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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156834/oncolytic-reovirus-inhibits-angiogenesis-through-induction-of-cxcl10-ip-10-and-abrogation-of-hif-activity-in-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#1
Jennifer S Carew, Claudia M Espitia, Weiguo Zhao, Monica M Mita, Alain C Mita, Steffan T Nawrocki
The tumor-selective viral replication capacity and pro-apoptotic effects of oncolytic reovirus have been reported to be dependent on the presence of an activated RAS pathway in several solid tumor types. However, the mechanisms of selective anticancer efficacy of the reovirus-based formulation for cancer therapy (Reolysin, pelareorep) have not been rigorously studied in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Here we report that Reolysin triggered a striking induction of the anti-angiogenic chemokine interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10)/CXCL10 (CXC chemokine ligand 10) in both wild type and RAS mutant STS cells...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156818/a-plasmid-containing-cpg-odn-as-vaccine-adjuvant-against-grass-carp-reovirus-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#2
Hang Su, Zhiwei Liao, Gailing Yuan, Jianguo Su
CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are proved to have strong immune stimulatory activity. Plasmids containing CpG ODNs could be conveniently and low-costly used as vaccine adjuvant. However, they are different among various plasmids, motif repeats, species, etc. In the present study, plasmid pcDNA3.1 (+) containing five repetitions of CpG ODN 1670A named pcDNA3.1-1670A*5 with strong immunostimulation was screened out from twelve recombinant plasmids and three empty vectors by cell proliferation activity, interferon promoter activities and immune related gene expressions in CIK cells...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135940/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-lysine-acetylation-in-fish-cik-cells-infected-with-aquareovirus
#3
Hong Guo, Jie Zhang, Yaping Wang, Chen Bu, Yanyan Zhou, Qin Fang
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important worldwide commercial freshwater culture species. However, grass carp reovirus (GCRV) causes serious hemorrhagic disease in fingerlings and yearlings of fishes. To understand the molecular pathogenesis of host cells during GCRV infection, intensive proteomic quantification analysis of lysine acetylation in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells was performed. Using dimethylation labeling-based quantitative proteomics, 832 acetylated proteins with 1391 lysine acetylation sites were identified in response to GCRV infection, among which 792 proteins with 1323 sites were quantifiable...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125860/autophagy-pathway-induced-by-a-plant-virus-facilitates-viral-spread-and-transmission-by-its-insect-vector
#4
Yong Chen, Qian Chen, Manman Li, Qianzhuo Mao, Hongyan Chen, Wei Wu, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Many viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. Generally, an insect vector can use autophagy as an intrinsic antiviral defense mechanism against viral infection. Whether viruses can evolve to exploit autophagy to promote their transmission by insect vectors is still unknown. Here, we show that the autophagic process is triggered by the persistent replication of a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) in cultured leafhopper vector cells and in intact insects, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious virus-containing double-membrane autophagosomes, conversion of ATG8-I to ATG8-II and increased level of autophagic flux...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102889/identification-of-the-caveolae-raft-mediated-endocytosis-as-the-primary-entry-pathway-for-aquareovirus
#5
Fuxian Zhang, Hong Guo, Jie Zhang, Qingxiu Chen, Qin Fang
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV), a member of the Aquareovirus genus in the Reoviridae family, is considered the most pathogenic aquareovirus. However, its productive viral entry pathways remain largely unclear. Using a combination of quantum dot (QD)-based live-virus tracking and biochemical assays, we found that extraction of cellular membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and nystatin strongly inhibited the internalization of GCRVs, and supplementation with cholesterol restored viral infection...
November 2, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102630/display-of-gcrv-vp7-protein-on-the-surface-of-escherichia-coli-and-its-immunoprotective-effects-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#6
Kai Hao, Xiao-Hui Chen, Xiao-Zhou Qi, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang, Fei Ling
Infection with Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is becoming unprecedentedly widespread in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) aquaculture industry, yet the management of GCRV infection still remains a challenge. Therefore, it is of importance to develop effective means against GCRV. As a delivery system of viral antigens, surface displaying of heterologous proteins on bacteria using anchoring motifs has successfully been implemented in human and veterinary vaccines research. In this study, a novel vaccine (BL21/InpN/vp7) was developed based on surface displaying a major capsid protein (vp7) of GCRV using the anchoring motif of N-terminal unique domain of ice-nucleation protein (InpN) on Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) vaccine...
