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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217813/-vegf-enhances-reconstruction-of-neurovascular-units-in-the-brain-after-injury
#1
Zhi-Guang Pan, Ying Mao, Feng-Yan Sun
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was originally recognized as a substance predominantly with vascular permeability and angiogenesis. Recently, more and more evidence indicated that VEGF is expressed in the neurons of the developing and adult brains. Functional investigation demonstrated that VEGF shows several important effects on the neuronal development and physiological function. For example, VEGF accelerates the development of neurons and neural dendritic and axon growth. Besides, VEGF directly and acutely regulates the functions of multiple ion channels of the neuron membrane and changes neural excitability...
February 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209315/impact-of-apoe-genotypes-variations-on-toxoplasma-patients-with-dementia
#2
Raida S Yahya, Soha I Awad, Hatim A El-Baz, Niveen Saudy, Osama A Abdelsalam, Mohamed S Shehab Al-Din
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma deprives host neuron cells from cholesterol and leads to its ability to potentiate dementia. ApoE intermediates neuronal transmission of cholesterol, which is a key constituent for axonal development, redesigning occasions that are important for education and synaptic arrangement, development of memory and repair of neuron. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of ApoE genotypes on dementia associated with neurodegeneration in latent Toxoplasma gondii in elderly population...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203609/zeb2-inhibiting-the-inhibitors-in-schwann-cells
#3
Bastian G Brinkmann, Susanne Quintes
Development of Schwann cells is tightly regulated by concerted action of activating and inhibiting factors. Most of the regulatory feedback loops identified to date are transcriptional activators promoting induction of genes coding for integral myelin proteins and lipids. The mechanisms by which inhibitory factors are silenced during Schwann cell maturation are less well understood. We could recently show a pivotal function for the transcription factor zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (Zeb2) during Schwann cell development and myelination as a transcriptional repressor of maturation inhibitors...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203223/impaired-axonal-regeneration-in-diabetes-perspective-on-the-underlying-mechanism-from-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-experimental-studies
#4
REVIEW
Kazunori Sango, Hiroki Mizukami, Hidenori Horie, Soroku Yagihashi
Axonal regeneration after peripheral nerve injury is impaired in diabetes, but its precise mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this paper, we summarize the progress of research on altered axonal regeneration in animal models of diabetes and cultured nerve tissues exposed to hyperglycemia. Impaired nerve regeneration in animal diabetes can be attributed to dysfunction of neurons and Schwann cells, unfavorable stromal environment supportive of regenerating axons, and alterations of target tissues receptive to reinnervation...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203046/neuroinflammation-as-fuel-for-axonal-regeneration-in-the-injured-vertebrate-central-nervous-system
#5
REVIEW
Ilse Bollaerts, Jessie Van Houcke, Lien Andries, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Damage to the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly, as repair after lesions or neurodegenerative disease usually fails because of the limited capacity of CNS regeneration. The causes underlying this limited regenerative potential are multifactorial, but one critical aspect is neuroinflammation. Although classically considered as harmful, it is now becoming increasingly clear that inflammation can also promote regeneration, if the appropriate context is provided...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201982/transcriptome-profile-of-rat-genes-in-injured-spinal-cord-at-different-stages-by-rna-sequencing
#6
Ling-Ling Shi, Nan Zhang, Xiu-Mei Xie, Yue-Juan Chen, Rui Wang, Lin Shen, Jian-Sheng Zhou, Jian-Guo Hu, He-Zuo Lü
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in fatal damage and currently has no effective treatment. The pathological mechanisms of SCI remain unclear. In this study, genome-wide transcriptional profiling of spinal cord samples from injured rats at different time points after SCI was performed by RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq). The transcriptomes were systematically characterized to identify the critical genes and pathways that are involved in SCI pathology. RESULTS: RNA-Seq results were obtained from total RNA harvested from the spinal cords of sham control rats and rats in the acute, subacute, and chronic phases of SCI (1 day, 6 days and 28 days after injury, respectively; n = 3 in every group)...
