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Circuit behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534502/engaging-and-disengaging-recurrent-inhibition-coincides-with-sensing-and-unsensing-of-a-sensory-stimulus
#1
Debajit Saha, Wensheng Sun, Chao Li, Srinath Nizampatnam, William Padovano, Zhengdao Chen, Alex Chen, Ege Altan, Ray Lo, Dennis L Barbour, Baranidharan Raman
Even simple sensory stimuli evoke neural responses that are dynamic and complex. Are the temporally patterned neural activities important for controlling the behavioral output? Here, we investigated this issue. Our results reveal that in the insect antennal lobe, due to circuit interactions, distinct neural ensembles are activated during and immediately following the termination of every odorant. Such non-overlapping response patterns are not observed even when the stimulus intensity or identities were changed...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532358/experience-dependent-structural-plasticity-in-the-visual-system
#2
Kalen P Berry, Elly Nedivi
During development, the environment exerts a profound influence on the wiring of brain circuits. Due to the limited resolution of studies in fixed tissue, this experience-dependent structural plasticity was once thought to be restricted to a specific developmental time window. The recent introduction of two-photon microscopy for in vivo imaging has opened the door to repeated monitoring of individual neurons and the study of structural plasticity mechanisms at a very fine scale. In this review, we focus on recent work showing that synaptic structural rearrangements are a key mechanism mediating neural circuit adaptation and behavioral plasticity in the adult brain...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530664/flexible-information-routing-by-transient-synchrony
#3
Agostina Palmigiano, Theo Geisel, Fred Wolf, Demian Battaglia
Perception, cognition and behavior rely on flexible communication between microcircuits in distinct cortical regions. The mechanisms underlying rapid information rerouting between such microcircuits are still unknown. It has been proposed that changing patterns of coherence between local gamma rhythms support flexible information rerouting. The stochastic and transient nature of gamma oscillations in vivo, however, is hard to reconcile with such a function. Here we show that models of cortical circuits near the onset of oscillatory synchrony selectively route input signals despite the short duration of gamma bursts and the irregularity of neuronal firing...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530663/a-cerebellum-like-circuit-in-the-auditory-system-cancels-responses-to-self-generated-sounds
#4
Shobhit Singla, Conor Dempsey, Richard Warren, Armen G Enikolopov, Nathaniel B Sawtell
The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) integrates auditory nerve input with a diverse array of sensory and motor signals processed in circuitry similar to that of the cerebellum. Yet how the DCN contributes to early auditory processing has been a longstanding puzzle. Using electrophysiological recordings in mice during licking behavior, we show that DCN neurons are largely unaffected by self-generated sounds while remaining sensitive to external acoustic stimuli. Recordings in deafened mice, together with neural activity manipulations, indicate that self-generated sounds are cancelled by non-auditory signals conveyed by mossy fibers...
May 22, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530225/a-canonical-neural-mechanism-for-behavioral-variability
#5
Ran Darshan, William E Wood, Susan Peters, Arthur Leblois, David Hansel
The ability to generate variable movements is essential for learning and adjusting complex behaviours. This variability has been linked to the temporal irregularity of neuronal activity in the central nervous system. However, how neuronal irregularity actually translates into behavioural variability is unclear. Here we combine modelling, electrophysiological and behavioural studies to address this issue. We demonstrate that a model circuit comprising topographically organized and strongly recurrent neural networks can autonomously generate irregular motor behaviours...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527694/voluntary-wheel-running-ameliorates-depression-like-behaviors-and-brain-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-signals-in-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-mice
#6
Peng Huang, Zhaoyang Dong, Weiliang Huang, Chuying Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Peiqian Hu, Ge Wen, Xuegang Sun, Heyu Hua, Huihui Cao, Lei Gao, Zhiping Lv
BACKGROUND: Physical exercise has been long recognized for its therapeutic effects on depressive disorders, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the study, we investigated whether the physical exercise by voluntary wheel running (VWR) alters depression-like behaviors and its impact on brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in mice. METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to one of the following groups; (1) no exercise control (noEx), housed in a standard cage; (2) exercise (Ex), 2hours/day in a running wheel apparatus; (3) chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), which was imitating adult stress; and (4) CUMS+Ex...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527692/regional-differences-in-dopamine-receptor-blockade-affect-timing-impulsivity-that-are-altered-by-d-amphetamine-on-differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate-responding-drl-behavior-in-rats
#7
Ruey-Kuang Cheng, Ruey-Ming Liao
The ability to control when to start an action and when to stop is crucial in human and animal behavior. A failure to suppress premature behavior or carry out an action in a timely manner is commonly seen in several neuropsychological disorders. Despite the phenomenon, the exact neural mechanisms underlying this timing impulsivity remain to be elucidated. Systemic injection of d-amphetamine (AMP) has been shown to disrupt rat's performance in the differential reinforcement of low-rate (DRL) task that requires both optimal timing and proper impulsive control as measured by peak time and non-reinforced responses, respectively...