November 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100321/bid-deficient-fish-delay-grass-carp-reovirus-gcrv-replication-and-attenuate-gcrv-triggered-apoptosis
#7
Libo He, Hao Wang, Lifei Luo, Yongming Li, Rong Huang, Lanjie Liao, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
Bid, BH3-interacting domain death agonist, is a pro-apoptotic BH3-only member of Bcl-2 family, playing an important role in apoptosis. In the study, Bid genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), named CiBid and GrBid, were cloned and analyzed. Bid was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues of grass carp, but the expression level varied in different tissues. Following grass carp reovirus (GCRV) stimulation in vivo, Bid and apoptosis related genes Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 was up-regulated significantly at the late stage of infection...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080685/functional-characterization-of-interferon-regulatory-factor-5-and-its-role-in-the-innate-antiviral-immune-response
#8
Kete Ai, Kai Luo, Lihai Xia, Weihua Gao, Wei Hu, Zhitao Qi, Qiaoqing Xu
In mammals, type I interferons (IFNs) are primarily regulated by transcription factors of the IFN regulatory (IRF) family. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) plays pivotal roles in antiviral and inflammatory responses. In the present study, we found that zebrafish (Danio rerio) IRF5 is a key player in the regulation of the expression of type I IFN and its antiviral immune response. IRF5 was upregulated in zebrafish embryonic fibroblast cells (ZF4) when challenged with grass carp reovirus (GCRV). Moreover, the expression profiles of Mx, IFN, Viperin, and IRF7, but not IRF3, were upregulated by overexpression of IRF5 in Epithelioma papulosum cyprinid cells (EPCs)...
October 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076241/oncolytic-reovirus-therapy-pilot-study-in-dogs-with-spontaneously-occurring-tumours
#9
C C Hwang, M Igase, M Sakurai, T Haraguchi, K Tani, K Itamoto, T Shimokawa, M Nakaichi, Y Nemoto, S Noguchi, M Coffey, M Okuda, T Mizuno
Oncolytic virotherapy is a novel treatment involving replication-competent virus in the elimination of cancer. We have previously reported the oncolytic effects of reovirus in various canine cancer cell lines. This study aims to establish the safety profile of reovirus in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumours and to determine a recommended dosing regimen. Nineteen dogs with various tumours, mostly of advanced stages, were treated with reovirus, ranging from 1.0 × 10(8) to 5.0 × 10(9) TCID50 given as intratumour injection (IT) or intravenous infusion (IV) daily for up to 5 consecutive days in 1 or multiple treatment cycles...
October 27, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069722/repression-of-sumoylation-pathway-by-grass-carp-reovirus-contributes-to-the-upregulation-of-pkr-in-an-ifn-independent-manner
#10
Fei Yu, Longlong Wang, Hao Wang, Jialu Sheng, Liqun Lu
SUMOylation, a post-translational modification, is involved in interaction between hosts and viruses, and participates in diverse cellular processes including inflammatory responses and innate immunity. Here, we investigated the interaction between reovirus infection and the cellular SUMOylation machinery using grass carp reovirus (GCRV) as a model. Full-length cDNAs of grass carp SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 were obtained and phylogenetic analysis indicated that they shared high homology with those of higher vertebrates...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064408/avian-group-d-rotaviruses-structure-epidemiology-diagnosis-and-perspectives-on-future-research-challenges
#11
Pallavi Deol, Jobin Jose Kattoor, Shubhankar Sircar, Souvik Ghosh, Krisztián Bányai, Kuldeep Dhama, Yashpal Singh Malik
In 1981, a new virus (virus 132) was described for the first time with morphological and biochemical similarities to rotaviruses (RVs), but without antigenic similarity to any of the previously known rotavirus groups. Subsequently, it was re-designated as D/132, and formed a new serogroup among rotaviruses, the group D rotavirus (RVD). Since their identification, RVs are the leading cause of enteritis and diarrhea in humans and various animal species, and are also associated with abridged growth, particularly in avian species...
