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Human animal studies

Christina Yacoob, Miles Darnell Lange, Kristen Cohen, Kanan Lathia, Junli Feng, Jolene Glenn, Sara Carbonetti, Brian Oliver, Vladimir Vigdorovich, David Noah Sather, Leonidas Stamatatos
Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) isolated from infected subjects display protective potential in animal models. Their elicitation by immunization is thus highly desirable. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole viral target of bnAbs, but is also targeted by binding, non-neutralizing antibodies. Env-based immunogens tested so far in various animal species and humans have elicited binding and autologous neutralizing antibodies but not bNAbs (with a few notable exceptions). The underlying reasons for this are not well understood despite intensive efforts to characterize the binding specificities of the elicited antibodies; mostly by employing serologic methodologies and monoclonal antibody isolation and characterization...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Jinjin Xu, Mengsen Li, Zhihong Yao, Yezi Zhang, Shishi Li, Liufang Hu, Zifei Qin, Frank J Gonzalez, Xinsheng Yao
Neobavaisoflavone (NBIF), a phenolic compound isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L., possesses several significant biological properties. However, the pharmacokinetic behaviors of NBIF have been characterized as rapid oral absorption, high clearance, and poor oral bioavailability. We found that NBIF underwent massive glucuronidation and oxidation by human liver microsomes (HLM) in this study with the intrinsic clearance (CLint ) values of 12.43, 10.04, 2.01, and 6.99 μL/min/mg for M2, M3, M4, and M5, respectively...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Reto Rufener, Dominic Ritler, Jana Zielinski, Luca Dick, Emerson Teixeira da Silva, Adriele da Silva Araujo, Deborah Elisabeth Joekel, David Czock, Christine Goepfert, Adriana Marques Moraes, Marcus Vinicius Nora de Souza, Joachim Müller, Meike Mevissen, Andrew Hemphill, Britta Lundström-Stadelmann
The cestode E. multilocularis causes the disease alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in humans. The continuously proliferating metacestode (larval stage) of the parasite infects mostly the liver and exhibits tumor-like growth. Current chemotherapeutical treatment options rely on benzimidazoles, which are rarely curative and have to be applied daily and life-long. This can result in considerable hepatotoxicity and thus treatment discontinuation. Therefore, novel drugs against AE are urgently needed. The anti-malarial mefloquine was previously shown to be active against E...
June 15, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
N de Cesare, C Trevisan, E Maghin, M Piccoli, P G Pavan
The diaphragm is a mammalian skeletal muscle that plays a fundamental role in the process of respiration. Alteration of its mechanical properties due to a diaphragmatic hernia contributes towards compromising its respiratory functions, leading to the need for surgical intervention to restore the physiological conditions by means of implants. This study aims to assess via numerical modeling biomechanical differences between a diaphragm in healthy conditions and a herniated diaphragm surgically repaired with a polymeric implant, in a mouse model...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Yao-Ting Huang, Jan-Fang Cheng, Shi-Yu Chen, Yu-Kai Hong, Zong-Yen Wu, Po-Yu Liu
OBJECTIVES: Shewanella algae is an environmental marine bacteria and an emerging opportunistic human pathogen. Moreover, there are increasing reports of strains showing multi-drug resistance, particularly carbapenem-resistant isolates. Although S. algae have been found in bivalve shellfish aquaculture, there is very little genome-wide data on resistant determinants in S. algae from shellfish. In the study, we aimed to determine the whole genome sequence of carbapenem-resistant S. algae strain AC isolated from small abalone in Taiwan...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Paola Perrotta, Besa Emini Veseli, Bieke Van der Veken, Lynn Roth, Wim Martinet, Guido R Y De Meyer
Atherosclerosis is a complex multifactorial disease that affects large and medium-sized arteries. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and subsequent acute cardiovascular complications remain a leading cause of death and morbidity in the Western world. There is a considerable difference in safety profile between a stable and a vulnerable, rupture-prone lesion. The need for plaque-stabilizing therapies is high, and for a long time the lack of a suitable animal model mimicking advanced human atherosclerotic plaques made it very difficult to make progress in this area...
