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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053377/substance-use-among-bi-multiracial-youth-in-the-united-states-profiles-of-psychosocial-risk-and-protection
#1
Trenette Clark Goings, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Matthew O Howard, Michael G Vaughn
BACKGROUND: Bi/multiracial youth face higher risk of engaging in substance use than most monoracial youth. OBJECTIVES: This study contrasts the prevalence of substance use among bi/multiracial youth with that of youth from other racial/ethnic groups, and identifies distinct profiles of bi/multiracial youth by examining their substance use risk. METHODS: Using data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (collected between 2002 and 2014), we analyze data for 9,339 bi/multiracial youth ages 12-17 living in the United States...
October 20, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052118/challenging-conventions-of-bullying-thresholds-exploring-differences-between-low-and-high-levels-of-bully-only-victim-only-and-bully-victim-roles
#2
Jeremy T Goldbach, Paul R Sterzing, Marla J Stuart
Using a commonly accepted threshold of 2 to 3 times per month as a marker of bullying-involvement from noninvolvement, approximately 30% of U.S. students report being a bully, victim, or both. Although variation in the frequency of involvement exists, infrequent engagement (less than 2 to 3 times a month) is generally considered noninvolved. However, the question remains: Do these differences have implications for behavioral health patterns, including substance use, depression and school connectedness? The present study used a district-wide random cluster sample of 66 middle and high schools in a mid-size city...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052096/life-paths-of-patients-with-transthyretin-related-familial-amyloid-polyneuropathy-val30met-a-descriptive-study
#3
Alice Lopes, Alexandra Sousa, Isabel Fonseca, Margarida Branco, Carla Rodrigues, Teresa Coelho, Jorge Sequeiros, Paula Freitas
Transthyretin-related familial amyloid polyneuropathy Val30Met is a fatal progressive disease. It is a rare hereditary amyloidosis, manifesting as a sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction. It begins during adulthood and is a disabling disease, posing a great psychological burden to patients and their families. Our aim was to describe and characterize life events related to the disease and discuss its psychosocial implications. Social and demographic data and a questionnaire on history of family and personal disease, and biographic events, were applied to 209 subjects attending an outpatient specialized clinic...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052036/rapidly-increasing-incidence-in-scoliosis-surgery-over-14%C3%A2-years-in-a-nationwide-sample
#4
Johan von Heideken, Maura D Iversen, Paul Gerdhem
PURPOSE: Severe scoliosis is primarily managed with surgery. This cohort study describes the incidence of surgically treated scoliosis among Swedish youth and young adults, stratified by age, sex, scoliosis type, and surgical approach and identifies changes in incidence rate and hospital length of stay (LOS), infections requiring re-surgery and mortality within 90 days. METHODS: Swedish youth, 0-21 years, (n = 3062) with a diagnostic code for scoliosis and spine surgery between 2000 and 2013 were selected from the National Patient Register...
October 19, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048554/social-risk-and-resilience-factors-in-adolescent-chronic-pain-examining-the-role-of-parents-and-peers
#5
Alexandra C Ross, Laura E Simons, Amanda B Feinstein, Isabel A Yoon, Rashmi P Bhandari
Objective: The current study focuses on social risk and resilience in an adolescent population with chronic pain. Prior research identifies parental cognitions and behaviors as influential in youths' experiences of chronic pain and pain-related disability. Adolescent development is characterized by greater autonomy from parents and an increased emphasis on peer relationships. Study aims explore the potential protective effect of high-quality adolescent peer relationships on associations between parent and adolescent cognitive and behavioral responses to pain...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048551/rapid-screening-of-risk-in-pediatric-headache-application-of-the-pediatric-pain-screening-tool
#6
Lauren C Heathcote, Jonathan Rabner, Alyssa Lebel, Jessica M Hernandez, Laura E Simons
Objective: The current study examined the application of a screening tool to identify biopsychosocial risk factors and derive prognostic risk groups in children and adolescents with headache pain. Methods: Youth (n = 242, 8-17 years, 75.6% female) presenting for evaluation at a tertiary pediatric headache clinic completed the nine-item Pediatric Pain Screening Tool (PPST) as well as measures of functional disability, pain catastrophizing, fear of pain, anxiety, and depressive symptoms...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048245/self-esteem-internalizing-symptoms-and-theory-of-mind-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
James B McCauley, Michelle A Harris, Matthew C Zajic, Lindsay E Swain-Lerro, Tasha Oswald, Nancy McIntyre, Kali Trzesniewski, Peter Mundy, Marjorie Solomon
Self-esteem is a potent indicator of mental health in typically developing (TYP) individuals. It is surprising that there have been few comprehensive investigations of self-esteem in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), given that they are at high risk for comorbid mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. The objectives of the current study were to assess how youth with ASD rate their self-esteem compared to age-matched TYP youth and to examine how self-esteem relates to internalizing psychopathology and theory of mind in the two groups...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044718/child-and-family-focused-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-applications-for-suicide-prevention
#8
Sally M Weinstein, Rick A Cruz, Ashley R Isaia, Amy T Peters, Amy E West
Despite high rates of suicide ideation (SI) and behavior in youth with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD), little work has examined how psychosocial interventions impact suicidality among this high-risk group. The current study examined SI outcomes in a randomized clinical trial comparing Child- and Family-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CFF-CBT) for PBD versus psychotherapy treatment-as-usual (TAU). Although not designed for suicide prevention, CFF-CBT addresses child and family factors related to suicide risk and thus was hypothesized to generalize to the treatment of suicidality...
