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Ronghua Wang, Yaoguo Li, Zhiyu Zhou, Qiaolin Liu, Lingbing Zeng, Tiaoyi Xiao
The barbel chub Squaliobarbus curriculus is an important commercial fish species in China, and has shown significant resistance to grass carp reovirus (GCRV). In this study, the cDNA sequence of interferon regulatory factors 3 (IRF3) from Squaliobarbus curriculus, designated as ScIRF3, was cloned, and its effect against GCRV was investigated. The full-length 1837 base pair (bp) cDNA of ScIRF3 contained a complete open reading frame of 1374 bp and encoded a putative polypeptide of 457 amino acid residues. The ScIRF3 protein contained conserved domains, including an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a C-terminal IRF association domain, and a serine-rich domain...
January 12, 2018: Gene
Zhiwei Liao, Quanyuan Wan, Xun Xiao, Jianfei Ji, Jianguo Su
Chemokines are a superfamily of small cytokines and characterized based on their ability to induce directional migration of cells along a concentration gradient by binding to chemokine receptors, which have important roles in immunology and development. Due to the numerous and diverse members, systematic identifications of chemokine superfamily genes are difficult in many species. To that end, a comprehensive analysis of BLAST and scripting language was conducted to systematically identify and characterize chemokine system in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)...
January 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Matthew B Phillips, Johnasha D Stuart, Emily J Simon, Karl W Boehme
Reovirus non-structural protein σ1s is required for the establishment of viremia and hematogenous viral dissemination. However, the function of the σ1s protein during the reovirus replication cycle is not known. In this study, we found that σ1s was required for efficient reovirus replication in SV40-immortalized endothelial cells (SVECs), mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and T84 human colonic epithelial cells. In each of these cell lines, wild type reovirus produced substantially higher viral titers than a σ1s-deficient mutant...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Xiang Chen, Zhiyuan He, Mengjiao Fu, Yongqiang Wang, Haiyang Wu, Xiaoqi Li, Hong Cao, Shijun J Zheng
Avian reovirus (ARV) causes viral arthritis, chronic respiratory diseases, retarded growth and malabsorption syndrome. The ARV p10 protein, a viroporin responsible for the induction of cell syncytium formation and apoptosis, is rapidly degraded in host cells. Our previous report demonstrated that the cellular Lysosome Associated Membrane Protein (LAMP)-1 interacted with p10 and was involved in its degradation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying LAMP-1 mediated p10 degradation remains elusive. We report here that E3 ubiquitin ligase Seven in Absentia Homolog (Siah)-1 is critical for p10 ubiquitylation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Angela K Berger, Bernardo A Mainou
Enteric viruses encounter a multitude of environments as they traverse the gastrointestinal tract. The interaction of enteric eukaryotic viruses with members of the host microbiota impacts the outcome of infection. Infection with several enteric viruses is impaired in the absence of the gut microbiota, specifically bacteria. The effects of bacteria on virus biology are diverse. Poliovirus capsid stability and receptor engagement are positively impacted by bacteria and bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Norovirus utilizes histo-blood group antigens produced by enteric bacteria to attach and productively infect B cells...
January 3, 2018: Viruses
Joseph O Obameso, Hong Li, Hao Jia, Min Han, Shiyan Zhu, Canping Huang, Yuhui Zhao, Min Zhao, Yu Bai, Fei Yuan, Honglan Zhao, Xia Peng, Wen Xu, Wenjie Tan, Yingze Zhao, Kwok-Yung Yuen, William J Liu, Lin Lu, George F Gao
Bats are connected with the increasing numbers of emerging and re-emerging viruses that may break the species barrier and spread into the human population. Coronaviruses are one of the most common viruses discovered in bats, which were considered as the natural source of recent human-susceptible coronaviruses, i.e. SARS-COV and MERS-CoV. Our previous study reported the discovery of a bat-derived putative cross-family recombinant coronavirus with a reovirus gene p10, named as Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1. In this report, through a two-year follow-up of a special bat population in one specific cave of south China, we illustrate that Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 persistently circulates among bats...
