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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679855/rutin-and-rutin-conjugated-gold-nanoparticles-ameliorate-collagen-induced-arthritis-in-rats-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-inos-activation
#1
Anum Gul, Bimal Kunwar, Maryam Mazhar, Shaheen Faizi, Dania Ahmed, Muhammad Raza Shah, Shabana U Simjee
Numerous studies have suggested that nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important mediators of inflammatory response in human and animal models of arthritis. Besides, oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide (NO) and peroxide (PO) are also major contributors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Over expression of these inflammatory mediators leads to the extracellular matrix degradation, and excessive cartilage and bone resorption, ultimately leading to the irreversible damage to joints...
April 18, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679779/biomimetic-3d-in-vitro-model-of-biofilm-triggered-osteomyelitis-for-investigating-hematopoiesis-during-bone-marrow-infections
#2
Annamarija Raic, Sophie Riedel, Elena Kemmling, Karen Bieback, Joerg Overhage, Cornelia Lee-Thedieck
In this work, we define the requirements for a human-based osteomyelitis model which overcomes the limitations of state of the art animal models. Osteomyelitis is a severe and difficult to treat infection of the bone that develops rapidly, making it difficult to study in humans. We have developed a 3D in vitro model of the bone marrow, comprising a macroporous material, human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Inclusion of biofilms grown on an implant into the model system allowed us to study the effects of postoperative osteomyelitis-inducing bacteria on the bone marrow...
April 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679660/effects-of-aerobic-training-resistance-training-or-both-on-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-adolescents-with-obesity-the-hearty-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Gary S Goldfield, Glen P Kenny, Denis Prud'Homme, Martin Holcik, Angela S Alberga, Margaret Fahnestock, Jameason D Cameron, Steve Doucette, Stasia Hadjiyannakis, Heather Tulloch, Mark S Tremblay, Jeremy Walsh, Eva Guerin, Katie E Gunnell, Amedeo D'Angiulli, Ronald J Sigal
Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that plays a critical role in modulating cognition in animals and humans. Aerobic exercise often increases BDNF in adults, but effects of this exercise modality and others among adolescents remain uncertain. This study examined the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on resting serum BDNF levels in adolescents with overweight and obesity. After a 4-week pre-randomization treatment, 304 post-pubertal, adolescents with overweight or obesity (70% females) aged 14-18 years were randomized to one of four groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (N = 75), resistance training (N = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (N = 75), or non-exercising control (N = 76)...
April 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679548/the-effect-of-myelotomy-following-low-thoracic-spinal-cord-compression-injury-in-rats
#4
Carolin Meyer, Habib Bendella, Svenja Rink, Robin Gensch, Robert Seitz, Gregor Stein, Marilena Manthou, Theodora Papamitsou, Makoto Nakamura, Bertil Bouillon, Mary Galea, Peter Batchelor, Sarah Dunlop, Doychin Angelov
Myelotomy is a surgical procedure allowing removal of extravasated blood and necrotic tissue that is thought to attenuate secondary injury as well as promote recovery in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) models and humans. Here we examined in rat whether myelotomy at 48 h after low-thoracic compressive SCI provided any benefit over a 12 week period. Compared to animals receiving SCI alone, myelotomy worsened BBB scores (p < 0.05) and also did not improve plantar stepping, ladder climbing, urinary bladder voiding or sensory function (thermal latency) during the 12-week period...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679505/o-phthalate-derived-from-plastics-plasticizers-and-a-bacterium-s-solution-to-its-anaerobic-degradation
#5
R G Sawers
Phthalic acid esters (phthalates) are anthropogenic compounds that are used as plasticizers. Unfortunately, because phthalates are non-covalently intercalated into plastic polymers they leach into the environment, accumulating in anoxic sediments. This has negative consequences for animal and human health. Denitrifying Betaproteobacteria, such as Aromatoleum aromaticum, can use ortho-phthalate, derived by ester hydrolysis, as a carbon and energy source. Mergelsberg et al. (in press) deconstruct the pathway whereby ortho-phthalic acid is converted, via the highly unstable phthaloyl-CoA, to the central intermediate of anaerobic aromatic degradation, benzoyl-CoA...
