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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340511/quantitative-mapping-reveals-age-and-sex-differences-in-vasopressin-but-not-oxytocin-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-social-behavior-neural-network
#1
Brett T DiBenedictis, Elizabeth R Nussbaum, Harry K Cheung, Alexa H Veenema
The neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) have been implicated in the regulation of numerous social behaviors in adult and juvenile animals. AVP and OT signaling predominantly occur within a circuit of interconnected brain regions known collectively as the "social behavior neural network" (SBNN). Importantly, AVP and OT signaling within the SBNN has been shown to differentially regulate diverse social behaviors, depending on the age and/or sex of the animal. We hypothesized that variation in the display of these behaviors is due in part to age and sex differences in AVP and OT synthesis within the SBNN...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340505/afferent-and-efferent-connections-of-the-interpeduncular-nucleus-with-special-reference-to-circuits-involving-the-habenula-and-raphe-nuclei
#2
Leandro B Lima, Debora Bueno, Fernanda Leite, Stefani Souza, Luciano Gonçalves, Isadora C Furigo, Jose Donato, Martin Metzger
The habenula is an epithalamic structure differentiated into two nuclear complexes, medial (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb). Recently, MHb together with its primary target, the interpeduncular nucleus (IP), have been identified as major players in mediating the aversive effects of nicotine. However, structures downstream of the MHb-IP axis, including the median (MnR) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC), may contribute to the behavioral effects of nicotine. The afferent and efferent connections of the IP have hitherto not been systematically investigated with sensitive tracers...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334609/basolateral-to-central-amygdala-neural-circuits-for-appetitive-behaviors
#3
Joshua Kim, Xiangyu Zhang, Shruti Muralidhar, Sarah A LeBlanc, Susumu Tonegawa
Basolateral amygdala (BLA) principal cells are capable of driving and antagonizing behaviors of opposing valence. BLA neurons project to the central amygdala (CeA), which also participates in negative and positive behaviors. However, the CeA has primarily been studied as the site for negative behaviors, and the causal role for CeA circuits underlying appetitive behaviors is poorly understood. Here, we identify several genetically distinct populations of CeA neurons that mediate appetitive behaviors and dissect the BLA-to-CeA circuit for appetitive behaviors...
March 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334293/what-s-behind-a-sign-perceiving-an-arithmetic-operator-recruits-brain-circuits-for-spatial-orienting
#4
Romain Mathieu, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Monica Sigovan, Audrey Breton, Anne Cheylus, Michel Fayol, Catherine Thevenot, Jérôme Prado
Do mathematical symbols evoke spatial representations? Although behavioral studies have long demonstrated interactions between space and the processing of Arabic digits, how to interpret these results remains controversial. Here, we tested whether activity in regions supporting spatial processing contributes to the processing of symbols conveying fundamental arithmetic concepts-such as operation signs-even in the absence of associated digits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that merely perceiving a "+" sign triggers activity in brain regions that support the orienting of spatial attention in adults...
March 14, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332980/a-receptor-and-neuron-that-activate-a-circuit-limiting-sucrose-consumption
#5
Ryan M Joseph, Jennifer S Sun, Edric Tam, John R Carlson
The neural control of sugar consumption is critical for normal metabolism. In contrast to sugar-sensing taste neurons that promote consumption, we identify a taste neuron that limits sucrose consumption in Drosophila. Silencing of the neuron increases sucrose feeding; optogenetic activation decreases it. The feeding inhibition depends on the IR60b receptor, as shown by behavioral analysis and Ca2+ imaging of an IR60b mutant. The IR60b phenotype shows a high degree of chemical specificity when tested with a broad panel of tastants...
March 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#6
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
March 22, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331007/advantages-of-comparative-studies-in-songbirds-to-understand-the-neural-basis-of-sensorimotor-integration
#7
Karagh Murphy, Logan S James, Jon T Sakata, Jonathan F Prather
Sensorimotor integration is the process through which the nervous system creates a link between motor commands and associated sensory feedback. This process allows for the acquisition and refinement of many behaviors, including learned communication behaviors like speech and birdsong. Consequently, it is important to understand fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor integration, and comparative analyses of this process can provide vital insight. Songbirds offer a powerful comparative model system to study how the nervous system links motor and sensory information for learning and control...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328536/neurotransmission-systems-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Hossein Sanjari Moghaddam, Ameneh Zare-Shahabadi, Farzaneh Rahmani, Nima Rezaei
Parkinson's disease (PD) is histologically characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein particles, known as Lewy bodies. The second most common neurodegenerative disorder, PD is widely known because of the typical motor manifestations of active tremor, rigidity, and postural instability, while several prodromal non-motor symptoms including REM sleep behavior disorders, depression, autonomic disturbances, and cognitive decline are being more extensively recognized. Motor symptoms most commonly arise from synucleinopathy of nigrostriatal pathway...
