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Medial forebrain Bundle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#1
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527784/phrenic-and-hypoglossal-nerve-activity-during-respiratory-response-to-hypoxia-in-6-ohda-unilateral-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Kryspin Andrzejewski, Krystyna Budzińska, Katarzyna Kaczyńska
AIMS: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients apart from motor dysfunctions exhibit respiratory disturbances. Their mechanism is still unknown and requires investigation. Our research was designed to examine the activity of phrenic (PHR) and hypoglossal (HG) nerves activity during a hypoxic respiratory response in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of PD. MAIN METHODS: Male adult Wistar rats were injected unilaterally with 6-OHDA (20μg) or the vehicle into the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB)...
May 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470551/nuclear-derivatives-and-axonal-projections-originating-from-rhombomere-4-in-the-mouse-hindbrain
#3
Maria Di Bonito, Michèle Studer, Luis Puelles
The r4-derived territory is located in the pontine region of the brainstem, forming a wedge-shaped slice that broadens from the choroidal roof to the ventral midline. R4-derived neuronal populations migrate radially inside and tangentially outside this rhombomere, forming nuclei of the sensorimotor auditory, vestibular, trigeminal and reticular systems. R4-derived fibre tracts contribute to the lateral lemniscus, the trigeminothalamic tracts, the medial tegmental tract and the medial forebrain bundle, which variously project to the midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus and telencephalon...
May 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469875/deep-brain-stimulation-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-and-medial-forebrain-bundle-in-a-patient-with-major-depressive-disorder-and-anorexia-nervosa
#4
Patric Blomstedt, Matilda Naesström, Owe Bodlund
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may be considered in severe cases of therapy-refractory major depressive disorder (MDD). However, DBS for MDD is still an experimental therapy. Therefore, it should only be administered in clinical studies driven by multidisciplinary teams, including surgeons with substantial experience of DBS in the treatment of other conditions.
May 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451991/-18-f-fp-dtbz-pet-study-in-a-lactacystin-treated-rat-model-of-parkinson-disease
#5
Chi-Chang Weng, Siao-Lan Huang, Zi-An Chen, Kun-Ju Lin, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Tzu-Chen Yen, Mei-Ping Kung, Shiaw-Pyng Wey, Ching-Han Hsu
OBJECTIVE: Lactacystin has been used to establish rodent models of Parkinson disease (PD), with cerebral α-synuclein inclusions. This study evaluated the uptake of [(18)F]9-fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ([(18)F]FP-(+)-DTBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2)-targeting radiotracer, through positron emission tomography (PET) in lactacystin-treated rat brains. METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly treated with a single intracranial dose of lactacystin (2 or 5 μg) or saline (served as the sham control) into the left medial forebrain bundle...
April 27, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411257/relief-of-pain-depressed-behavior-in-rats-by-activation-of-d1-like-dopamine-receptors
#6
Matthew F Lazenka, Kelen C Freitas, Sydney Henck, S Stevens Negus
Clinically significant pain often includes depression of both behavior and mesolimbic dopamine signaling. Indirect and/or direct dopamine receptor agonists may alleviate pain-related behavioral depression. To test this hypothesis, the present study compared effects of indirect and direct dopamine agonists in a preclinical assay of pain-depressed operant responding. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chronic indwelling microelectrodes in the medial forebrain bundle were trained in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure to press a lever for pulses of electrical brain stimulation...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395208/increased-dopamine-receptor-expression-and-anti-depressant-response-following-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle
#7
Manoj P Dandekar, Dustin Luse, Carson Hoffmann, Patrick Cotton, Travis Peery, Christian Ruiz, Caroline Hussey, Vijayasree V Giridharan, Jair C Soares, Joao Quevedo, Albert J Fenoy
BACKGROUND: Among several potential neuroanatomical targets pursued for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treating those with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), the superolateral-branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) is emerging as a privileged location. We investigated the antidepressant-like phenotypic and chemical changes associated with reward-processing dopaminergic systems in rat brains after MFB-DBS. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, DBS-Off, and DBS-On...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391647/probabilistic-vs-deterministic-fiber-tracking-and-the-influence-of-different-seed-regions-to-delineate-cerebellar-thalamic-fibers-in-deep-brain-stimulation
#8
Juergen R Schlaier, Anton L Beer, Rupert Faltermeier, Claudia Fellner, Kathrin Steib, Max Lange, Mark W Greenlee, Alexander T Brawanski, Judith M Anthofer
This study compared tractography approaches for identifying cerebellar-thalamic fiber bundles relevant to planning target sites for deep brain stimulation (DBS). In particular, probabilistic and deterministic tracking of the dentate-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) and differences between the spatial courses of the DRTT and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) tract were compared. Six patients with movement disorders were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including two sets of diffusion-weighted images (12 and 64 directions)...