October 24, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046506/analysis-of-differentially-expressed-proteins-in-muscovy-duck-embryo-fibroblasts-infected-with-virulent-and-attenuated-muscovy-duck-reovirus-by-two-dimensional-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis
#12
Mei-Qing Huang, Xiao-Xia Cheng, Shi-Long Chen, Min Zheng, Shao-Ying Chen
Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) belongs to the Orthoreovirus genus of the Reoviridae family, which is a significant poultry pathogen leading to high morbidity and mortality in ducklings. However, the pathogenesis of the virus is not well understood. In the present study, two-dimensional (2D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) combined with LC-MS-MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins between Muscovy duck embryo fibroblasts (MDEF) infected with virulent (MV9710 strain) and attenuated (CA strain) MDRV and non-infected MDEFs...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046442/rice-stripe-tenuivirus-has-a-greater-tendency-to-use-the-prime-and-realign-mechanism-in-transcription-of-genomic-than-in-transcription-of-antigenomic-template-rnas
#13
Xiaojuan Liu, Jing Jin, Ping Qiu, Fangluan Gao, Wenzhong Lin, Guohui Xie, Simiao He, Shunmin Liu, Zhenguo Du, Zujian Wu
Most segmented negative sense RNA viruses employ a process termed cap-snatching during which they snatch capped-RNA leaders from host cellular mRNAs and use the snatched leaders as primers for transcription, leading to the synthesis of viral mRNAs with 5' heterogeneous sequences (HSs). With traditional methods, only a few HSs can be determined and identification of their donors is difficult. Here, the mRNA 5' -ends of Rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV) and Rice grassy stunt tenuivirus (RGSV) and those of their host rice were determined by high throughput sequencing...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027598/a-randomized-phase-ii-study-of-weekly-paclitaxel-with-or-without-pelareorep-in-patients-with-metastatic-breast-cancer-final-analysis-of-canadian-cancer-trials-group-ind-213
#14
V Bernstein, S L Ellard, S F Dent, D Tu, M Mates, S K Dhesy-Thind, L Panasci, K A Gelmon, M Salim, X Song, M Clemons, D Ksienski, S Verma, C Simmons, H Lui, K Chi, H Feilotter, L J Hagerman, L Seymour
BACKGROUND: Pelareorep, a serotype 3 reovirus, has demonstrated preclinical and early clinical activity in breast cancer and synergistic cytotoxic activity with microtubule targeting agents. This multicentre, randomized, phase II trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding pelareorep to paclitaxel for patients with metastatic breast cancer (mBC). METHODS: Following a safety run-in of 7 patients, 74 women with previously treated mBC were randomized either to paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks plus pelareorep 3 × 10(10) TCID50 intravenously on days 1, 2, 8, 9, 15, and 16 every 4 weeks (Arm A) or to paclitaxel alone (Arm B)...
October 13, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986957/the-bulky-and-the-sweet-how-neutralizing-antibodies-and-glycan-receptors-compete-for-virus-binding
#15
REVIEW
Melanie H Dietrich, Christina Harprecht, Thilo Stehle
Numerous viruses rely on glycan receptor binding as the initial step in host cell infection. Engagement of specific glycan receptors such as sialylated carbohydrates, glycosaminoglycans, or histo-blood group antigens can determine host range, tissue tropism, and pathogenicity. Glycan receptor-binding sites are typically located in exposed regions on viral surfaces-sites that are also generally prone to binding of neutralizing antibodies that directly interfere with virus-glycan receptor interactions. In this review, we examine the locations and architecture of the glycan- and antibody-binding sites in four different viruses with stalk-like attachment proteins (reovirus, influenza virus, norovirus, and coronavirus) and investigate the mechanisms by which antibodies block glycan recognition...