March 22, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326550/from-neuron-to-behavior-sensory-motor-coordination-of-zebrafish-turning-behavior
#9
REVIEW
Keiko Umeda, Wataru Shoji
Recent development of optogenetics brought non-invasive neural activation in living organisms. Transparent zebrafish larva is one of the suitable animal models for this technique, which enables us to investigate neural circuits for behaviors based on a whole individual nervous system. In this article we review our recent finding that suggests sensory-motor coordination in larval zebrafish escape behavior. When water vibration stimulates mechanosensory Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons, intra-spinal reflex circuit launches contralateral trunk muscle contraction that makes rapid body curvature for turning...
March 21, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325790/dopamine-terminals-from-the-ventral-tegmental-area-gate-intrinsic-inhibition-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#10
William C Buchta, Stephen V Mahler, Benjamin Harlan, Gary S Aston-Jones, Arthur C Riegel
Spike frequency adaptation (SFA or accommodation) and calcium-activated potassium channels that underlie after-hyperpolarization potentials (AHP) regulate repetitive firing of neurons. Precisely how neuromodulators such as dopamine from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulate SFA and AHP (together referred to as intrinsic inhibition) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remains unclear. Using whole cell electrophysiology, we measured intrinsic inhibition in prelimbic (PL) layer 5 pyramidal cells of male adult rats...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324454/reward-circuitry-in-addiction
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Cooper, A J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving...
March 21, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324169/roles-of-centromedian-parafascicular-nuclei-of-thalamus-and-cholinergic-interneurons-in-the-dorsal-striatum-in-associative-learning-of-environmental-events
#12
REVIEW
Ko Yamanaka, Yukiko Hori, Takafumi Minamimoto, Hiroshi Yamada, Naoyuki Matsumoto, Kazuki Enomoto, Toshihiko Aosaki, Ann M Graybiel, Minoru Kimura
The thalamus provides a massive input to the striatum, but despite accumulating evidence, the functions of this system remain unclear. It is known, however, that the centromedian (CM) and parafascicular (Pf) nuclei of the thalamus can strongly influence particular striatal neuron subtypes, notably including the cholinergic interneurons of the striatum (CINs), key regulators of striatal function. Here, we highlight the thalamostriatal system through the CM-Pf to striatal CINs. We consider how, by virtue of the direct synaptic connections of the CM and PF, their neural activity contributes to the activity of CINs and striatal projection neurons (SPNs)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323938/loss-of-action-via-neurotensin-leptin-receptor-neurons-disrupts-leptin-and-ghrelin-mediated-control-of-energy-balance
#13
Juliette A Brown, Raluca Bugescu, Thomas Mayer, Adriana Gata-Garcia, Gizem Kurt, Hillary L Woodworth, Gina M Leinninger
The hormones ghrelin and leptin act via the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) to modify energy balance but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated how leptin and ghrelin engage LHA neurons to modify energy balance behaviors and whether there is any cross-talk between leptin and ghrelin-responsive circuits. We demonstrate that ghrelin activates LHA neurons expressing Hypocretin/Orexin (OX) to increase food intake. Leptin mediates anorectic actions via separate neurons expressing the long form of the leptin receptor (LepRb), many of which co-express the neuropeptide neurotensin (Nts); we refer to these as NtsLepRb neurons...
March 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323668/mindfulness-meditation-training-and-executive-control-network-resting-state-functional-connectivity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Adrienne A Taren, Peter J Gianaros, Carol M Greco, Emily K Lindsay, April Fairgrieve, Kirk Warren Brown, Rhonda K Rosen, Jennifer L Ferris, Erica Julson, Anna L Marsland, J David Creswell
OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness meditation training has been previously shown to enhance behavioral measures of executive control (e.g. attention, working memory, cognitive control), but the neural mechanisms underlying these improvements are largely unknown. Here, we test whether mindfulness training interventions foster executive control by strengthening functional connections between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) - a hub of the executive control network - and frontoparietal regions that coordinate executive function...
