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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646336/nogo-a-antibodies-enhance-axonal-repair-and-remyelination-in-neuro-inflammatory-and-demyelinating-pathology
#1
Benjamin V Ineichen, Sandra Kapitza, Christiane Bleul, Nicolas Good, Patricia S Plattner, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Julia Kaiser, Marc P Schneider, Björn Zörner, Roland Martin, Michael Linnebank, Martin E Schwab
Two hallmarks of chronic multiple sclerosis lesions are the absence of significant spontaneous remyelination and primary as well as secondary neurodegeneration. Both characteristics may be influenced by the presence of inhibitory factors preventing myelin and neuronal repair. We investigated the potential of antibodies against Nogo-A, a well-known inhibitory protein for neuronal growth and plasticity, to enhance neuronal regeneration and remyelination in two animal models of multiple sclerosis. We induced a targeted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) lesion in the dorsal funiculus of the cervical spinal cord of adult rats resulting in a large drop of skilled forelimb motor functions...
June 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646200/mesenchymal-stem-cells-secretome-induced-axonal-outgrowth-is-mediated-by-bdnf
#2
Luís F Martins, Rui O Costa, Joana R Pedro, Paulo Aguiar, Sofia C Serra, Fabio G Teixeira, Nuno Sousa, António J Salgado, Ramiro D Almeida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, with increasing importance in central and peripheral nervous system repair. However, MSCs grafting present disadvantages, such as, a high number of cells required for transplantation and low survival rate when transplanted into the central nervous system (CNS). In line with this, MSCs secretome which present on its composition a wide range of molecules (neurotrophins, cytokines) and microvesicles, can be a solution to surpass these problems...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643358/maximizing-functional-axon-repair-in-the-injured-cns-lessons-from-neuronal-development
#3
Andrew Kaplan, Mardja Bueno, Luyang Hua, Alyson E Fournier
The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, however it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviours. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629798/proteomic-analysis-of-mesenchymal-to-schwann-cell-transdifferentiation
#4
Anup D Sharma, Jayme Wiederin, Metin Uz, Pawel Ciborowski, Surya K Mallapragada, Howard E Gendelman, Donald S Sakaguchi
While transplantation of Schwann cells facilitates axon regeneration, remyelination and repair after peripheral nerve injury clinical use is limited by cell bioavailability. We posit that such limitation in cell access can be overcome by the use of autologous bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). As MSCs can transdifferentiate to Schwann cell-phenotypes and accelerate nerve regeneration we undertook proteomic evaluation of the cells to uncover the protein contents that affects Schwann cell formulation...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624802/heparin-based-coacervate-of-bfgf-facilitates-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-by-inhibiting-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-following-sciatic-nerve-injury
#5
Rui Li, Shuang Zou, Yanqing Wu, Yiyang Li, Sinan Khor, Yuqin Mao, Huacheng He, Ke Xu, Hongyu Zhang, Xiaokun Li, Jian Wang, Huai Jiang, Qike Jin, Qingsong Ye, Zhouguang Wang, Jian Xiao
Creating a microenvironment at the injury site that favors axonal regrowth and remyelinationis pivotal to the success of therapeutic reinnervation. The mature myelin sheath of the peripheral nervous system depends on active participation of Schwann cells to form new cytoskeletal components and tremendous amounts of relevant neurotrophic factors. In this study, we utilized a new biomaterial for growth factor delivery consisting of a biocompatible polycation, poly(ethylene argininylaspartatediglyceride) and heparin...
May 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622711/curcumin-accelerates-the-repair-of-sciatic-nerve-injury-in-rats-through-reducing-schwann-cells-apoptosis-and-promoting-myelinization
#6
Zhiwei Zhao, Xiaoling Li, Qing Li
BACKGROUND: Schwann cells (SCs) play an indispensable role in the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. Curcumin can reduce SCs apoptosis, and promote the regeneration and functional recovery of injured peripheral nerves. However, the corresponding mechanisms are not clear. OBJECTIVE: The article was aimed to explore the effect and corresponding mechanisms of curcumin on the repair of sciatic nerve injury in rats. METHODS: After surgery induced sciatic nerve injury, the model rats were divided into three groups and treated with curcumin, curcumin+PD98059 and curcumin+IGF-1 respectively for 4days...
June 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616040/stem-cell-transplantation-for-spinal-cord-injury-a-meta-analysis-of-treatment-effectiveness-and-safety
#7
Xiao Fan, Jin-Zhao Wang, Xiao-Min Lin, Li Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of stem cell transplantation for spinal cord injury (SCI). DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal, Wanfang, and SinoMed databases were systematically searched by computer to select clinical randomized controlled trials using stem cell transplantation to treat SCI, published between each database initiation and July 2016...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608475/the-natural-history-of-recoverable-vocal-fold-paralysis-implications-for-kinetics-of-reinnervation
#8
Ted Mau, Hao-Min Pan, Lesley F Childs
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) are commonly told to wait 12 months for spontaneous recovery. This study aims to 1) determine the time to vocal recovery in UVFP, 2) use that data to develop a neurophysiologically plausible model for recovery, and 3) use the model to generate meaningful predictions for patient counseling. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with de novo mathematical modeling. METHODS: Patients with UVFP who could pinpoint a discrete onset of vocal improvement were identified...