February 15, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198124/long-distance-axonal-growth-and-protracted-functional-maturation-of-neurons-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-after-intracerebral-transplantation
#7
Jonathan C Niclis, Christopher Turner, Jennifer Durnall, Stuart McDougal, Jessica A Kauhausen, Bryan Leaw, Mirella Dottori, Clare L Parish, Lachlan H Thompson
The capacity for induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells to be differentiated into a wide range of neural cell types makes them an attractive donor source for autologous neural transplantation therapies aimed at brain repair. Translation to the in vivo setting has been difficult, however, with mixed results in a wide variety of preclinical models of brain injury and limited information on the basic in vivo properties of neural grafts generated from human iPS cells. Here we have generated a human iPS cell line constitutively expressing green fluorescent protein as a basis to identify and characterize grafts resulting from transplantation of neural progenitors into the adult rat brain...
February 15, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197201/-three-methods-and-three-points-regulates-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-in-the-dorsal-horn-of-the-spinal-cord-in-a-rat-model-of-sciatic-nerve-injury
#8
Xin Guo, Tian-Yuan Yu, Wong Steven, Wen-Duan Jia, Chi Ma, Yan-Hong Tao, Chao Yang, Tao-Tao Lv, Shuai Wu, Meng-Qian Lu, Jia-Li Liu
Tuina is a traditional Chinese treatment for sensory disturbances caused by peripheral nerve injury and related diseases. Our previous studies showed that tuina regulates relevant regions and indices of the spinal dorsal horn using the Dian, Bo, and Rou method in Yinmen (BL37), Yanglingquan (GB34), and Weizhong (BL40). Treatment prevents muscle atrophy, protects spinal cord neurons, and promotes sciatic nerve repair. The mechanisms of action of tuina for treating peripheral nerve injury remain poorly understood...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197197/fine-motor-skill-training-enhances-functional-plasticity-of-the-corticospinal-tract-after-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Jian Liu, Xiao-Yu Yang, Wei-Wei Xia, Jian Dong, Mao-Guang Yang, Jian-Hang Jiao
Following central nervous system injury, axonal sprouts form distal to the injury site and extend into the denervated area, reconstructing neural circuits through neural plasticity. How to facilitate this plasticity has become the key to the success of central nervous system repair. It remains controversial whether fine motor skill training contributes to the recovery of neurological function after spinal cord injury. Therefore, we established a rat model of unilateral corticospinal tract injury using a pyramidal tract cutting method...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197173/targeting-cell-surface-receptors-for-axon-regeneration-in-the-central-nervous-system
#10
REVIEW
Menghon Cheah, Melissa R Andrews
Axon regeneration in the CNS is largely unsuccessful due to excess inhibitory extrinsic factors within lesion sites together with an intrinsic inability of neurons to regrow following injury. Recent work demonstrates that forced expression of certain neuronal transmembrane receptors can recapitulate neuronal growth resulting in successful growth within and through inhibitory lesion environments. More specifically, neuronal expression of integrin receptors such as alpha9beta1 integrin which binds the extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-C, trk receptors such as trkB which binds the neurotrophic factor BDNF, and receptor PTPσ which binds chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, have all been show to significantly enhance regeneration of injured axons...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191764/neural-progenitor-like-cells-induced-from-human-gingiva-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-regulate-myelination-of-schwann-cells-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#11
Qunzhou Zhang, Phuong Nguyen, Qilin Xu, Wonse Park, Sumin Lee, Akihiro Furuhashi, Anh D Le
Regeneration of peripheral nerve injury remains a major clinical challenge. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered as potential candidates for peripheral nerve regeneration; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that human gingiva-derived MSCs (GMSCs) could be directly induced into multipotent NPCs (iNPCs) under minimally manipulated conditions without the introduction of exogenous genes. Using a crush-injury model of rat sciatic nerve, we demonstrate that GMSCs transplanted to the injury site could differentiate into neuronal cells, whereas iNPCs could differentiate into both neuronal and Schwann cells...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187500/basement-membrane-type-iv-collagen-and-laminin-an-overview-of-their-biology-and-value-as-fibrosis-biomarkers-of-liver-disease
#12
REVIEW
Ki M Mak, Rena Mei
Basement membranes provide structural support to epithelium, endothelium, muscles, fat cells, Schwann cells and axons. Basement membranes are multifunctional: they modulate cellular behavior, regulate organogenesis, promote tissue repair, form a barrier to filtration and tumor metastasis, bind growth factors and mediate angiogenesis. All basement membranes contain type IV collagen (Col IV), laminin, nidogen, and perlecan. Col IV and laminin self-assemble into two independent supramolecular networks that are linked to nidogen and perlecan to form a morphological discernable basement membrane/basal lamina...
