keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Circuit behavior

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912679/three-pillars-for-the-neural-control-of-appetite
#1
Scott M Sternson, Anne-Kathrin Eiselt
The neural control of appetite is important for understanding motivated behavior along with the present rising prevalence of obesity. Over the past several years, new tools for cell type-specific neuron activity monitoring and perturbation have enabled increasingly detailed analyses of the mechanisms underlying appetite-control systems. Three major neural circuits strongly and acutely influence appetite but with notably different characteristics. Although these circuits interact, they have distinct properties and thus appear to contribute to separate but interlinked processes influencing appetite, thereby forming three pillars of appetite control...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911798/stretchable-multichannel-antennas-in-soft-wireless-optoelectronic-implants-for-optogenetics
#2
Sung Il Park, Gunchul Shin, Jordan G McCall, Ream Al-Hasani, Aaron Norris, Li Xia, Daniel S Brenner, Kyung Nim Noh, Sang Yun Bang, Dionnet L Bhatti, Kyung-In Jang, Seung-Kyun Kang, Aaron D Mickle, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price, Robert W Gereau, Michael R Bruchas, John A Rogers
Optogenetic methods to modulate cells and signaling pathways via targeted expression and activation of light-sensitive proteins have greatly accelerated the process of mapping complex neural circuits and defining their roles in physiological and pathological contexts. Recently demonstrated technologies based on injectable, microscale inorganic light-emitting diodes (μ-ILEDs) with wireless control and power delivery strategies offer important functionality in such experiments, by eliminating the external tethers associated with traditional fiber optic approaches...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911752/frontosubthalamic-circuits-for-control-of-action-and-cognition
#3
Adam R Aron, Damian M Herz, Peter Brown, Birte U Forstmann, Kareem Zaghloul
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia appears to have a potent role in action and cognition. Anatomical and imaging studies show that different frontal cortical areas directly project to the STN via so-called hyperdirect pathways. This review reports some of the latest findings about such circuits, including simultaneous recordings from cortex and the STN in humans, single-unit recordings in humans, high-resolution fMRI, and neurocomputational modeling. We argue that a major function of the STN is to broadly pause behavior and cognition when stop signals, conflict signals, or surprise signals occur, and that the fronto-STN circuits for doing this, at least for stopping and conflict, are dissociable anatomically and in terms of their spectral reactivity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911751/the-lateral-habenula-circuitry-reward-processing-and-cognitive-control
#4
Phillip M Baker, Thomas Jhou, Bo Li, Masayuki Matsumoto, Sheri J Y Mizumori, Marcus Stephenson-Jones, Aleksandra Vicentic
There has been a growing interest in understanding the role of the lateral habenula (LHb) in reward processing, affect regulation, and goal-directed behaviors. The LHb gets major inputs from the habenula-projecting globus pallidus and the mPFC, sending its efferents to the dopaminergic VTA and SNc, serotonergic dorsal raphe nuclei, and the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus. Recent studies have made advances in our understanding of the LHb circuit organization, yet the precise mechanisms of its involvement in complex behaviors are largely unknown...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911750/homeostasis-meets-motivation-in-the-battle-to-control-food-intake
#5
Carrie R Ferrario, Gwenaël Labouèbe, Shuai Liu, Edward H Nieh, Vanessa H Routh, Shengjin Xu, Eoin C O'Connor
Signals of energy homeostasis interact closely with neural circuits of motivation to control food intake. An emerging hypothesis is that the transition to maladaptive feeding behavior seen in eating disorders or obesity may arise from dysregulation of these interactions. Focusing on key brain regions involved in the control of food intake (ventral tegmental area, striatum, hypothalamus, and thalamus), we describe how activity of specific cell types embedded within these regions can influence distinct components of motivated feeding behavior...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911742/current-perspectives-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-from-genes-to-therapy
#6
Maria Chahrour, Brian J O'Roak, Emanuela Santini, Rodney C Samaco, Robin J Kleiman, M Chiara Manzini
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a constellation of neurodevelopmental presentations with high heritability and both phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. To date, mutations in hundreds of genes have been associated to varying degrees with increased ASD risk. A better understanding of the functions of these genes and whether they fit together in functional groups or impact similar neuronal circuits is needed to develop rational treatment strategies. We will review current areas of emphasis in ASD research, starting from human genetics and exploring how mouse models of human mutations have helped identify specific molecular pathways (protein synthesis and degradation, chromatin remodeling, intracellular signaling), which are linked to alterations in circuit function and cognitive/social behavior...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#7
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907815/master-or-servant-emerging-roles-for-motor-neuron-subtypes-in-the-construction-and-evolution-of-locomotor-circuits
#8
REVIEW
Jeremy S Dasen
Execution of motor behaviors relies on the ability of circuits within the nervous system to engage functionally relevant subtypes of spinal motor neurons. While much attention has been given to the role of networks of spinal interneurons on setting the rhythm and pattern of output from locomotor circuits, recent studies suggest that motor neurons themselves can exert an instructive role in shaping the wiring and functional properties of locomotor networks. Alteration in the distribution of motor neuron subtypes also appears to have contributed to evolutionary transitions in the locomotor strategies used by land vertebrates...
