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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479936/presage-of-oncolytic-virotherapy-for-oral-cancer-with-herpes-simplex-virus
#1
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Yura
A virus is a pathogenic organism that causes a number of infectious diseases in humans. The oral cavity is the site at which viruses enter and are excreted from the human body. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) produces the primary infectious disease, gingivostomatitis, and recurrent disease, labial herpes. HSV-1 is one of the most extensively investigated viruses used for cancer therapy. In principle, HSV-1 infects epithelial cells and neuronal cells and exhibits cytotoxicity due to its cytopathic effects on these cells...
May 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466052/structure-and-function-of-s9-segment-of-grass-carp-reovirus-anhui-strain
#2
Minglin Wu, Haiyang Li, He Jiang, Guanjun Hou, Jixiang He, Yangyang Jiang, Honglian Chen
A highly virulent grass carp reovirus (GCRV) strain, named GCRV-AH528, was recently purified from a diseased grass carp with hemorrhage disease in Anhui, China. GCRV-AH528 S9 segment was 1320 nucleotides in length and encoded a 418 amino acid VP6 protein. BLAST search showed that the VP6 protein owned a conserved domain belonging to the reoviral σ2 family. Phylogenetic analysis of VP6 presented that GCRV-AH528 belonged to GCRV genotype II, which was more closely related to Orthoreovirus than GCRV genotype I and genotype III...
March 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461211/analysis-of-the-expression-patterns-of-the-novel-large-multigene-trim-gene-family-fintrim-in-zebrafish
#3
Kai Luo, Youshen Li, Lihai Xia, Wei Hu, Weihua Gao, Liwei Guo, Guangming Tian, Zhitao Qi, Hanwen Yuan, Qiaoqing Xu
Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are receiving increased research interest because of their roles in a wide range of cellular biological processes in innate immunity. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), the functions of the finTRIM (ftr) family are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of ftr12, ftr51, ftr67, ftr82, ftr83, and ftr84 in zebrafish for the first time. The results showed that ftr12, ftr67, and ftr84 are maternally expressed in the oocyte and highly expressed at the early stage (0-4 hpf) of embryo (P < 0...
April 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446772/large-scale-snp-screenings-identify-markers-linked-with-gcrv-resistant-traits-through-transcriptomes-of-individuals-and-cell-lines-in-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#4
Zhiwei Liao, Quanyuan Wan, Xueying Shang, Jianguo Su
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important economic species in freshwater aquaculture and its industry has been confined due to variety degeneration and frequent diseases. Marker-assisted selection is a feasible method for selective breeding of new varieties. Transcriptome data have greatly facilitated high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker discovery and phenotype association study. In this study, we gained a total of 25,981 and 5,775 high quality SNPs in two transcriptomes from individuals and cell lines, respectively...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446676/grass-carp-reovirus-vp41-targets-fish-mita-to-abrogate-the-ifn-response
#5
Long-Feng Lu, Shun Li, Zhao-Xi Wang, Si-Qi Du, Dan-Dan Chen, Pin Nie, Yong-An Zhang
Although fish possess an efficient interferon (IFN) system to defend against aquatic virus infection, the grass carp reovirus (GCRV) still causes hemorrhagic disease in grass carp. To date, GCRV's strategy for evading the fish IFN response is still unknown. Here, we report that the GCRV VP41 inhibits fish IFN production by suppressing the phosphorylation of the mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA). First, the activation of the IFN promoter (IFNpro) stimulated by the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and MITA was decreased by the overexpression of VP41, whereas such activation induced by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) was not affected...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442418/tlr22-structure-and-expression-characteristic-of-barbel-chub-squaliobarbus-curriculus-provides-insights-into-antiviral-immunity-against-infection-with-grass-carp-reovirus
#6
Rong-Hua Wang, Wei Li, Yu-Ding Fan, Qiao-Lin Liu, Ling-Bing Zeng, Tiao-Yi Xiao
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the most virulent agent to Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and causes a severe infectious disease called hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. Generally, barbel chub, Squaliobarbus curriculus, a genetically closely related species to grass carp, exhibits significant resistance against GCRV infection compared to grass carp. To investigate whether the Toll-like receptor 22 (tlr22) has got a vital role against the GCRV infection, the full cDNA sequence of tlr22 from barbel chub (Sctlr22) was cloned by RACE-PCR, and the structure and expression feature were studied...
