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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923111/a-novel-coltivirus-related-virus-isolated-from-free-tailed-bats-from-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-is-able-to-infect-human-cells-in-vitro
#1
Sabrina Weiss, Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski, Andreas Kurth, Siv Aina J Leendertz, Fabian H Leendertz
BACKGROUND: Zoonotic transmission events play a major role in the emergence of novel diseases. While such events are virtually impossible to predict, wildlife screening for potential emerging pathogens can be a first step. Driven by recent disease epidemics like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola, bats have gained special interest as reservoirs of emerging viruses. METHODS: As part of a bigger study investigating pathogens in African bats we screened animals for the presence of known and unknown viruses...
September 18, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922411/cytokine-induced-killer-cell-delivery-enhances-the-antitumor-activity-of-oncolytic-reovirus
#2
Xing Zhao, Weiwei Ouyang, Cariad Chester, Shiqi Long, Nianxue Wang, Zhixu He
Oncolytic viruses (OV) have recently emerged as a promising therapeutic modality in cancer treatment. OV selectively infect and kill tumor cells, while sparing untransformed cells. The direct cytotoxic effects combined with the capacity to trigger an immune response make OV an appealing combination partner in the burgeoning field of cancer immunotherapy. One of the leading OV therapeutic candidates is the double-stranded RNA virus reovirus. In order to improve the oncolytic activity of reovirus and allow for systemic administration despite the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies, cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells were explored as cell carriers for reovirus delivery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911249/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-the-molecular-mechanism-of-hepatic-fat-metabolism-disorder-caused-by-muscovy-duck-reovirus-infection
#3
Quanxi Wang, Mengxi Liu, Lihui Xu, Yijian Wu, Yifan Huang
The aim of this work was to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying the fatty degeneration of livers infected with Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV), which produces obvious white necrotic foci in the liver. Transcriptome data for MDRV-infected Muscovy duck livers and control livers were sequenced, assembled, and annotated with Illumina® HiSeq 2000. The differentially expressed genes were screened and their functions analysed. We also determined and confirmed the molecular mechanism of the hepatic fat metabolism disorder caused by MDRV infection...
September 15, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906455/deep-circular-rna-sequencing-provides-insights-into-the-mechanism-underlying-grass-carp-reovirus-infection
#4
Libo He, Aidi Zhang, Lv Xiong, Yongming Li, Rong Huang, Lanjie Liao, Zuoyan Zhu, And Yaping Wang
Grass carp hemorrhagic disease, caused by the grass carp reovirus (GCRV), is a major disease that hampers the development of grass carp aquaculture in China. The mechanism underlying GCRV infection is still largely unknown. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are important regulators involved in various biological processes. In the present study, grass carp were infected with GCRV, and spleen samples were collected at 0 (control), 1, 3, 5, and 7 days post-infection (dpi). Samples were used to construct and sequence circRNA libraries, and a total of 5052 circRNAs were identified before and after GCRV infection, of which 41 exhibited differential expression compared with controls...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883463/reovirus-inhibits-interferon-production-by-sequestering-irf3-into-viral-factories
#5
Megan L Stanifer, Christian Kischnick, Anja Rippert, Dorothee Albrecht, Steeve Boulant
Upon viral infection, an arms-race between the cellular intrinsic innate immune system and viral replication is established. To win this race, viruses have established multiple strategies to inhibit the cellular response. Mammalian reovirus (MRV) constitutes a great model to study pathogenesis and life cycle of dsRNA viruses. It replicates in the cytosol of infected cells by forming viral induced-replication compartments, or viral factories. Little is known about the strategy used by MRV to evade the cellular intrinsic immune system...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878073/characterization-of-a-replicating-mammalian-orthoreovirus-with-tetracysteine-tagged-%C3%AE-ns-for-live-cell-visualization-of-viral-factories
#6
Luke D Bussiere, Promisree Choudhury, Bryan Bellaire, Cathy L Miller
Within infected host cells, mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV) forms viral factories (VFs) which are sites of viral transcription, translation, assembly, and replication. MRV non-structural protein, μNS, comprises the structural matrix of VFs and is involved in recruiting other viral proteins to VF structures. Previous attempts have been made to visualize VF dynamics in live cells but due to current limitations in recovery of replicating reoviruses carrying large fluorescent protein tags, researchers have been unable to directly assess VF dynamics from virus-produced μNS...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856238/reovirus-fast-protein-enhances-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-oncolytic-virotherapy-in-primary-and-metastatic-tumor-models
#7
Fabrice Le Boeuf, Simon Gebremeskel, Nichole McMullen, Han He, Anna L Greenshields, David W Hoskin, John C Bell, Brent Johnston, Chungen Pan, Roy Duncan
The reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins are the smallest known viral fusogens (∼100-150 amino acids) and efficiently induce cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation in multiple cell types. Syncytium formation enhances cell-cell virus transmission and may also induce immunogenic cell death, a form of apoptosis that stimulates immune recognition of tumor cells. These properties suggest that FAST proteins might serve to enhance oncolytic virotherapy. The oncolytic activity of recombinant VSVΔM51 (an interferon-sensitive vesicular stomatitis virus [VSV] mutant) encoding the p14 FAST protein (VSV-p14) was compared with a similar construct encoding GFP (VSV-GFP) in cell culture and syngeneic BALB/c tumor models...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855097/genomes-of-viral-isolates-derived-from-different-mosquitos-species
#8
Mohammadreza Sadeghi, Vsevolod Popov, Hilda Guzman, Tung Gia Phan, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert Tesh, Eric Delwart
Eleven viral isolates derived mostly in Aedes cells from mosquito pools collected in Southeast Asia and the Americas between 1966 and 2014 contained particles with electron microscopy morphology typical of reoviruses. Metagenomics analysis yielded the near complete genomes of three novel reoviruses, Big Cypress orbivirus, Ninarumi virus, and High Island virus and a new tetravirus, Sarawak virus. Strains of previously characterized Sathuvarachi, Yunnan, Banna and Parry's Lagoon viruses (Reoviridae), Bontang virus (Mesoniviridae), and Culex theileri flavivirus (Flaviviridae) were also characterized...
