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E Ilett, T Kottke, J Thompson, K Rajani, S Zaidi, L Evgin, M Coffey, C Ralph, R Diaz, H Pandha, K Harrington, P Selby, R Bram, A Melcher, R Vile
The anti-tumor effects associated with oncolytic virus therapy are mediated significantly through immune-mediated mechanisms which depends both on the type of virus and the route of delivery. Here, we show that intra-tumoral (i.t.) oncolysis by Reovirus induced the priming of a CD8+, Th1-type anti-tumor response. In contrast, systemically delivered VSV expressing a cDNA library of melanoma antigens (VSV-ASMEL) promoted a potent anti-tumor CD4+ Th17 response. Therefore, we hypothesised that combining the Reovirus-induced CD8+ T cell response, with the VSV-ASMEL CD4+ Th17 helper response, would produce enhanced anti-tumor activity...
October 25, 2016: Gene Therapy
Dongsheng Jia, Yu Han, Xiang Sun, Zhenzhen Wang, Zhenguo Du, Qian Chen, Taiyun Wei
BACKGROUND: Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) are two closely related fijiviruses transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH) and white-backed planthopper (WBPH), respectively. SRBSDV has a latent period 4 days shorter than that of RBSDV, implying a more efficient spread in insect vector. Currently, the mechanisms underlying this higher efficiency are poorly understood. However, our recent studies have implicated a role of virus induced tubular structures in the dissemination of fijiiruses within their insect vectors...
October 19, 2016: Virology Journal
Li Zhong, Li Gao, Yongzhen Liu, Kai Li, Miao Wang, Xiaole Qi, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang
Avian reovirus (ARV) infections characterised by severe arthritis, tenosynovitis, pericarditis, and depressed growth have become increasingly frequent in recent years. In this study, we isolated and identified 11 ARV field strains from chickens with viral arthritis and reduced growth in northern China. Comparative analysis of the σC nucleotide and amino acid sequences demonstrated that all isolates, except LN05 and JS01, were closely related to ARV S1133 and clustered in the first genetic lineage. LN05 and JS01 strains were clustered in the third lineage with the ARV 138 strain...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
C M Wong, L A Nash, J Del Papa, K L Poulin, T Falls, J C Bell, R J Parks
When injected directly into a tumor mass, adenovirus (Ad) vectors only transduce cells immediately along the injection tract. Expression of fusogenic proteins from the Ad vector can lead to syncytium formation, which efficiently spreads the therapeutic effect. Fusogenic proteins can also cause cancer cell death directly, and enhance the release of exosome-like particles containing tumor-associated antigens, which boosts the anti-tumor immune response. In this study, we have examined whether delivery of an early region 1 (E1)-deleted, replication-defective Ad vector encoding the reptilian reovirus p14 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein can provide therapeutic efficacy in an immunocompetent mouse tumor model...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Ahmed Siah, Diane B Morrison, Elena Fringuelli, Paul Savage, Zina Richmond, Robert Johns, Maureen K Purcell, Stewart C Johnson, Sonja M Saksida
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141475.].
2016: PloS One
Jun Xiao, Jun Yan, Hui Chen, Jun Li, Yu Tian, Luosheng Tang, Hao Feng
Mx (myxovirus resistance) is an important antiviral protein in the innate immune responses of vertebrates to microbial pathogens. In this study, we cloned and characterized Mx1 of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). The full-length cDNA of black carp Mx1 (bcMx1) consists of 2781 nucleotides and the predicted bcMx1 protein contains 631 amino acids. bcMx1 contains a GTPase domain at the N-terminnus, a "central interactive domain" in the middle and a GTPase effector domain at the C-terminus. bcMx1 mRNA was constitutively transcribed in all tissues tested, including the heart, liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, muscle, skin and gill; and bcMx1 mRNA levels increased in all but the gill after grass carp reovirus (GCRV) or viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection...
