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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724246/health-consequences-of-electric-lighting-practices-in-the-modern-world-a-report-on-the-national-toxicology-program-s-workshop-on-shift-work-at-night-artificial-light-at-night-and-circadian-disruption
#1
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, David E Blask, Andrew N Coogan, Mariana G Figueiro, Michael R Gorman, Janet E Hall, Johnni Hansen, Randy J Nelson, Satchidananda Panda, Michael H Smolensky, Richard G Stevens, Fred W Turek, Roel Vermeulen, Tania Carreón, Claire C Caruso, Christina C Lawson, Kristina A Thayer, Michael J Twery, Andrew D Ewens, Sanford C Garner, Pamela J Schwingl, Windy A Boyd
The invention of electric light has facilitated a society in which people work, sleep, eat, and play at all hours of the 24-hour day. Although electric light clearly has benefited humankind, exposures to electric light, especially light at night (LAN), may disrupt sleep and biological processes controlled by endogenous circadian clocks, potentially resulting in adverse health outcomes. Many of the studies evaluating adverse health effects have been conducted among night- and rotating-shift workers, because this scenario gives rise to significant exposure to LAN...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723966/activated-carbon-a-useful-medium-to-bind-chlordecone-in-soil-and-limit-its-transfer-to-growing-goat-kids
#2
Sarah Yehya, Matthieu Delannoy, Agnès Fournier, Moomen Baroudi, Guido Rychen, Cyril Feidt
Chlordecone (Kepone) (CLD) is a highly persistent pesticide which was extensively used in the French West Indies; high levels of CLD can still currently be found in large agricultural areas. As CLD transfers from soil to animals mainly via involuntary ingestion, the consumption of foodstuffs derived from animals raised in contaminated areas may significantly contribute to exposure of humans to CLD. The present study was designed to test the efficacy of two different activated carbons (ACs) sources in limiting CLD transfer from soil to animal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723938/gender-differences-in-cerebral-metabolism-for-color-processing-in-mice-a-pet-mri-study
#3
Philip C Njemanze, Mathias Kranz, Mario Amend, Jens Hauser, Hans Wehrl, Peter Brust
INTRODUCTION: Color processing is a central component of mammalian vision. Gender-related differences of color processing revealed by non-invasive functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound suggested right hemisphere pattern for blue/yellow chromatic opponency by men, and a left hemisphere pattern by women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study measured the accumulation of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) in mouse brain using small animal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) during light stimulation with blue and yellow filters compared to darkness condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723922/temporal-progression-of-parp-activity-in-the-prph2-mutant-rd2-mouse-neuroprotective-effects-of-the-parp-inhibitor-pj34
#4
Ayse Sahaboglu, Alaa Sharif, Lili Feng, Enver Secer, Eberhart Zrenner, François Paquet-Durand
Peripherin (peripherin/rds) is a membrane-associated protein that plays a critical role in the morphogenesis of rod and cone photoreceptor outer segments. Mutations in the corresponding PRPH2 gene cause different types of retinal dystrophies characterized by a loss of photoreceptors. Over activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was previously shown to be involved in different animal models for hereditary retinal dystrophies. This includes the rd2 mouse, which suffers from a human homologous mutation in the PRPH2 gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723894/cysteine-protease-cathepsin-b-mediates-radiation-induced-bystander-effects
#5
Yu Peng, Man Zhang, Lingjun Zheng, Qian Liang, Hanzeng Li, Jeng-Ting Chen, Hongyan Guo, Sawako Yoshina, Yu-Zen Chen, Xiang Zhao, Xiaoqi Wu, Bin Liu, Shohei Mitani, Jau-Song Yu, Ding Xue
The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) refers to a unique process in which factors released by irradiated cells or tissues exert effects on other parts of the animal not exposed to radiation, causing genomic instability, stress responses and altered apoptosis or cell proliferation. Although RIBEs have important implications for radioprotection, radiation safety and radiotherapy, the molecular identities of RIBE factors and their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here we use Caenorhabditis elegans as a model in which to study RIBEs, and identify the cysteine protease CPR-4, a homologue of human cathepsin B, as the first RIBE factor in nematodes, to our knowledge...