October 7, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951299/hericium-erinaceus-polysaccharide-facilitates-restoration-of-injured-intestinal-mucosal-immunity-in-muscovy-duck-reovirus-infected-muscovy-ducklings
#16
Yijian Wu, Huihui Jiang, Erpeng Zhu, Jian Li, Quanxi Wang, Wuduo Zhou, Tao Qin, Xiaoping Wu, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang
To elucidate the effect of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) on the intestinal mucosal immunity in normal and Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV)-infected Muscovy ducklings, 1-day-old healthy Muscovy ducklings were pretreated with 0.2g/L HEP and/or following by MDRV infection in this study, duodenal samples were respectively collected at 1, 3, 6, 10, 15 and 21day post-infection, tissue sections were prepared for observation of morphological structure and determination of intestinal parameters (villus height/crypt depth ratio, villus surface area) as well as counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells, mast cells...
September 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934149/oncolytic-reovirus-infection-is-facilitated-by-the-autophagic-machinery
#17
Vera Kemp, Iris J C Dautzenberg, Ronald W Limpens, Diana J M van den Wollenberg, Rob C Hoeben
Mammalian reovirus is a double-stranded RNA virus that selectively infects and lyses transformed cells, making it an attractive oncolytic agent. Despite clinical evidence for anti-tumor activity, its efficacy as a stand-alone therapy remains to be improved. The success of future trials can be greatly influenced by the identification and the regulation of the cellular pathways that are important for reovirus replication and oncolysis. Here, we demonstrate that reovirus induces autophagy in several cell lines, evident from the formation of Atg5-Atg12 complexes, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) lipidation, p62 degradation, the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles, and LC3 puncta...
September 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932815/a-multicenter-study-to-evaluate-the-performance-of-high-throughput-sequencing-for-virus-detection
#18
Arifa S Khan, Siemon H S Ng, Olivier Vandeputte, Aisha Aljanahi, Avisek Deyati, Jean-Pol Cassart, Robert L Charlebois, Lanyn P Taliaferro
The capability of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) for detection of known and unknown viruses makes it a powerful tool for broad microbial investigations, such as evaluation of novel cell substrates that may be used for the development of new biological products. However, like any new assay, regulatory applications of HTS need method standardization. Therefore, our three laboratories initiated a study to evaluate performance of HTS for potential detection of viral adventitious agents by spiking model viruses in different cellular matrices to mimic putative materials for manufacturing of biologics...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923111/a-novel-coltivirus-related-virus-isolated-from-free-tailed-bats-from-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-is-able-to-infect-human-cells-in-vitro
#19
Sabrina Weiss, Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski, Andreas Kurth, Siv Aina J Leendertz, Fabian H Leendertz
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic transmission events play a major role in the emergence of novel diseases. While such events are virtually impossible to predict, wildlife screening for potential emerging pathogens can be a first step. Driven by recent disease epidemics like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola, bats have gained special interest as reservoirs of emerging viruses. METHODS: As part of a bigger study investigating pathogens in African bats we screened animals for the presence of known and unknown viruses...
September 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922411/cytokine-induced-killer-cell-delivery-enhances-the-antitumor-activity-of-oncolytic-reovirus
#20
Xing Zhao, Weiwei Ouyang, Cariad Chester, Shiqi Long, Nianxue Wang, Zhixu He
Oncolytic viruses (OV) have recently emerged as a promising therapeutic modality in cancer treatment. OV selectively infect and kill tumor cells, while sparing untransformed cells. The direct cytotoxic effects combined with the capacity to trigger an immune response make OV an appealing combination partner in the burgeoning field of cancer immunotherapy. One of the leading OV therapeutic candidates is the double-stranded RNA virus reovirus. In order to improve the oncolytic activity of reovirus and allow for systemic administration despite the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells were explored as cell carriers for reovirus delivery...
2017: PloS One
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