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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326624/current-status-of-clinical-trials-assessing-oncolytic-virus-therapy-for-urological-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Satoru Taguchi, Hiroshi Fukuhara, Yukio Homma, Tomoki Todo
Oncolytic virus therapy has recently been recognized as a promising new option for cancer treatment. Oncolytic viruses replicate selectively in cancer cells, thus killing them without harming normal cells. Notably, T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec, formerly called OncoVEX(GM)(-)(CSF) ), an oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of inoperable melanoma in October 2015, and was subsequently approved in Europe and Australia in 2016. The efficacies of many types of oncolytic viruses against urological cancers have been investigated in preclinical studies during the past decade, and some have already been tested in clinical trials...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322923/microspheres-prime-rmva-boost-vaccination-enhances-humoral-and-cellular-immune-response-in-ifnar-mice-conferring-protection-against-serotypes-1-and-4-of-bluetongue-virus
#2
Alejandro Marín-López, Eva Calvo-Pinilla, Diego Barriales, Gema Lorenzo, Javier Benavente, Alejandro Brun, Jose Manuel Martínez-Costas, Javier Ortego
Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue disease (BT), which affects domestic and wild ruminants. At the present, 27 different serotypes have been documented. Vaccination has been demonstrated as one of the most effective methods to avoid viral dissemination. To overcome the drawbacks associated with the use of inactivated and attenuated vaccines we engineered a new recombinant BTV vaccine candidate based on proteins VP2, VP7, and NS1 of BTV-4 that were incorporated into avian reovirus muNS-Mi microspheres (MS-VP2/VP7/NS1) and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA)...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300681/protective-immunity-of-grass-carp-induced-by-dna-vaccine-encoding-capsid-protein-gene-vp7-of-grass-carp-reovirus-using-bacterial-ghost-as-delivery-vehicles
#3
Kai Hao, Xiao-Hui Chen, Xiao-Zhou Qi, Xiao-Bo Yu, En-Qi Du, Fei Ling, Bin Zhu, Gao-Xue Wang
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is one of the most pathogenic aquareovirus and can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). However, management of GCRV infection remains a challenge. Therefore, it is necessary to find effective means for the control of its infection. The uses of bacterial ghost (BG, non-living bacteria) as carriers for DNA delivery have received considerable attentions in veterinary and human vaccines studies. Nevertheless, there is still no report about intramuscular administration of bacterial ghost-based DNA vaccines in fish...
March 11, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298603/african-swine-fever-virus-np868r-capping-enzyme-promotes-reovirus-rescue-during-reverse-genetics-by-promoting-reovirus-protein-expression-virion-assembly-and-rna-incorporation-into-infectious-virions
#4
Heather E Eaton, Takeshi Kobayashi, Terence S Dermody, Randal N Johnston, Philippe H Jais, Maya Shmulevitz
Reoviruses, like many eukaryotic viruses, contain an inverted 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap linked to the 5' nucleotide of mRNA. Traditional functions of capping are to promote mRNA stability, protein translation, and concealment from cellular proteins that recognize foreign RNA. To address the role of mRNA capping during reovirus replication, we assessed the benefits of adding the African swine fever virus NP868R capping enzyme. C3P3, a fusion protein containing T7 RNA polymerase and NP868R, was found to increase protein expression 5 to 10-fold, as compared to T7 RNA polymerase alone, while enhancing reovirus rescue from the current reverse genetics system by 100-fold...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289863/a-phase-ii-study-of-reolysin-%C3%A2-pelareorep-in-combination-with-carboplatin-and-paclitaxel-for-patients-with-advanced-malignant-melanoma
#5
Devalingam Mahalingam, Christos Fountzilas, Jennifer Moseley, Nicole Noronha, Hue Tran, Romit Chakrabarty, Giovanni Selvaggi, Matthew Coffey, Brad Thompson, John Sarantopoulos
REOLYSIN(®) (pelareorep) is an investigational new drug, consisting of a live, replication-competent, Reovirus Type 3 Dearing strain in a proprietary formulation. Several preclinical and clinical trials with REOLYSIN(®) on a wide range of cancer indications have demonstrated antineoplastic activity on cells with activated RAS-signaling pathway. Furthermore, long-term survival benefits were evident in post-treatment patients indicating a potential antitumor immune response triggered by REOLYSIN(®). Numerous mono and/or combination therapy studies with the agent showed a consistent safety profile...
