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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620186/phenotypic-genotypic-and-antigenic-characterization-of-emerging-avian-reoviruses-isolated-from-clinical-cases-of-arthritis-in-broilers-in-saskatchewan-canada
#1
Lisanework E Ayalew, Ashish Gupta, Jenny Fricke, Khawaja Ashfaque Ahmed, Shelly Popowich, Betty Lockerbie, Suresh K Tikoo, Davor Ojkic, Susantha Gomis
In recent years, emerging strains of pathogenic arthrogenic avian reovirus (ARV) have become a challenge to the chicken industry across USA and Canada causing significant economic impact. In this study, we characterized emerging variant ARV strains and examined their genetic and antigenic relationship with reference strains. We isolated 37 emerging variant ARV strains from tendons of broiler chickens with clinical cases of arthritis/tenosynovitis at commercial farms in Saskatchewan, Canada. Viral characterization using immunocytochemistry, gold-immunolabeling and electron microscopy revealed distinct features characteristic of ARV...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604109/viral-gene-therapy-for-breast-cancer-progress-and-challenges
#2
Antonela S Asad, Mariela A Moreno Ayala, M Florencia Gottardo, Camila Zuccato, Alejandro Javier Nicola Candia, Flavia A Zanetti, Adriana Seilicovich, Marianela Candolfi
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women all over the world. Furthermore, up to one third of breast tumors develop metastases that are resistant to standard therapies. Gene therapeutic strategies have been developed in order to specifically target cancer cells either directly or through the stimulation of antitumor immunity. Areas covered: This review describes the therapeutic strategies that are currently under development to treat this disease using engineered viral vectors including: adenovirus, adeno-associated virus, lentivirus, poxvirus, reovirus, baculovirus, herpesvirus and oncolytic viruses...
June 12, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595568/differences-in-responses-of-grass-carp-to-different-types-of-grass-carp-reovirus-gcrv-and-the-mechanism-of-hemorrhage-revealed-by-transcriptome-sequencing
#3
Libo He, Aidi Zhang, Yongyan Pei, Pengfei Chu, Yongming Li, Rong Huang, Lanjie Liao, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
BACKGROUND: Grass carp is an important farmed fish in China that is affected by serious disease, especially hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). The mechanism underlying the hemorrhagic symptoms in infected fish remains to be elucidated. Although GCRV can be divided into three distinct subtypes, differences in the pathogenesis and host immune responses to the different subtypes are still unclear. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive insight into the grass carp response to different GCRV subtypes and to elucidate the mechanism underlying the hemorrhagic symptoms...
June 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594388/gene-therapy-for-pancreatic-cancer-specificity-issues-and-hopes
#4
REVIEW
Marie Rouanet, Marine Lebrin, Fabian Gross, Barbara Bournet, Pierre Cordelier, Louis Buscail
A recent death projection has placed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma as the second cause of death by cancer in 2030. The prognosis for pancreatic cancer is very poor and there is a great need for new treatments that can change this poor outcome. Developments of therapeutic innovations in combination with conventional chemotherapy are needed urgently. Among innovative treatments the gene therapy offers a promising avenue. The present review gives an overview of the general strategy of gene therapy as well as the limitations and stakes of the different experimental in vivo models, expression vectors (synthetic and viral), molecular tools (interference RNA, genome editing) and therapeutic genes (tumor suppressor genes, antiangiogenic and pro-apoptotic genes, suicide genes)...