April 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441762/replication-and-oncolytic-activity-of-an-avian-orthoreovirus-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#7
Robert A Kozak, Larissa Hattin, Mia J Biondi, Juan C Corredor, Scott Walsh, Max Xue-Zhong, Justin Manuel, Ian D McGilvray, Jason Morgenstern, Evan Lusty, Vera Cherepanov, Betty-Anne McBey, David Leishman, Jordan J Feld, Byram Bridle, Éva Nagy
Oncolytic viruses are cancer therapeutics with promising outcomes in pre-clinical and clinical settings. Animal viruses have the possibility to avoid pre-existing immunity in humans, while being safe and immunostimulatory. We isolated an avian orthoreovirus (ARV-PB1), and tested it against a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We found that ARV-PB1 replicated well and induced strong cytopathic effects. It was determined that one mechanism of cell death was through syncytia formation, resulting in apoptosis and induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs)...
April 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422714/toll-like-receptor-3-as-an-immunotherapeutic-target-for-kras-mutated-colorectal-cancer
#8
Radhashree Maitra, Titto Augustine, Yitzchak Dayan, Carol Chandy, Matthew Coffey, Sanjay Goel
New therapeutic interventions are essential for improved management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This is especially critical for those patients whose tumors harbor a mutation in the KRAS oncogene (40-45% of all patients). This patient cohort is excluded from receiving anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies that have added a significant therapeutic benefit for KRAS wild type CRC patients. Reovirus, a double stranded (ds) RNA virus is in clinical development for patients with chemotherapy refractory KRAS mutated tumors...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421365/grass-carp-reovirus-outer-capsid-proteins-vp5-and-vp7-interact-in-vitro
#9
Weisha Liu, Hao Wang, Fei Yu, Liqun Lu
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) causes viral hemorrhagic disease in cultured grass carp. However, there is no effective means of controlling GCRV. Previous studies have shown, by cryoelectron microscopy, that the outer capsid of GCRV is composed of 200 trimers of VP5-VP7 heterodimers. However, confirmation of this interaction between VP5 and VP7 through molecular biochemistry is still lacking. This study characterized the interactions between VP5 and VP7 in vitro. VP5 was shown to interact with VP7 in a commercial yeast-two-hybrid screen...
April 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396670/grass-carp-laboratory-of-genetics-and-physiology-2-serves-as-a-negative-regulator-in-retinoic-acid-inducible-gene-i-and-melanoma-differentiation-associated-gene-5-mediated-antiviral-signaling-in-resting-state-and-early-stage-of-grass-carp-reovirus-infection
#10
Youliang Rao, Quanyuan Wan, Chunrong Yang, Jianguo Su
Laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2) is a key component of RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). However, the lack of the caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) results in its controversial functional performance as a negative or positive regulator in antiviral responses. Especially, no sufficient evidence uncovers the functional mechanisms of LGP2 in RLR signaling pathways in teleost. Here, negative regulation mechanism of LGP2 in certain situations in retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-mediated antiviral responses was identified in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney cells...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389364/cationic-liposome-mediated-delivery-of-reovirus-enhances-the-tumor-cell-killing-efficiencies-of-reovirus-in-reovirus-resistant-tumor-cells
#11
Fuminori Sakurai, Shunsuke Inoue, Tadataka Kaminade, Takuma Hotani, Yuki Katayama, Eri Hosoyamada, Yuichi Terasawa, Masashi Tachibana, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi
Reovirus induces tumor cell death efficiently and specifically, and thus is currently undergoing clinical testing as an anticancer agent. In the intracellular trafficking of reovirus, proteolytic disassembly of reovirus capsid-proteins and subsequent penetration of viral particles into the cytosol are crucial steps. Cathepsins B and L are largely responsible for the proteolytic disassembly of reovirus. Reovirus efficiently lyses tumor cells exhibiting relatively high activities of cathepsins B and L, while tumor cells with low activities of cathepsins B and L are often refractory to reovirus, probably due to inefficient endo/lysosomal escape...