December 1, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
Anthony J Snyder, Pranav Danthi
The mammalian orthoreovirus (reovirus) outer capsid, which is composed of 200 μ1/σ3 heterohexamers and a maximum of 12 σ1 trimers, contains all of the proteins that are necessary for attaching to and entering host cells. Following attachment, reovirus is internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis and acid-dependent cathepsin proteases degrade the σ3 protein. This process generates a metastable intermediate, called infectious subviral particle (ISVP), in which the μ1 membrane penetration protein is exposed...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
Adel Samson, Karen J Scott, David Taggart, Emma J West, Erica Wilson, Gerard J Nuovo, Simon Thomson, Robert Corns, Ryan K Mathew, Martin J Fuller, Timothy J Kottke, Jill M Thompson, Elizabeth J Ilett, Julia V Cockle, Philip van Hille, Gnanamurthy Sivakumar, Euan S Polson, Samantha J Turnbull, Elizabeth S Appleton, Gemma Migneco, Ailsa S Rose, Matthew C Coffey, Deborah A Beirne, Fiona J Collinson, Christy Ralph, D Alan Anthoney, Christopher J Twelves, Andrew J Furness, Sergio A Quezada, Heiko Wurdak, Fiona Errington-Mais, Hardev Pandha, Kevin J Harrington, Peter J Selby, Richard G Vile, Stephen D Griffin, Lucy F Stead, Susan C Short, Alan A Melcher
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including those targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), are reshaping cancer therapeutic strategies. Evidence suggests, however, that tumor response and patient survival are determined by tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. We hypothesized that preconditioning of the tumor immune microenvironment using targeted, virus-mediated interferon (IFN) stimulation would up-regulate tumor PD-L1 protein expression and increase cytotoxic T cell infiltration, improving the efficacy of subsequent checkpoint blockade...
January 3, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Phuc H Pham, Bibi S H Sokeechand, Kyle A Garver, Ginny Jones, John S Lumsden, Niels C Bols
RNAlater is a commonly used transport and storage solution for samples collected for fish health investigations, particularly those potentially involving viruses. However, the infectivity of fish viruses after storage in RNAlater have not been determined. Nevertheless, knowledge of pathogen infectivity of preserved samples is crucial for ensuring safe transport and storage protocols. Therefore, the infectivity of three fish RNA viruses in RNAlater was examined at four temperatures: -80 °C, 4 °C, room temperature (RT, approximately 22 °C) and 37 °C...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Xiaohui Chen, Kai Hao, Xiaobo Yu, Aiguo Huang, Bin Zhu, Fei Ling, Gao-Xue Wang
Many natural products from medicinal plants are small molecular weight compounds with enormous structural diversity and show various biological activities. Magnolol is a biphenol compound rich in the stem bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehd et Wils., and is able to suppress viral replication in GCRV-infected grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) kidney (CIK) cells in the previous study. In this study, in vivo studies demonstrated that magnolol was efficient to restrain the replication of GCRV and repair the low level of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in serum at the non-toxic concentration in vivo...
December 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Iris J C Dautzenberg, Sanne K van den Hengel, Jeroen de Vrij, Lars Ravesloot, Steve J Cramer, Saw-See Hong, Diana J M van den Wollenberg, Pierre Boulanger, Rob C Hoeben
The mammalian orthoreovirus Type 3 Dearing has great potential as oncolytic agent in cancer therapy. One of the bottlenecks that hampers its antitumour efficacy in vivo is the limited tumour-cell infection and intratumoural distribution. This necessitates strategies to improve tumour penetration. In this study we employ the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus as a tool to expand the reovirus' tropism and to improve its spread in three-dimensional tumour-cell spheroids. We generated a recombinant baculovirus expressing the cellular receptor for reovirus, the Junction Adhesion Molecule-A, on its envelope...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Walter Q Betancourt, Sherif Abd-Elmaksoud, Charles P Gerba
This study examined the efficacy of reovirus concentration from large volumes of water using two positively charged filters: Zeta Plus 1MDS and NanoCeram. The results indicated that an average of 61 and 81% of input reoviruses were effectively recovered, respectively, from recycled water and tap water using NanoCeram filtration.