October 4, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ning Li, Tianqi Hong, Rong Li, Yao Wang, Mengjiao Guo, Zongxi Cao, Yumei Cai, Sidang Liu, Tongjie Chai, Liangmeng Wei
Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Daniel Luque, Carlos P Mata, Fernando González-Camacho, José M González, Josué Gómez-Blanco, Carlos Alfonso, Germán Rivas, Wendy M Havens, Satoko Kanematsu, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A Ghabrial, Benes L Trus, Joséa R Castón
: Most dsRNA viruses are transcribed and replicated in a specialized icosahedral capsid with a T=1 lattice consisting of 60 asymmetric capsid protein (CP) dimers. These capsids help to organize the viral genome and replicative complex(es). They also act as molecular sieves that isolate the virus genome from host defense mechanisms and allow the passage of nucleotides and viral transcripts. Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), the type species of family Quadriviridae, is a dsRNA fungal virus with a multipartite genome consisting of four monocistronic segments (segments 1-4)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
Deepti Thete, Anthony J Snyder, Bernardo Mainou, Pranav Danthi
: Proteins that form the reovirus outer capsid play an active role in the entry of reovirus into host cells. Among these, the σ1 protein mediates attachment of reovirus particles to host cells via interaction with cell surface glycans or the proteinaceous receptor, JAM-A. The μ1 protein functions to penetrate the host cell membrane to allow delivery of the genome-containing viral core particle into the cytoplasm to initiate viral replication. We demonstrate that a reassortant virus that expresses the M2 gene-encoded μ1 protein derived from prototype strain T3D in an otherwise prototype T1L background (T1L/T3DM2) infects cells more efficiently than parental T1L...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Virology
Canping Huang, William J Liu, Wen Xu, Tao Jin, Yingze Zhao, Jingdong Song, Yi Shi, Wei Ji, Hao Jia, Yongming Zhou, Honghua Wen, Honglan Zhao, Huaxing Liu, Hong Li, Qihui Wang, Ying Wu, Liang Wang, Di Liu, Guang Liu, Hongjie Yu, Edward C Holmes, Lin Lu, George F Gao
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has generated enormous interest in the biodiversity, genomics and cross-species transmission potential of coronaviruses, especially those from bats, the second most speciose order of mammals. Herein, we identified a novel coronavirus, provisionally designated Rousettus bat coronavirus GCCDC1 (Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1), in the rectal swab samples of Rousettus leschenaulti bats by using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Hung-Chuan Chiu, Wei-Ru Huang, Tsai-Ling Liao, Hung-Yi Wu, Muhammad Munir, Wing-Ling Shih, Hung-Jen Liu
The p17 protein of avian reovirus (ARV) causes cell cycle retardation in a variety of cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism(s) by which p17 regulates the cell cycle remains largely unknown. We demonstrate for the first time that p17 interacts with CDK1 and vimentin as revealed by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that direct interaction of p17 and CDK1/vimentin was mapped within the amino terminus (aa 1-60) of p17 and central region (aa 27-118) of CDK1/vimentin...
2016: PloS One
Simon Boudreault, Camille Martenon-Brodeur, Marie Caron, Jean-Michel Garant, Marie-Pier Tremblay, Victoria E S Armero, Mathieu Durand, Elvy Lapointe, Philippe Thibault, Maude Tremblay-Létourneau, Jean-Pierre Perreault, Michelle S Scott, Guy Lemay, Martin Bisaillon
Alternative splicing (AS) is a central mechanism of genetic regulation which modifies the sequence of RNA transcripts in higher eukaryotes. AS has been shown to increase both the variability and diversity of the cellular proteome by changing the composition of resulting proteins through differential choice of exons to be included in mature mRNAs. In the present study, alterations to the global RNA splicing landscape of cellular genes upon viral infection were investigated using mammalian reovirus as a model...
2016: PloS One
T A Sharafeldin, A Singh, M Y Abdel-Glil, S K Mor, R E Porter, S M Goyal
Poult enteritis syndrome (PES) is characterized by enteritis and decreased body weight gain in growing turkey poults between one d and 7 wk of age. Another syndrome called light turkey syndrome (LTS) causes a decrease in body weight of adult tom turkeys in Minnesota leading to huge economic losses. Reovirus, rotavirus, and astrovirus have been found in LTS and PES flocks in Minnesota. We tested 80 fecal pools collected from four LTS flocks and 35 fecal pools from non-LTS flocks for the presence of parvovirus...