June 19, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Biljana Pokimica, María-Teresa García-Conesa
Pre-clinical cell and animal nutrigenomic studies have long suggested the modulation of the transcription of multiple gene targets in cells and tissues as a potential molecular mechanism of action underlying the beneficial effects attributed to plant-derived bioactive compounds. To try to demonstrate these molecular effects in humans, a considerable number of clinical trials have now explored the changes in the expression levels of selected genes in various human cell and tissue samples following intervention with different dietary sources of bioactive compounds...
June 22, 2018: Nutrients
Katelyn Brandt, Rodolphe Barrangou
The genus Lactobacillus encompasses a diversity of species that occur widely in nature and encode a plethora of metabolic pathways reflecting their adaptation to various ecological niches, including humans, animals, plants and food products. Accordingly, their functional attributes have been exploited industrially and several strains are commonly formulated as probiotics or starter cultures in the food industry. Although divergent evolutionary processes have yielded the acquisition and evolution of specialized functionalities, all Lactobacillus species share a small set of core metabolic properties, including the glycolysis pathway...
June 22, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Carlos García-Vásquez, María J Fernández-Aceñero, Soledad García Gómez-Heras, Carlos Pastor
The intestinal anastomotic failure is one of the most severe complications in gastrointestinal surgery. Despite the great surgical improvements during the last decade, anastomotic leak rates remain practically the same, with a dramatically high grade of morbidity for patients. Leakages are usually the final consequence of ischemia in the anastomosis, leading to tissue hypoxia. In response to hypoxia, the cell orchestrates a variety of coordinated responses in order to restore oxygen homeostasis. The molecular mechanism of hypoxia sensitivity involves oxygen sensing hydroxylases, prolyl-hydroxylases, orchestrating two main transcription factors related to induction of inflammation and angiogenesis, namely nuclear factor-κB and hypoxia-inducible factors...
June 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Sally L Brooks, Gail Rowan, Michael Michael
AIM: Complementary medicine (CAM) use in the cancer population is higher than the general population: some studies estimate up to 70%. Our Medicines Information Centre, in a tertiary cancer institution, receives many enquiries regarding use and safety of CAM with conventional cancer therapies (chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery). This project aims to review the CAM most commonly enquired about with an emphasis on potential interactions with conventional cancer therapies. METHODS: An audit and review of CAM enquiries from patients or medical professionals at our center, over a 2-year period (July 2011-June 2013), was conducted...
June 22, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Christopher N Miller, Lyne Jossé, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Cryptosporidium is a protozoan, apicomplexan, parasite that poses significant risk to humans and animals, as a common cause of potentially fatal diarrhea in immunodeficient hosts. The parasites have evolved a number of unique biological features that allow them to thrive in a highly specialized parasitic lifestyle. For example, the genome of Cryptosporidium parvum is highly reduced, encoding only 3,805 proteins, which is also reflected in its reduced cellular and organellar content and functions. As such, its remnant mitochondrion, dubbed a mitosome, is one of the smallest mitochondria yet found...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Swati Bagde, Vinod Singh
BACKGROUND: The Cellular immunity plays an important role in amoebic infections, whereas humoral immune responses have little influence on the outcome of the disease. Chronic infestation with E. histolytica, a common protozoan parasite, has been associated with autoimmune phenomena, including the appearance of antibodies to colonic epithelial cells. The mechanism whereby the protozoan parasite E. histolytica causes suppression of the immune response to allow it to survive in humans is unclear...
June 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Gemma Vilahur, Soumaya Ben-Aicha, Elisa Diaz, Lina Badimon, Teresa Padro
Besides the well-characterized effect of foods and supplements enriched with plant sterols/stanols on serum LDL-C concentrations, evidence is now emerging that phytosterols exert beneficial effects on non-lipid variables such as inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, coagulation parameters and endothelial function. This makes sterols and stanols an attractive alternative for dietary interventions in cardiovascular disease prevention, particularly in populations at low or medium risk. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge derived from experimental studies and human data on the anti-inflammatory effects of phytosterols/stanols and their relevance in promoting atheroprotection and preventing cardiovascular disease...
