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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440805/cell-transplantation-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Peggy Assinck, Greg J Duncan, Brett J Hilton, Jason R Plemel, Wolfram Tetzlaff
Spinal cord injury can lead to severe motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the injured spinal cord. The transplantation of Schwann cells, neural stem cells or progenitor cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and mesenchymal stem cells has been investigated as potential therapies for spinal cord injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which these individual cell types promote repair and functional improvements...
April 25, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436759/the-roles-of-micrornas-in-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Zhongju Shi, Hengxing Zhou, Lu Lu, Xueying Li, Zheng Fu, Jun Liu, Yi Kang, Zhijian Wei, Bin Pan, Lu Liu, Xiaohong Kong, Shiqing Feng
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal cord injury (SCI) involves serious damage that can result in abnormal or absent motor and sensory functions and a disruption of autonomic function, and a series of pathological reactions occur after the injury. As a type of small non-coding RNA, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been verified to inhibit gene expression via posttranscriptional regulation. This review mainly focuses on recent advances regarding the roles of miRNAs following SCI. METHODS: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were adopted...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421195/role-of-demyelination-efficiency-within-acellular-nerve-scaffolds-during-nerve-regeneration-across-peripheral-defects
#3
Meiqin Cai, Tengchao Huang, Bo Hou, Ying Guo
Hudson's optimized chemical processing method is the most commonly used chemical method to prepare acellular nerve scaffolds for the reconstruction of large peripheral nerve defects. However, residual myelin attached to the basal laminar tube has been observed in acellular nerve scaffolds prepared using Hudson's method. Here, we describe a novel method of producing acellular nerve scaffolds that eliminates residual myelin more effectively than Hudson's method through the use of various detergent combinations of sulfobetaine-10, sulfobetaine-16, Triton X-200, sodium deoxycholate, and peracetic acid...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412554/prompt-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-induced-by-a-hierarchically-aligned-fibrin-nanofiber-hydrogel
#4
Jinrong Du, Jianheng Liu, Shenglian Yao, Haiquan Mao, Jiang Peng, Xun Sun, Zheng Cao, Yongdong Yang, Bo Xiao, Yiguo Wang, Peifu Tang, Xiumei Wang
Fibrin plays a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration, which could occur spontaneously in the format of longitudinally oriented fibrin cables during the initial stage of nerve regeneration. This fibrin cable can direct migration and proliferation of Schwann cells and axonal regrowth, which is very important to nerve regeneration. In the present study, we prepared a three-dimensional hierarchically aligned fibrin nanofiber hydrogel (AFG) through electrospinning and molecular self-assembly to resemble the architecture and biological function of the native fibrin cable...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396177/consistent-induction-of-chronic-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-c57bl-6-mice-for-the-longitudinal-study-of-pathology-and-repair
#5
Jonathan P C Hasselmann, Hawra Karim, Anna J Khalaj, Subir Ghosh, Seema K Tiwari-Woodruff
BACKGROUND: While many groups use experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model to uncover therapeutic targets and understand the pathology underlying multiple sclerosis (MS), EAE protocol variability introduces discrepancies in central nervous system (CNS) pathogenesis and clinical disease, limiting the comparability between studies and slowing much-needed translational research. OPTIMIZED METHOD: Here we describe a detailed, reliable protocol for chronic EAE induction in C57BL/6 mice utilizing two injections of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (35-55) peptide mixed with Complete Freund's Adjuvant and paired with pertussis toxin...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389905/fibrin-glue-as-a-stabilization-strategy-in-peripheral-nerve-repair-when-using-porous-nerve-guidance-conduits
#6
Divya Bhatnagar, Jared S Bushman, N Sanjeeva Murthy, Antonio Merolli, Hilton M Kaplan, Joachim Kohn
Porous conduits provide a protected pathway for nerve regeneration, while still allowing exchange of nutrients and wastes. However, pore sizes >30 µm may permit fibrous tissue infiltration into the conduit, which may impede axonal regeneration. Coating the conduit with Fibrin Glue (FG) is one option for controlling the conduit's porosity. FG is extensively used in clinical peripheral nerve repair, as a tissue sealant, filler and drug-delivery matrix. Here, we compared the performance of FG to an alternative, hyaluronic acid (HA) as a coating for porous conduits, using uncoated porous conduits and reverse autografts as control groups...