April 21, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679395/placental-adaptations-to-micronutrient-dysregulation-in-the-programming-of-chronic-disease
#6
Pierre Hofstee, Daniel McKeating, Anthony V Perkins, James S M Cuffe
Poor nutrition during pregnancy is known to impair foetal development and increase the risk of chronic disease in offspring. Both macronutrients and micronutrients are required for a healthy pregnancy although significantly less is understood about the role of micronutrients in the programming of chronic disease. This is despite the fact that modern calorie rich diets are often also deficient in key micronutrients. The importance of micronutrients in gestational disorders is clearly understood but how they impact long term disease in humans requires further investigation...
April 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679288/calcium-chloride-mimics-the-effects-of-acamprosate-on-cognitive-deficits-in-chronic-alcohol-exposed-mice
#7
Grishma Pradhan, Patrick R Melugin, Fei Wu, Hannah M Fang, Rachel Weber, Sven Kroener
RATIONALE: Acamprosate (calcium-bis N-acetylhomotaurinate) is the leading medication approved for the maintenance of abstinence, shown to reduce craving and relapse in animal models and human alcoholics. Acamprosate can improve executive functions that are impaired by chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. Recent work has suggested that acamprosate's effects on relapse prevention are due to its calcium component, which raises the question whether its pro-cognitive effects are similarly mediated by calcium...
April 20, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679277/the-role-of-mitochondrial-dna-damage-at-skeletal-muscle-oxidative-stress-on-the-development-of-type-2-diabetes
#8
Julia Matzenbacher Dos Santos, Denise Silva de Oliveira, Marcos Lazaro Moreli, Sandra Aparecida Benite-Ribeiro
Reduced cellular response to insulin in skeletal muscle is one of the major components of the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mitochondrial dysfunction involves in the accumulation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to verify the involvement of mitochondrial DNA damage at ROS generation in skeletal muscle during development of T2D. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 60% fat over 8 weeks and at day 14 a single injection of STZ (25 mg/kg) was administered (T2D-induced)...
April 20, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679024/cysteine-protease-cathepsins-in-cardiovascular-disease-from-basic-research-to-clinical-trials
#9
REVIEW
Cong-Lin Liu, Junli Guo, Xian Zhang, Galina K Sukhova, Peter Libby, Guo-Ping Shi
Cysteine protease cathepsins have traditionally been considered as lysosome-restricted proteases that mediate proteolysis of unwanted proteins. However, studies from the past decade demonstrate that these proteases are localized not only in acidic compartments (endosomes and lysosomes), where they participate in intracellular protein degradation, but also in the extracellular milieu, plasma membrane, cytosol, nucleus, and nuclear membrane, where they mediate extracellular matrix protein degradation, cell signalling, and protein processing and trafficking through the plasma and nuclear membranes and between intracellular organelles...
April 20, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678910/serotype-diversity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-among-salmonella-enterica-isolated-from-patients-at-an-equine-referral-hospital
#10
I M Leon, S D Lawhon, K N Norman, D S Threadgill, N Ohta, J Vinasco, H M Scott
Although Salmonella enterica can produce life-threatening colitis in horses, certain serotypes are more commonly associated with clinical disease. Our aim was to evaluate the proportional morbidity attributed to different serotypes, as well as phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolated from patients at an equine referral hospital in the southern United States. Two-hundred-fifty-five Salmonella isolates were obtained from clinical samples of patients admitted to the hospital between 2007 and 2015...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678768/safety-assessment-of-ethanolic-extract-of-olea-europaea-l-leaves-after-acute-and-subacute-administration-to-wistar-rats
#11
Camille Gaube Guex, Fernanda Ziegler Reginato, Kássia Caroline Figueredo, Andreia Regina Haas da Silva, Fernanda Brum Pires, Roberta da Silva Jesus, Cibele Lima Lhamas, Gilberti Helena Hübscher Lopes, Liliane de Freitas Bauermann
Olea europaea L., popularly known as olive, is a plant widely used worldwide. Its leaves, fruit and oil are extensively consumed and present important pharmacological properties. However, studies regarding the toxicity of olive leaves are still limited in the literature. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate acute and subacute oral toxicities of the ethanolic extract of olive leaves (EEO) in Wistar rats through histopathology and biochemical and hematological parameters. Acute toxicity was assessed using a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of EEO administered by oral gavage to male and female rats...
