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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353136/mutual-inhibition-of-lateral-inhibition-a-network-motif-for-an-elementary-computation-in-the-brain
#1
REVIEW
Minoru Koyama, Avinash Pujala
A series of classical studies in non-human primates has revealed the neuronal activity patterns underlying decision-making. However, the circuit mechanisms for such patterns remain largely unknown. Recent detailed circuit analyses in simpler neural systems have started to reveal the connectivity patterns underlying analogous processes. Here we review a few of these systems that share a particular connectivity pattern, namely mutual inhibition of lateral inhibition. Close examination of these systems suggests that this recurring connectivity pattern ('network motif') is a building block to enforce particular dynamics, which can be used not only for simple behavioral choice but also for more complex choices and other brain functions...
January 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352998/two-weeks-of-variable-stress-increases-gamma-h2ax-levels-in-the-mouse-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis
#2
Brendan D Hare, Tina M Thornton, Mercedes Rincon, Borivoj Golijanin, S Bradley King, Diane M Jaworski, William A Falls
Recent reports demonstrate that DNA damage is induced, and rapidly repaired, in circuits activated by experience. Moreover, stress hormones are known to slow DNA repair, suggesting that prolonged stress may result in persistent DNA damage. Prolonged stress is known to negatively impact physical and mental health; however, DNA damage as a factor in stress pathology has only begun to be explored. Histone H2A-X phosphorylated at serine 139 (γH2AX) is a marker of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), a type of damage that may lead to cell death if unrepaired...
January 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352890/nanocrystalline-cellulose-as-an-eco-friendly-reinforcing-additive-to-polyurethane-coating-for-augmented-anticorrosive-behavior
#3
M Abd El-Fattah, Abdulraheim M A Hasan, Mohamed Keshawy, Ashraf M El Saeed, Ossama M Aboelenien
Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) and micro-powdered cellulose (MPC) were extracted from rice straw by mechanical and alkali treatment methods, then characterized via infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. A series of polyurethane nanocrystalline cellulose composite (PNCCC) and polyurethane micro-powdered cellulose composite (PMPCC) coatings were prepared with various loading levels of NCC and MPC from 0.5 to 2.0 wt.%, and the coatings were applied onto the pretreated mild steel substrate at room temperature...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352615/gene-circuits-for-dynamically-regulating-metabolism
#4
Xiulai Chen, Liming Liu
Gene circuits are a functional innovation in synthetic biology for engineering cellular behavior. Recent advances have demonstrated that gene circuits can be exploited for dynamically controlling pathway redirection and pathway balance to produce valuable chemicals. The next frontier is to engineer robust, sensitive, and efficient circuits that adapt to changing conditions.
January 15, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352046/local-corticotropin-releasing-factor-signaling-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus
#5
Zhiying Jiang, Shivakumar Rajamanickam, Nicholas J Justice
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus (PVN) initiate Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis activity through release of CRF into the portal system as part of a coordinated neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral response to stress. Recent discovery of neurons expressing CRF receptor type 1 (CRFR1), the primary receptor for CRF, adjacent to CRF neurons within the PVN, suggest that CRF also signals within the hypothalamus to coordinate aspects of the stress response...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351398/visceral-hypersensitivity-induced-by-optogenetic-activation-of-the-amygdala-in-conscious-rats
#6
Anthony C Johnson, Rocco Latorre, Casey O Ligon, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
In vivo optogenetics identifies brain circuits controlling behaviors in conscious animals by using light to alter neuronal function and offers a novel tool to study the brain-gut axis. Using adenoviral-mediated expression, we aimed to investigate whether photoactivation with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) or photoinhibition with halorhodopsin (HR3.0) of fibers originating from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) at the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) had any effect on colonic sensitivity. We also investigated whether that there was any deleterious effect of the adenovirus on the neuronal population or the neuronal phenotype within the CeA-BNST circuitry activated during the optogenetic stimulation...