March 13, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288679/muscovy-duck-reovirus-%C3%AF-ns-protein-triggers-autophagy-enhancing-virus-replication
#6
Yijian Wu, Longping Cui, Erpeng Zhu, Wuduo Zhou, Quanxi Wang, Xiaoping Wu, Baocheng Wu, Yifan Huang, Hung-Jen Liu
BACKGROUND: Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes high morbidity and mortality in Muscovy ducklings at 10 days old and can persist in an infected flock until the ducklings of 6 weeks old. It shares common physicochemical properties with avian reovirus (ARV) and differs in coding assignment and pathogenicity. The ARV p17 protein has been shown to trigger autophagy via activation multiple signaling pathways, which benefits virus replication. Since MDRV lacks the p17 protein, whether and how MDRV induces autophagy remains unknown...
March 14, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286505/mda5-induces-a-stronger-interferon-response-than-rig-i-to-gcrv-infection-through-a-mechanism-involving-the-phosphorylation-and-dimerization-of-irf3-and-irf7-in-cik-cells
#7
Quanyuan Wan, Chunrong Yang, Youliang Rao, Zhiwei Liao, Jianguo Su
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are critical cytosolic sensors that trigger the production of interferons (IFNs). Though their recognition functions are well identified, their unique roles in the downstream signal transduction remain to be elucidated. Herein, we report the differential effect between grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) MDA5 (CiMDA5) and CiRIG-I on the production of various IFNs upon grass carp reovirus (GCRV) infection in C. idella kidney (CIK) cell line...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279792/transcriptome-data-analysis-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-infected-by-reovirus-provides-insights-into-two-immune-related-genes
#8
Zao Dai, Jicheng Li, Chengyu Hu, Fang Wang, Binhua Wang, Xiao Shi, Qunhao Hou, Waigen Huang, Gang Lin
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) was one of the economically important freshwater fish in China. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in a tremendous loss in the process of grass carp cultivation. Transcriptome analysis could provide a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in specific biological processes and diseases for the resistance to reovirus infection of grass carp. In this study, the raw data from NCBI (accession number: SRA099702) were analyzed, in which, 50 significant differentially expressed genes by routine transcriptome analysis and 84 notably differentially expressed genes by co-expression network method...
March 6, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263320/insect-symbiotic-bacteria-harbour-viral-pathogens-for-transovarial-transmission
#9
Dongsheng Jia, Qianzhuo Mao, Yong Chen, Yuyan Liu, Qian Chen, Wei Wu, Xiaofeng Zhang, Hongyan Chen, Yi Li, Taiyun Wei
Many insects, including mosquitoes, planthoppers, aphids and leafhoppers, are the hosts of bacterial symbionts and the vectors for transmitting viral pathogens(1-3). In general, symbiotic bacteria can indirectly affect viral transmission by enhancing immunity and resistance to viruses in insects(3-5). Whether symbiotic bacteria can directly interact with the virus and mediate its transmission has been unknown. Here, we show that an insect symbiotic bacterium directly harbours a viral pathogen and mediates its transovarial transmission to offspring...
March 6, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253857/prediction-of-gcrv-virus-host-protein-interactome-based-on-structural-motif-domain-interactions
#10
Aidi Zhang, Libo He, Yaping Wang
BACKGROUND: Grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV), is the most fatal causative agent in grass carp aquaculture. Protein-protein interactions between virus and host are one avenue through which GCRV can trigger infection and induce disease. Experimental approaches for the detection of host-virus interactome have many inherent limitations, and studies on protein-protein interactions between GCRV and its host remain rare. RESULTS: In this study, based on known motif-domain interaction information, we systematically predicted the GCRV virus-host protein interactome by using motif-domain interaction pair searching strategy...