May 17, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521140/distinct-sources-of-deterministic-and-stochastic-components-of-action-timing-decisions-in-rodent-frontal-cortex
#8
Masayoshi Murakami, Hanan Shteingart, Yonatan Loewenstein, Zachary F Mainen
The selection and timing of actions are subject to determinate influences such as sensory cues and internal state as well as to effectively stochastic variability. Although stochastic choice mechanisms are assumed by many theoretical models, their origin and mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated this issue by studying how neural circuits in the frontal cortex determine action timing in rats performing a waiting task. Electrophysiological recordings from two regions necessary for this behavior, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and secondary motor cortex (M2), revealed an unexpected functional dissociation...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521132/linking-neurons-to-network-function-and-behavior-by-two-photon-holographic-optogenetics-and-volumetric-imaging
#9
Marco Dal Maschio, Joseph C Donovan, Thomas O Helmbrecht, Herwig Baier
We introduce a flexible method for high-resolution interrogation of circuit function, which combines simultaneous 3D two-photon stimulation of multiple targeted neurons, volumetric functional imaging, and quantitative behavioral tracking. This integrated approach was applied to dissect how an ensemble of premotor neurons in the larval zebrafish brain drives a basic motor program, the bending of the tail. We developed an iterative photostimulation strategy to identify minimal subsets of channelrhodopsin (ChR2)-expressing neurons that are sufficient to initiate tail movements...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516044/design-of-catheter-radio-frequency-coils-using-coaxial-transmission-line-resonators-for-interventional-neurovascular-mr-imaging
#10
Xiaoliang Zhang, Alastair Martin, Caroline Jordan, Prasheel Lillaney, Aaron Losey, Yong Pang, Jeffrey Hu, Mark Wilson, Daniel Cooke, Steven W Hetts
BACKGROUND: It is technically challenging to design compact yet sensitive miniature catheter radio frequency (RF) coils for endovascular interventional MR imaging. METHODS: In this work, a new design method for catheter RF coils is proposed based on the coaxial transmission line resonator (TLR) technique. Due to its distributed circuit, the TLR catheter coil does not need any lumped capacitors to support its resonance, which simplifies the practical design and construction and provides a straightforward technique for designing miniature catheter-mounted imaging coils that are appropriate for interventional neurovascular procedures...
April 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515563/secondary-eating-disorder-a-reality-case-report-of-post-brain-injury-sequelae
#11
Aparna Das, Deeksha Elwadhi, Manushree Gupta
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to changes in eating behavior patterns. This report describes the case of a patient with alcohol dependence presenting with behavioral changes and eating disorder following frontal lobe trauma. A 42-year-old male, premorbidly well-adjusted presented with alcohol use in dependent pattern for years. He sustained a subdural hematoma in the frontal lobe following a road traffic accident 10 years back. Post-TBI, the patient, started having low frustration tolerance, aggressive outbursts, disinhibition, difficulty in persisting with tasks, apathy, amotivation, and craving for food with inability to control intake on the sight of food...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511980/reward-loss-and-the-basolateral-amygdala-a-function-in-reward-comparisons
#12
Katsuyoshi Kawasaki, Iván Annicchiarico, Amanda C Glueck, Ignacio Morón, Mauricio R Papini
The neural circuitry underlying behavior in reward loss situations is poorly understood. We considered two such situations: reward devaluation (from large to small rewards) and reward omission (from large rewards to no rewards). There is evidence that the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) plays a role in the negative emotion accompanying reward loss. However, little is known about the function of the basolateral nucleus (BLA) in reward loss. Two hypotheses of BLA function in reward loss, negative emotion and reward comparisons, were tested in an experiment involving pretraining excitotoxic BLA lesions followed by training in four tasks: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), autoshaping (AS) acquisition and extinction, anticipatory negative contrast (ANC), and open field testing (OF)...