April 4, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387035/the-frenemies-within-viruses-retrotransposons-and-plasmids-that-naturally-infect-saccharomyces-yeasts
#12
Paul A Rowley
Viruses are a major focus of current research efforts because of their detrimental impact on humanity and their ubiquity within the environment. Bacteriophages have long been used to study host-virus interactions within microbes, but it is often forgotten that the single-celled eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species are infected with double-stranded RNA viruses, single stranded RNA viruses, LTR-retrotransposons and double-stranded DNA plasmids. These intracellular nucleic acid elements have some similarities to higher eukaryotic viruses, i...
April 7, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386004/reovirus-infection-triggers-inflammatory-responses-to-dietary-antigens-and-development-of-celiac-disease
#13
Romain Bouziat, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Judy J Brown, Jennifer E Stencel-Baerenwald, Mine Ikizler, Toufic Mayassi, Marlies Meisel, Sangman M Kim, Valentina Discepolo, Andrea J Pruijssers, Jordan D Ernest, Jason A Iskarpatyoti, Léa M M Costes, Ian Lawrence, Brad A Palanski, Mukund Varma, Matthew A Zurenski, Solomiia Khomandiak, Nicole McAllister, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Karl W Boehme, Fengling Hu, Janneke N Samsom, Hans-Christian Reinecker, Sonia S Kupfer, Stefano Guandalini, Carol E Semrad, Valérie Abadie, Chaitan Khosla, Luis B Barreiro, Ramnik J Xavier, Aylwin Ng, Terence S Dermody, Bana Jabri
Viral infections have been proposed to elicit pathological processes leading to the initiation of T helper 1 (TH1) immunity against dietary gluten and celiac disease (CeD). To test this hypothesis and gain insights into mechanisms underlying virus-induced loss of tolerance to dietary antigens, we developed a viral infection model that makes use of two reovirus strains that infect the intestine but differ in their immunopathological outcomes. Reovirus is an avirulent pathogen that elicits protective immunity, but we discovered that it can nonetheless disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis at inductive and effector sites of oral tolerance by suppressing peripheral regulatory T cell (pTreg) conversion and promoting TH1 immunity to dietary antigen...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382031/virus-induced-tubules-a-vehicle-for-spread-of-virions-into-ovary-oocyte-cells-of-an-insect-vector
#14
Zhenfeng Liao, Qianzhuo Mao, Jiajia Li, Chengcong Lu, Wei Wu, Hongyan Chen, Qian Chen, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Many arthropod-borne viruses are persistently propagated and transovarially transmitted by female insect vectors through eggs, but the mechanism remains poorly understood. Insect oocytes are surrounded by a layer of follicular cells, which are connected to the oocyte through actin-based microvilli. Here, we demonstrate that a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), exploits virus-containing tubules composed of viral non-structural protein Pns11 to pass through actin-based junctions between follicular cells or through actin-based microvilli from follicular cells into oocyte of its leafhopper vector Recilia dorsalis, thus overcoming transovarial transmission barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379065/inhibition-of-grass-carp-reovirus-infection-by-dna-aptamers-against-s10-protein
#15
Hongru Liang, Xiaozhe Fu, Lihui Liu, Qiang Lin, Huizhi Guo, Yonggang Li, JiaXu Liu, Zhibin Huang, Ningqiu Li
Grass Carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most pathogenic agents among aquareovirus isolates and has the ability to cause a severe epidemic outbreak of hemorrhagic disease, thus resulting in both a high mortality rate during the culture of Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and an enormous economic loss. Aptamers have been demonstrated to have strong promising applications in antiviral drug development. In the present study, a complementary DNA fragment encoding the S10 gene of GCRV was cloned. The S10 protein was expressed and purified...
