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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099441/puma-and-nf-kb-are-cell-signaling-predictors-of-reovirus-oncolysis-of-breast-cancer
#1
Chandini Thirukkumaran, Zhong-Qiao Shi, Ponnampalam Thirukkumaran, Joanne Luider, Karen Kopciuk, Jason Spurrell, Kate Elzinga, Don Morris
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reovirus is a ubiquitous RNA virus that exploits aberrant signaling pathways for its replication. The oncolytic potential of reovirus against numerous cancers under pre-clinical/clinical conditions has been documented by us and others. Despite its proven clinical activity, the underlying mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis is still not well elucidated. If reovirus therapy is to be optimized for cancer, including breast cancer patients, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of reovirus oncolysis, especially in treatment of resistant tumour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097494/establishment-and-characterization-of-a-heart-derived-cell-line-from-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#2
Hongli Jing, Xiangmei Lin, Lipu Xu, Longying Gao, Min Zhang, Na Wang, Shaoqiang Wu
The goldfish Carassius auratus, a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae, was one of the earliest fish to be domesticated for ornamental purposes. A cell line was established from goldfish heart (GH) tissue to create a biological monitoring tool for viral diseases. The GH cell line was optimally maintained at 25 °C in M199 medium supplemented with 10-20% fetal bovine serum. A chromosomal analysis indicated that the cell line remained diploid, with a mean chromosomal count of 100. In viral inoculation assays, significant cytopathic effects (CPEs) were caused by epizootic hematopoietic necrosis virus (EHNV), Andrias davidianus iridovirus (ADIV), and Bohle iridovirus (BIV) infections in the fish cells and the viral titers (average value) of EHNV, ADIV, and BIV in GH cells reached 10(5...
January 18, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092614/the-distribution-of-different-virulence-grass-carp-reovirus-strains-in-some-neglected-tissues
#3
H R Liang, X Z Fu, N Q Li, L H Liu, Q Lin, Y G Li, Y A Peng, Z B Huang, S Q Wu
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the causative agent of hemorrhagic disease in infected grass carp. During an outbreak, a mortality rate of up to 85% can be experienced, thus leading to substantial economic losses. The current understanding of disease pathogenesis is limited, with the distribution and dynamics of replication amongst different GCRV strains in vivo largely unknown. We determined distribution of different GCRV strains in infected grass carp, especially in some neglected tissues, such as the gill, brain, blood and so on...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077658/a-cytoplasmic-rna-virus-alters-the-function-of-the-cell-splicing-protein-srsf2
#4
Efraín E Rivera-Serrano, Ethan J Fritch, Elizabeth H Scholl, Barbara Sherry
: To replicate efficiently, viruses must create favorable cell conditions and overcome cell antiviral responses. We previously reported that the reovirus protein μ2 from strain T1L, but not strain T3D, represses one antiviral response: interferon-α/β (IFN-β) signaling. We report here that T1L but not T3D μ2 localizes to nuclear speckles where it forms a complex with the mRNA splicing factor SRSF2 and alters its sub-nuclear localization. Reovirus replicates in cytoplasmic viral factories and there is no evidence that reovirus genomic or messenger RNAs are spliced, suggesting that T1L μ2 might target splicing of cell RNAs...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077655/expression-of-ifnlr1-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells-is-critical-to-the-antiviral-effects-of-ifn-lambda-against-norovirus-and-reovirus
#5
Megan T Baldridge, Sanghyun Lee, Judy J Brown, Nicole McAllister, Kelly Urbanek, Terence S Dermody, Timothy J Nice, Herbert W Virgin
: Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) has potent antiviral effects against multiple enteric viral pathogens, including norovirus and rotavirus, in both preventing and curing infection. Because the intestine includes a diverse array of cell types, however, the cell(s) upon which IFN-λ acts to exert its antiviral effects are unclear. Here, we sought to identify IFN-λ responsive cells by generation of mice with lineage-specific deletion of the receptor for IFN-λ, Ifnlr1 We found that expression of IFNLR1 on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in the small intestine and colon is required for enteric IFN-λ antiviral activity...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077640/viral-rna-at-two-stages-of-reovirus-infection-is-required-for-the-induction-of-necroptosis
#6
Angela K Berger, Bradley E Hiller, Deepti Thete, Anthony J Snyder, Encarnacion Perez, Jason W Upton, Pranav Danthi
: Necroptosis, a regulated form of necrotic cell death requires the activation of the RIP3 kinase. Here, we identify that infection of host cells with reovirus can result in necroptosis. We find that necroptosis requires sensing of the genomic RNA within incoming virus particles via cytoplasmic RNA sensors to produce type I IFN. While these events that occur prior to de novo synthesis of viral RNA are required for induction of necroptosis, they are not sufficient. Induction of necroptosis also requires late stages of reovirus infection...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067229/tubules-of-plant-reoviruses-exploit-tropomodulin-to-regulate-actin-based-tubule-motility-in-insect-vector
#7
Qian Chen, Linghua Zhang, Yanshuang Zhang, Qianzhuo Mao, Taiyun Wei
