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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927918/the-safety-of-irreversible-electroporation-on-nerves-adjacent-to-treated-tumors
#1
Xiaomei Luo, Zilin Qin, Huimin Tao, Jian Shi, Gang Fang, Zhonghai Li, Xulong Zhou, Jibing Chen, Kecheng Xu, Jianying Zeng, Lizhi Niu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the sciatic nerve after IRE ablation of adjacent tumor. METHODS: and analysis In this study, VX2 tumors were implanted adjacent to the sciatic nerves in 26 New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into three groups 10 days after implantation, with two treatment groups of ten rabbits each and a control group of six rabbits. In one of the treatment groups (IRE-S group), the rabbits underwent ablation with a single IRE application, and in the other group (IRE-D group) the rabbits underwent two IRE applications...
September 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926622/a-high-mitochondrial-transport-rate-characterizes-cns-neurons-with-high-axonal-regeneration-capacity
#2
Romain Cartoni, Gulcin Pekkurnaz, Chen Wang, Thomas L Schwarz, Zhigang He
Improving axonal transport in the injured and diseased central nervous system has been proposed as a promising strategy to improve neuronal repair. However, the contribution of each cargo to the repair mechanism is unknown. DRG neurons globally increase axonal transport during regeneration. Because the transport of specific cargos after axonal insult has not been examined systematically in a model of enhanced regenerative capacity, it is unknown whether the transport of all cargos would be modulated equally in injured central nervous system neurons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923597/targeting-demyelination-via-%C3%AE-secretases-promoting-sapp%C3%AE-release-to-enhance-remyelination-in-central-nervous-system
#3
Gemma Llufriu-Dabén, Alex Carrete, Elena Chierto, Jo Mailleux, Emeline Camand, Anne Simon, Tim Vanmierlo, Christiane Rose, Bernadette Allinquant, Jerome J A Hendriks, Charbel Massaad, Delphine Meffre, Mehrnaz Jafarian-Tehrani
Remyelination is an endogenous regenerative process of myelin repair in the central nervous system (CNS) with limited efficacy in demyelinating disorders. As strategies enhancing endogenous remyelination become a therapeutic challenge, we have focused our study on α-secretase-induced sAPPα release, a soluble endogenous protein with neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. However, the role of sAPPα in remyelination is not known. Therefore, we investigated the remyelination potential of α-secretase-induced sAPPα release following CNS demyelination in mice...
September 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921700/low-dose-fractionated-irradiation-promotes-axonal-regeneration-beyond-reactive-gliosis-and-facilitates-locomotor-function-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-beagle-dogs
#4
Qiang Zhang, Ying Xiong, Bo Zhu, Bifeng Zhu, Daishi Tian, Wei Wang
Injury to the adult central nervous system (CNS) results in the formation of glial scar tissues. Glial scar-induced failure of regenerative axon pathfinding may limit axon regrowth beyond the lesion site and cause incorrect reinnervation and dystrophic appearance of stalled growth after CNS trauma. Glial scars also upregulate chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and expression of proinflammatory factor(s) that form a barrier to axonal regeneration. Therefore, interventions for glial scarring are an attractive strategy for augmenting axonal sprouting and regeneration and overcoming the physical and molecular barriers impeding functional repair...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921694/protease-activated-receptor-2-controls-myelin-development-resiliency-and-repair
#5
Hyesook Yoon, Maja Radulovic, Grant Walters, Alex R Paulsen, Kristen Drucker, Phillip Starski, Jianmin Wu, David P Fairlie, Isobel A Scarisbrick
Oligodendrocytes are essential regulators of axonal energy homeostasis and electrical conduction and emerging target cells for restoration of neurological function. Here we investigate the role of protease activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a unique protease activated G protein-coupled receptor, in myelin development and repair using the spinal cord as a model. Results demonstrate that genetic deletion of PAR2 accelerates myelin production, including higher proteolipid protein (PLP) levels in the spinal cord at birth and higher levels of myelin basic protein and thickened myelin sheaths in adulthood...
September 18, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918261/rat-motor-neurons-caudal-to-a-rubrospinal-tract-rst-transection-remain-viable
#6
Brandon M Wild, Rahul Mohan, Renée Morris
In the rat, the rubrospinal tract (RST) is a descending motor pathway involved in the production of skilled reaching movement. The RST originates in the red nucleus in the midbrain and runs down the spinal cord in the lateral-most aspect of the dorsolateral funiculus (DLF). The RST makes monosynaptic contact with interneurons within the intermediate laminae of the cord, however a contingent of RST axons constitutes direct supraspinal input for spinal cord motor neurons. The current study investigated the effects of unilateral RST transection at cervical levels C3-4 on the population of motor neurons in both spinal segments C5-6 and L2-3...
September 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917662/successful-optic-nerve-regeneration-in-the-senescent-zebrafish-despite-age-related-decline-of-cell-intrinsic-and-extrinsic-response-processes
#7
Jessie Van Houcke, Ilse Bollaerts, Emiel Geeraerts, Benjamin Davis, An Beckers, Inge Van Hove, Kim Lemmens, Lies De Groef, Lieve Moons
Dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases or after brain lesions seriously affects life quality of a growing number of elderly, since the adult CNS lacks the capacity to replace or repair damaged neurons. Despite intensive research efforts, full functional recovery after CNS disease and/or injury remains challenging, especially in an aging environment. As such, there is a rising need for an aging model in which the impact of aging on successful regeneration can be studied...