August 27, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833122/establishment-of-a-cell-line-with-high-transfection-efficiency-from-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos-and-its-susceptibility-to-fish-viruses
#9
Y L Jin, L M Chen, Y Le, Y L Li, Y H Hong, K T Jia, M S Yi
A cell line ZBE3 isolated from a continuous cell culture derived from zebrafish Danio rerio blastomeres by clonal growth was characterized. ZBE3 cells had been subcultured for >120 passages since the initial primary culture of the blastomeres. The ZBE3 cells grow stably at temperature from 20 to 32° C with an optimum temperature of 28° C in ESM2 or ESM4 medium with 15% foetal bovine serum (FBS). The optimum FBS concentration for ZBE3 cell growth ranged from 15 to 20%. Cytogenetical analysis indicated that the modal chromosome number of ZBE3 cells was 50, the same as the diploid chromosome number of D...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832023/oncolytic-reovirus-sensitizes-multiple-myeloma-cells-to-anti-pd-l1-therapy
#10
K R Kelly, C M Espitia, W Zhao, K Wu, V Visconte, F Anwer, C M Calton, J S Carew, S T Nawrocki
Leukemia accepted article preview online, 23 August 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.272.
August 23, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825543/development-of-a-liquid-chip-technique-to-simultaneously-detect-spring-viremia-of-carp-virus-infectious-hematopoietic-necrosis-virus-and-viral-hemorrhagic-septicemia-of-salmonids
#11
Guixiang Tong, Xinxian Wei, Weili Yin, Xiaoguang Liao, Kai Yang, Zhishan Fang, Tao Sun, Zhiqin Yue, Xiaozheng Li
A liquid chip technique was developed to detect spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) of salmonids simultaneously. Sequences of the G gene of SVCV, N gene of IHNV, and G gene of VHSV were used to design SVCV-, IHNV-, and VHSV-specific primers, which were labeled with biotin and subjected to amination modification. They were then coupled with fluorescence-coded microspheres and used for hybridization with reverse-transcription PCR products of SVCV, IHNV, and VHSV...
January 1, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816347/the-silent-enemy-celiac-disease-goes-viral
#12
Alberto Reale, Marta Trevisan, Gualtiero Alvisi, Giorgio Palù
Celiac disease is a multifactorial autoimmune chronic inflammatory disorder affecting approximately one percent of the worldwide population. In such patients, ingestion of gluten proteins from cereals like wheat, barley and rye causes damage of the small intestine mucosa, with potentially severe consequences. Onset of the disease in predisposed individuals is believed to require a still not clearly identified external trigger, such as viral infections. A very recent study has begun to shed light on a possible mechanistic basis for this hypothesis, and surprisingly linked intestinal infections caused by common reoviruses to the onset of celiac disease...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812060/reolysin-and-histone-deacetylase-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#13
Alena C Jaime-Ramirez, Jun-Ge Yu, Enrico Caserta, Ji Young Yoo, Jianying Zhang, Tae Jin Lee, Craig Hofmeister, John H Lee, Bhavna Kumar, Quintin Pan, Pawan Kumar, Robert Baiocchi, Theodoros Teknos, Flavia Pichiorri, Balveen Kaur, Matthew Old
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are emerging as powerful anti-cancer agents and are currently being tested for their safety and efficacy in patients. Reovirus (Reolysin), a naturally occurring non-pathogenic, double-stranded RNA virus, has natural oncolytic activity and is being tested in phase I-III clinical trials in a variety of tumor types. With its recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) orphan drug designation for several tumor types, Reolysin is a potential therapeutic agent for various cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), which have a 5-year survival of ∼55%...
June 16, 2017: Molecular Therapy Oncolytics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796556/systemic-virotherapy-for-multiple-myeloma
#14
Stefania Oliva, Manuela Gambella, Mario Boccadoro, Sara Bringhen
The multiple myeloma (MM) treatment scenario has changed considerably over the past few years. Several novel targeted therapies are currently under consideration including oncolytic virotherapy. Areas covered: This review provides an analysis of the mechanisms of action of virotherapy, and summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies of systemic virotherapy developed for the treatment of MM. Different types of viruses have been identified, including: adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus 1, myxoma virus, reovirus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and coxsackievirus A21...
