keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Neuron, circuit, behavior

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150182/mature-hippocampal-neurons-require-lis1-for-synaptic-integrity-implications-for-cognition
#1
Anamaria Sudarov, Xin-Jun Zhang, Leighton Braunstein, Eve LoCastro, Shawn Singh, Yu Taniguchi, Ashish Raj, Song-Hai Shi, Holly Moore, M Elizabeth Ross
BACKGROUND: Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1B1 (LIS1), a critical mediator of neuronal migration in developing brain, is expressed throughout life. However, relatively little is known about LIS1 function in the mature brain. We previously demonstrated that LIS1 involvement in the formation and turnover of synaptic protrusions and synapses of young brain after neuronal migration is complete. Here we examine the requirement for LIS1 to maintain hippocampal circuit function in adulthood...
September 23, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149606/chronic-stress-alters-striosome-circuit-dynamics-leading-to-aberrant-decision-making
#2
Alexander Friedman, Daigo Homma, Bernard Bloem, Leif G Gibb, Ken-Ichi Amemori, Dan Hu, Sebastien Delcasso, Timothy F Truong, Joyce Yang, Adam S Hood, Katrina A Mikofalvy, Dirk W Beck, Norah Nguyen, Erik D Nelson, Sebastian E Toro Arana, Ruth H Vorder Bruegge, Ki A Goosens, Ann M Graybiel
Effective evaluation of costs and benefits is a core survival capacity that in humans is considered as optimal, "rational" decision-making. This capacity is vulnerable in neuropsychiatric disorders and in the aftermath of chronic stress, in which aberrant choices and high-risk behaviors occur. We report that chronic stress exposure in rodents produces abnormal evaluation of costs and benefits resembling non-optimal decision-making in which choices of high-cost/high-reward options are sharply increased...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144973/orbitofrontal-cortex-a-neural-circuit-for-economic-decisions
#3
REVIEW
Camillo Padoa-Schioppa, Katherine E Conen
Economic choice behavior entails the computation and comparison of subjective values. A central contribution of neuroeconomics has been to show that subjective values are represented explicitly at the neuronal level. With this result at hand, the field has increasingly focused on the difficult question of where in the brain and how exactly subjective values are compared to make a decision. Here, we review a broad range of experimental and theoretical results suggesting that good-based decisions are generated in a neural circuit within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)...
November 15, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140243/a-versatile-genetic-tool-for-post-translational-control-of-gene-expression-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
Sachin Sethi, Jing W Wang
Several techniques have been developed to manipulate gene expression temporally in intact neural circuits. However, the applicability of current tools developed for in vivo studies in Drosophila is limited by their incompatibility with existing GAL4 lines and side effects on physiology and behavior. To circumvent these limitations, we adopted a strategy to reversibly regulate protein degradation with a small molecule by using a destabilizing domain (DD). We show that this system is effective across different tissues and developmental stages...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138106/the-subthalamic-neurons-are-activated-by-both-orexin-a-and-orexin-b
#5
Qing Sheng, Yan Xue, Ying Wang, An-Qi Chen, Cui Liu, Yun-Hai Liu, Hong-Yan Chu, Lei Chen
The subthalamic nucleus is an important nucleus in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuit and therefore is involved in motor control under both normal and pathological conditions. Morphological studies reveal that the subthalamic nucleus receives relatively dense orexinergic projections originating from the hypothalamus. Both orexin-1 (OX1) and orexin-2 (OX2) receptors are expressed in the subthalamic nucleus. To explore the functions of orexinergic system in the subthalamic nucleus, extracellular electrophysiological recordings and behavioral tests were performed in the present study...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136104/focal-suppression-of-distractor-sounds-by-selective-attention-in-auditory-cortex
#6
Zachary P Schwartz, Stephen V David
Auditory selective attention is required for parsing crowded acoustic environments, but cortical systems mediating the influence of behavioral state on auditory perception are not well characterized. Previous neurophysiological studies suggest that attention produces a general enhancement of neural responses to important target sounds versus irrelevant distractors. However, behavioral studies suggest that in the presence of masking noise, attention provides a focal suppression of distractors that compete with targets...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121403/mechanisms-of-radial-glia-progenitor-cell-lineage-progression
#7
REVIEW
Robert Beattie, Simon Hippenmeyer
The mammalian cerebral cortex is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, and acquiring and processing information. The neocortex is organized into six distinct laminae, each composed of a rich diversity of cell types which assemble into highly complex cortical circuits. Radial glia progenitors (RGPs) are responsible for producing all neocortical neurons and certain glia lineages. Here, we discuss recent discoveries emerging from clonal lineage analysis at the single RGP cell level that provide us with an inaugural quantitative framework of RGP lineage progression...