April 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390876/time-course-study-of-fractional-anisotropy-in-the-substantia-nigra-of-a-parkinsonian-rat-model-induced-by-6-ohda
#9
Wenzhong Zhang, Li Zhang, Limin Liu, Xiaomin Wang
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging technique that can be used to assess microstructural changes in a brain disease such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a commonly used parameter in DTI analysis, although properties of DTI/FA in analyzing brain modifications in PD have been poorly profiled. This study was thus designed to characterize the detailed time course of FA in the substantia nigra (SN). A rat model of PD was induced by microinfusion of 6-OHDA into the right medial forebrain bundle...
April 5, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365836/abuse-related-effects-of-subtype-selective-gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulators-in-an-assay-of-intracranial-self-stimulation-in-rats
#10
Kathryn L Schwienteck, Guanguan Li, Michael M Poe, James M Cook, Matthew L Banks, S Stevens Negus
RATIONALE: GABAA positive allosteric modulators (GABAA PAMs), such as diazepam and zolpidem, are used clinically for anxiety and insomnia, but abuse liability is a concern. Novel GABAA PAMS may have lower abuse liability while retaining clinical utility. OBJECTIVE: The present study compared abuse-related effects of the non-selective GABAA PAM diazepam, the α1-selective GABAA PAM zolpidem, and three novel GABAA PAMs (JY-XHe-053, XHe-II-053, and HZ-166) using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats...
April 1, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347345/serotonergic-system-in-hypoxic-ventilatory-response-in-unilateral-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Kryspin Andrzejewski, Katarzyna Kaczyńska, Małgorzata Zaremba
BACKGROUND: Malfunctioning of the serotonergic system in Parkinson's disease may contribute to non-motor symptoms such as respiratory complications. Thus the aim of our study was to investigate the role of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in the modulation of normoxic breathing and the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) in rat model of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Wistar rats were lesioned unilaterally with double 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection to the right medial forebrain bundle (MFB)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322980/role-of-perineuronal-nets-in-the-anterior-dorsal-lateral-hypothalamic-area-in-the-acquisition-of-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-and-self-administration
#12
Jordan M Blacktop, Ryan P Todd, Barbara A Sorg
Addiction involves drug-induced neuroplasticity in the circuitry of motivated behavior, which includes the medial forebrain bundle and the lateral hypothalamic area. Emerging at the forefront of neuroplasticity regulation are specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) structures that form perineuronal nets (PNNs) around certain neurons, mainly parvalbumin positive (PV(+)), fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs), making them a promising target for the regulation of drug-induced neuroplasticity. Despite the emerging significance of PNNs in drug-induced neuroplasticity and the well-established role of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) in reward, reinforcement, and motivation, very little is known about how PNN-expressing neurons control drug-seeking behavior...
May 15, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321600/post-6-ohda-lesion-exposure-to-stress-affects-neurotrophic-factor-expression-and-aggravates-motor-impairment
#13
Phumzile Nomfundo Ngema, Musa Vuyisile Mabandla
Chronic exposure to stress amplifies locomotor deficits and exacerbates dopamine neuron loss in an animal model for Parkinson's disease. The release of neurotrophic factors such as glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) following neuronal injury attenuates exacerbated degeneration of these neurons. In this study, the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was injected unilaterally into the medial forebrain bundle of male Sprague Dawley rats. A subset of these rats was subjected to post-lesion restraint stress after which the effect of exposure to stress on locomotor activity (forelimb akinesia test), neurotrophic factor (GDNF and NT-3) and corticosterone concentration was assessed...