September 2, 2016: Poultry Science
Md Rashedul Islam, Dave B Oomah, Moussa S Diarra
Studies on effects of cranberry products in animals, especially in chickens, are very scarce or even lacking. This study investigated the immunomodulatory effect of high molecular weight non-dialyzable materials (NDMs) of cranberry extract. The in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated. The ability of NDMs (0, 1, 2, or 4 mg/mL) to enhance phagocytic activities was also evaluated using chicken heterophils (CHEs) against Staphylococcus aureus Furthermore, a broiler model was used to determine the effect of NDMs on the humoral immune response...
September 1, 2016: Poultry Science
Alicia M Waters, Gregory K Friedman, Eric K Ring, Elizabeth A Beierle
Pediatric solid tumors remain a major health concern, with nearly 16,000 children diagnosed each year. Of those, ~2,000 succumb to their disease, and survivors often suffer from lifelong disability secondary to toxic effects of current treatments. Countless multimodality treatment regimens are being explored to make advances against this deadly disease. One targeted treatment approach is oncolytic virotherapy. Conditionally replicating viruses can infect tumor cells while leaving normal cells unharmed. Four viruses have been advanced to pediatric clinical trials, including herpes simplex virus-1, Seneca Valley virus, reovirus, and vaccinia virus...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
K J Allan, David F Stojdl, S L Swift
High-throughput screens can rapidly scan and capture large amounts of information across multiple biological parameters. Although many screens have been designed to uncover potential new therapeutic targets capable of crippling viruses that cause disease, there have been relatively few directed at improving the efficacy of viruses that are used to treat disease. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are biotherapeutic agents with an inherent specificity for treating malignant disease. Certain OV platforms - including those based on herpes simplex virus, reovirus, and vaccinia virus - have shown success against solid tumors in advanced clinical trials...
2016: Oncolytic Virotherapy
C Ter Veen, N D de Bruijn, R Dijkman, J J de Wit
Intestinal disease has a major impact on the broiler industry due to economic and welfare reasons. Intestinal disease might occur due to a large number of reasons varying from well-defined pathogens to non-specific enteritis and complex syndromes. However, knowledge about the nature or intestinal disease and presence of enteric viruses in the Dutch broiler industry is largely absent. Therefore, a large scale field study, in which 98 broiler flocks from 86 farms were sampled weekly, was started to assess the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the jejunum, a number of enterotropic viruses by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and coccidia by lesion scoring...
August 24, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Ning Li, Tianqi Hong, Yao Wang, Youling Wang, Kexiang Yu, Yumei Cai, Sidang Liu, Liangmeng Wei, Tongjie Chai
The novel duck reovirus (NDRV) is an emerging, contagious infection. To better realize the pathogenic mechanism of NDRV in ducks, an infection experiment was conducted. The resulting data demonstrated that typical gross lesions were observed in the infected ducks. NDRV was able to replicate in various tissues, leading to these pathological lesions, especially on the liver and spleen. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the expression of most innate immune-related genes was up-regulated and the antiviral innate immune response could be established in both the liver and spleen...
August 30, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Xiaoyu Niu, Hao Chen, Jing Yang, Xianglong Yu, Jinfeng Ti, Aihua Wang, Youxiang Diao
The newly emerged disease, duck beak atrophy and dwarfism syndrome (BADS), is caused by novel goose parovirus (N-GPV). Although N-GPV infection has severe consequences, few methods for detecting this virus have been developed. Therefore, the availability of rapid and reliable molecular diagnostic methods would aid future studies of this novel virus. Clinical specimens from 138 suspected cases of N-GPV infection and 120 cloacal swabs from breeding ducks were used in this study. The targeted sequence of N-GPV cloned into the pMD18-T vector was used to generate the N-GPV DNA standard curve...
November 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Davide Lelli, Maria Serena Beato, Lara Cavicchio, Antonio Lavazza, Chiara Chiapponi, Stefania Leopardi, Laura Baioni, Paola De Benedictis, Ana Moreno
Mammalian Orthoreoviruses 3 (MRV3) have been described in diarrheic pigs from USA and Asia. We firstly detected MRV3 in Europe (Italy) in piglets showing severe diarrhea associated with Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea. The virus was phylogenetically related to European reoviruses of human and bat origin and to US and Chinese pig MRV3.
2016: Virology Journal
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