December 14, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
Sharon A Oldford, Suzanne P Salsman, Liliana Portales-Cervantes, Raidan Alyazidi, Robert Anderson, Ian D Haidl, Jean S Marshall
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are resident immune effector cells, often studied in the context of allergic disease. Found in substantial numbers at sites of potential infection they are increased at sites of angiogenesis and can be pivotal for the sensing and clearance of a variety of pathogens. Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are critical for host defence against intracellular pathogens. Increased levels of IFNs are observed during viral infection and in autoimmune diseases. IFNs are also widely used therapeutically and have been examined in the therapy of severe asthma...
December 13, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Jianfei Ji, Youliang Rao, Quanyuan Wan, Zhiwei Liao, Jianguo Su
TLRs are pivotal pattern recognition receptors in initiating innate immunity and triggering adaptive immunity. TLR pathways have been comprehensively investigated in mammals. However, the teleost-specific TLR19 pathway remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified TLR19 from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), and explored the ligand, adaptor, and signaling pathways. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern binding and luciferase activity assays indicate that TLR19 recognizes and responds to dsRNA analog (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid)...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Angela K Berger, Hong Yi, Daniel B Kearns, Bernardo A Mainou
Enteric viruses encounter diverse environments as they migrate through the gastrointestinal tract to infect their hosts. The interaction of eukaryotic viruses with members of the host microbiota can greatly impact various aspects of virus biology, including the efficiency with which viruses can infect their hosts. Mammalian orthoreovirus, a human enteric virus that infects most humans during childhood, is negatively affected by antibiotic treatment prior to infection. However, it is not known how components of the host microbiota affect reovirus infectivity...
December 6, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
M Carcelli, E Fisicaro, C Compari, L Contardi, D Rogolino, C Solinas, A Stevaert, L Naesens
Here we report on the results obtained from an antiviral screening, including herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, Coxsackie B4 virus or respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, reovirus-1 and Punta Toro virus, of three 2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl acylhydrazone compounds in three cell lines (i.e. human embryonic lung fibroblast cells, human cervix carcinoma cells, and African Green monkey kidney cells). Interesting antiviral EC50 values are obtained against herpes simplex virus-1 and vaccinia virus...
December 5, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Molly J T Kibenge, Yingwei Wang, Alexandra Morton, Richard Routledge, Frederick S B Kibenge
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: PloS One
A Michalicová, K Bhide, M Bhide, A Kováč
Central nervous system is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which represents a physical, metabolic and transport barrier and is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic system termed neurovascular unit. Several pathogens, among them viruses, are able to invade the brain. Traversal of viruses across the blood-brain barrier is an essential step for the invasion of the central nervous system and can occur by different mechanisms - by paracellular, transcellular and/or by "Trojan horse" pathway. Penetration of viruses to brain can lead to the blood-brain barrier dysfunction, including increased permeability, pleocytosis and encephalopathy...
2017: Acta Virologica
Ming-Fang Lv, Li Xie, Xi-Jiao Song, Jian Hong, Qian-Zhuo Mao, Tai-Yun Wei, Jian-Ping Chen, Heng-Mu Zhang
Virion distribution and ultrastructural changes induced by the infection of maize or rice with four different reoviruses were examined. Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, genus Fijivirus), Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV, genus Oryzavirus), and Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV, genus Phytoreovirus) were all phloem-limited and caused cellular hyperplasia in the phloem resulting in tumors or vein swelling and modifying the cellular arrangement of sieve elements (SEs). In contrast, virions of Rice dwarf virus (RDV, genus Phytoreovirus) were observed in both phloem and mesophyll and the virus did not cause hyperplasia of SEs...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Qing Wang, Hualiang Xie, Weiwei Zeng, Linchuan Wang, Cun Liu, Jiexing Wu, Yingying Wang, Yingying Li, Sven M Bergmann
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) caused severe hemorrhagic disease with significant losses of fingerling and yearling grass carp, Cyenopharyngodon idellus, in southeast Asian. It was first isolated in 1983 in China, and clade analysis of the different GCRV isolates indicates there are at least three different genotypes I, II, and III. In recent years, GCRV genotype II has been determined as a dominant virus type which cause severe obvious clinical signs in fish but no cytopathic effect onto presently available cell culture...
November 24, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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