioral tasks following 2-week housing in chambers under seasonally relevant photoperiod extremes...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
M Martinez-Morga, M P Quesada-Rico, C Bueno, S Martinez
AIM: To know the neural processes linked to the activity of brain circuits in order to understand the consequences of their dysfunction and their role in the development of neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). DEVELOPMENT: The activity of neuronal circuits is the neurobiological basis of behavior and mental activity (emotions, memory and thoughts). The processes of differentiation of neural cells and the formation of circuits by synaptic contacts between neurons (synaptogenesis) occur in the central nervous system during the late stages of prenatal development and the first months after birth...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Shivakumar Subbanna, Nagaraja N Nagre, Madhu Shivakumar, Vikram Joshi, Delphine Psychoyos, Abdullah Kutlar, Nagavedi S Umapathy, Balapal S Basavarajappa
Alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to long-lasting behavioral problems, including cognitive impairment, which together is defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the fundamental mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. In this study, we report that the exposure of postnatal day 7 (P7) mice to ethanol activates caspase-3 via cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) in neonatal mice and causes a reduction in methylated DNA binding protein (MeCP2) levels. The developmental expression of MeCP2 in mice is closely correlated with synaptogenesis and neuronal maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Menachem Katz, Francis Corson, Shachar Iwanir, David Biron, Shai Shaham
Glia have been suggested to regulate sleep-like states in vertebrates and invertebrates alike. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, sleep is associated with molting between larval stages. To understand if glia modulate neural circuits driving sleep in C. elegans larvae, we ablated the astrocyte-like CEPsh glia. We found that glia-ablated animals exhibit episodes of immobility preceding sleep, prolonged sleep, molting-independent short-duration locomotory pausing, and delayed development. CEPsh glia ensheath synapses between the sleep-associated ALA neuron and its postsynaptic partner AVE, a major locomotion interneuron...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Jing Tang, Nan Qin, Yan Chong, Yupu Diao, Yiliguma, Zhexuan Wang, Tian Xue, Min Jiang, Jiayi Zhang, Gengfeng Zheng
The restoration of light response with complex spatiotemporal features in retinal degenerative diseases towards retinal prosthesis has proven to be a considerable challenge over the past decades. Herein, inspired by the structure and function of photoreceptors in retinas, we develop artificial photoreceptors based on gold nanoparticle-decorated titania nanowire arrays, for restoration of visual responses in the blind mice with degenerated photoreceptors. Green, blue and near UV light responses in the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are restored with a spatial resolution better than 100 µm...
March 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Michael E Authement, Ludovic D Langlois, Ryan D Shepard, Caroline A Browne, Irwin Lucki, Haifa Kassis, Fereshteh S Nugent
Centrally released corticotropin-releasing factor or hormone (extrahypothalamic CRF or CRH) in the brain is involved in the behavioral and emotional responses to stress. The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic brain region involved in value-based decision-making and stress evasion. Through its inhibition of dopamine-mediated reward circuitry, the increased activity of the LHb is associated with addiction, depression, schizophrenia, and behavioral disorders. We found that extrahypothalamic CRF neurotransmission increased neuronal excitability in the LHb...
March 6, 2018: Science Signaling
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