March 20, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323008/sub-chronic-variable-stress-induces-sex-specific-effects-on-glutamatergic-synapses-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#15
Anna Brancato, Dana Bregman, H Francisica Ahn, Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Menard, Carla Cannizzaro, Scott J Russo, Georgia E Hodes
Men and women manifest different symptoms of depression and under current diagnostic criteria, depression is twice as prevalent in woman. However, little is known of the mechanisms contributing to these important sex differences. Sub-chronic variable stress (SCVS), a rodent model of depression, induces depression-like behaviors in female mice only, modelling clinical evidence of higher susceptibility to mood disorders in women. Accumulating evidence indicates that altered neuroplasticity of excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key pathophysiological feature of susceptibility to social stress in males...
March 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322542/rectifying-characteristics-and-semiconductor-metal-transition-induced-by-interfacial-potential-in-mn3cun-n-si-intermetallic-heterojunction
#16
Kewen Shi, Cong Wang, Ying Sun, Lei Wang, Sihao Deng, Pengwei Hu, Huiqing Lu, Weichang Hao, Tianmin Wang, Weihua Tang
Mn3CuN/n-Si heterojunction device is firstly designed in antiperovskite compound and excellent rectifying characteristics are obtained. The rectification ratio (RR) reaches as large as 38.9 at 10 V and the open-circuit voltage Voc of 1.13 V is observed under temperature 410 K. The rectifying behaviors can be well described by the Shockley equation, indicating the existence of Schottky diode. Simultaneously, a particular semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) behavior at 250 K is also observed in the Mn3CuN/n-Si heterojunction...
March 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322275/oxidative-stress-driven-parvalbumin-interneuron-impairment-as-a-common-mechanism-in-models-of-schizophrenia
#17
P Steullet, J-H Cabungcal, J Coyle, M Didriksen, K Gill, A A Grace, T K Hensch, A-S LaMantia, L Lindemann, T M Maynard, U Meyer, H Morishita, P O'Donnell, M Puhl, M Cuenod, K Q Do
Parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons (PVIs) are crucial for maintaining proper excitatory/inhibitory balance and high-frequency neuronal synchronization. Their activity supports critical developmental trajectories, sensory and cognitive processing, and social behavior. Despite heterogeneity in the etiology across schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder, PVI circuits are altered in these psychiatric disorders. Identifying mechanism(s) underlying PVI deficits is essential to establish treatments targeting in particular cognition...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320578/specific-cerebral-perfusion-patterns-in-three-schizophrenia-symptom-dimensions
#18
Katharina Stegmayer, Werner Strik, Andrea Federspiel, Roland Wiest, Stephan Bohlhalter, Sebastian Walther
Dimensional concepts such as the Research Domain Criteria initiative have been proposed to disentangle the heterogeneity of schizophrenia. One model introduced three neurobiologically informed behavioral dimensions: language, affectivity and motor behavior. To study the brain-behavior associations of these three dimensions, we investigated whether current behavioral alterations were linked to resting state perfusion in distinct brain circuits in schizophrenia. In total, 47 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 44 healthy controls were included...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319257/hunger-and-thirst-interact-to-regulate-ingestive-behavior-in-flies-and-mammals
#19
REVIEW
Nicholas Jourjine
In animals, nervous systems regulate the ingestion of food and water in a manner that reflects internal metabolic need. While the coordination of these two ingestive behaviors is essential for homeostasis, it has been unclear how internal signals of hunger and thirst interact to effectively coordinate food and water ingestion. In the last year, work in insects and mammals has begun to elucidate some of these interactions. As reviewed here, these studies have identified novel molecular and neural mechanisms that coordinate the regulation of food and water ingestion behaviors...
March 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319101/a-vibrio-cholerae-autoinducer-receptor-pair-that-controls-biofilm-formation
#20
Kai Papenfort, Justin E Silpe, Kelsey R Schramma, Jian-Ping Cong, Mohammad R Seyedsayamdost, Bonnie L Bassler
Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-cell communication process that enables bacteria to track cell population density and orchestrate collective behaviors. QS relies on the production and detection of, and the response to, extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. In Vibrio cholerae, multiple QS circuits control pathogenesis and biofilm formation. Here, we identify and characterize a new QS autoinducer-receptor pair. The autoinducer is 3,5-dimethylpyrazin-2-ol (DPO). DPO is made from threonine and alanine, and its synthesis depends on threonine dehydrogenase (Tdh)...
March 20, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
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