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Cirrhosis Hepatic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156808/serum-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-levels-predict-insignificant-fibrosis-and-non-cirrhosis-in-hepatitis-b-e-antigen-positive-patients-with-normal-or-mildly-elevated-alanine-transaminase-levels
#1
Qiang Li, Weixia Li, Chuan Lu, Yuxian Huang, Liang Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels for liver fibrosis in hepatitis B e antigen-positive [HBeAg (+)] chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with alanine transaminase (ALT)≤twice upper limit of normal (ULN). METHODS: 505 patients who underwent liver biopsies and HBsAg quantitative detections were included. Liver histology was scored using METAVIR scoring system. The area under the receiver-operator curve (AUROC) was used to determine the diagnostic accuracy...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156655/the-role-of-glyoxalase-i-glo-i-advanced-glycation-endproducts-ages-and-their-receptor-rage-in-chronic-liver-disease-and-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc
#2
REVIEW
Marcus Hollenbach
Glyoxalase-I (Glo-I) and glyoxalase-II (Glo-II) comprise the glyoxalase system and are responsible for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MGO). MGO is formed non-enzymatically as a by-product, mainly in glycolysis, and leads to the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). AGEs bind to their receptor, RAGE, and activate intracellular transcription factors, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This review will focus on the implication of the Glo-I/AGE/RAGE system in liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156050/viral-factors-affecting-the-clinical-outcomes-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#3
Hung-Chih Yang, Yi-Fen Shih, Chun-Jen Liu
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) exhibits a variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from spontaneous resolution of hepatitis B to severe adverse consequences, including the development of cirrhosis, hepatic failure, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The heterogeneous clinical courses of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection reflect the complex host-virus interactions, and point to the difficulty and necessity of identifying the patients at risk. With the advance of HBV virology, several viral factors have been found to be associated with the long-term clinical outcomes of CHB patients...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156048/unmet-needs-in-clinical-and-basic-hepatitis-b-virus-research
#4
Tung-Hung Su, Jia-Horng Kao
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has become a treatable and controllable disease. The current nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) and pegylated interferon therapies effectively help slow disease progression and reduce the risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and CHB-associated mortality. Long-term viral suppression is easily achievable by NUC therapy, with limited adverse reactions. However, several unmet requirements still exist, including safety and risk-stratified HCC surveillance among patients who received long-term NUC therapy...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155718/the-murine-choline-deficient-ethionine-supplemented-cde-diet-model-of-chronic-liver-injury
#5
Jully Gogoi-Tiwari, Julia Köhn-Gaone, Corey Giles, Dirk Schmidt-Arras, Francis D Gratte, Caryn L Elsegood, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Grant A Ramm, John K Olynyk, Janina E E Tirnitz-Parker
Chronic liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are characterized by continual inflammation, progressive destruction and regeneration of the hepatic parenchyma, liver progenitor cell proliferation, and fibrosis. The end-stage of every chronic liver disease is cirrhosis, a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. To study processes regulating disease initiation, establishment, and progression, several animal models are used in laboratories...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155355/molecular-ellipticity-of-circulating-albumin-bilirubin-complex-associates-with-mortality-in-patients-with-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis
#6
Sukanta Das, Jaswinder Singh Maras, Rakhi Maiwall, S M Shasthry, Md Shabir Hussain, Shvetank Sharma, S Sukriti, T P Singh, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hyperbilirubinemia and hypoalbuminemia are features of hepatic dysfunction that associate with disease severity. This is because hepatic insufficiency causes hypoalbuminemia, which indirectly increases the circulating levels of free bilirubin. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy can be used to quantify the molecular ellipticity (ME) of the albumin-bilirubin complex, and might associate with the severity or outcome of severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 265 patients with SAH admitted in the Department of Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences in New Delhi, India from January 2014 through January 2016...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155352/patient-reported-outcomes-following-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-with-sofosbuvir-and-velpatasvir-with-or-without-voxilaprevir
#7
Zobair M Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Stuart Gordon, Stefan Zeuzem, Michael P Mann, Ira Jacobson, Marc Bourliere, Curtis Cooper, Steven Flamm, K Rajender Reddy, Kris Kowdley, Issah Younossi, Sharon Hunt