October 16, 2017: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040165/dating-violence-against-hiv-infected-youth-in-south-africa-associations-with-sexual-risk-behavior-medication-adherence-and-mental-health
#9
Rachel Kidman, Avy Violari
BACKGROUND: As perinatal HIV-infected youth become sexually active, the potential for onward transmission becomes an increasing concern. In other populations, intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for HIV acquisition. We build on this critical work by studying the role of IPV in facilitating onward transmission among HIV-infected youth - an important step towards effective intervention. SETTING: Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: Self-report surveys were completed by 129 perinatal HIV-infected female youth (aged 13-24)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039714/causal-factors-of-increased-smoking-in-adhd-a-systematic-review
#10
Jan van Amsterdam, Bauke van der Velde, Mieke Schulte, Wim van den Brink
BACKGROUND: ADHD is a highly prevalent disorder and poses a risk for a variety of mental disorders and functional impairments into adulthood. One of the most striking comorbidities of ADHD is nicotine dependence. Youth diagnosed with ADHD are 2-3 times more likely to smoke than their peers without ADHD, initiate smoking earlier in life and progress more quickly and more frequently to regular use and dependence. Possible explanations for these increased risks are: (a) self-medication of ADHD symptoms with the stimulant nicotine; (b) ADHD symptoms like inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity predispose for smoking initiation and impede smoking cessation; (c) peer pressure; and/or (d) common genetic or environmental determinants for ADHD and smoking...
October 17, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031471/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-3-decision-making-under-mental-performance-pressure-in-junior-elite-athletes
#11
Beth L Parkin, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: Having investigated the decision making of world class elite and subelite athletes (see Parkin and Walsh, 2017; Parkin et al., 2017), here the abilities of those at the earliest stage of entry to elite sport are examined. Junior elite athletes have undergone initial national selection and are younger than athletes examined previously (mean age 13 years). Decision making under mental pressure is explored in this sample. During performance an athlete encounters a wide array of mental pressures; these include the psychological impact of errors, negative feedback, and requirements for sustained attention in a dynamic environment (Anshel and Wells, 2000; Mellalieu et al...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031036/-the-role-of-chemotherapy-in-the-treatment-of-low-grade-gliomas
#12
R Lakomý, T Kazda, A Poprach, P Pospíšil, R Jančálek, P Šlampa
BACKGROUND: The standard postsurgical options for low-grade gliomas include watchful waiting or radiotherapy depending on the risk factors for recurrence. The use of chemotherapy for the treatment of this disease is generally controversial, although the recently published results of the first of two large randomized phase III clinical trials (RTOG 9802 a EORTC 22033-26033), focusing on the evaluation of chemotherapy for the upfront treatment of newly diagnosed low-grade gliomas, are reassuring in this respect...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031035/-controversy-in-the-postoperative-treatment-of-low-grade-gliomas
#13
T Kazda, R Lakomý, A Poprach, P Pospíšil, R Jančálek, P Šlampa
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment for low-grade gliomas remains controversial. Neurosurgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the main treatment options. Despite advances in oncology, there are still a lot of uncertainties, and the optimal sequences, combinations, and timings of these procedures have not yet been optimized. It is still unclear whether temozolomide can replace effective, but toxic PCV chemotherapy (procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine) and whether temozolomide can be used upfront alone instead of radiotherapy alone...