May 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388831/estrogen-signaling-is-necessary-for-exercise-mediated-enhancement-of-motoneuron-participation-in-axon-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-mice
#7
Melina C Acosta, Patricia A Copley, Jamie R Harrell, Jennifer C Wilhelm
Thousands of people each year suffer from peripheral nerve injury. Treatment options are limited, and recovery is often incomplete. Treadmill exercise can enhance nerve regeneration; however, this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner. Females respond best to short duration, high speed interval training; whereas, males respond best to slower, continuous training. Previous studies have shown a role for testosterone in this process, but the role of estrogen is unknown. To evaluate the role of estrogen signaling in treadmill exercise, we blocked estrogen receptor (ER) signaling during treadmill exercise in males and female wild type mice...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387110/femoral-nerve-repair-using-an-h-type-nerve-regeneration-chamber-in-rats
#8
X Y Hong, X Hong, W W Gu, J Lin, W T Yin
Peripheral nerve injury in surgical trauma patients is very common. The femoral nerve can be divided into two branches: one regarding the quadricep muscles, and one the skin. After nerve transection and suture, the motor axons have an equal opportunity to regenerate into the original muscle branch, or regenerate into the sensory skin nerves. These anatomical features of femoral nerve have made it important in nerve regeneration research. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of an H-type nerve regeneration chamber on motor nerve regeneration after femoral nerve injury...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385597/ester-to-amide-rearrangement-of-ethanolamine-derived-prodrugs-of-sobetirome-with-increased-blood-brain-barrier-penetration
#9
Skylar J Ferrara, J Matthew Meinig, Andrew T Placzek, Tapasree Banerji, Peter McTigue, Meredith D Hartley, Hannah S Sanford-Crane, Tania Banerji, Dennis Bourdette, Thomas S Scanlan
Current therapeutic options for treating demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) do not stimulate myelin repair, thus creating a clinical need for therapeutic agents that address axonal remyelination. Thyroid hormone is known to play an important role in promoting developmental myelination and repair, and CNS permeable thyromimetic agents could offer an increased therapeutic index compared to endogenous thyroid hormone. Sobetirome is a clinical stage thyromimetic that has been shown to have promising activity in preclinical models related to MS and X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), a genetic disease that involves demyelination...
May 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380694/nerve-stepping-stone-has-minimal-impact-in-aiding-regeneration-across-long-acellular-nerve-allografts
#10
Ying Yan, Daniel A Hunter, Lauren Schellhardt, Xueping Ee, Alison K Snyder-Warwick, Amy M Moore, Susan E Mackinnon, Matthew D Wood
INTRODUCTION: Acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) yield less consistent favorable outcomes compared to autografts for long gap reconstructions. We evaluated whether a hybrid ANA can improve 6cm gap reconstruction. METHODS: Rat sciatic nerve was transected and repaired with either 6cm hybrid or control ANAs. Hybrid ANAs were generated using a 1cm cellular isograft between 2.5cm ANAs, while control ANAs had no isograft. Outcomes were assessed by graft gene and marker expression (n=4; at 4 weeks) and motor recovery and nerve histology (n=10; at 20 weeks)...
April 5, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375547/demyelination-induced-by-oxidative-stress-is-regulated-by-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptors
#11
Sinead A O'Sullivan, Maria Velasco-Estevez, Kumlesh K Dev
Oxidative stress is a pathological condition defined as an imbalance between production and removal of reactive oxygen species. This process causes structural cell damage, disrupts DNA repair and induces mitochondrial dysfunction. Many in vitro studies have used direct bolus application of H2 O2 to investigate the role of oxidative stress in cell culture. In this study, using mouse organotypic cerebellar slice cultures, the effects of H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress on myelination state were examined, using bolus concentrations of H2 O2 (0...
April 4, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358726/local-delivery-of-thyroid-hormone-enhances-oligodendrogenesis-and-myelination-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Robert B Shultz, Zhicheng Wang, Jia Nong, Zhiling Zhang, Yinghui Zhong
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes apoptosis of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes (OLs) and demyelination of surviving axons, resulting in conduction failure. Remyelination of surviving denuded axons provides a promising therapeutic target for spinal cord repair. While cell transplantation has demonstrated efficacy in promoting remyelination and functional recovery, the lack of ideal cell sources presents a major obstacle to clinical application. The adult spinal cord contains oligodendrocyte precursor cells and multipotent neural stem/progenitor cells that have the capacity to differentiate into mature, myelinating OLs...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355229/surgery-increases-cell-death-and-induces-changes-in-gene-expression-compared-with-anesthesia-alone-in-the-developing-piglet-brain
#13
Kevin D Broad, Go Kawano, Igor Fierens, Eridan Rocha-Ferreira, Mariya Hristova, Mojgan Ezzati, Jamshid Rostami, Daniel Alonso-Alconada, Badr Chaban, Jane Hassell, Bobbi Fleiss, Pierre Gressens, Robert D Sanders, Nicola J Robertson
In a range of animal species, exposure of the brain to general anaesthesia without surgery during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex but include an increase in brain cell death. In humans, attempts to link adverse cognitive development to infantile anaesthesia exposure have yielded ambiguous results. One caveat that may influence the interpretation of human studies is that infants are not exposed to general anaesthesia without surgery, raising the possibility that surgery itself, may contribute to adverse cognitive development...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341183/transfer-of-extensor-digiti-minimi-and-extensor-carpi-ulnaris-nerve-branches-to-the-intrinsic-motor-nerve-branches-a-histological-study-on-cadaver
#14
Hamid Namazi, Shahin HajiVandi
BACKGROUND: In cases of high ulnar and median nerve palsy, result of nerve repair in term of intrinsic muscle recovery is unsatisfactory. Distal nerve transfer can alleviate the regeneration time and improve the results. Transfer of the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) nerve branches to the deep branch of ulnar nerve (DBUN)/ recurrent branch of median nerve (RMN) at wrist had been used to restore intrinsic hand function but, incomplete recovery occured. The axon count at the donor nerve has a strong influence on the final results...