November 9, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121220/pathway-specific-control-of-striatal-neuron-vulnerability-by-corticostriatal-cannabinoid-cb1-receptors
#8
Andrea Ruiz-Calvo, Irene B Maroto, Raquel Bajo-Grañeras, Anna Chiarlone, Ángel Gaudioso, José J Ferrero, Eva Resel, José Sánchez-Prieto, José A Rodríguez-Navarro, Giovanni Marsicano, Ismael Galve-Roperh, Luigi Bellocchio, Manuel Guzmán
The vast majority of neurons within the striatum are GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs), which receive glutamatergic input from the cortex and thalamus, and form two major efferent pathways: the direct pathway, expressing dopamine D1 receptor (D1R-MSNs), and the indirect pathway, expressing dopamine D2 receptor (D2R-MSNs). While molecular mechanisms of MSN degeneration have been identified in animal models of striatal damage, the molecular factors that dictate a selective vulnerability of D1R-MSNs or D2R-MSNs remain unknown...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119859/novel-genetic-approaches-to-behavior-in-drosophila
#9
Fernando Martín, Esther Alcorta
The study of behavior requires manipulation of the controlling neural circuits. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is an ideal model for studying behavior because of its relatively small brain and the numerous sophisticated genetic tools that have been developed for this animal. Relatively recent technical advances allow the manipulation of a small subset of neurons with temporal resolution in flies while they are subject to behavior assays. This review briefly describes the most important genetic techniques, reagents, and approaches that are available to study and manipulate the neural circuits involved in Drosophila behavior...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118214/central-network-dynamics-regulating-visceral-and-humoral-functions
#10
Rita J Valentino, Patrice Guyenet, Xun Helen Hou, Melissa Herman
The brain processes information from the periphery and regulates visceral and immune activity to maintain internal homeostasis, optimally respond to a dynamic external environment, and integrate these functions with ongoing behavior. In addition to its relevance for survival, this integration underlies pathology as evidenced by diseases exhibiting comorbid visceral and psychiatric symptoms. Advances in neuroanatomical mapping, genetically specific neuronal manipulation, and neural network recording are overcoming the challenges of dissecting complex circuits that underlie this integration and deciphering their function...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118192/endocannabinoid-mediated-potentiation-of-non-nociceptive-synapses-contributes-to-behavioral-sensitization
#11
Yanqing Wang, Brian D Burrell
Endocannabinoids, such as 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide, can elicit long-term depression of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. This latter effect will result in disinhibition and would therefore be expected to produce an increase in neural circuit output. However, there have been no examples directly linking endocannabinoid-mediated disinhibition to a change in a functional neurobehavioral circuit. The present study uses the well-characterized central nervous system (CNS) of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, to examine the functional/behavioral relevance of endocannabinoid modulation of an identified afferent synapse...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117551/distinct-roles-of-sensory-neurons-in-mediating-pathogen-avoidance-and-neuropeptide-dependent-immune-regulation
#12
Xiou Cao, Rie Kajino-Sakamoto, Argenia Doss, Alejandro Aballay
Increasing evidence implies an extensive and universal interaction between the immune system and the nervous system. Previous studies showed that OCTR-1, a neuronal G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) analogous to human norepinephrine receptors, functions in sensory neurons to control the gene expression of both microbial killing pathways and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we found that OCTR-1-expressing neurons, ASH, are involved in controlling innate immune pathways. In contrast, another group of OCTR-1-expressing neurons, ASI, was shown to promote pathogen avoidance behavior...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116427/cart-neurons-in-the-lateral-hypothalamus-communicate-with-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-via-glutamatergic-neurons-in-paraventricular-thalamic-nucleus-to-modulate-reward-behavior
#13
Amit G Choudhary, Amita R Somalwar, Sneha Sagarkar, Abhishek Rale, Amul Sakharkar, Nishikant K Subhedar, Dadasaheb M Kokare
Paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) serves as a transit node processing food and drug-associated reward information, but its afferents and efferents have not been fully defined. We test the hypothesis that the CART neurons in the lateral hypothalamus (LH) project to the PVT neurons, which in turn communicate via the glutamatergic fibers with the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh), the canonical site for reward. Rats conditioned to self-stimulate via an electrode in the right LH-medial forebrain bundle were used...