July 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722568/epidemiology-of-spotted-fever-group-rickettsioses-and-acute-undifferentiated-febrile-illness-in-villeta-colombia
#6
Álvaro A Faccini-Martínez, Alejandro Ramírez-Hernández, Christian Barreto, Elkin Forero-Becerra, Diego Millán, Elkin Valbuena, Andrea C Sánchez-Alfonso, Wilson O Imbacuán-Pantoja, Jesús A Cortés-Vecino, Luis J Polo-Terán, Néstor Yaya-Lancheros, Jorge Jácome, Ana M Palomar, Sonia Santibáñez, Aránzazu Portillo, José A Oteo, Marylin Hidalgo
Etiology of acute undifferentiated febrile syndrome (AUFS) is often unknown, leading to inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. Villeta town has been identified as an endemic area for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses but little is known about possible amplifier hosts and other Rickettsia species different from Rickettsia rickettsii. Besides, few studies have approached other AUFS etiologies in the region. We investigated the role of dengue, leptospirosis, rickettsioses, human anaplasmosis, and Q fever as possible causes of AUFS in patients from Villeta...
June 19, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722567/bartonella-infection-in-hematophagous-insectivorous-and-phytophagous-bat-populations-of-central-mexico-and-the-yucatan-peninsula
#7
Matthew J Stuckey, Bruno B Chomel, Guillermo Galvez-Romero, José Ignacio Olave-Leyva, Cirani Obregón-Morales, Hayde Moreno-Sandoval, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Mónica Salas-Rojas, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién
Although emerging nonviral pathogens remain relatively understudied in bat populations, there is an increasing focus on identifying bat-associated bartonellae around the world. Many novel Bartonella strains have been described from both bats and their arthropod ectoparasites, including Bartonella mayotimonensis, a zoonotic agent of human endocarditis. This cross-sectional study was designed to describe novel Bartonella strains isolated from bats sampled in Mexico and evaluate factors potentially associated with infection...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722512/in-silico-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-two-novel-oximes-k378-and-k727-in-comparison-to-k27-and-pralidoxime-against-paraoxon-ethyl-intoxication
#8
Maria Chaudhry, Muhammad Qaiser Fatmi, Kamil Musilek, Alamdar Hussain, Kamil Kuca, Georg Petroianu, Huba Kalasz, Syed Muhammad Nurulain
Organophosphate (OP) poisoning is a major global health issue; while compounds from this group have been used intensively over the last century, an effective antidote is still lacking. Oxime-type AChE reactivators are used to reactivate the OP inhibited AChE. Pralidoxime is the only US Food and Drug Administration, (FDA) approved oxime for therapeutic use but its efficacy has been disappointing. Two novel oximes (K378 and K727) were investigated in silico and in vitro and compared with an experimental oxime (kamiloxime; K-27) and pralidoxime...
July 19, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721949/rising-to-the-challenge-applying-biofabrication-approaches-for-better-drug-and-chemical-product-development
#9
Anthony M Holmes, Alex Charlton, Brian Derby, Lorna Ewart, Andrew Scott, Wenmiao Shu
Many industrial sectors, from pharmaceuticals to consumer products, are required to provide data on their products to demonstrate their efficacy and that they are safe for patients, consumers and the environment. This period of testing typically requires the use of animal models, the validity of which has been called into question due to the high rates of attrition across many industries. There is increasing recognition of the limitations of animal models and demands for safety and efficacy testing paradigms which embrace the latest technological advances and knowledge of human biology...