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has many hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations, measured by patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We measured changes in PROs during HCV treatment with recently developed pangenotypic regimens and from a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment ended (SVR12). METHODS: We collected PRO data from 2 multi-center, blinded, international phase 3 trials of sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir, from 748 patients previously treated with direct-acting antivirals for chronic infection with HCV of any genotype (59% HCV genotype 1, 43% with compensated cirrhosis) (POLARIS-1 and POLARIS-4)...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155019/the-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-hepatitis-c-and-sustained-viral-response-role-of-the-treatment-regimen
#8
Hamish Innes, Stephen T Barclay, Peter C Hayes, Andrew Fraser, John F Dillon, Adrian Stanley, Andy Bathgate, Scott A McDonald, David Goldberg, Heather Valerio, Ray Fox, Nick Kennedy, Pete Bramley, Sharon J Hutchinson
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a high frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurrence in patients with advanced liver disease, after receipt of interferon(IFN)-free therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Our objective was to verify and account for this phenomenon using data from the Scottish HCV Clinical Database. METHODS: We identified HCC-naïve individuals with liver cirrhosis receiving a course of antiviral therapy in Scotland from 1997-2016 resulting in a SVR...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154966/determinants-of-fibrosis-progression-and-regression-in-nash
#9
REVIEW
Detlef Schuppan, Rambabu Surabattula, Xiao Yu Wang
Cirrhosis has become the major liver related clinical endpoint in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, progression to cirrhosis is less predictable in NASH compared to other chronic liver diseases. This is due to the complex and multifactorial etiology of NASH, which is determined by life style and nutrition, multiple genetic and epigenetic factors, and a prominent role of hepatic and extrahepatic comorbidities. Thus modest changes in these cofactors can also induce fibrosis regression, at least in precirrhotic patients...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154019/local-specialty-pharmacy-and-specialty-clinic-collaboration-assists-access-to-hepatitis-c-direct-acting-antivirals
#10
Julia Zhu, Ronald J Hazen, Cara Joyce, Ambrose Delpino, Heather S Kirkham, Carson Dietrich Strickland, Shauna Markes-Wilson, Tomeka Kim, Meen Kang, Raymond A Rubin, Lance L Stein
OBJECTIVES: To measure prescribed time to therapy (TtT) and sustained virologic response (SVR). Secondary objectives were to assess insurance appeals and copay assistance amount facilitated by a local specialty pharmacy (LSP). METHODS: This descriptive, retrospective study used a joint clinical and pharmacy database of patients who were prescribed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) at a single-center liver specialty clinic and received LSP services from December 2013 to December 2015...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152988/value-and-innovation-of-direct-acting-antivirals-long-term-health-outcomes-of-the-strategic-plan-for-the-management-of-hepatitis-c-in-spain
#11
Juan Turnes, Raquel Domínguez-Hernández, Miguel Ángel Casado
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term healthcare costs and health outcome in association with the access to new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), during the first year of the National Strategic Plan for Chronic Hepatitis C (SPCHC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Spain. METHODS: A decision tree and a lifetime Markov model were developed to simulate the natural history, morbidity, and mortality of a cohort of 51,900 patients with CHC before (pre-DAA strategy) and after (post-DAA strategy) access to DAA, following SPCHC approval...
November 20, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152781/glecaprevir-pibrentasvir-in-patients-with-hcv-genotype-1-or-4-and-prior-direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-failure
#12
Fred Poordad, Stanislas Pol, Armen Asatryan, Maria Buti, David Shaw, Christophe Hézode, Franco Felizarta, Robert W Reindollar, Stuart C Gordon, Stephen Pianko, Michael W Fried, David E Bernstein, Joel Gallant, Chih-Wei Lin, Yang Lei, Teresa I Ng, Preethi Krishnan, Sarah Kopecky-Bromberg, Jens Kort, Federico Mensa
METHODS: MAGELLAN-1 Part 2 was a randomized, open-label, phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ribavirin (RBV)-free glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (G/P; 300 mg/120 mg) in patients with chronic HCV and prior virologic failure on at least one NS3/4A protease and/or NS5A inhibitor-containing therapy. Patients with compensated liver disease, with or without cirrhosis, and HCV genotype (GT) 1, 4, 5, or 6 were randomized 1:1 to receive 12 or 16 weeks of G/P. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12)...
November 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152432/acute-changes-in-mentation-in-a-patient-with-hepatic-cirrhosis-treated-with-high-doses-of-dexamethasone
#13
Luis Dabul, Andrew Droney, Juan Oms, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez
Despite the anti-inflammatory benefits of steroids in the management of multiple medical conditions, they are associated with undesired metabolic and psychiatric side effects. We present a case of a 57-year-old Hispanic man with hepatic cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and no past medical history of psychiatric illnesses who became delirious after treatment with high doses of intravenous Dexamethasone. The patient presented to Larkin Community Hospital, USA with complaints of lower back pain requiring treatment with steroids for severe lumbar central canal stenosis...