November 7, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115280/real-time-cerebellar-neuroprosthetic-system-based-on-a-spiking-neural-network-model-of-motor-learning
#14
Tao Xu, Na Xiao, Xiaolong Zhai, Pak Kwan Chan, Chung Tin
Damage to the brain, as a result of various medical conditions, impacts everyday life of patients and there is still no complete cure to neurological disorders. Neuroprostheses that can functionally replace the damaged neural circuit have recently emerged as a possible solution to these problems. Here we describe the development of a real-time cerebellar neuroprosthetic system to substitute neural function in cerebellar circuitry for learning delay eyeblink conditioning (DEC). Approach: The system was empowered by a biologically realistic spiking neural network (SNN) model of the cerebellar neural circuit, which considers the neuronal population and anatomical connectivity of the network...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115042/generation-of-diverse-cortical-inhibitory-interneurons
#15
REVIEW
Khadeejah T Sultan, Song-Hai Shi
First described by Ramon y Cajal as 'short-axon' cells over a century ago, inhibitory interneurons in the cerebral cortex make up ~20-30% of the neuronal milieu. A key feature of these interneurons is the striking structural and functional diversity, which allows them to modulate neural activity in diverse ways and ultimately endow neural circuits with remarkable computational power. Here, we review our current understanding of the generation of cortical interneurons, with a focus on recent efforts to bridge the gap between progenitor behavior and interneuron production, and how these aspects influence interneuron diversity and organization...
November 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114861/kappa-opioid-receptors-regulate-hippocampal-synaptic-homeostasis-and-epileptogenesis
#16
Bridget N Queenan, Raymond L Dunn, Victor R Santos, Yang Feng, Megan N Huizenga, Robert J Hammack, Stefano Vicini, Patrick A Forcelli, Daniel T S Pak
OBJECTIVE: Homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) serves as a gain control mechanism at central nervous system (CNS) synapses, including those between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3. Improper circuit control of DG-CA3 synapses is hypothesized to underlie epileptogenesis. Here, we sought to (1) identify compounds that preferentially modulate DG-CA3 synapses in primary neuronal culture and (2) determine if these compounds would delay or prevent epileptogenesis in vivo. METHODS: We previously developed and validated an in vitro assay to visualize the behavior of DG-CA3 synapses and predict functional changes...
November 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114071/working-memory-and-decision-making-in-a-fronto-parietal-circuit-model
#17
John D Murray, Jorge Jaramillo, Xiao-Jing Wang
Working memory (WM) and decision making (DM) are fundamental cognitive functions involving a distributed interacting network of brain areas, with the posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices (PPC and PFC) at the core. However, the shared and distinct roles of these areas and the nature of their coordination in cognitive function remain poorly understood. Biophysically-based computational models of cortical circuits have provided insights into the mechanisms supporting these functions, yet they have primarily focused on the local microcircuit level, raising questions about the principles for distributed cognitive computation in multi-regional networks...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109678/identification-of-genes-that-maintain-behavioral-and-structural-plasticity-during-sleep-loss
#18
Laurent Seugnet, Stephane Dissel, Matthew Thimgan, Lijuan Cao, Paul J Shaw
Although patients with primary insomnia experience sleep disruption, they are able to maintain normal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. This observation suggests that insomnia may be a condition where predisposing factors simultaneously increase the risk for insomnia and also mitigate against the deleterious consequences of waking. To gain insight into processes that might regulate sleep and buffer neuronal circuits during sleep loss, we manipulated three genes, fat facet (faf), highwire (hiw) and the GABA receptor Resistance to dieldrin (Rdl), that were differentially modulated in a Drosophila model of insomnia...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106556/location-matters-distinct-dna-methylation-patterns-in-gabaergic-interneuronal-populations-from-separate-microcircuits-within-the-human-hippocampus
#19
W Brad Ruzicka, Sivan Subburaju, Joseph T Coyle, Francine M Benes
Recent studies describe distinct DNA methylomes among phenotypic subclasses of neurons in the human brain, but variation in DNA methylation between common neuronal phenotypes distinguished by their function within distinct neural circuits remains an unexplored concept. Studies able to resolve epigenetic profiles at the level of microcircuits are needed to illuminate chromatin dynamics in the regulation of specific neuronal populations and circuits mediating normal and abnormal behaviors.The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to assess genome-wide DNA methylation in stratum oriens GABAergic interneurons sampled by laser-microdissection from two discrete microcircuits along the trisynaptic pathway in postmortem human hippocampus from eight control, eight schizophrenia, and eight bipolar disorder subjects...
November 2, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106402/selective-neuronal-lapses-precede-human-cognitive-lapses-following-sleep-deprivation
#20
Yuval Nir, Thomas Andrillon, Amit Marmelshtein, Nanthia Suthana, Chiara Cirelli, Giulio Tononi, Itzhak Fried
Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
November 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
keyword
keyword
5198
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"