July 19, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721830/redox-state-in-atrial-fibrillation-pathogenesis-and-relevant-therapeutic-approaches
#10
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Athina Goliopoulou, Evangelos Oikonomou, Sotiris Tsalamandris, Georgios-Angelos Papamikroulis, George Lazaros, Eleftherios Tsiamis, George Latsios, Stella Brili, Spyridon Papaioannou, Vasiliki Gennimata, Dimitris Tousoulis
Myocardial redox state is a critical determinant of myocardial biology, regulating cardiomyocytes' apoptosis, hypertrophy, ion channels function and cardiac contractility and relaxation. Data from animal models have shown that altered myocardial nitroso-redox balance and NADPH oxidases activity are pivotally involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Similarly experimental animal data have demonstrated that increased reactive oxygen / nitrogen species formation in the atrial tissue is associated with altered electrophysiological properties of atrial myocytes and electrical remodeling...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721695/myopes-have-significantly-higher-serum-melatonin-concentrations-than-non-myopes
#11
Stephanie Kearney, Lisa O'Donoghue, Kirsty L Pourshahidi, Diego Cobice, Kathryn J Saunders
PURPOSE: Experimental animal models of myopia demonstrate that higher melatonin (Mel) and lower dopamine (DA) concentrations actively promote axial elongation. This study explored the association between myopia and serum concentrations of DA and Mel in humans. METHODS: Morning serum concentrations of DA and Mel were measured by solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry from 54 participants (age 19.1 ± 0.81 years) in September/October 2014 (phase 1) and March/April 2016 (phase 2)...
July 18, 2017: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721603/the-disadapted-animal-niko-tinbergen-on-human-nature-and-the-human-predicament
#12
Marga Vicedo
This paper explores ethologist Niko Tinbergen's path from animal to human studies in the 1960s and 1970s and his views about human nature. It argues, first, that the confluence of several factors explains why Tinbergen decided to cross the animal/human divide in the mid 1960s: his concern about what he called "the human predicament," his relations with British child psychiatrist John Bowlby, the success of ethological explanations of human behavior, and his professional and personal situation. It also argues that Tinbergen transferred his general adaptationist view of animal behavior to the realm of human biology; here, his concern about disadaptation led him to a view of human behavior that was strongly determined by the species' evolutionary past, a position that I call evolutionary determinism...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721546/health-benefits-observed-after-probiotic-lactobacillus-fermentum-ccm-7421-application-in-dogs
#13
REVIEW
Viola Strompfová, Ivana Kubašová, Andrea Lauková
The importance of the intestinal microbiota has attracted much interest in recent years particularly with respect to ways in which the microbiota can be manipulated in order to improve health. Improving gut health through the use of probiotic microorganisms has become an area of research activity in both human and animal nutrition. However, the amount of research using companion animals is insufficient. The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 to healthy dogs as well as to dogs suffering from gastrointestinal disorders...
July 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721468/are-animal-models-predictive-for-human-postmortem-muscle-protein-degradation
#14
Bianca Ehrenfellner, Angela Zissler, Peter Steinbacher, Fabio C Monticelli, Stefan Pittner
A most precise determination of the postmortem interval (PMI) is a crucial aspect in forensic casework. Although there are diverse approaches available to date, the high heterogeneity of cases together with the respective postmortal changes often limit the validity and sufficiency of many methods. Recently, a novel approach for time since death estimation by the analysis of postmortal changes of muscle proteins was proposed. It is however necessary to improve the reliability and accuracy, especially by analysis of possible influencing factors on protein degradation...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721206/a-bipedal-mammalian-model-for-spinal-cord-injury-research-the-tammar-wallaby
#15
Norman R Saunders, Katarzyna M Dziegielewska, Sophie C Whish, Lyn A Hinds, Benjamin J Wheaton, Yifan Huang, Steve Henry, Mark D Habgood
Background: Most animal studies of spinal cord injury are conducted in quadrupeds, usually rodents. It is unclear to what extent functional results from such studies can be translated to bipedal species such as humans because bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion involve very different patterns of spinal control of muscle coordination. Bipedalism requires upright trunk stability and coordinated postural muscle control; it has been suggested that peripheral sensory input is less important in humans than quadrupeds for recovery of locomotion following spinal injury...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720883/chronic-high-sodium-diet-intake-after-weaning-lead-to-neurogenic-hypertension-in-adult-wistar-rats