Plant reoviruses are known to exploit virion-packaging tubules formed by virus-encoding non-structural proteins for viral spread in insect vectors. Tubules are propelled by actin-based tubule motility (ABTM) to overcome membrane or tissue barriers in insect vectors. To further understand which insect factors mediate ABTM, we utilized yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays to test interactions between tubule protein Pns10 of rice dwarf virus (RDV), a plant reovirus, and proteins of its insect vector, the leafhopper Nephotettix cincticeps...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035603/reovirus-safety-study-for-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-human-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Jeong-Soo Park, Manbok Kim
Naturally occurring reoviruses are live replication-proficient viruses specifically infecting human cancer cells while sparing the normal counterparts. Stem cells can be highly susceptible to viral infection due to their innate high proliferation potential and other active signaling pathways of cells that might be involved in viral tropism. In the previous study, we showed that reoviruses could adversely affect murine embryonic stem cells' integrity in vitro and in vivo. Oncolytic viruses, delivered systemically face many hurdles that also impede their localization and infection of, metastatic tumors, due to a variety of immune and physical barriers...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024855/current-limitations-in-control-of-viral-arthritis-and-tenosynovitis-caused-by-avian-reoviruses-in-commercial-poultry
#9
Holly S Sellers
Avian reoviruses are the causative agent of viral arthritis/tenosynovitis in chickens and turkeys. Clinical signs of disease include swelling of the hock joints accompanied by lesions in the gastrocnemius and digital flexor tendons causing lameness in addition to hydropericardium. The economic impact is significant as it results in poor weight gain, increased feed conversion ratios and condemnations at the processing plant. Vaccination with both live attenuated and inactivated oil emulsion vaccines have been used successfully for decades to control the disease...
December 13, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013385/a-double-stranded-probe-coupled-with-isothermal-amplification-for-qualitative-and-quantitative-detection-of-avian-reovirus
#10
D Kumar, T K S Chauhan, R K Agarwal, K Dhama, P P Goswami, A K Mariappan, A K Tiwari, B P Mishra
We applied a probe-based real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Cy5-RTqLAMP) technique targeting the avian reovirus (ARV) S3 gene to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for virus detection and quantification. This test specifically detected the presence of ARV, but not other viruses or bacteria present in clinical or artificially spiked samples, including Newcastle disease virus, infectious bursal disease virus, fowl adenovirus, Marek's disease virus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp...
December 24, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008328/dietary-administration-of-bacillus-subtilis-enhances-growth-performance-immune-response-and-disease-resistance-in-cherry-valley-ducks
#11
Mengjiao Guo, Guangen Hao, Baohua Wang, Ning Li, Rong Li, Liangmeng Wei, Tongjie Chai
Given the promising results of applying Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) as a probiotic in both humans and animals, the aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effects of B. subtilis on growth performance, immune response and disease resistance in Cherry Valley ducks. At 28 d post-hatch (dph), ducks fed a diet with B. subtilis weighed significantly more, had higher relative immune organ weights (e.g., bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen), and exhibited greater villus heights, villus height to crypt depth ratios (duodenum and jejunum), and shallower crypt depths in the duodenum than controls fed a normal diet (p < 0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974824/induction-of-a-robust-immunity-response-against-novel-duck-reovirus-in-ducklings-using-a-subunit-vaccine-of-sigma-c-protein
#12
Zhuangli Bi, Yingqi Zhu, Zongyan Chen, Chuanfeng Li, Yong Wang, Guijun Wang, Guangqing Liu
Novel duck reovirus (NDRV) disease emerged in China in 2011 and continues to cause high morbidity and about 5.0 to 50% mortality in ducklings. Currently there are no approved vaccines for the virus. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a new vaccine created from the baculovirus and sigma C gene against NDRV. In this study, a recombinant baculovirus containing the sigma C gene was constructed, and the purified protein was used as a vaccine candidate in ducklings. The efficacy of sigma C vaccine was estimated according to humoral immune responses, cellular immune response and protection against NDRV challenge...
December 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943061/identification-and-characterization-of-host-cell-proteins-interacting-with-scylla-serrata-reovirus-non-structural-protein-p35
#13
Yangyang Yuan, Dongyang Fan, Sidong Zhu, Jifang Yang, Jigang Chen
We have previously shown that non-structural protein p35, encoded by Scylla serrata reovirus (SsRV) S10, may act as a viroporin. To characterize the role of p35 protein in the modulation of cellular function, a yeast two-hybrid system was used to screen a cDNA library derived from S. serrata to find its interacting partner. Protein interactions were confirmed in vitro by GST pull-down. Full cDNAs of p35 interactors were cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends. After two-hybrid library screening, we isolated partial cDNAs encoding hemocyanin, cryptocyanin, and TAX1BP1...