March 21, 2017: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338622/phosphodiesterase-inhibitors-as-a-therapeutic-approach-to-neuroprotection-and-repair
#15
REVIEW
Eric P Knott, Mazen Assi, Sudheendra N R Rao, Mousumi Ghosh, Damien D Pearse
A wide diversity of perturbations of the central nervous system (CNS) result in structural damage to the neuroarchitecture and cellular defects, which in turn are accompanied by neurological dysfunction and abortive endogenous neurorepair. Altering intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammation and immune regulation, neural cell death, axon plasticity and remyelination has shown therapeutic benefit in experimental models of neurological disease and trauma. The second messengers, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP), are two such intracellular signaling targets, the elevation of which has produced beneficial cellular effects within a range of CNS pathologies...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328634/bridging-the-gap-engineered-porcine-derived-urinary-bladder-matrix-conduits-as-a-novel-scaffold-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#16
Lyly Nguyen, Ashkan Afshari, Nathaniel D Kelm, Alonda C Pollins, R Bruce Shack, Mark D Does, Wesley P Thayer
PURPOSE: This study aims to compare engineered nerve conduits constructed from porcine-derived urinary bladder matrix (UBM) with the criterion-standard nerve autografts, for segmental loss peripheral nerve repairs. METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups. All underwent a 10-mm sciatic nerve gap injury. This was repaired using either (1) reverse autograft-the 10-mm cut segment was oriented 180 degrees and used to coapt the proximal and distal stumps or (2) UBM conduit-the 10-mm nerve gap was bridged with UBM conduit...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320842/stat3-controls-the-long-term-survival-and-phenotype-of-repair-schwann-cells-during-nerve-regeneration
#17
Cristina Benito, Catherine M Davis, Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Mark Turmaine, Dies Meijer, Valeria Poli, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
After nerve injury, Schwann cells convert to a phenotype specialized to promote repair. But during the slow process of axonal regrowth, these repair Schwann cells gradually lose their regeneration-supportive features and eventually die. Although this is a key reason for the frequent regeneration failures in humans, the transcriptional mechanisms that control long-term survival and phenotype of repair cells have not been studied, and the molecular signaling underlying their decline is obscure. We show, in mice, that Schwann cell STAT3 has a dual role...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300644/the-connective-tissue-phenotype-of-glaucomatous-cupping-in-the-monkey-eye-clinical-and-research-implications
#18
REVIEW
Hongli Yang, Juan Reynaud, Howard Lockwood, Galen Williams, Christy Hardin, Luke Reyes, Cheri Stowell, Stuart K Gardiner, Claude F Burgoyne
In a series of previous publications we have proposed a framework for conceptualizing the optic nerve head (ONH) as a biomechanical structure. That framework proposes important roles for intraocular pressure (IOP), IOP-related stress and strain, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp), systemic and ocular determinants of blood flow, inflammation, auto-immunity, genetics, and other non-IOP related risk factors in the physiology of ONH aging and the pathophysiology of glaucomatous damage to the ONH. The present report summarizes 20 years of technique development and study results pertinent to the characterization of ONH connective tissue deformation and remodeling in the unilateral monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) model...
March 12, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300134/white-matter-repair-after-extracellular-vesicles-administration-in-an-experimental-animal-model-of-subcortical-stroke
#19
Laura Otero-Ortega, Fernando Laso-García, María Del Carmen Gómez-de Frutos, Berta Rodríguez-Frutos, Jorge Pascual-Guerra, Blanca Fuentes, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Mesenchymal stem cells have previously been shown to mediate brain repair after stroke; they secrete 50-100 nm complexes called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which could be responsible for provoking neurovascular repair and functional recovery. EVs have been observed by electron microscopy and NanoSight, and they contain associated proteins such as CD81 and Alix. This purified, homogeneous population of EVs was administered intravenously after subcortical stroke in rats. To evaluate the EVs effects, we studied the biodistribution, proteomics analysis, functional evaluation, lesion size, fiber tract integrity, axonal sprouting and white matter repair markers...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296347/gdnf-schwann-cells-in-hydrogel-scaffolds-promote-regional-axon-regeneration-remyelination-and-functional-improvement-after-spinal-cord-transection-in-rats
#20
Bingkun K Chen, Nicolas N Madigan, Jeffrey S Hakim, Mahrokh Dadsetan, Siobhan S McMahon, Michael J Yaszemski, Anthony J Windebank
Positively-charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol)fumarate] (OPF(+) ) is a biodegradable hydrogel used for spinal cord injury repair. We compared scaffolds containing primary Schwann cells (SCs) to scaffolds delivering SCs genetically modified to secrete high concentrations of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Multichannel OPF(+) scaffolds loaded with SCs or GDNF-SCs were implanted into transected rat spinal cords for 4 weeks. GDNF-SCs promoted regeneration of more axons into OPF(+) scaffolds (2773...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
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