June 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358373/myogenic-differentiation-triggers-pml-nuclear-body-loss-and-daxx-relocalization-to-chromocentres
#16
Jayme Salsman, Lindsy M Rapkin, Nandini N Margam, Roy Duncan, David P Bazett-Jones, Graham Dellaire
The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is expressed in most normal human tissues and forms nuclear bodies (NBs) that have roles in gene regulation and cellular processes such as DNA repair, cell cycle control, and cell fate decisions. Using murine C2C12 myoblasts, we demonstrate that activation of skeletal muscle differentiation results in loss of PML and PML NBs prior to myotube fusion. Myotube formation was associated with marked chromatin reorganization and the relocalization of DAXX from PML NBs to chromocentres...
March 30, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326624/current-status-of-clinical-trials-assessing-oncolytic-virus-therapy-for-urological-cancers
#17
REVIEW
Satoru Taguchi, Hiroshi Fukuhara, Yukio Homma, Tomoki Todo
Oncolytic virus therapy has recently been recognized as a promising new option for cancer treatment. Oncolytic viruses replicate selectively in cancer cells, thus killing them without harming normal cells. Notably, T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec, formerly called OncoVEX(GM)(-)(CSF) ), an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of inoperable melanoma in October 2015, and was subsequently approved in Europe and Australia in 2016. The efficacies of many types of oncolytic viruses against urological cancers have been investigated in preclinical studies during the past decade, and some have already been tested in clinical trials...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322923/microspheres-prime-rmva-boost-vaccination-enhances-humoral-and-cellular-immune-response-in-ifnar-mice-conferring-protection-against-serotypes-1-and-4-of-bluetongue-virus
#18
Alejandro Marín-López, Eva Calvo-Pinilla, Diego Barriales, Gema Lorenzo, Javier Benavente, Alejandro Brun, Jose Manuel Martínez-Costas, Javier Ortego
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue disease (BT), which affects domestic and wild ruminants. At the present, 27 different serotypes have been documented. Vaccination has been demonstrated as one of the most effective methods to avoid viral dissemination. To overcome the drawbacks associated with the use of inactivated and attenuated vaccines we engineered a new recombinant BTV vaccine candidate based on proteins VP2, VP7, and NS1 of BTV-4 that were incorporated into avian reovirus muNS-Mi microspheres (MS-VP2/VP7/NS1) and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA)...
June 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300681/protective-immunity-of-grass-carp-induced-by-dna-vaccine-encoding-capsid-protein-gene-vp7-of-grass-carp-reovirus-using-bacterial-ghost-as-delivery-vehicles
#19
Kai Hao, Xiao-Hui Chen, Xiao-Zhou Qi, Xiao-Bo Yu, En-Qi Du, Fei Ling, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most pathogenic aquareovirus and can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). However, management of GCRV infection remains a challenge. Therefore, it is necessary to find effective means for the control of its infection. The uses of bacterial ghost (BG, non-living bacteria) as carriers for DNA delivery have received considerable attentions in veterinary and human vaccines studies. Nevertheless, there is still no report about intramuscular administration of bacterial ghost-based DNA vaccines in fish...
May 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298603/african-swine-fever-virus-np868r-capping-enzyme-promotes-reovirus-rescue-during-reverse-genetics-by-promoting-reovirus-protein-expression-virion-assembly-and-rna-incorporation-into-infectious-virions
#20
Heather E Eaton, Takeshi Kobayashi, Terence S Dermody, Randal N Johnston, Philippe H Jais, Maya Shmulevitz
Reoviruses, like many eukaryotic viruses, contain an inverted 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap linked to the 5' nucleotide of mRNA. Traditional functions of capping are to promote mRNA stability, protein translation, and concealment from cellular proteins that recognize foreign RNA. To address the role of mRNA capping during reovirus replication, we assessed the benefits of adding the African swine fever virus NP868R capping enzyme. C3P3, a fusion protein containing T7 RNA polymerase and NP868R, was found to increase protein expression 5 to 10-fold, as compared to T7 RNA polymerase alone, while enhancing reovirus rescue from the current reverse genetics system by 100-fold...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
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