February 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185615/clinical-study-of-neuroregen-scaffold-combined-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-the-repair-of-chronic-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Yannan Zhao, Fengwu Tang, Guang Han, Nuo Wang, Na Yin, Bing Chen, Xianfeng Jiang, Chen Yun, Wanjun Han, Changyu Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Regeneration of damaged neurons and recovery of sensation and motor function after complete spinal cord injury (SCI) are challenging. We previously developed a collagen scaffold, NeuroRegen scaffold, to promote axonal growth along collagen fibers and inhibit glial scar formation after SCI. When functionalized with multiple biomolecules, this scaffold promoted neurological regeneration and functional recovery in animals with SCI. In this study, eight patients with chronic complete SCI were enrolled to examine the safety and efficacy of implanting NeuroRegen scaffold with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
February 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183657/production-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-macroporous-cell-encapsulating-alginate-fibres-for-nerve-repair
#14
Sharon Chien-Yu Lin, Yiwei Wang, David F Wertheim, Allan G A Coombes
The prospects for successful peripheral nerve repair using fibre guides are considered to be enhanced by the use of a scaffold material, which promotes attachment and proliferation of glial cells and axonal regeneration. Macroporous alginate fibres were produced by extraction of gelatin particle porogens from wet spun fibres produced using a suspension of gelatin particles in 1.5% w/v alginate solution. Gelatin loading of the starting suspension of 40.0, 57.0, and 62.5% w/w resulted in gelatin loading of the dried alginate fibres of 16, 21, and 24% w/w respectively...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182823/how-to-direct-the-neuronal-growth-process-in-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-future-strategies-for-nanosurfaces-scaffold-and-magnetic-nanoparticles
#15
Andrea Poggetti, Pietro Battistini, Paolo Domenico Parchi, Michela Novelli, Simona Raffa, Marco Cecchini, Anna Maria Nucci, Michele Lisanti
Currently, the gold standard to repair large nerve defects is the autologous nerve graft. These solutions offer a mechanical support, adhesion substrates, and, with Schwann cells (SC), a source of neurotropic factors for axonal growth. The technical limits are the donor side damage, multiple surgical accesses, and the unavailability of large amounts of grafts. In recent years, several researchers focused their attention on the interaction between cells (nervous and glial) and physic-chemical cues that arise from the extracellular milieu...