May 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510528/identification-of-octopaminergic-neurons-that-modulate-sleep-suppression-by-male-sex-drive
#13
Daniel R Machado, Dinis Js Afonso, Alexandra R Kenny, Arzu Öztu Rk-Çolak, Emilia H Moscato, Benjamin Mainwaring, Matthew Kayser, Kyunghee Koh
Molecular and circuit mechanisms for balancing competing drives are not well understood. While circadian and homeostatic mechanisms generally ensure sufficient sleep at night, other pressing needs can overcome sleep drive. Here, we demonstrate that the balance between sleep and sex drives determines whether male flies sleep or court, and identify a subset of octopaminergic neurons (MS1) that regulate sleep specifically in males. When MS1 neurons are activated, isolated males sleep less, and when MS1 neurons are silenced, the normal male sleep suppression in female presence is attenuated and mating behavior is impaired...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508079/a-twofold-quantum-delayed-choice-experiment-in-a-superconducting-circuit
#14
Ke Liu, Yuan Xu, Weiting Wang, Shi-Biao Zheng, Tanay Roy, Suman Kundu, Madhavi Chand, Arpit Ranadive, Rajamani Vijay, Yipu Song, Luming Duan, Luyan Sun
Wave-particle complementarity lies at the heart of quantum mechanics. To illustrate this mysterious feature, Wheeler proposed the delayed-choice experiment, where a quantum system manifests the wave- or particle-like attribute, depending on the experimental arrangement, which is made after the system has entered the interferometer. In recent quantum delayed-choice experiments, these two complementary behaviors were simultaneously observed with a quantum interferometer in a superposition of being closed and open...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508035/flashing-lights-induce-prolonged-distortions-in-visual-cortical-responses-and-visual-perception
#15
Genki Minamisawa, Kenta Funayama, Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Norio Matsuki, Yuji Ikegaya
The primary sensory neocortex generates an internal representation of the environment, and its circuit reorganization is thought to lead to a modification of sensory perception. This reorganization occurs primarily through activity-dependent plasticity and has been well documented in animals during early developmental stages. Here, we describe a new method for the noninvasive induction of long-term plasticity in the mature brain: simple transient visual stimuli (i.e., flashing lights) can be used to induce prolonged modifications in visual cortical processing and visually driven behaviors...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507136/ocd-candidate-gene-slc1a1-eaat3-impacts-basal-ganglia-mediated-activity-and-stereotypic-behavior
#16
Isaac D Zike, Muhammad O Chohan, Jared M Kopelman, Emily N Krasnow, Daniel Flicker, Katherine M Nautiyal, Michael Bubser, Christoph Kellendonk, Carrie K Jones, Gregg Stanwood, Kenji Fransis Tanaka, Holly Moore, Susanne E Ahmari, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, disabling condition with inadequate treatment options that leave most patients with substantial residual symptoms. Structural, neurochemical, and behavioral findings point to a significant role for basal ganglia circuits and for the glutamate system in OCD. Genetic linkage and association studies in OCD point to SLC1A1, which encodes the neuronal glutamate/aspartate/cysteine transporter excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3)/excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAC1)...
May 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506879/a-new-platform-for-long-term-tracking-and-recording-of-neural-activity-and-simultaneous-optogenetic-control-in-freely-behaving-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Keiko Gengyo-Ando, Yuko Kagawa-Nagamura, Masamichi Ohkura, Xianfeng Fei, Min Chen, Koichi Hashimoto, Junichi Nakai
BACKGROUND: Real-time recording and manipulation of neural activity in freely behaving animals can greatly advance our understanding of how neural circuits regulate behavior. Ca(2+) imaging and optogenetic manipulation with optical probes are key technologies for this purpose. However, integrating the two optical approaches with behavioral analysis has been technically challenging. NEW METHOD: Here, we developed a new imaging system, ICaST (Integrated platform for Ca(2+) imaging, Stimulation, and Tracking), which combines an automatic worm tracking system and a fast-scanning laser confocal microscope, to image neurons of interest in freely behaving C...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505876/intermittency-induced-criticality-in-a-resistor-inductor-diode-circuit
#18
Stelios M Potirakis, Yiannis Contoyiannis, Fotios K Diakonos, Michael P Hanias
The current fluctuations of a driven resistor-inductor-diode circuit are investigated here looking for signatures of critical behavior monitored by the driving frequency. The experimentally obtained time series of the voltage drop across the resistor (as directly proportional to the current flowing through the circuit) were analyzed by means of the method of critical fluctuations in analogy to thermal critical systems. Intermittent criticality was revealed for a critical frequency band signifying the transition between the normal rectifier phase in the low frequencies and a full-wave conducting, capacitorlike phase in the high frequencies...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504671/reduced-sensory-synaptic-excitation-impairs-motor-neuron-function-via-kv2-1-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#19
Emily V Fletcher, Christian M Simon, John G Pagiazitis, Joshua I Chalif, Aleksandra Vukojicic, Estelle Drobac, Xiaojian Wang, George Z Mentis
Behavioral deficits in neurodegenerative diseases are often attributed to the selective dysfunction of vulnerable neurons via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Although vulnerable neurons are embedded in neuronal circuits, the contributions of their synaptic partners to disease process are largely unknown. Here we show that, in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a reduction in proprioceptive synaptic drive leads to motor neuron dysfunction and motor behavior impairments. In SMA mice or after the blockade of proprioceptive synaptic transmission, we observed a decrease in the motor neuron firing that could be explained by the reduction in the expression of the potassium channel Kv2...
May 15, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503137/reward-network-immediate-early-gene-expression-in-mood-disorders
#20
REVIEW
Claire E Manning, Elizabeth S Williams, Alfred J Robison
Over the past three decades, it has become clear that aberrant function of the network of interconnected brain regions responsible for reward processing and motivated behavior underlies a variety of mood disorders, including depression and anxiety. It is also clear that stress-induced changes in reward network activity underlying both normal and pathological behavior also cause changes in gene expression. Here, we attempt to define the reward circuitry and explore the known and potential contributions of activity-dependent changes in gene expression within this circuitry to stress-induced changes in behavior related to mood disorders, and contrast some of these effects with those induced by exposure to drugs of abuse...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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