June 13, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606481/micropuncture-and-pressure-assisted-schwann-cell-seeding-of-nerve-allograft
#9
Jonathan Isaacs, Nathan Richards, John McMurtry, Satya Mallu, Gaurangkumar Patel, Matthew Thompson, Dorne Yager
BACKGROUND: Tissue processing to create immunotolerant nerve allograft removes neurosupportive cells. Few strategies have been described for implanting new cells into the graft to support axonal regeneration. NEW METHOD: Micropuncture of the nerve allograft surface combined with immersion into a pressurized cell-rich solution to potentiate the introduction of viable Schwann cells (SC) into processed nerve allograft. Allografts were used to repair rodent sciatic nerve defects...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593814/expanding-axonal-transcriptome-brings-new-functions-for-axonally-synthesized-proteins-in-health-and-disease
#10
Amar N Kar, Seung Joon Lee, Jeffery L Twiss
Intra-axonal protein synthesis has been shown to play critical roles in both development and repair of axons. Axons provide long-range connectivity in the nervous system, and disruption of their function and/or structure is seen in several neurological diseases and disorders. Axonally synthesized proteins or losses in axonally synthesized proteins contribute to neurodegenerative diseases, neuropathic pain, viral transport, and survival of axons. Increasing sensitivity of RNA detection and quantitation coupled with methods to isolate axons to purity has shown that a surprisingly complex transcriptome exists in axons...
June 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588362/folic-acid-modulates-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-expression-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-and-improves-functional-recovery-in-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#11
Gurwattan S Miranpuri, Sivan Vadakkadath Meethal, Emmanuel Sampene, Abhishek Chopra, Seah Buttar, Carrie Nacht, Neydis Moreno, Kush Patel, Lisa Liu, Anupama Singh, Chandra K Singh, Nithya Hariharan, Bermans Iskandar, Daniel K Resnick
BACKGROUND: The molecular underpinnings of spinal cord injury (SCI) associated with neuropathic pain (NP) are unknown. Recent studies have demonstrated that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP2 play a critical role in inducing NP following SCI. Promoter methylation of MMPs is known to suppress their transcription and reduce NP. In this context, it has been shown in rodents that folic acid (FA), an FDA approved dietary supplement and key methyl donor in the central nervous system (CNS), increases axonal regeneration and repair of injured CNS in part via methylation...
May 2017: Annals of Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585187/a-brca1-dependent-dna-damage-response-in-the-regenerating-adult-peripheral-nerve-milieu
#12
Anand Krishnan, Kaylynn Purdy, Ambika Chandrasekhar, Jose Martinez, Chu Cheng, Douglas W Zochodne
It is not generally appreciated that DNA repair machinery has a critical role in the remodeling of neurons that adopt a regenerative phenotype. We identified that breast cancer 1 (BRCA1)-dependent DNA activity, previously well known to repair cancer cells, is active in adult peripheral neurons and Schwann cells during their injury and regeneration response. Temporary or partial loss of BRCA1 or blockade of its intraneuronal nuclear entry impaired outgrowth in neurons in vitro and impacted nerve regeneration and functional recovery in vivo...
June 5, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582448/acid-sphingomyelinase-deficiency-enhances-myelin-repair-after-acute-and-chronic-demyelination
#13
Marwan Chami, Ramona Halmer, Laura Schnoeder, Katrin Anne Becker, Carola Meier, Klaus Fassbender, Erich Gulbins, Silke Walter
The cuprizone animal model, also known as the toxic demyelination model, is a well-reproducible model of demyelination- and remyelination in mice, and has been useful in studying important aspect of human demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of acid sphingomyelinase in demyelination and myelin repair by inducing acute and chronic demyelination with 5- or 12-week cuprizone treatment, followed by a 2-week cuprizone withdrawal phase to allow myelin repair...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579877/the-application-of-graphene-oxidized-combining-with-decellularized-scaffold-to-repair-of-sciatic-nerve-injury-in-rats
#14
Qiaoling Wang, Jinlong Chen, Qingfei Niu, Xiumei Fu, Xiaohong Sun, Xiaojie Tong
This paper combined the decellularized scaffold of sciatic nerve of rats with graphene oxidized (GO), studied and facilitated the regeneration of sciatic nerve of rats, and provided the basis for the clinical application of nanomaterials. GO was prepared through improving Hammer's Method. Fourier Infrared Spectrum was used to scan and detect the functional groups in GO of sample by using the pellet method, the microcosmic morphological appearance of GO was observed by using the scanning electron microscope...