June 22, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Nitaya Indrawattana, Natapol Pumipuntu, Nawarat Suriyakhun, Arunee Jangsangthong, Suphang Kulpeanprasit, Narisara Chantratita, Nitat Sookrung, Wanpen Chaicumpa, Shutipen Buranasinsup
Staphylococcus argenteus, a novel species of the genus Staphylococcus or a member of the S. aureus complex, is closely related to S. aureus and is usually misidentified. In this study, the presence of S. argenteus in isolated S. aureus was investigated in 67 rabbits with abscess lesions during 2014-2016. Among 19 S. aureus complex isolates, three were confirmed to be S. argenteus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene amplification, and multilocus sequence type...
June 21, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Ömrüm Aydin, Max Nieuwdorp, Victor Gerdes
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to critically assess the contributing role of the gut microbiota in human obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). RECENT FINDINGS: Experiments in animal and human studies have produced growing evidence for the causality of the gut microbiome in developing obesity and T2D. The introduction of high-throughput sequencing technologies has provided novel insight into the interpersonal differences in microbiome composition and function...
June 21, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Donald J Weaver
The association between serum uric acid levels and human disease has garnered intense interest over the last decade including chronic kidney disease. Animal studies have provided evidence for a potential mechanistic role of uric acid in promoting progression of chronic kidney disease. Epidemiologic studies have also suggested an association between elevated serum uric acid levels and worsening renal function in the general population as well as in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the use of uric acid-lowering therapy to delay progression of chronic kidney disease in this patient population...
June 21, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
I Kastirr, M Reichardt, R Andresen, S Radmer, G Schröder, T Westphal, T Mittlmeier, H C Schober
The absence of osseous consolidation of a fracture for 9 or more months with no potential to heal is defined as nonunion. Both for the patient and from a socioeconomic point of view, nonunions represent a major problem. Hypertrophic, vital nonunions are distinguished from atrophic avital ones. Risk factors for a delayed fracture healing are insufficient immobilisation, poor adaptation of the fracture surfaces or residual instability, interposition of soft tissue within the fracture gap, as well as circulation disturbances and infections...
June 21, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Bo Yuan, James A Broadbent, Jingning Huan, Huizhong Yang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been shown to enhance wound healing by human dermal fibroblasts; however, the interactions between ASCs and fibroblasts during injury remain unclear. Fibroblasts were treated with ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) with and without transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) stimulation. Fibroblast proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and expression of extracellular matrix genes and proteins, type I collagen, and type III collagen were measured. Also, wound-healing effect of ASC-CM was verified with in vivo animal study...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Rachida Yakoubi, Astrid Rollenhagen, Marec von Lehe, Yachao Shao, Kurt Sätzler, Joachim H R Lübke
Studies of synapses are available for different brain regions of several animal species including non-human primates, but comparatively little is known about their quantitative morphology in humans. Here, synaptic boutons in Layer 5 (L5) of the human temporal lobe (TL) neocortex were investigated in biopsy tissue, using fine-scale electron microscopy, and quantitative three-dimensional reconstructions. The size and organization of the presynaptic active zones (PreAZs), postsynaptic densities (PSDs), and that of the 3 distinct pools of synaptic vesicles (SVs) were particularly analyzed...
June 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Chengcheng Feng, Kaiwen Bai, Anan Wang, Xiaoke Ge, Yongwei Zhao, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
Dimethylglycine sodium salt (DMG-Na), has exhibited excellent advantages in animal experiments and human health. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with 0.1% DMG-Na on the growth performance, hepatic antioxidant capacity and mRNA expression of mitochondria-related genes in low birth weight (LBW) piglets during weaning period. Sixteen piglets with normal birth weight (NBW) and sixteen LBW piglets were fed either a basal diet or a 0.1% DMG-Na supplemented diet from age of 21 d to 49 d...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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