June 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588627/comparative-investigations-of-infectious-runting-and-stunting-syndrome-in-vaccinated-breeder-chicks-by-inactivated-reovirus-and-chicks-from-non-vaccinated-breeders
#5
S P Awandkar, S D Moregaonkar, S J Manwar, B P Kamdi, M B Kulkarni
Reoviruses are important pathogens responsible for poor growth performance and silent losses in the poultry industry. They are associated with many disease and syndromes such as malabsorption (runting and stunting syndrome), respiratory diseases and immunosuppression. Broiler birds are most susceptible to viral infections during the early post hatching period. Therefore, the transfer of maternal immunity to embryonated eggs is proved to be a primary means of protection from viral infections. In the present investigation, growth performance and pathology in breeder vaccinated and non-vaccinated chicks were studied after a challenge with the homologous malabsorption strain of the reovirus...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587298/serotype-specific-killing-of-large-cell-carcinoma-cells-by-reovirus
#6
Emily J Simon, Morgan A Howells, Johnasha D Stuart, Karl W Boehme
Reovirus is under development as a therapeutic for numerous types of cancer. In contrast to other oncolytic viruses, the safety and efficacy of reovirus have not been improved through genetic manipulation. Here, we tested the oncolytic capacity of recombinant strains (rs) of prototype reovirus laboratory strains T1L and T3D (rsT1L and rsT3D, respectively) in a panel of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. We found that rsT1L was markedly more cytolytic than rsT3D in the large cell carcinoma cell lines tested, whereas killing of adenocarcinoma cell lines was comparable between rsT1L and rsT3D...
June 6, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568891/oncolytic-maraba-virus-mg1-as-a-treatment-for-sarcoma
#7
Fabrice Le Boeuf, Mohammed Selman, Hwan Hee Son, Anabel Bergeron, Andrew Chen, Jovian Tsang, Derek Butterwick, Rozanne Arulanandam, Nicole E Forbes, Fanny Tzelepis, John C Bell, Joel Werier, Hesham Abdelbary, Jean-Simon Diallo
The poor prognosis of patients with advanced bone and soft-tissue sarcoma has not changed in the past several decades, highlighting the necessity for new therapeutic approaches. Immunotherapies, including oncolytic viral (OV) therapy, have shown great promise in a number of clinical trials for a variety of tumor types. However, the effective application of OV in treating sarcoma still remains to be demonstrated. Although few pre-clinical studies using distinct OVs have been performed and demonstrated therapeutic benefit in sarcoma models, a side-by-side comparison of clinically relevant OV platforms has not been performed...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559111/pattern-recognition-receptors-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-i-organization-and-expression-analysis-of-tlrs-and-rlrs
#8
Zhiwei Liao, Quanyuan Wan, Hang Su, Changsong Wu, Jianguo Su
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play indispensable roles in the immune responses against invading pathogens. In the present study, we systematically identified and characterized Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) as well as their adaptors in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A comprehensive analysis of BLAST and other bioinformatics methods showed that C. idella TLR family consist of 21 members and their adaptors contain four members. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of six TLR subfamilies (TLR1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 11 subfamily) in C...
May 27, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550501/grass-carp-reovirus-gd108-fiber-protein-is-involved-in-cell-attachment
#9
Yuanyuan Tian, Zhenzhen Jiao, Junjian Dong, Chengfei Sun, Xiaoyan Jiang, Xing Ye
Viral attachment to specific host receptors is the first step in viral infection and serves an essential function in the selection of target cells. In this study, structure analysis, neutralization assays, and cell attachment assays were carried out to evaluate the cell attachment functions of the outer capsid fiber protein of grass carp reovirus GD108 strain (GCRV-GD108). The GCRV-GD108 fiber protein contained 512 amino acids encoded by S7 segment and shared sequence similarities with mammalian reovirus cell attachment protein σ1 and adenovirus fiber...
May 26, 2017: Virus Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548042/new-insights-into-reovirus-evolution-implications-from-a-newly-characterized-mycoreovirus
#10
Lijiang Liu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Huiquan Liu, Daohong Jiang, Jiatao Xie
We performed molecular cloning and complete genome sequencing of a novel mycoreovirus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorumreovirus 1 (SsReV1), isolated from an isolate of the phytopathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. SsReV1 has a genome of 28 055 bp and is composed of 11 double-stranded RNA segments. With a combination of unique molecular features, virion shape and composition, and phylogenetic analysis, SsReV1 is significantly distinct from all known reoviruses and defines a novel genus in the family Reoviridae...
