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Paula F Zamora, Liya Hu, Jonathan J Knowlton, Roni M Lahr, Rodolfo A Moreno, Andrea J Berman, B V Venkataram Prasad, Terence S Dermody
Viral nonstructural proteins, which are not packaged into virions, are essential for replication of most viruses. Reovirus, a nonenveloped, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, encodes three nonstructural proteins that are required for viral replication and dissemination in the host. Reovirus nonstructural protein σNS is a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA)-binding protein that must be expressed in infected cells for production of viral progeny. However, activities of σNS during individual steps of the reovirus replication cycle are poorly understood...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Virology
Junji Xing, Ao Zhang, Laurie J Minze, Xian Chang Li, Zhiqiang Zhang
The innate immunity is critically important in protection against virus infections, and in the case of RNA viral infections, the signaling mechanisms that initiate robust protective innate immunity without triggering autoimmune inflammation remain incompletely defined. In this study, we found the E3 ligase TRIM29 was specifically expressed in poly I:C-stimulated human myeloid dendritic cells. The induced TRIM29 played a negative role in type I IFN production in response to poly I:C or dsRNA virus reovirus infection...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Yan Gao, Chao Pei, Xiaoying Sun, Chao Zhang, Li Li, Xianghui Kong
Although some commercial vaccines against grass carp reovirus (GCRV) are available, given the many varieties of GCRV and limited types of vaccines, the disease caused by GCRV remains a major problem, which leads to economic losses in grass carp aquaculture. A reovirus strain (GCRV-HN14) was recently isolated from local diseased fish in our laboratory. The S11 segment of GCRV-HN14 was speculated to encode the virus capsid protein VP35. In our study, the S11 segment was cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3...
May 12, 2018: Vaccine
Luke Russell, Kah-Whye Peng
This review discusses current clinical advancements in oncolytic viral therapy, with a focus on the viral platforms approved for clinical use and highlights the benefits each platform provides. Three oncolytic viruses (OVs), an echovirus, an adenovirus, and a herpes simplex-1 virus, have passed governmental regulatory approval in Latvia, China, and the USA and EU. Numerous other recombinant viruses from diverse families are in clinical testing in cancer patients and we highlight the design features of selected examples, including adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, measles virus, retrovirus, reovirus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus...
April 2018: Chinese Clinical Oncology
Penelope A Bradbury, Donald G Morris, Garth Nicholas, Dongsheng Tu, Moustapha Tehfe, John R Goffin, Frances A Shepherd, Richard W Gregg, Jeffrey Rothenstein, Christoper Lee, Sara Kuruvilla, Bruce D Keith, Vamsee Torri, Normand Blais, Desiree Hao, Grzegorz J Korpanty, Glenwood Goss, Barbara L Melosky, Mihaela Mates, Natasha Leighl, Jean-Pierre Ayoub, Joana Sederias, Harriet Feilotter, Lesley Seymour, Scott A Laurie
OBJECTIVES: Pelareorep (reolysin), a Dearing strain of reovirus serotype 3, has demonstrated oncolytic activity as single agent and synergy with chemotherapy. We evaluated pelareorep, combined with standard second-line chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized phase II trial enrolled patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC after first line chemotherapy. After a safety run-in, patients were randomized 1:1 to chemotherapy (pemetrexed [500 mg/m2, non-squamous], or docetaxel [75 mg/m2], day 1 every 21 days]) +/- pelareorep (4...
June 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Manas R Praharaj, Aditya P Sahoo, Tapan K S Chauhan, Ravi Kumar Gandham, Shikha Saxena, Ravi K Agarwal, Kuldeep Dhama, Bina Mishra, Asok K Marriappan, Ashok K Tiwari, Puroshottam Prasad Goswami, Bishnu Prasad Mishra, Deepak Kumar
Avian reoviruses, members of Orthoreovirus genus was known to cause diseases like tenosynovitis, runting-stunting syndrome in chickens. Among eight structural proteins, the proteins of S-class are mainly associated with viral arthritis but the significance of σB protein in arthritis is not established till date. In this infection pathological condition together with infection of joints often leads to arthritis because joints consists of cartilage which forms lubricating surface between two bones, and has limited metabolic, replicative and repair capacity...