August 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912446/an-injectable-hydrogel-enhances-tissue-repair-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-promoting-extracellular-matrix-remodeling
#8
Le Thi Anh Hong, Young-Min Kim, Hee Hwan Park, Dong Hoon Hwang, Yuexian Cui, Eun Mi Lee, Stephanie Yahn, Jae K Lee, Soo-Chang Song, Byung Gon Kim
The cystic cavity that develops following injuries to brain or spinal cord is a major obstacle for tissue repair in central nervous system (CNS). Here we report that injection of imidazole-poly(organophosphazenes) (I-5), a hydrogel with thermosensitive sol-gel transition behavior, almost completely eliminates cystic cavities in a clinically relevant rat spinal cord injury model. Cystic cavities are bridged by fibronectin-rich extracellular matrix. The fibrotic extracellular matrix remodeling is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressed in macrophages within the fibrotic extracellular matrix...
September 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904214/after-nerve-injury-lineage-tracing-shows-that-myelin-and-remak-schwann-cells-elongate-extensively-and-branch-to-form-repair-schwann-cells-which-shorten-radically-on-remyelination
#9
Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Kjara S Pilch, Milou van der Lans, Shaline V Fazal, Cristina Benito, Laura J Wagstaff, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902937/inside-out-and-standard-vein-grafts-associated-with-platelet-rich-plasma-prp-in-sciatic-nerve-repair-a-histomorphometric-study
#10
José Sidney Roque, Karina Torres Pomini, Rogério Leone Buchaim, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Domingos Donizeti Roque, Antonio de Castro Rodrigues, Geraldo Marco Rosa, Luis Henrique Rapucci Moraes, Fausto Viterbo
Purpose: To evaluated the tubulization technique with standard and inside-out vein, filled or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), in sciatic nerve repair. Methods: Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: IOVNF (Inside-Out Vein with No Filling); IOVPRP (Inside-Out Vein filled with PRP); SVNF (Standard Vein with No Filling); SVPRP (Standard Vein filled with PRP); Sham (Control). The left external jugular vein was used as graft in a 10 mm nervous gap...
August 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900263/physicochemical-stability-and-transfection-efficiency-of-cationic-amphiphilic-copolymer-pdna-polyplexes-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#11
So-Jung Gwak, Christian Macks, Sooneon Bae, Noah Cecil, Jeoung Soo Lee
Multiple age-related and injury-induced characteristics of the adult central nervous system (CNS) pose barriers to axonal regeneration and functional recovery following injury. In situ gene therapy is a promising approach to address the limited availability of growth-promoting biomolecules at CNS injury sites. The ultimate goal of our work is to develop, a cationic amphiphilic copolymer for simultaneous delivery of drug and therapeutic nucleic acids to promote axonal regeneration and plasticity after spinal cord injury...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890164/directed-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-fate-committed-schwann-cells
#12
Sa Cai, Yat-Ping Tsui, Kin-Wai Tam, Graham Ka-Hon Shea, Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Qiang Ao, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum, Ying-Shing Chan
Our ultimate goal of in vitro derivation of Schwann cells (SCs) from adult bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is such that they may be used autologously to assist post-traumatic nerve regeneration. Existing protocols for derivation of SC-like cells from BMSCs fall short in the stability of the acquired phenotype and the functional capacity to myelinate axons. Our experiments indicated that neuro-ectodermal progenitor cells among the human hBMSCs could be selectively expanded and then induced to differentiate into SC-like cells...
August 29, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885860/anti-lingo-1-opicinumab-a-new-monoclonal-antibody-tested-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Serena Ruggieri, Carla Tortorella, Claudio Gasperini
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The modern treatment era for MS witnessed a growing pool of drugs now available for use in clinical practice. These therapies work at different levels, however there is a lack of treatments acting on the neurodegenerative component or improving mechanism of repair. Areas covered: The latest knowledge about the pathophysiological changes occurring in MS have translated into novel treatments at different stages of development...
September 8, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874921/functional-medicine-approach-to-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Alice C Richer
Background: The U.S. military has seen dramatic increases in traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) among military personnel due to the nature of modern-day conflicts. Conventional TBI treatment for secondary brain injuries has suboptimal success rates, and patients, families, and healthcare professionals are increasingly turning to alternative medicine treatments. Objective: Effective treatments for the secondary injury cascades that occur after an initial brain trauma are unclear at this time. The goal of successful treatment options for secondary TBI injuries is to reduce oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and inflammation while supporting mitochondrial functions and repair of membranes, synapses, and axons...