September 10, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152039/hepatic-hydrothorax-an-update-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
REVIEW
Dmitry Victorovich Garbuzenko, Nikolay Olegovich Arefyev
This review considers the modern concepts of pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, and treatment principles of hepatic hydrothorax (HH). HH is the excessive (> 500 mL) accumulation of transudate in the pleural cavity in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis but without cardiopulmonary and pleural diseases. It causes respiratory failure which aggravates the clinical course of liver cirrhosis, and the emergence of spontaneous bacterial pleural empyema may be the cause of death. The information was collected from the PubMed database, the Google Scholar retrieval system, the Cochrane reviews, and the reference lists from relevant publications for 1994-2016 using the keywords: "liver cirrhosis", "portal hypertension", "hepatic hydrothorax", "pathogenesis", "diagnostics", and "treatment"...
November 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151701/clinical-outcomes-of-transcatheter-selective-superior-mesenteric-artery-urokinase-infusion-therapy-vs-transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic-shunt-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-acute-portal-vein-thrombosis
#15
Ting-Ting Jiang, Xiao-Ping Luo, Jian-Ming Sun, Jian Gao
AIM: To compare the outcomes of transcatheter superior mesenteric artery (SMA) urokinase infusion and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for acute portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in cirrhosis. METHODS: From January 2013 to December 2014, patients with liver cirrhosis and acute symptomatic PVT who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to either an SMA group or a TIPS group. The two groups accepted transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy and TIPS, respectively...
November 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151696/value-of-gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase-to-platelet-ratio-in-diagnosis-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#16
Yan-Chao Hu, Hao Liu, Xiao-Yan Liu, Li-Na Ma, Yu-Hua Guan, Xia Luo, Xiang-Chun Ding
AIM: To investigate the value of the gamma-glutamyltraspeptidase (GGT)-to-platelet (PLT) ratio (GPR) in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: We included 390 untreated CHB patients in this study. The GPR, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-PLT ratio index (APRI), and fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) of all patients were analysed to determine if these parameter were correlated with age, gender, medical history, liver function [total bilirubin (TBil), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and AST], GGT, PLT count, or hepatic fibrosis stage...
November 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151365/effectiveness-of-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-hepatitis-c-in-difficult-to-treat-patients-in-a-safety-net-health-system-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Christina Yek, Carolina de la Flor, John Marshall, Cindy Zoellner, Grace Thompson, Lisa Quirk, Christian Mayorga, Barbara J Turner, Amit G Singal, Mamta K Jain
BACKGROUND: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized chronic hepatitis C (HCV) treatment, but real-world effectiveness among vulnerable populations, including uninsured patients, is lacking. This study was conducted to characterize the effectiveness of DAAs in a socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patient cohort. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included all patients undergoing HCV treatment with DAA-based therapy between April 2014 and June 2016 at a large urban safety-net health system (Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas, TX, USA)...
November 20, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151327/serum-matrix-metalloproteinase-1-level-represents-disease-activity-as-opposed-to-fibrosis-in-patients-with-histologically-proven-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#18
Wataru Ando, Hiroaki Yokomori, Nobuhiro Tsutsui, Eigoro Yamanouchi, Yutaka Suzuki, Masaya Oda, Yutaka Inagaki, Katsuya Otori, Isao Okazaki
Background/Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is prevalent in both economically developed and developing countries. Twenty percent of NASH progresses to cirrhosis with/without hepatocellular carcinoma, and there is an urgent need to find biomarkers for early diagnosis and monitoring progression of the disease. Using immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic examination we previously reported that expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) increased in monocytes, Kupffer cells and hepatic stellate cells in early stage NASH...
November 20, 2017: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150719/preoperative-optimization-for-major-hepatic-resection
#19
REVIEW
Sarah Walcott-Sapp, Kevin G Billingsley
PURPOSE: Major hepatic resections are performed for primary hepatobiliary malignancies, metastatic disease, and benign lesions. Patients with chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis and steatosis, are at an elevated risk of malnutrition and impaired strength and exercise capacity, deficits which cause increased risk of postoperative complications and mortality. The aims of this report are to discuss the pathophysiology of changes in nutrition, exercise capacity, and muscle strength in patient populations likely to require major hepatectomy, and review recommendations for preoperative evaluation and optimization...
November 18, 2017: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150644/therapeutic-effects-of-hepatocyte-growth-factor-overexpressing-dental-pulp-stem-cells-on-liver-cirrhosis-in-a-rat-model
#20
Xiao-Fang Cao, Shi-Zhu Jin, Liang Sun, Yuan-Bo Zhan, Feng Lin, Ying Li, Ying-Lian Zhou, Xiu-Mei Wang, Li Gao, Bin Zhang
Cirrhosis is the terminal stage of hepatic diseases and is prone to develop into hepatocyte carcinoma. Increasing evidence suggests that the transplantation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) may promote recovery from cirrhosis, but the key regulatory mechanisms involved remain to be determined. In this study, we overexpressed human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF) in primary rat DPSCs and evaluated the effects of HGF overexpression on the biological behaviors and therapeutic efficacy of grafted DPSCs in cirrhosis...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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