April 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Charles Comins, Guy Richard Simpson, William Rogers, Kate Relph, Kevin Harrington, Alan Melcher, Victoria Roulstone, Joan Kyula, Hardev Pandha
There are currently numerous oncolytic viruses undergoing clinical trial evaluation in cancer patients and one agent, Talimogene laherparepvec, has been approved for the treatment of malignant melanoma. This progress highlights the huge clinical potential of this treatment modality, and the focus is now combining these agents with conventional anticancer treatments or agents that enhance viral replication, and thereby oncolysis, in the tumour microenvironment. We evaluated the combination of reovirus with rapamycin in B16F10 cell, a murine model of malignant melanoma, based on potential mechanisms by which mTOR inhibitors might enhance viral oncolysis...
May 3, 2018: Cancer Gene Therapy
Melanie H Dietrich, Kristen M Ogden, Jacob M Long, Rebecca Ebenhoch, Alexandra Thor, Terence S Dermody, Thilo Stehle
Mammalian orthoreovirus attachment to target cells is mediated by outer-capsid protein σ1, which projects from the virion surface. The σ1 protein is a homotrimer consisting of a filamentous tail, which is partly inserted into the virion, a body domain constructed from β-spiral repeats, and a globular head with receptor-binding properties. The σ1 tail is predicted to form an α-helical coiled coil. Although σ1 undergoes a conformational change during cell entry, the nature of this change and its contributions to viral replication are unknown...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Virology
Gerard J Nuovo, Cecilia Vianna de Andrade, Chandini Thirukkumaran, Alcina F Nicol
This work focused on immunohistochemistry markers of acute viral infections. Viral infected cells were detected by in situ based methods (reovirus, rabies virus) or cytologic changes (human papillomavirus, molloscum contagiosum virus, herpes simplex virus). Two proteins involved in nuclear trafficking, importin-β and exportin-5, were detected in the infected cells for each virus and not in the control tissues. A wide variety of other proteins, including caspase-3, and bcl-2 family members (bcl2, bclX, MCL1, BAK, BAX, BIM, BAD) showed wide variations in expression among the different viral infections...
January 10, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Saurabh Majumdar, Tapan K S Chauhan, K Dhama, Purushottam P Goswami, A K Tiwari, B P Mishra, Deepak Kumar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
J J Su, X Y Shang, Q Y Wan, J G Su
Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in Ctenopharyngodon idella toll-like receptor 7 (citlr7) gene, containing two in the 5'-flanking region, three within the single intron and six distributed in the coding sequence (CDS), were identified. A case-control study of 73 susceptible individuals and 67 resistant individuals was conducted to test the SNPs-based susceptibility-resistance association and mRNA expression of citlr7 to grass carp reovirus (GCRV), showing that both 820 A/G and 1726 A/G were significantly correlative sites in genotype (P < 0·05)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Lv Xiong, Libo He, Lifei Luo, Yongming Li, Lanjie Liao, Rong Huang, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) causes huge economic loss to the grass carp cultivation industry but the mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the global and complement gene-specific DNA methylation in grass carp after GCRV infection aimed to uncover the mechanism underlying GCRV infection. The global DNA methylation level was increased after GCRV infection. Expression levels of enzymes involved in DNA methylation including DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), ten-eleven translocation proteins (TETs), and glycine N -methyltransferase (GNMT) were significantly altered after GCRV infection...