March 2, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251973/-exogenous-bacillus-pumilus-rnase-binase-suppresses-the-reproduction-of-reovirus-serotype-1
#11
M A Efimova, R Shah Mahmud, P V Zelenikhin, M I Sabirova, A I Kolpakov, O N Ilinskaya
The experimental study identified the antiviral activity of Bacillus pumilus RNase (binase) against the reovirus of serotype 1/strain Lang. For the first time, it has been found that 50 μg/mL of binase effectively reduced the hemagglutinin and cytocidal activity of reovirus in Vero cell line. The preincubation of the enzyme with reovirus before infection of the cells inhibited the viral replication. To determine the stagedependent effect of reovirus reproduction upon binase inhibition, the infected cells were treated with binase or RNase A at different phases of the infectious cycle...
January 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241071/structure-of-a-pentameric-virion-associated-fiber-with-a-potential-role-in-orsay-virus-entry-to-host-cells
#12
Yanlin Fan, Yusong R Guo, Wang Yuan, Ying Zhou, Matthew V Holt, Tao Wang, Borries Demeler, Nicolas L Young, Weiwei Zhong, Yizhi J Tao
Despite the wide use of Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, the first virus naturally infecting this organism was not discovered until six years ago. The Orsay virus and its related nematode viruses have a positive-sense RNA genome, encoding three proteins: CP, RdRP, and a novel δ protein that shares no homology with any other proteins. δ can be expressed either as a free δ or a CP-δ fusion protein by ribosomal frameshift, but the structure and function of both δ and CP-δ remain unknown. Using a combination of electron microscopy, X-ray crystallography, computational and biophysical analyses, here we show that the Orsay δ protein forms a ~420-Å long, pentameric fiber with an N-terminal α-helical bundle, a β-stranded filament in the middle, and a C-terminal head domain...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219339/deep-illumina-sequencing-reveals-conserved-and-novel-micrornas-in-grass-carp-in-response-to-grass-carp-reovirus-infection
#13
Libo He, Aidi Zhang, Pengfei Chu, Yongming Li, Rong Huang, Lanjie Liao, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
BACKGROUND: The grass carp hemorrhagic disease caused by the grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is a major disease that hampers the development of grass carp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying GCRV pathogenesis and hemorrhagic symptoms is still unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators involved in various biological processes. The aim of this study was to identify conserved and novel miRNAs in grass carp in response to GCRV infection, as well as attempt to reveal the mechanism underlying GCRV pathogenesis and hemorrhagic symptoms...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183327/characteristics-of-sirnas-derived-from-southern-rice-black-streaked-dwarf-virus-in-infected-rice-and-their-potential-role-in-host-gene-regulation
#14
Donglin Xu, Guohui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs)-mediated RNA silencing plays important roles in interaction between plant viruses and their hosts. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a newly emerged devastating rice reovirus with ten dsRNA genomic segments. The characteristics of SRBSDV-derived siRNAs and their biological implications in SRBSDV-rice interaction remain unexplored. METHODS: VsiRNAs profiling from SRBSDV-infected rice samples was done via small RNA deep sequencing...
February 10, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175946/integrin-beta-and-receptor-for-activated-protein-kinase-c-are-involved-in-the-cell-entry-of-bombyx-mori-cypovirus
#15
Yiling Zhang, Guangli Cao, Liyuan Zhu, Fei Chen, Mian Sahib Zar, Simei Wang, Xiaolong Hu, Yuhong Wei, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
Receptor-mediated endocytosis using a β1 integrin-dependent internalization was considered as the primary mechanism for the initiation of mammalian reovirus infection. Bombyx mori cypovirus (BmCPV) is a member of Reoviridae family which mainly infects the midgut epithelium of silkworm; the cell entry of BmCPV is poorly explored. In this study, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA), and BmCPV-protein interaction on the polyvinylidene difluoride membrane (BmCPV-PI-PVDF) methods were employed to screen the interacting proteins of BmCPV, and several proteins including integrin beta and receptor for activated protein kinase C (RACK1) were identified as the candidate interacting proteins for establishing the infection of BmCPV...