November 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907151/changes-in-galanin-systems-in-a-rat-model-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd
#9
Karen Barnabas, Lin Zhang, Huiying Wang, Gilbert Kirouac, Maria Vrontakis
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic syndrome triggered by exposure to trauma and a failure to recover from a normal negative emotional reaction to traumatic stress. The neurobiology of PTSD and the participation of neuropeptides in the neural systems and circuits that control fear and anxiety are not fully understood. The long-term dysregulation of neuropeptide systems contributes to the development of anxiety disorders, including PTSD. The neuropeptide galanin (Gal) and its receptors participate in anxiety-like and depression-related behaviors via the modulation of neuroendocrine and monoaminergic systems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907134/reward-contingencies-improve-goal-directed-behavior-by-enhancing-posterior-brain-attentional-regions-and-increasing-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-cocaine-addicts
#10
Patricia Rosell-Negre, Juan-Carlos Bustamante, Paola Fuentes-Claramonte, Víctor Costumero, Juan-José Llopis-Llacer, Alfonso Barrós-Loscertales
The dopaminergic system provides the basis for the interaction between motivation and cognition. It is triggered by the possibility of obtaining rewards to initiate the neurobehavioral adaptations necessary to achieve them by directing the information from motivational circuits to cognitive and action circuits. In drug addiction, the altered dopamine (DA) modulation of the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuitry, such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlies the disproportionate motivational value of drug use at the expense of other non-drug reinforcers and the user's loss of control over his/her drug intake...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907045/pulse-detecting-genetic-circuit-a-new-design-approach
#11
Nasimul Noman, Mara Inniss, Hitoshi Iba, Jeffrey C Way
A robust cellular counter could enable synthetic biologists to design complex circuits with diverse behaviors. The existing synthetic-biological counters, responsive to the beginning of the pulse, are sensitive to the pulse duration. Here we present a pulse detecting circuit that responds only at the falling edge of a pulse-analogous to negative edge triggered electric circuits. As biological events do not follow precise timing, use of such a pulse detector would enable the design of robust asynchronous counters which can count the completion of events...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905082/facial-identity-and-emotional-expression-as-predictors-during-economic-decisions
#12
Sonia Alguacil, Eduardo Madrid, Antonio M Espín, María Ruz
Two sources of information most relevant to guide social decision making are the cooperative tendencies associated with different people and their facial emotional displays. This electrophysiological experiment aimed to study how the use of personal identity and emotional expressions as cues impacts different stages of face processing and their potential isolated or interactive processing. Participants played a modified trust game with 8 different alleged partners, and in separate blocks either the identity or the emotions carried information regarding potential trial outcomes (win or loss)...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904536/a-review-on-human-respiratory-modeling
#13
REVIEW
Pardis Ghafarian, Hamidreza Jamaati, Seyed Mohammadreza Hashemian
Input impedance of the respiratory system is measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT). Multiple prior studies have attempted to match the electromechanical models of the respiratory system to impedance data. Since the mechanical behavior of airways and the respiratory system as a whole are similar to an electrical circuit in a combination of series and parallel formats some theories were introduced according to this issue. It should be noted that, the number of elements used in these models might be less than those required due to the complexity of the pulmonary-chest wall anatomy...