April 17, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678666/biochemical-deficits-and-cognitive-decline-in-brain-aging-intervention-by-dietary-supplements
#12
REVIEW
Jit Poddar, Munmun Pradhan, Gargi Ganguly, Sasanka Chakrabarti
The aging of brain in the absence of neurodegenerative diseases, usually called non-pathological brain aging or normal cognitive aging, is characterized by an impairment of memory and cognitive functions. The underlying cellular and molecular changes in the aging brain that include oxidative damage, mitochondrial impairment, changes in glucose-energy metabolism and neuroinflammation have been reported widely from animal experiments and human studies. The cognitive deficit of non-pathological brain aging is the resultant of such inter-dependent and reinforcing molecular pathologies which have striking similarities with those operating in Alzheimer's disease which causes progressive, irreversible and a devastating form of dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly people...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678421/growth-hormone-receptor-deficient-pigs-resemble-the-pathophysiology-of-human-laron-syndrome-and-reveal-altered-activation-of-signaling-cascades-in-the-liver
#13
Arne Hinrichs, Barbara Kessler, Mayuko Kurome, Andreas Blutke, Elisabeth Kemter, Maren Bernau, Armin M Scholz, Birgit Rathkolb, Simone Renner, Sebastian Bultmann, Heinrich Leonhardt, Martin Hrabĕ de Angelis, Hiroshi Nagashima, Andreas Hoeflich, Werner F Blum, Martin Bidlingmaier, Rüdiger Wanke, Maik Dahlhoff, Eckhard Wolf
OBJECTIVE: Laron syndrome (LS) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder in humans caused by loss-of-function mutations of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. To establish a large animal model for LS, pigs with GHR knockout (KO) mutations were generated and characterized. METHODS: CRISPR/Cas9 technology was applied to mutate exon 3 of the GHR gene in porcine zygotes. Two heterozygous founder sows with a 1-bp or 7-bp insertion in GHR exon 3 were obtained, and their heterozygous F1 offspring were intercrossed to produce GHR-KO, heterozygous GHR mutant, and wild-type pigs...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678402/golden-jackals-canis-aureus-as-hosts-for-ticks-and-tick-borne-pathogens-in-serbia
#14
Ratko Sukara, Dimosthenis Chochlakis, Duško Ćirović, Aleksandra Penezić, Darko Mihaljica, Sanja Ćakić, Miroslav Valčić, Yannis Tselentis, Anna Psaroulaki, Snežana Tomanović
The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a medium-sized canid species native to Europe. This species is characterized by rapid large-scale expansion. A similar trend is also observed in Serbia, where the species is now distributed in more than a half of the territory. Although jackals prefer habitats in human-dominated landscapes, these animals have not been studied well enough from an eco-epidemiological point of view, and little is known about their potential for carrying zoonotic pathogens. In a study conducted during a three-year period (01/2010-02/2013), a total of 216 hunted or road-killed golden jackals were collected from 10 localities in Serbia...