February 7, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174075/molecular-detection-of-genotype-ii-grass-carp-reovirus-based-on-nucleic-acid-sequence-based-amplification-combined-with-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-nasba-elisa
#16
Weiwei Zeng, Wei Yao, Yingying Wang, Yingying Li, Sven M Bermann, Yan Ren, Cunbin Shi, Xinjian Song, Qiwen Huang, Shuchen Zheng, Qing Wang
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the causative agent of the grass carp hemorrhagic disease that has resulted in severe economic losses in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) farming industry in China. Early diagnosis and vaccine administration are important priorities for GCRV control. In this study, a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NASBA-ELISA) was developed for to detect genotype II GCRV (GCRV- II). Primers specifically targeting viral RNA genome segment 6 were utilized for amplification in an isothermal digoxigenin-labeling NASBA process, resulting in DIG-labeled RNA amplicons...
May 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099441/puma-and-nf-kb-are-cell-signaling-predictors-of-reovirus-oncolysis-of-breast-cancer
#17
Chandini Thirukkumaran, Zhong-Qiao Shi, Ponnampalam Thirukkumaran, Joanne Luider, Karen Kopciuk, Jason Spurrell, Kate Elzinga, Don Morris
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reovirus is a ubiquitous RNA virus that exploits aberrant signaling pathways for its replication. The oncolytic potential of reovirus against numerous cancers under pre-clinical/clinical conditions has been documented by us and others. Despite its proven clinical activity, the underlying mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis is still not well elucidated. If reovirus therapy is to be optimized for cancer, including breast cancer patients, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis, especially in treatment of resistant tumour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097494/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-heart-derived-cell-line-from-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#18
Hongli Jing, Xiangmei Lin, Lipu Xu, Longying Gao, Min Zhang, Na Wang, Shaoqiang Wu
The goldfish Carassius auratus, a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae, was one of the earliest fish to be domesticated for ornamental purposes. A cell line was established from goldfish heart (GH) tissue to create a biological monitoring tool for viral diseases. The GH cell line was optimally maintained at 25 °C in M199 medium supplemented with 10-20% fetal bovine serum. A chromosomal analysis indicated that the cell line remained diploid, with a mean chromosomal count of 100. In viral inoculation assays, significant cytopathic effects (CPEs) were caused by epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), Andrias davidianus iridovirus (ADIV), and Bohle iridovirus (BIV) infections in the fish cells and the viral titers (average value) of EHNV, ADIV, and BIV in GH cells reached 10(5...
January 18, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092614/the-distribution-of-different-virulence-grass-carp-reovirus-strains-in-some-neglected-tissues
#19
H R Liang, X Z Fu, N Q Li, L H Liu, Q Lin, Y G Li, Y A Peng, Z B Huang, S Q Wu
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the causative agent of hemorrhagic disease in infected grass carp. During an outbreak, a mortality rate of up to 85% can be experienced, thus leading to substantial economic losses. The current understanding of disease pathogenesis is limited, with the distribution and dynamics of replication amongst different GCRV strains in vivo largely unknown. We determined distribution of different GCRV strains in infected grass carp, especially in some neglected tissues, such as the gill, brain, blood and so on...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077658/a-cytoplasmic-rna-virus-alters-the-function-of-the-cell-splicing-protein-srsf2
#20
Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Ethan J Fritch, Elizabeth H Scholl, Barbara Sherry
To replicate efficiently, viruses must create favorable cell conditions and overcome cell antiviral responses. We previously reported that the reovirus protein μ2 from strain T1L, but not strain T3D, represses one antiviral response: alpha/beta interferon signaling. We report here that T1L, but not T3D, μ2 localizes to nuclear speckles, where it forms a complex with the mRNA splicing factor SRSF2 and alters its subnuclear localization. Reovirus replicates in cytoplasmic viral factories, and there is no evidence that reovirus genomic or messenger RNAs are spliced, suggesting that T1L μ2 might target splicing of cell RNAs...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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