February 7, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176458/serum-free-bioprocessing-of-adult-human-and-rodent-skin-derived-schwann-cells-implications-for-cell-therapy-in-nervous-system-injury
#16
Leila Mirfeizi, Jo Anne Stratton, Ranjan Kumar, Prajay Shah, Natacha Agabalyan, Morgan G Stykel, Rajiv Midha, Jeff Biernaskie, Michael S Kallos
Peripheral nerve injury affects 2.8% of trauma patients with severe cases often resulting in long-lived permanent disability, despite nerve repair surgery. Autologous Schwann cell (SC) therapy currently provides an exciting avenue for improved outcomes for these patients, particularly with the possibility to derive SCs from easily-accessible adult skin. However, due to current challenges regarding the efficient expansion of these cells, further optimization is required before they can be seriously considered for clinical application...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169834/development-of-biomimetic-micro-patterned-device-incorporated-with-neurotrophic-gradient-and-supportive-schwann-cells-for-the-applications-in-neural-tissue-engineering
#17
Chia-Wei Yeh, Li-Wen Wang, Hsi-Chin Wu, Yi-Kong Hsieh, Jane Wang, Ming-Hong Chen, Tzu-Wei Wang
In these years, the artificial nerve guidance conduit has been developed as an alternative way to repair peripheral nerve injury. Unlike autologous nerve graft, the artificial nerve guidance conduit without proper stimulating factors and guidance cues still cannot obtain satisfactory prognosis for clinical patients. In this study, a biodegradable polymer-based implantable device has been developed and characterized. By incorporating three stimulating factors: 1) micro-patterned surface that can directionally guide the axon as physical cue; 2) neurotrophic gradient membrane that can continually attract axon outgrowth from the proximal to distal stump as chemical cue; 3) Schwann cells that can support the growth of neurite and form myelin sheath around axon as biological cue, we expect that this construct can be used as a promising nerve guidance conduit for peripheral nerve regeneration...
February 7, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161197/icariin-enhances-remyelination-process-after-acute-demyelination-induced-by-cuprizone-exposure
#18
Yifan Zhang, Linlin Yin, Na Zheng, Li Zhang, Jianghong Liu, Weixiong Liang, Qi Wang
Pathology are still progressive and cumulative in the remission course of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), thus drug treatment during the remission period may play a great role for the regeneration of the myelin sheath. C57BL/6 mice were fed with cuprizone (CPZ, 0.2% w/w) for 5 weeks to induce acute demyelination and oligodendrocytes degeneration, after which CPZ was withdrawn to allow recovery. Icariin (ICA, 6.25, 12.5 and 25mg/kg/day), vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose solution) or water was administrated orally to mice for 1 week after CPZ withdrawal...
February 1, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161077/m1-macrophages-are-predominantly-recruited-to-the-major-pelvic-ganglion-of-the-rat-following-cavernous-nerve-injury
#19
Hotaka Matsui, Nikolai A Sopko, Johanna L Hannan, Allison A Reinhardt, Max Kates, Takahiro Yoshida, Xiaopu Liu, Fabio Castiglione, Petter Hedlund, Emmanuel Weyne, Maarten Albersen, Trinity J Bivalacqua
INTRODUCTION: Neurogenic erectile dysfunction is a common sequela of radical prostatectomy. The etiology involves injury to the autonomic cavernous nerves, which arise from the major pelvic ganglion (MPG), and subsequent neuroinflammation, which leads to recruitment of macrophages to the injury site. Currently, two macrophage phenotypes are known: neurotoxic M1 macrophages and neuroprotective M2 macrophages. AIM: To examine whether bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) in a rat model of erectile dysfunction would increase recruitment of neurotoxic M1 macrophages to the MPG...
February 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153091/effect-of-fingolimod-on-neural-stem-cells-a-novel-mechanism-and-broadened-application-for-neural-repair
#20
Yuan Zhang, Xing Li, Bogoljub Ciric, Cun-Gen Ma, Bruno Gran, Abdolmohamad Rostami, Guang-Xian Zhang
Inflammatory demyelination and axonal damage of the CNS are hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Fingolimod (FTY720), the first FDA-approved oral medication for MS, suppresses acute disease but is less effective at the chronic stage, and whether it has a direct effect on neuroregeneration in MS and EAE remains unclear. Here we show that FTY720, at nanomolar concentrations, effectively protected survival of neural stem cells (NSCs) and enhanced their development into mature oligodendrocytes (OLGs) in vitro, primarily through the S1P3 and S1P5 receptors...
February 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
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