April 10, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678185/the-intrathecal-expression-and-pathogenetic-role-of-th17-cytokines-and-cxcr2-binding-chemokines-in-tick-borne-encephalitis
#15
Sambor Grygorczuk, Renata Świerzbińska, Maciej Kondrusik, Justyna Dunaj, Piotr Czupryna, Anna Moniuszko, Agnieszka Siemieniako, Sławomir Pancewicz
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a clinically variable but potentially severe Flavivirus infection, with the outcome strongly dependent on secondary immunopathology. Neutrophils are present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of TBE patients, but their pathogenetic role remains unknown. In animal models, neutrophils contributed both to the Flavivirus entry into central nervous system (CNS) and to the control of the encephalitis, which we attempted to evaluate in human TBE. METHODS: We analyzed records of 240 patients with TBE presenting as meningitis (n = 110), meningoencephalitis (n = 114) or meningoencephalomyelitis (n = 16) assessing CSF neutrophil count on admission and at follow-up 2 weeks later, and their associations with other laboratory and clinical parameters...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678128/spirpep-an-in-silico-digestion-based-platform-to-assist-bioactive-peptides-discovery-from-a-genome-wide-database
#16
Krittima Anekthanakul, Apiradee Hongsthong, Jittisak Senachak, Marasri Ruengjitchatchawalya
BACKGROUND: Bioactive peptides, including biological sources-derived peptides with different biological activities, are protein fragments that influence the functions or conditions of organisms, in particular humans and animals. Conventional methods of identifying bioactive peptides are time-consuming and costly. To quicken the processes, several bioinformatics tools are recently used to facilitate screening of the potential peptides prior their activity assessment in vitro and/or in vivo...
April 20, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677338/evidence-of-a-retinotopic-organization-of-early-visual-cortex-but-impaired-extrastriate-processing-in-sight-recovery-individuals
#17
Suddha Sourav, Davide Bottari, Ramesh Kekunnaya, Brigitte Röder
Numerous studies in visually deprived nonhuman animals have demonstrated sensitive periods for the functional development of the early visual cortex. However, in humans it is yet unknown which visual areas are shaped to which degree based on visual experience. The present study investigated the functional organization and processing capacities of early visual cortex in sight recovery individuals with either a history of congenital cataracts (CC) or late onset cataracts (developmental cataracts, DC). Visual event-related potentials (VERPs) were recorded to grating stimuli which were flashed in one of the four quadrants of the visual field...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677133/modified-fusarium-mycotoxins-in-cereals-and-their-products-metabolism-occurrence-and-toxicity-an-updated-review
#18
REVIEW
Marcin Bryła, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Edyta Ksieniewicz-Woźniak, Krystyna Szymczyk, Renata Jędrzejczak
Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites, toxic to humans, animals and plants. Under the influence of various factors, mycotoxins may undergo modifications of their chemical structure. One of the methods of mycotoxin modification is a transformation occurring in plant cells or under the influence of fungal enzymes. This paper reviews the current knowledge on the natural occurrence of the most important trichothecenes and zearalenone in cereals/cereal products, their metabolism, and the potential toxicity of the metabolites...
April 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676526/crimean-congo-haemorrhagic-fever-virus-past-present-and-future-insights-for-animal-modelling-and-medical-countermeasures
#19
REVIEW
E J Mendoza, B Warner, D Safronetz, C Ranadheera
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral zoonosis with a case-fatality rate ranging from 9% to 50% in humans. Although a licensed vaccine to prevent infection by the CCHF virus (CCHFV) exists, its ability to induce neutralizing antibodies is limited and its efficacy against CCHFV remains undetermined. In addition, controlling CCHF infections by eradication of the tick reservoir has been ineffective, both economically and logistically, and the treatment options for CCHF remain limited...
April 20, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676112/-effect-of-animal-medicines-for-extinguishing-wind-to-arrest-convulsions-on-central-nervous-system-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Zhi-Jie Yu, Jin-Song Li, Wei Peng, Ping Wang, Liang Xiong, Yu-Jie Liu, Ying Xu, Tao Sun
The human health is seriously affected by central nervous system(CNS) diseases, but the pathogenesis of CNS diseases is still not completely clear. Currently, the drugs used to treat CNS diseases are mainly receptor modulators and neurotransmitter inhibitors, which have serious side effects; and there are short of drugs for treating CNS diseases clinically. Studies suggest that animal medicines mainly include protein, polypeptide and small-molecule compounds, and have such pharmacological effects in calming, resisting convulsions and improving brain tissues...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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