May 26, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539933/mal-de-r%C3%A3-o-cuarto-virus-infection-triggers-the-production-of-distinctive-viral-derived-sirna-profiles-in-wheat-and-its-planthopper-vector
#11
Luis A de Haro, Analía D Dumón, María F Mattio, Evangelina Beatriz Argüello Caro, Gabriela Llauger, Diego Zavallo, Hervé Blanc, Vanesa C Mongelli, Graciela Truol, María-Carla Saleh, Sebastián Asurmendi, Mariana Del Vas
Plant reoviruses are able to multiply in gramineae plants and delphacid vectors encountering different defense strategies with unique features. This study aims to comparatively assess alterations of small RNA (sRNA) populations in both hosts upon virus infection. For this purpose, we characterized the sRNA profiles of wheat and planthopper vectors infected by Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV, Fijivirus, Reoviridae) and quantified virus genome segments by quantitative reverse transcription PCR We provide evidence that plant and insect silencing machineries differentially recognize the viral genome, thus giving rise to distinct profiles of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (vsiRNAs)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479936/presage-of-oncolytic-virotherapy-for-oral-cancer-with-herpes-simplex-virus
#12
REVIEW
Yoshiaki Yura
A virus is a pathogenic organism that causes a number of infectious diseases in humans. The oral cavity is the site at which viruses enter and are excreted from the human body. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) produces the primary infectious disease, gingivostomatitis, and recurrent disease, labial herpes. HSV-1 is one of the most extensively investigated viruses used for cancer therapy. In principle, HSV-1 infects epithelial cells and neuronal cells and exhibits cytotoxicity due to its cytopathic effects on these cells...
May 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466052/structure-and-function-of-s9-segment-of-grass-carp-reovirus-anhui-strain
#13
Minglin Wu, Haiyang Li, He Jiang, Guanjun Hou, Jixiang He, Yangyang Jiang, Honglian Chen
A highly virulent grass carp reovirus (GCRV) strain, named GCRV-AH528, was recently purified from a diseased grass carp with hemorrhage disease in Anhui, China. GCRV-AH528 S9 segment was 1320 nucleotides in length and encoded a 418 amino acid VP6 protein. BLAST search showed that the VP6 protein owned a conserved domain belonging to the reoviral σ2 family. Phylogenetic analysis of VP6 presented that GCRV-AH528 belonged to GCRV genotype II, which was more closely related to Orthoreovirus than GCRV genotype I and genotype III...
March 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461211/analysis-of-the-expression-patterns-of-the-novel-large-multigene-trim-gene-family-fintrim-in-zebrafish
#14
Kai Luo, Youshen Li, Lihai Xia, Wei Hu, Weihua Gao, Liwei Guo, Guangming Tian, Zhitao Qi, Hanwen Yuan, Qiaoqing Xu
Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are receiving increased research interest because of their roles in a wide range of cellular biological processes in innate immunity. In zebrafish (Danio rerio), the functions of the finTRIM (ftr) family are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of ftr12, ftr51, ftr67, ftr82, ftr83, and ftr84 in zebrafish for the first time. The results showed that ftr12, ftr67, and ftr84 are maternally expressed in the oocyte and highly expressed at the early stage (0-4 hpf) of embryo (P < 0...