2016: Tanaffos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903730/network-patterns-associated-with-navigation-behaviors-are-altered-in-aged-nonhuman-primates
#14
James R Engle, Christopher J Machado, Michele R Permenter, Julie A Vogt, Andrew P Maurer, Alicia M Bulleri, Carol A Barnes
: The ability to navigate through space involves complex interactions between multiple brain systems. Although it is clear that spatial navigation is impaired during aging, the networks responsible for these altered behaviors are not well understood. Here, we used a within-subject design and [(18)F]FDG-microPET to capture whole-brain activation patterns in four distinct spatial behaviors from young and aged rhesus macaques: constrained space (CAGE), head-restrained passive locomotion (CHAIR), constrained locomotion in space (TREADMILL), and unconstrained locomotion (WALK)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901245/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-treatment-resistant-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-report-on-two-cases-and-proposal-for-a-randomized-sham-controlled-trial
#15
Renata de Melo Felipe da Silva, André Russowsky Brunoni, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Roseli Gedanke Shavitt
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation techniques for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have expanded through greater understanding of the brain circuits involved in this disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive technique, has been studied as an alternative for treatment-resistant OCD. We describe the design of a clinical trial using tDCS for OCD and report on the outcomes from two patients with primary OCD who were resistant to cognitive-behavioral therapy and to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and who received tDCS in an open manner during the training phase for the study procedures...
September 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901151/improving-the-charge-carrier-transport-of-organic-solar-cells-by-incorporating-a-deep-energy-level-molecule
#16
Chunyu Liu, Zhiqi Li, Zhihui Zhang, Xinyuan Zhang, Liang Shen, Wenbin Guo, Liu Zhang, Yongbing Long, Shengping Ruan
Tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ), a strong molecular acceptor, has been proved to be an excellent candidate to achieve the p-type doping effect. When F4-TCNQ is incorporated into a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) active layer, superior behavior upon inducing polymer donor excited electron transport is demonstrated due to the addition of a deep-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) from F4-TCNQ, leading to the realization of organic solar cells (OSCs) with an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898124/direction-resolved-radiation-from-polarization-controlled-surface-plasmon-modes-on-silver-nanowire-antennas
#17
Zhili Jia, Hong Wei, Deng Pan, Hongxing Xu
Metallic nanowires (NWs) support multiple surface plasmon (SP) modes, which lead to extraordinary SP propagation behaviors. The leaky SP modes in metallic NWs connect the guiding and radiation of light at the nanometer scale. Understanding and controlling these modes are of vital importance for various nanophotonic applications. Here, we investigate the radiation from two polarization-controlled SP modes on supported silver NWs by using leakage radiation imaging and Fourier imaging techniques. The radiation directions from these modes can be clearly resolved from the Fourier images...
November 29, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895566/allostatic-self-efficacy-a-metacognitive-theory-of-dyshomeostasis-induced-fatigue-and-depression
#18
Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895562/brain-computation-is-organized-via-power-of-two-based-permutation-logic
#19
Kun Xie, Grace E Fox, Jun Liu, Cheng Lyu, Jason C Lee, Hui Kuang, Stephanie Jacobs, Meng Li, Tianming Liu, Sen Song, Joe Z Tsien
There is considerable scientific interest in understanding how cell assemblies-the long-presumed computational motif-are organized so that the brain can generate intelligent cognition and flexible behavior. The Theory of Connectivity proposes that the origin of intelligence is rooted in a power-of-two-based permutation logic (N = 2 (i) -1), producing specific-to-general cell-assembly architecture capable of generating specific perceptions and memories, as well as generalized knowledge and flexible actions. We show that this power-of-two-based permutation logic is widely used in cortical and subcortical circuits across animal species and is conserved for the processing of a variety of cognitive modalities including appetitive, emotional and social information...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895561/evidence-of-a-role-for-the-lateral-hypothalamic-area-juxtadorsomedial-region-lhajd-in-defensive-behaviors-associated-with-social-defeat
#20
Miguel J Rangel, Marcus V C Baldo, Newton S Canteras, Joel D Hahn
Our understanding of the extrinsic connections of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) has deepened in recent years. In particular, a series of studies using neural pathway-tracing methods to investigate the macroconnections of histologically differentiated LHA regions, have revealed that the neural connections of these regions are substantially distinct, and have robust connections with neural circuits controlling survival behaviors. To begin testing functional associations suggested by the distinct LHA region neural connections, the present study has investigated the role of the LHA juxtadorsomedial region (LHAjd) in the control of social defeat (a socially-relevant defensive behavior)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
5197
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"