2017: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030905/comparing-the-effects-of-age-pubertal-development-and-symptom-profile-on-cortisol-rhythm-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Rachael A Muscatello, Blythe A Corbett
Previous studies in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have shown elevated evening cortisol; however, few studies have examined diurnal rhythm in adolescents with ASD. Adolescence is a time of significant physical and psychological change, and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may put adolescents with ASD at increased risk for internalizing disorders, such as anxiety and depression. The extent to which cortisol levels are associated with age, puberty and symptom profile was examined in 113 youth (ages 7-17) with ASD and typical development...
October 14, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030735/suicide-attempts-among-adolescents-with-self-reported-disabilities
#15
Tally Moses
This study examines the relative risk for suicide attempts (SA) among high-school students self-identifying with one or more disability classifications (nine); assesses the extent to which youth with disabilities are disproportionately vulnerable to risk factors that predict suicidal behavior among all adolescents; and explores whether disability status adds to risk for SA after accounting for a comprehensive set of known risk and protective factors for SA. Analyses using Wisconsin's 2012 Dane County Youth Assessment Survey data found that youth in each disability category were 3-9 times more likely to report suicide attempt(s) relative to peers, and the endorsement of multiple disabilities tripled the risk SA relative to youth reporting a single disability...
October 13, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028824/the-association-between-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-a-cluster-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-adolescents-the-champs-study-dk
#16
Natascha Holbæk Pedersen, Jakob Tarp, Lars Bo Andersen, Anne Kær Gejl, Tao Huang, Lone Peijs, Anna Bugge
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes pose a global health burden. Therefore, clarifying the pathology of these risk factors is essential. Previous studies have found positive and negative associations between one or more cardiovascular risk factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) probably due to diverse methodological approaches when analysing peripheral BDNF levels. Moreover, only a few studies have been performed in youth populations. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to examine the association between serum BDNF and a composite z-score consisting of six cardiovascular risk factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028562/common-and-differential-factors-associated-with-abstinence-and-poly-drug-use-among-australian-adolescents
#17
Simone Pettigrew, Michelle Jongenelis, David Lawrence, Wavne Rikkers
BACKGROUND: Social norms relating to youth substance use are changing. In Australia, alcohol use among adolescents has fallen dramatically and tobacco and cannabis use have also reduced, albeit more moderately. The aim of the present study was to identify (i) factors associated with compliance with recommendations for zero intake of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and (ii) factors associated with poly drug use (intake of all three substances). METHODS: As part of the Young Minds Matter Study, a self-report survey was administered to 1661 Australian adolescents aged 15-17 years...
October 10, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027932/peer-victimization-among-classmates-associations-with-students-internalizing-problems-self-esteem-and-life-satisfaction
#18
Sara B Låftman, Bitte Modin
Bullying is a major problem in schools and a large number of studies have demonstrated that victims have a high excess risk of poor mental health. It may however also affect those who are not directly victimized by peers. The present study investigates whether peer victimization among classmates is linked to internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction at the individual level, when the student's own victimization has been taken into account. The data were derived from the first wave of the Swedish part of Youth in Europe Study (YES!), including information on 4319 students in grade 8 (14-15 years of age) distributed across 242 classes...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026488/a-longitudinal-study-on-the-effects-of-negative-rearing-experiences-on-adolescents-social-withdrawal-and-aggression
#19
Kyung-Suk Lee, Ok-Joo Choi, Joon-Ho Kim
BACKGROUND: Children who have experienced negative rearing behaviors show a lack of self-confidence due to emotional instability and are reserved in interpersonal relationships. This can lead to failure in social adaptation and a high risk of depression, suicide, criminal acts, and anti-social behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the effects of experiencing negative parental rearing behaviors, such as neglect and abuse, on adolescents' social withdrawal and aggression, by utilizing multivariate latent growth models...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023672/expecting-the-unexpected-expectations-for-future-success-among-adolescent-first-time-offenders
#20
Alissa Mahler, Adam Fine, Paul J Frick, Laurence Steinberg, Elizabeth Cauffman
Adolescent first-time offenders demonstrate greater risk of continued offending, justice system contact, and high school dropout. The current study evaluates if optimistic expectations protect youth by reducing offending and improving school grades for 3 years following a first arrest (N = 1,165, Mage  = 15.29). This article also considers whether improved behavior raises expectations about the future and uses autoregressive latent trajectory modeling with structured residuals to examine the within-person cross-lagged associations between expectations and behavior...
October 12, 2017: Child Development
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