May 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576706/rhigm22-enhances-remyelination-in-the-brain-of-the-cuprizone-mouse-model-of-demyelination
#15
Ariana P Mullin, Charlene Cui, Yu Wang, Jing Wang, Erika Troy, Anthony O Caggiano, Tom J Parry, Raymond W Colburn, Elias Pavlopoulos
Failure of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to differentiate and remyelinate axons is thought to be a major cause of the limited ability of the central nervous system to repair plaques of immune-mediated demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). Current therapies for MS aim to lessen the immune response in order to reduce the frequency and severity of attacks, but these existing therapies do not target remyelination or stimulate repair of the damaged tissue. Thus, the promotion of OPC differentiation and remyelination is potentially an important therapeutic goal...
May 30, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571657/transplantation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells-overexpressing-tropomyosin-receptor-kinase-a-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#16
Meige Zheng, Junxiu Duan, Zhendan He, Zhiwei Wang, Shuhua Mu, Zhiwen Zeng, Junle Qu, Dong Wang, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND AIMS: Previously we reported that overexpression of tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) could improve the survival and Schwann-like cell differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) in nerve grafts for bridging rat sciatic nerve defects. The aim of this study was to investigate how TrkA affects the efficacy of BMSCs transplantation on peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. METHODS: Rat BMSCs were infected with recombinant lentiviruses to construct TrkA-overexpressing BMSCs and TrkA-shRNA-expressing BMSCs, which were then seeded in acellular nerve allografts for bridging 10-mm rat sciatic nerve defects...
May 29, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557664/efficacy-of-laser-photobiomodulation-on-morphological-and-functional-repair-of-the-facial-nerve
#17
Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Rui Seabra Ferreira Junior, Benedito Barraviera, Antonio de Castro Rodrigues, Mariana de Cássia Macedo, Geraldo Marco Rosa Junior, Andre Luis Shinohara, Iris Jasmin Santos German, Karina Torres Pomini, Rogerio Leone Buchaim
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on qualitative, quantitative, and functional aspects in the facial nerve regeneration process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two male Wistar rats were used, randomly divided into a control group (CG; n = 10), in which the facial nerve without lesion was collected, and four experimental groups: (1) suture experimental group (SEG) and (2) fibrin experimental group (FEG), consisting of 16 animals in which the buccal branch of the facial nerve was sectioned on both sides of the face; an end-to-end epineural suture was performed on the right side, and a fibrin sealant was used on the left side for coaptation of the stumps; and (3) laser suture experimental group (LSEG) and (4) laser fibrin experimental group (LFEG), consisting of 16 animals that underwent the same surgical procedures as SEG and FEG with the addition of laser application at three different points along the surgical site (pulsed laser of 830 nm wavelength, optical output power of 30 mW, power density of 0...
May 26, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555486/topically-administered-acetyl-l-carnitine-increases-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-and-improves-functional-recovery-after-tubulization-of-transected-short-nerve-gaps
#18
Rahim Mohammadi, Keyvan Amini
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injuries repair is still among the most challenging and concern-raising tasks in neurosurgery. The effect of an acetyl-L-carnitin-loaded silicone tube as an in-situ delivery system in defects bridging was studied using a rat sciatic nerve regeneration model. METHODS: A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using a silicone tube (SIL/ALC) filled with 10 µL acetyl-L-carnitine (100 ng/mL). In the control group (SIL), the tube was filled with the same volume of the phosphate-buffered solution...
August 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554393/stem-cell-transplantation-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#19
Paul Lu
Stem cells, especially neural stem cells (NSCs), are a very attractive cell source for potential reconstruction of injured spinal cord though either neuroprotection, neural regeneration, remyelination, replacement of lost neural cells, or reconnection of disrupted axons. The later have great potential since recent studies demonstrate long-distance growth and connectivity of axons derived from transplanted NSCs after spinal cord injury (SCI). In addition, transplanted NSCs constitute a permissive environment for host axonal regeneration and serve as new targets for host axonal connection...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554011/physical-chitosan-microhydrogels-as-scaffolds-for-spinal-cord-injury-restoration-and-axon-regeneration
#20
Jamila Chedly, Sylvia Soares, Alexandra Montembault, Ysander von Boxberg, Michèle Veron-Ravaille, Christine Mouffle, Marie-Noelle Benassy, Jacques Taxi, Laurent David, Fatiha Nothias
Recovery from traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) usually fails due to a cascade of cellular and molecular events that compromise neural tissue reconstitution by giving rise to glial scarring and cavity formation. We designed a scaffold material for SCI treatment containing only chitosan and water as fragmented physical hydrogel suspension (Chitosan-FPHS), with defined degree of acetylation (DA), polymer concentration, and mean fragment size. Implantation of Chitosan-FPHS alone into rat spinal cord immediately after a bilateral dorsal hemisection promoted reconstitution of spinal tissue and vasculature, and diminished fibrous glial scarring: with astrocyte processes primarily oriented towards the lesion, the border between lesion site and intact tissue became permissive for regrowth of numerous axons into, and for some even beyond the lesion site...
May 19, 2017: Biomaterials
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