December 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348323/epothilone-b-benefits-nigrostriatal-pathway-recovery-by-promoting-microtubule-stabilization-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#7
Yang Yang, Xuan Zhang, Hongfei Ge, Wei Liu, Eryi Sun, Yuanyuan Ma, Hengli Zhao, Rongwei Li, Weixiang Chen, Jichao Yuan, Qianwei Chen, Yujie Chen, Xin Liu, John H Zhang, Rong Hu, Xiaotang Fan, Hua Feng
BACKGROUND: Many previous clinical studies have demonstrated that the nigrostriatal pathway, which plays a vital role in movement adjustment, is significantly impaired after stroke, according to medical imaging and autopsies. However, the basic pathomorphological changes have been poorly investigated to date. This study was designed to explore the pathomorphological changes, mechanism, and therapeutic method of nigrostriatal impairment after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS AND RESULTS: Intrastriatal injection of autologous blood or microtubule depolymerization reagent nocodazole was performed to mimic the pathology of ICH in C57/BL6 mice...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347040/electrical-autonomous-brownian-gyrator
#8
K-H Chiang, C-L Lee, P-Y Lai, Y-F Chen
We study experimentally and theoretically the steady-state dynamics of a simple stochastic electronic system featuring two resistor-capacitor circuits coupled by a third capacitor. The resistors are subject to thermal noises at real temperatures. The voltage fluctuation across each resistor can be compared to a one-dimensional Brownian motion. However, the collective dynamical behavior, when the resistors are subject to distinct thermal baths, is identical to that of a Brownian gyrator, as first proposed by Filliger and Reimann [Phys...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346425/hippocampal-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-neurons-support-recognition-memory-and-modulate-hippocampal-excitability
#9
Andrew Hooper, Patrick M Fuller, Jamie Maguire
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) signaling in the hippocampus has been established to be important for mediating the effects of stress on learning and memory. Given our laboratory's recent characterization of a subset of hippocampal CRH neurons as a novel class of GABAergic interneurons, we hypothesized that these local GABAergic hippocampal CRH neurons may influence hippocampal function. Here we applied an array of molecular tools to selectively label and manipulate hippocampal CRH neurons in mice, in order to assess this interneuron population's impact on hippocampus-dependent behaviors and hippocampal network excitability...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345619/mir-9-regulates-basal-ganglia-dependent-developmental-vocal-learning-and-adult-vocal-performance-in-songbirds
#10
Zhimin Shi, Zoe Piccus, Xiaofang Zhang, Huidi Yang, Hannah Jarrell, Yan Ding, Zhaoqian Teng, Ofer Tchernichovski, XiaoChing Li
miR-9 is an evolutionarily conserved miRNA that is abundantly expressed in Area X, a basal ganglia nucleus required for vocal learning in songbirds. Here, we report that overexpression of miR-9 in Area X of juvenile zebra finches impairs developmental vocal learning, resulting in a song with syllable omission, reduced similarity to the tutor song, and altered acoustic features. miR-9 overexpression in juveniles also leads to more variable song performance in adulthood, and abolishes social context-dependent modulation of song variability...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345616/inhibition-of-oxidative-stress-in-cholinergic-projection-neurons-fully-rescues-aging-associated-olfactory-circuit-degeneration-in-drosophila
#11
Ashiq Hussain, Atefeh Pooryasin, Mo Zhang, Laura F Loschek, Marco La Fortezza, Anja B Friedrich, Catherine-Marie Blais, Habibe K Üçpunar, Vicente A Yépez, Martin Lehmann, Nicolas Gompel, Julien Gagneur, Stephan J Sigrist, Ilona C Grunwald Kadow
Loss of the sense of smell is among the first signs of natural aging and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Cellular and molecular mechanisms promoting this smell loss are not understood. Here, we show that Drosophila melanogaster also loses olfaction before vision with age. Within the olfactory circuit, cholinergic projection neurons show a reduced odor response accompanied by a defect in axonal integrity and reduction in synaptic marker proteins. Using behavioral functional screening, we pinpoint that expression of the mitochondrial reactive oxygen scavenger SOD2 in cholinergic projection neurons is necessary and sufficient to prevent smell degeneration in aging flies...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343813/the-drosophila-gr28bd-product-is-a-non-specific-cation-channel-that-can-be-used-as-a-novel-thermogenetic-tool
#12
Aditi Mishra, Autoosa Salari, Benton R Berigan, Kayla C Miguel, Marzie Amirshenava, Abbey Robinson, Benjamin C Zars, Jenna L Lin, Lorin S Milescu, Mirela Milescu, Troy Zars
Extrinsic control of single neurons and neuronal populations is a powerful approach for understanding how neural circuits function. Adding new thermogenetic tools to existing optogenetic and other forms of intervention will increase the complexity of questions that can be addressed. A good candidate for developing new thermogenetic tools is the Drosophila gustatory receptor family, which has been implicated in high-temperature avoidance behavior. We examined the five members of the Gr28b gene cluster for temperature-dependent properties via three approaches: biophysical characterization in Xenopus oocytes, functional calcium imaging in Drosophila motor neurons, and behavioral assays in adult Drosophila...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342178/chaos-and-multi-scroll-attractors-in-rcl-shunted-junction-coupled-jerk-circuit-connected-by-memristor
#13
Jun Ma, Ping Zhou, Bashir Ahmad, Guodong Ren, Chunni Wang
In this paper, a new four-variable dynamical system is proposed to set chaotic circuit composed of memristor and Josephson junction, and the dependence of chaotic behaviors on nonlinearity is investigated. A magnetic flux-controlled memristor is used to couple with the RCL-shunted junction circuit, and the dynamical behaviors can be modulated by changing the coupling intensity between the memristor and the RCL-shunted junction. Bifurcation diagram and Lyapunov exponent are calculated to confirm the emergence of chaos in the improved dynamical system...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342146/a-theory-of-how-active-behavior-stabilises-neural-activity-neural-gain-modulation-by-closed-loop-environmental-feedback
#14
Christopher L Buckley, Taro Toyoizumi
During active behaviours like running, swimming, whisking or sniffing, motor actions shape sensory input and sensory percepts guide future motor commands. Ongoing cycles of sensory and motor processing constitute a closed-loop feedback system which is central to motor control and, it has been argued, for perceptual processes. This closed-loop feedback is mediated by brainwide neural circuits but how the presence of feedback signals impacts on the dynamics and function of neurons is not well understood. Here we present a simple theory suggesting that closed-loop feedback between the brain/body/environment can modulate neural gain and, consequently, change endogenous neural fluctuations and responses to sensory input...