August 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874746/rgma-inhibition-with-human-monoclonal-antibodies-promotes-regeneration-plasticity-and-repair-and-attenuates-neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Andrea J Mothe, Nardos G Tassew, Alirezha P Shabanzadeh, Romeo Penheiro, Robin J Vigouroux, Lili Huang, Christine Grinnell, Yi-Fang Cui, Emma Fung, Philippe P Monnier, Bernhard K Mueller, Charles H Tator
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes a cascade of degenerative events including cell death, axonal damage, and the upregulation of inhibitory molecules which prevent regeneration and limit recovery. Repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) is a potent neurite growth inhibitor in the central nervous system, exerting its repulsive activity by binding the Neogenin receptor. Here, we show for the first time that inhibitory RGMa is markedly upregulated in multiple cell types after clinically relevant impact-compression SCI in rats, and importantly, also in the injured human spinal cord...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854520/neuroplasticity-and-behavioral-effects-of%C3%A2-fluoxetine-after-experimental-stroke
#16
Yefei Sun, Xiaoyu Sun, Huiling Qu, Shanshan Zhao, Ting Xiao, Chuansheng Zhao
The brain can undergo self-repair and has the ability to compensate for functions lost after a stroke. The plasticity of the ischemic brain is influenced by several factors including aging and pharmacotherapy. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant which enhances serotonergic neurotransmission through selective inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin. In clinical practice, fluoxetine alleviates the symptoms of post-stroke depression (PSD), helps motor recovery in stroke patients. In animal experiments, chronic administration of fluoxetine induces increased excitability of mature granule cells (GCs), enhancing axonal and dendritic reorganization, as well as promoting neurogenesis or angiogenesis in the dentate gurus (DG), but the effect of fluoxetine in the subventricular zone (SVZ) remains controversial...
August 24, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852379/targeting-14-3-3-adaptor-protein-protein-interactions-to-stimulate-central-nervous-system-repair
#17
REVIEW
Andrew Kaplan, Alyson E Fournier
The goal of developing treatments for central nervous system (CNS) injuries is becoming more attainable with the recent identification of various drugs that can repair damaged axons. These discoveries have stemmed from screening efforts, large expression datasets and an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular biology underlying axon growth. It will be important to continue searching for new compounds that can induce axon repair. Here we describe how a family of adaptor proteins called 14-3-3s can be targeted using small molecule drugs to enhance axon outgrowth and regeneration...
July 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846931/stimulation-of-morphofunctional-repair-of-the-facial-nerve-with-photobiomodulation-using-the-end-to-side-technique-or-a-new-heterologous-fibrin-sealant
#18
Marcelie Priscila de Oliveira Rosso, Geraldo Marco Rosa Júnior, Daniela Vieira Buchaim, Iris Jasmin Santos German, Karina Torres Pomini, Rafael Gomes de Souza, Mizael Pereira, Idvaldo Aparecido Favaretto Júnior, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza Bueno, Jéssica Barbosa de Oliveira Gonçalves, Rui Seabra Ferreira Júnior, Benedito Barraviera, Jesus Carlos Andreo, Rogério Leone Buchaim
This research evaluated the influence of Photobiomodulation Therapy (PBMT) on lesions of the facial nerve repaired with the end-to-side technique or coaptation with a new heterologous fibrin sealant. Thirty-two Wistar rats were separated into 5 groups: Control group (CG), where the buccal branch of the facial nerve was collected; Experimental Suture Group (ESG) and Experimental Fibrin Group (EFG), in which the buccal branch was end-to-side sutured to the zygomatic branch on the right side of the face or coaptated with fibrin sealant on the left side; Experimental Suture Laser Group (ESLG) and Experimental Fibrin Laser Group (EFLG), in which the same procedures were performed as the ESG and EFG, associated with PBMT (wavelength of 830nm, energy density 6...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842591/nogoa-neutralization-promotes-axonal-restoration-after-white-matter-injury-in-subcortical-stroke
#19
Laura Otero-Ortega, Mari Carmen Gómez-de Frutos, Fernando Laso-García, Alba Sánchez-Gonzalo, Arturo Martínez-Arroyo, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Blocking axonal growth inhibitor NogoA has been of great interest for promoting axonal recovery from neurological diseases. The present study investigates the therapeutic effects of blocking NogoA, inducing functional recovery and promoting white matter repair in an experimental animal model of stroke. Adult male rats were subjected to white matter injury by subcortical ischemic stroke. Twenty-four hours after surgery, 250 ug of anti-NogoA or anti-IgG-1 were administered through the tail vein. The quantity of NogoA protein was determined by immunohistochemistry in the brain and peripheral organs...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836485/the-vascularization-pattern-of-acellular-nerve-allografts-after-nerve-repair-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#20
Zhaowei Zhu, Yanyan Huang, Xiaoyan Zou, Canbin Zheng, Jianghui Liu, Longhai Qiu, Bo He, Qingtang Zhu, Xiaolin Liu
OBJECTIVE: We have demonstrated that angiogenesis in acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) can promote neuroregeneration. The present study aimed to investigate the microvascular regeneration pattern of ANAs in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into an autologous group and a rat acellular nerve allograft group (rANA), and 10-mm sciatic nerve defects were induced in these rats. On the 7th, 14th and 21st days after surgery, systemic perfusion with Evans Blue (EB) or lead oxide was performed on the rats through carotid intubation...
August 24, 2017: Neurological Research
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