#16
Paula Magalhães Gomes, Renato Willian Martins Sá, Giovana Lopes Aguiar, Milede Hanner Saraiva Paes, Andréia Carvalho Alzamora, Wanderson Geraldo Lima, Lisandra Brandino de Oliveira, Sean David Stocker, Vagner Roberto Antunes, Leonardo M Cardoso
In this study, we investigated some mechanisms involved in sodium-dependent hypertension of rats exposed to chronic salt (NaCl) intake from weaning until adult age. Weaned male Wistar rats were placed under high (0.90% w/w, HS) or regular (0.27% w/w, Cont) sodium diets for 12 weeks. Water consumption, urine output and sodium excretion were higher in HS rats compared to control. Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured by the arterial catheter and found 13.8% higher in HS vs Cont rats. Ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium caused greater fall in the BP of HS rats (33%), and central antagonism of AT1 receptors (losartan) microinjected into the lateral ventricle reduced BP level of HS, but not of Cont group...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720774/a-novel-fluorescent-probe-based-flow-cytometric-assay-for-mineral-containing-nanoparticles-in-serum
#17
Edward R Smith, Tim D Hewitson, Michael M X Cai, Parisa Aghagolzadeh, Matthias Bachtler, Andreas Pasch, Stephen G Holt
Calciprotein particles, nanoscale aggregates of insoluble mineral and binding proteins, have emerged as potential mediators of phosphate toxicity in patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Although existing immunochemical methods for their detection have provided compelling data, these approaches are indirect, lack specificity and are subject to a number of other technical and theoretical shortcomings. Here we have developed a rapid homogeneous fluorescent probe-based flow cytometric method for the detection and quantitation of individual mineral-containing nanoparticles in human and animal serum...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720731/an-in-vitro-chicken-gut-model-demonstrates-transfer-of-a-multidrug-resistance-plasmid-from-salmonella-to-commensal-escherichia-coli
#18
Roderick M Card, Shaun A Cawthraw, Javier Nunez-Garcia, Richard J Ellis, Gemma Kay, Mark J Pallen, Martin J Woodward, Muna F Anjum
The chicken gastrointestinal tract is richly populated by commensal bacteria that fulfill various beneficial roles for the host, including helping to resist colonization by pathogens. It can also facilitate the conjugative transfer of multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmids between commensal and pathogenic bacteria which is a significant public and animal health concern as it may affect our ability to treat bacterial infections. We used an in vitro chemostat system to approximate the chicken cecal microbiota, simulate colonization by an MDR Salmonella pathogen, and examine the dynamics of transfer of its MDR plasmid harboring several genes, including the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase blaCTX-M1 We also evaluated the impact of cefotaxime administration on plasmid transfer and microbial diversity...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720521/increased-entrances-to-side-compartments-indicate-incubation-of-craving-in-morphine-induced-rat-and-tree-shrew-cpp-models
#19
Yongmei Sun, Zijiao Pan, Yuanye Ma
In humans, cues associated with the rewarding effect of drugs of abuse induce drug craving and activate drug-associated memories after prolonged abstinence. In animal studies with the self-administration (SA) paradigm, responses to drug-associated cues increase within time after extinction, a phenomenon described as incubation of craving. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is widely used to measure the rewarding effect of drugs and the reward memory thereof. However, little is known whether responses to drug associated cues progressively increase after abstinence from the drugs in the CPP paradigm...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720427/the-challenges-and-promise-of-targeting-the-liver-x-receptors-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-disease
#20
REVIEW
Michael B Fessler
The Liver X Receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated transcription factors that upregulate a suite of genes that together promote coordinated mobilization of excess cholesterol from cells and from the body. The LXRs, like other nuclear receptors, are anti-inflammatory, inhibiting signal-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory genes by nuclear factor-κB, activating protein-1, and other transcription factors. Synthetic LXR agonists have been shown to ameliorate atherosclerosis and a wide range of inflammatory disorders in preclinical animal models...
July 15, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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