January 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341884/acute-stress-persistently-alters-locus-coeruleus-function-and-anxiety-like-behavior-in-adolescent-rats
#15
Olga Borodovitsyna, Matthew D Flamini, Daniel J Chandler
Stress is a physiological state characterized by altered neuroendocrine signaling, behavioral arousal, and anxiety. Chronic or traumatic stress may predispose individuals for multiple somatic and psychiatric illnesses. The locus coeruleus (LC) is a major node in the stress response that integrates input from multiple stress responsive neural circuits and releases norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system to promote vigilance and anxiety. Many mood disorders associated with prior stress are characterized by chronically altered noradrenergic signaling, yet the long-term impact of an acute stressor on LC function is not clear...
January 13, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339724/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-controls-neural-and-behavioral-plasticity-in-response-to-cocaine
#16
Erin S Calipari, Arthur Godino, Emily G Peck, Marine Salery, Nicholas L Mervosh, Joseph A Landry, Scott J Russo, Yasmin L Hurd, Eric J Nestler, Drew D Kiraly
Cocaine addiction is characterized by dysfunction in reward-related brain circuits, leading to maladaptive motivation to seek and take the drug. There are currently no clinically available pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction. Through a broad screen of innate immune mediators, we identify granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) as a potent mediator of cocaine-induced adaptations. Here we report that G-CSF potentiates cocaine-induced increases in neural activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339484/probabilistic-switching-circuits-in-dna
#17
Daniel Wilhelm, Jehoshua Bruck, Lulu Qian
A natural feature of molecular systems is their inherent stochastic behavior. A fundamental challenge related to the programming of molecular information processing systems is to develop a circuit architecture that controls the stochastic states of individual molecular events. Here we present a systematic implementation of probabilistic switching circuits, using DNA strand displacement reactions. Exploiting the intrinsic stochasticity of molecular interactions, we developed a simple, unbiased DNA switch: An input signal strand binds to the switch and releases an output signal strand with probability one-half...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338873/opioid-and-psychostimulant-plasticity-targeting-overlap-in-nucleus-accumbens-glutamate-signaling
#18
REVIEW
Matthew Hearing, Nicholas Graziane, Yan Dong, Mark J Thomas
Commonalities in addictive behavior, such as craving, stimuli-driven drug seeking, and a high propensity for relapse following abstinence, have pushed for a unified theory of addiction that encompasses most abused substances. This unitary theory has recently been challenged - citing distinctions in structural neural plasticity, biochemical signaling, and neural circuitry to argue that addiction to opioids and psychostimulants is behaviorally and neurobiologically distinct. Recent more selective examination of drug-induced plasticity has highlighted that these two drug classes promote an overall reward circuitry signaling overlap through modifying excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens - a key constituent of the reward system...
January 12, 2018: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338843/current-status-of-animal-models-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-behavioral-and-biological-phenotypes-and-future-challenges-in-improving-translation
#19
REVIEW
Jessica Deslauriers, Mate Toth, Andre Der-Avakian, Victoria B Risbrough
Increasing predictability of animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has required active collaboration between clinical and preclinical scientists. Modeling PTSD is challenging, as it is a heterogeneous disorder with ≥20 symptoms. Clinical research increasingly utilizes objective biological measures (e.g., imaging, peripheral biomarkers) or nonverbal behaviors and/or physiological responses to complement verbally reported symptoms. This shift toward more-objectively measurable phenotypes enables refinement of current animal models of PTSD, and it supports the incorporation of homologous measures across species...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336819/identification-of-a-corticohabenular-circuit-regulating-socially-directed-behavior
#20
Madhurima Benekareddy, Tevye Jason Stachniak, Andreas Bruns, Frederic Knoflach, Markus von Kienlin, Basil Künnecke, Anirvan Ghosh
BACKGROUND: The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of social dysfunction, but the specific circuit partners mediating PFC function in health and disease are unclear. METHODS: The excitatory designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) hM3Dq was used to induce PFC activation during social behavior measured in the three-chamber sociability assay (rats/mice). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was combined with hM3Dq-mediated PFC activation to identify novel nodes in the "social brain" in a hypothesis-free manner...
December 2, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
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