April 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jialu Sheng, Fei Yu, Dubo Chen, Hao Wang, Liqun Lu
Fibulin-4 is not only involved in connective tissue development and elastic fiber formation, but also plays critical neoplastic roles in tumor growth by activating Wnt/β-Catenin signaling in human. Recently, Fibulin-4 was shown to associate with grass carp reovirus (GCRV) outer capsid proteins and might relate to viral hemorrhagic disease in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Here, we monitored the expression pattern of Fibulin-4 during the infection course of GCRV at both translational and transcriptional levels, and found that Fibulin-4 was significantly suppressed upon the viral challenge in grass cap GCO cells...
April 5, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
David I De la Torre, Luis F Nuñez, Claudete S Astolfi-Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino Ferreira
Enteric viruses play an important role in the Brazilian poultry industry due to the economic impact of resulting low yields of broilers, layers, and breeders. The most common enteric viruses affecting commercial flocks in Brazil include Fowl Adenovirus of group I (FAdV-I), Chicken Parvovirus (ChPV), Chicken Astrovirus (CAstV), Avian Nephritis Virus (ANV), Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV), Avian Reovirus (AReo), and Avian Rotavirus (ARtV). The aim of this study was to identify single and multiple infections using data obtained from 270 samples from eleven Brazilian states, corresponding to the period between 2010 and 2017...
March 29, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
Cathy L Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Nature Microbiology
Cui-Yu Ba, Xiao-Yan Du, Pei-Jun Zhang, Ping Chen, Ya-Nan Cai, Yue-Hong Li
The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and major signal transduction pathways that were related to the immune response of epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells to reoviruses isolated from allogynogenetic silver crucian carp. The study also lays a theoretical foundation for the pathogenesis and immunity of the reovirus, which is helpful to the breeding of cyprinids fish. Reovirus infected and uninfected EPC cells were analyzed by using a new-generation high-throughput sequencing technology...
March 18, 2018: Viruses
Yanmin Guo, Weiwei Zeng, Qing Wang, Yingying Wang, Yingying Li, Jiyuan Yin, Yan Ren, Cunbin Shi
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the causative agent of a hemorrhagic disease that causes severe economic losses in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) farming industry in China. Discrimination between wild-type field and vaccine strains of GCRV is crucial for meaningful disease diagnosis and epidemiological investigation, yet current detection methods do not discriminate between these different viruses. This study exploited sequence differences between vaccine viruses and the virulent and field strains in the S6 gene that is present in all GCRV strains to develop a high resolution melting curve assay to differentiate between virus strains...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Yuki Katayama, Masashi Tachibana, Nozomi Kurisu, Yukako Oya, Yuichi Terasawa, Hiroshi Goda, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Shizuo Akira, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Fuminori Sakurai
Oncolytic reovirus, which possesses 10 segments of dsRNA genome, mediates antitumor effects via not only virus replication in a tumor cell-specific manner, but also activation of antitumor immunity; however, the mechanism(s) of reovirus-induced activation of antitumor immunity have not been fully elucidated. Recent studies have demonstrated that overcoming an immunosuppressive environment in tumor-bearing hosts is important to achieve efficient activation of antitumor immunity. Among the various types of cells involved in immunosuppression, it has been revealed that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are significantly increased in tumor-bearing hosts and play crucial roles in the immunosuppression in tumor-bearing hosts...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Anthony J Snyder, Pranav Danthi
Mammalian orthoreovirus (reovirus) utilizes pore forming peptides to penetrate host cell membranes. This step is essential for delivering its genome containing core particle during viral entry. This protocol describes an in vitro assay for measuring reovirus-induced pore formation.
January 20, 2018: Bio-protocol
Danica M Sutherland, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Terence S Dermody
Viruses are constantly engaged in a molecular arms race with the host, where efficient and tactical use of cellular receptors benefits critical steps in infection. Receptor use dictates initiation, establishment, and spread of viral infection to new tissues and hosts. Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are pervasive pathogens that use multiple receptors to overcome protective host barriers to disseminate from sites of initial infection and cause disease in young mammals. In particular, reovirus invades the central nervous system (CNS) with serotype-dependent tropism and disease...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
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