December 9, 2016: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928010/structural-insights-into-reovirus-%C3%AF-1-interactions-with-two-neutralizing-antibodies
#14
Melanie H Dietrich, Kristen M Ogden, Sarah P Katen, Kerstin Reiss, Danica M Sutherland, Robert H Carnahan, Matthew Goff, Tracy Cooper, Terence S Dermody, Thilo Stehle
: Reovirus attachment protein σ1 engages glycan receptors and junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) and is thought to undergo a conformational change during the proteolytic disassembly of virions to infectious subvirion particles (ISVPs) that accompanies cell entry. The σ1 protein is also the primary target of neutralizing antibodies. Here we present a structural and functional characterization of two neutralizing antibodies that target σ1 of serotypes 1 (T1) and 3 (T3) reoviruses...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903804/structural-protein-vp2-of-african-horse-sickness-virus-is-not-essential-for-virus-replication-in-vitro
#15
René G P van Gennip, Sandra G P van de Water, Christiaan A Potgieter, Piet A van Rijn
: The Reoviridae family consists of non-enveloped multi-layered viruses with a double stranded RNA genome consisting of 9 to 12 genome segments. The Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family contains African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus causing notifiable diseases and are spread by biting Culicoides species. Here, we used reverse genetics for AHSV to study the role of outer capsid protein VP2 encoded by genome segment 2 (Seg-2)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902908/improved-performance-of-broilers-and-broiler-breeders-associated-with-an-amended-vaccination-program-against-reovirosis
#16
Peter De Herdt, Marlies Broeckx, Filip Van Driessche, Bart Vermeiren, Geert Van Den Abeele, Stefaan Van Gorp
A vertically integrated monitoring program was set up for breeders hatched in 2013 and their offspring to detect differences in performance related to the reovirus vaccination schedule. Within the same organization in Belgium, 17 breeder flocks were vaccinated with one dose of live and one dose of inactivated reovirus vaccine, while 14 flocks received two doses of inactivated vaccine without live priming. The hatchability of the eggs produced by these birds was examined. Further, the daily growth, feed conversion, mortality, slaughterhouse condemnation, production index, and antibiotic use were monitored in 110 broiler flocks derived from the breeders...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902444/oncolytic-reovirus-as-a-combined-antiviral-and-anti-tumour-agent-for-the-treatment-of-liver-cancer
#17
Adel Samson, Matthew J Bentham, Karen Scott, Gerard Nuovo, Abigail Bloy, Elizabeth Appleton, Robert A Adair, Rajiv Dave, Adam Peckham-Cooper, Giles Toogood, Seishi Nagamori, Matthew Coffey, Richard Vile, Kevin Harrington, Peter Selby, Fiona Errington-Mais, Alan Melcher, Stephen Griffin
OBJECTIVE: Oncolytic viruses (OVs) represent promising, proinflammatory cancer treatments. Here, we explored whether OV-induced innate immune responses could simultaneously inhibit HCV while suppressing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Furthermore, we extended this exemplar to other models of virus-associated cancer. DESIGN AND RESULTS: Clinical grade oncolytic orthoreovirus (Reo) elicited innate immune activation within primary human liver tissue in the absence of cytotoxicity and independently of viral genome replication...
November 15, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902331/the-plasma-virome-of-febrile-adult-kenyans-shows-frequent-parvovirus-b19-infections-and-a-novel-arbovirus-kadipiro-virus
#18
Carolyne N Ngoi, Juliana Siqueira, Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Peter Mugo, Susan M Graham, Matt A Price, Eduard J Sanders, Eric Delwart
Viral nucleic acids present in the plasma of 498 Kenyan adults with unexplained fever were characterized by metagenomics analysis of 51 sample pools. The highest to lowest fraction of plasma pools was positive for parvovirus B19 (75 %), pegivirus C (GBV-C) (67 %), alpha anellovirus (59 %), gamma anellovirus (55 %), beta anellovirus (41 %), dengue virus genotype 2 (DENV-2) (16 %), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (6 %), human herpesvirus 6 (6 %), HBV (4 %), rotavirus (4 %), hepatitis B virus (4 %), rhinovirus C (2 %), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV; 2 %) and Kadipiro virus (2 %)...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875299/lipids-cooperate-with-the-reovirus-membrane-penetration-peptide-to-facilitate-particle-uncoating
#19
Anthony J Snyder, Pranav Danthi
Virus-host interactions play a role in many stages of the viral lifecycle, including entry. Reovirus, a model system for studying the entry mechanisms of nonenveloped viruses, undergoes a series of regulated structural transitions that culminate in delivery of the viral genetic material. Lipids can trigger one of these conformational changes, infectious subviral particle (ISVP)-to-ISVP* conversion. ISVP* formation releases two virally encoded peptides, myristoylated μ1N (myr-μ1N) and Φ. Among these, myr-μ1N is sufficient to form pores within membranes...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827454/novel-high-throughput-approach-for-purification-of-infectious-virions
#20
Kevin T James, Brad Cooney, Kate Agopsowicz, Mary Ann Trevors, Adil Mohamed, Don Stoltz, Mary Hitt, Maya Shmulevitz
Viruses are extensively studied as pathogens and exploited as molecular tools and therapeutic agents. Existing methods to purify viruses such as gradient ultracentrifugation or chromatography have limitations, for example demand for technical expertise or specialized equipment, high time consumption, and restricted capacity. Our laboratory explores mutations in oncolytic reovirus that could improve oncolytic activity, and makes routine use of numerous virus variants, genome reassortants, and reverse engineered mutants...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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