April 28, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446772/large-scale-snp-screenings-identify-markers-linked-with-gcrv-resistant-traits-through-transcriptomes-of-individuals-and-cell-lines-in-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#15
Zhiwei Liao, Quanyuan Wan, Xueying Shang, Jianguo Su
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is an important economic species in freshwater aquaculture and its industry has been confined due to variety degeneration and frequent diseases. Marker-assisted selection is a feasible method for selective breeding of new varieties. Transcriptome data have greatly facilitated high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker discovery and phenotype association study. In this study, we gained a total of 25,981 and 5,775 high quality SNPs in two transcriptomes from individuals and cell lines, respectively...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446676/grass-carp-reovirus-vp41-targets-fish-mita-to-abrogate-the-ifn-response
#16
Long-Feng Lu, Shun Li, Zhao-Xi Wang, Si-Qi Du, Dan-Dan Chen, Pin Nie, Yong-An Zhang
Although fish possess an efficient interferon (IFN) system to defend against aquatic virus infection, the grass carp reovirus (GCRV) still causes hemorrhagic disease in grass carp. To date, GCRV's strategy for evading the fish IFN response is still unknown. Here, we report that the GCRV VP41 inhibits fish IFN production by suppressing the phosphorylation of the mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA). First, the activation of the IFN promoter (IFNpro) stimulated by the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) and MITA was decreased by the overexpression of VP41, whereas such activation induced by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) was not affected...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442418/tlr22-structure-and-expression-characteristic-of-barbel-chub-squaliobarbus-curriculus-provides-insights-into-antiviral-immunity-against-infection-with-grass-carp-reovirus
#17
Rong-Hua Wang, Wei Li, Yu-Ding Fan, Qiao-Lin Liu, Ling-Bing Zeng, Tiao-Yi Xiao
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the most virulent agent to Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and causes a severe infectious disease called hemorrhagic disease of grass carp. Generally, barbel chub, Squaliobarbus curriculus, a genetically closely related species to grass carp, exhibits significant resistance against GCRV infection compared to grass carp. To investigate whether the Toll-like receptor 22 (tlr22) has got a vital role against the GCRV infection, the full cDNA sequence of tlr22 from barbel chub (Sctlr22) was cloned by RACE-PCR, and the structure and expression feature were studied...
April 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441762/replication-and-oncolytic-activity-of-an-avian-orthoreovirus-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#18
Robert A Kozak, Larissa Hattin, Mia J Biondi, Juan C Corredor, Scott Walsh, Max Xue-Zhong, Justin Manuel, Ian D McGilvray, Jason Morgenstern, Evan Lusty, Vera Cherepanov, Betty-Anne McBey, David Leishman, Jordan J Feld, Byram Bridle, Éva Nagy
Oncolytic viruses are cancer therapeutics with promising outcomes in pre-clinical and clinical settings. Animal viruses have the possibility to avoid pre-existing immunity in humans, while being safe and immunostimulatory. We isolated an avian orthoreovirus (ARV-PB1), and tested it against a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We found that ARV-PB1 replicated well and induced strong cytopathic effects. It was determined that one mechanism of cell death was through syncytia formation, resulting in apoptosis and induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs)...
April 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422714/toll-like-receptor-3-as-an-immunotherapeutic-target-for-kras-mutated-colorectal-cancer
#19
Radhashree Maitra, Titto Augustine, Yitzchak Dayan, Carol Chandy, Matthew Coffey, Sanjay Goel
New therapeutic interventions are essential for improved management of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This is especially critical for those patients whose tumors harbor a mutation in the KRAS oncogene (40-45% of all patients). This patient cohort is excluded from receiving anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies that have added a significant therapeutic benefit for KRAS wild type CRC patients. Reovirus, a double stranded (ds) RNA virus is in clinical development for patients with chemotherapy refractory KRAS mutated tumors...
May 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421365/grass-carp-reovirus-outer-capsid-proteins-vp5-and-vp7-interact-in-vitro
#20
Weisha Liu, Hao Wang, Fei Yu, Liqun Lu
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) causes viral hemorrhagic disease in cultured grass carp. However, there is no effective means of controlling GCRV. Previous studies have shown, by cryoelectron microscopy, that the outer capsid of GCRV is composed of 200 trimers of VP5-VP7 heterodimers. However, confirmation of this interaction between VP5 and VP7 through molecular biochemistry is still lacking. This study characterized the interactions between VP5 and VP7 in vitro. VP5 was shown to interact with VP7 in a commercial yeast-two-hybrid screen...
April 18, 2017: Archives of Virology
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