August 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794028/the-reovirus-%C3%AE-1-340-343-loop-controls-entry-related-conformational-changes
#15
Anthony J Snyder, Pranav Danthi
Reovirus particles are covered with 200 μ1/σ3 heterohexamers. Following attachment to cell surface receptors, reovirus is internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Within the endosome, particles undergo a series of step-wise disassembly events. First, the σ3 protector protein is degraded by cellular proteases to generate infectious subviral particles (ISVPs). Second, the μ1 protein rearranges into a protease sensitive conformation to generate ISVP*s and releases two virally encoded peptides, μ1N and Φ...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789694/co-infection-of-two-reoviruses-increases-both-viruses-accumulation-in-rice-by-up-regulating-of-viroplasm-components-and-movement-proteins-bilaterally-and-rna-silencing-suppressor-unilaterally
#16
Shu Li, Tong Zhang, Yingzhi Zhu, Guohui Zhou
BACKGROUND: Synergism between southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) not only aggravates disease symptoms but also enhances their vector acquisition efficiencies by increasing both viruses' titers in co-infected rice plants, which may exacerbate the epidemic of both viruses and cause significant damage to rice production. The molecular mechanism of viral synergism of these two viruses remains unexplored. METHODS: Single and double infection of SRBSDV and RRSV were obtained with the viruliferous white-backed planthopper and brown planthopper inoculation on four-leaf stage rice seedlings, respectively, under experimental condition...
August 8, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778072/bid-deficient-fish-delay-grass-carp-reovirus-gcrv-replication-and-attenuate-gcrv-triggered-apoptosis
#17
Libo He, Hao Wang, Lifei Luo, Yongming Li, Rong Huang, Lanjie Liao, Zuoyan Zhu, Yaping Wang
Bid, BH3-interacting domain death agonist, is a pro-apoptotic BH3-only member of Bcl-2 family, playing an important role in apoptosis. In the study, Bid genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), named CiBid and GrBid, were cloned and analyzed. Bid was constitutively expressed in all examined tissues of grass carp, but the expression level varied in different tissues. Following grass carp reovirus (GCRV) stimulation in vivo, Bid and apoptosis related genes Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 was up-regulated significantly at the late stage of infection...
July 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761188/flock-level-prevalence-geographical-distribution-and-seasonal-variation-of-avian-reovirus-among-broiler-flocks-in-ontario
#18
Eric G Nham, David L Pearl, Durda Slavic, Rachel Ouckama, Davor Ojkic, Michele T Guerin
Avian reovirus (ARV) is an economically significant pathogen of broiler chickens. Our objective was to determine the prevalence, geographical distribution, and seasonal variation of ARV infection among commercial broiler flocks in Ontario, Canada during grow-out. A cross-sectional study of 231 randomly selected flocks was conducted from July 2010 to January 2012. Fifteen blood samples, 15 whole intestines, and 15 cloacal swabs per flock were collected at slaughter; ELISA and PCR were used to determine a flock's ARV exposure status...
August 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756871/randomized-phase-iib-evaluation-of-weekly-paclitaxel-versus-weekly-paclitaxel-with-oncolytic-reovirus-reolysin%C3%A2-in-recurrent-ovarian-tubal-or-peritoneal-cancer-an-nrg-oncology-gynecologic-oncology-group-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
David E Cohn, Michael W Sill, Joan L Walker, David O'Malley, Christa I Nagel, Teresa L Rutledge, William Bradley, Debra L Richardson, Katherine M Moxley, Carol Aghajanian
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the addition of oncolytic reovirus (Reolysin®) to weekly paclitaxel prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in the treatment of women with recurrent or persistent ovarian, tubal or primary peritoneal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with recurrent or persistent epithelial ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal carcinoma, measurable or detectable disease, and three or fewer prior regimens were randomly assigned to paclitaxel (80mg/m(2) intravenously days 1, 8, and 15 every 4weeks) or the combination of paclitaxel (80mg/m(2) intravenously days 1, 8, and 15) plus reovirus 3×10(10)TCID50/day intravenously on days 1-5, both every 4weeks until disease progression or toxicity...
September 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728835/a-multiplex-pcr-for-detection-of-six-viruses-in-ducks
#20
Yongjuan Wang, Shanyuan Zhu, Weiming Hong, Anping Wang, Weiyong Zuo
In this study, six pairs of specific primers that can amplify DNA fragments of different sizes were designed and synthesized according to viral protein gene sequences published in GenBank. Then, a multiplex PCR method was established for rapid detection of duck hepatitis virus 1, duck plague virus, duck Tembusu virus, muscovy duck parvovirus, muscovy duck reovirus, and duck H9N2 avian influenza virus, and achieve simple and rapid detection of viral diseases in ducks. Single PCR was used to confirm primer specificity, and PCR conditions were optimized to construct a multiplex PCR system...
October 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
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