March 20, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316564/functional-circuitry-effect-of-ventral-tegmental-area-deep-brain-stimulation-imaging-and-neurochemical-evidence-of-mesocortical-and-mesolimbic-pathway-modulation
#14
Megan L Settell, Paola Testini, Shinho Cho, Jannifer H Lee, Charles D Blaha, Hang J Jo, Kendall H Lee, Hoon-Ki Min
Background: The ventral tegmental area (VTA), containing mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic neurons, is implicated in processes involving reward, addiction, reinforcement, and learning, which are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Electrical stimulation of the VTA or the medial forebrain bundle and its projection target the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is reported to improve depressive symptoms in patients affected by severe, treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD) and depressive-like symptoms in animal models of depression...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259544/deep-brain-stimulation-to-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-for-depression-long-term-outcomes-and-a-novel-data-analysis-strategy
#15
Bettina H Bewernick, Sarah Kayser, Sabrina M Gippert, Christina Switala, Volker A Coenen, Thomas E Schlaepfer
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the supero-lateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (slMFB) in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is associated with acute antidepressant effects. OBJECTIVE: Long-term clinical effects including changes in quality of life, side effects and cognition as well as long-term data covering four years are assessed. METHODS: Eight TRD patients were treated with DBS bilateral to the slMFB. Primary outcome measure was a 50% reduction in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (response) and remission (MADRS <10) at 12 months compared to baseline...
May 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256089/striatal-activation-by-optogenetics-induces-dyskinesias-in-the-6-hydroxydopamine-rat-model-of-parkinson-disease
#16
Ledia F Hernández, Ivan Castela, Irene Ruiz-DeDiego, Jose A Obeso, Rosario Moratalla
BACKGROUND: Long-term levodopa (l-dopa) treatment is associated with the development of l-dopa-induced dyskinesias in the majority of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The etiopathogonesis and mechanisms underlying l-dopa-induced dyskinesias are not well understood. METHODS: We used striatal optogenetic stimulation to induce dyskinesias in a hemiparkinsonian model of PD in rats. Striatal dopamine depletion was induced unilaterally by 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle...
April 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239519/white-matter-integrity-of-the-medial-forebrain-bundle-and-attention-and-working-memory-deficits-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Jacqueline A Owens, Gershon Spitz, Jennie L Ponsford, Alicia R Dymowski, Nicholas Ferris, Catherine Willmott
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The medial forebrain bundle (MFB) contains ascending catecholamine fibers that project to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Damage to these fibers following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may alter extracellular catecholamine levels in the PFC and impede attention and working memory ability. This study investigated white matter microstructure of the medial MFB, specifically the supero-lateral branch (slMFB), following TBI, and its association with performance on attention and working memory tasks...
February 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223037/asymmetric-dopaminergic-degeneration-and-levodopa-alter-functional-corticostriatal-connectivity-bilaterally-in-experimental-parkinsonism
#18
Cyril Monnot, Xiaoqun Zhang, Sahar Nikkhou-Aski, Peter Damberg, Per Svenningsson
Asymmetric dopamine loss is commonly found in early Parkinson's disease (PD), but its effects on functional networks have been difficult to delineate in PD patients because of variations in age, disease duration and therapy. Here we used unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned (6-OHDA) rats and controls and treated them with a single intraperitoneal injection of levodopa (L-DOPA) before performing diffusion weighted MRI and resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). In accordance with a neurodegeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, diffusion tensor imaging showed increased radial diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy in the lesioned substantia nigra...
June 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197194/cortical-regulation-of-striatal-projection-neurons-and-interneurons-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-rat-model
#19
Jia-Jia Wu, Si Chen, Li-Si Ouyang, Yu Jia, Bing-Bing Liu, Shu-Hua Mu, Yu-Xin Ma, Wei-Ping Wang, Jia-You Wei, You-Lan Li, Zhi Chen, Wan-Long Lei
Striatal neurons can be either projection neurons or interneurons, with each type exhibiting distinct susceptibility to various types of brain damage. In this study, 6-hydroxydopamine was injected into the right medial forebrain bundle to induce dopamine depletion, and/or ibotenic acid was injected into the M1 cortex to induce motor cortex lesions. Immunohistochemistry and western blot assay showed that dopaminergic depletion results in significant loss of striatal projection neurons marked by dopamine- and cyclic adenosine monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, molecular weight 32 kDa, calbindin, and μ-opioid receptor, while cortical lesions reversed these pathological changes...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167338/dissociation-between-dopaminergic-response-and-motor-behavior-following-intrastriatal-but-not-intravenous-transplant-of-bone-marrow-mononuclear-stem-cells-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Caroline Calice da Silva, Bárbara Nunes Azevedo, Denise Cantarelli Machado, Eduardo R Zimmer, Leo Anderson Meira Martins, Jaderson Costa da Costa
Parkinson's disease is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra, a process that leads to a dopamine deficiency in the striatum. This deficiency is responsible for the development of motor symptoms, including resting tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability. Based on the observation of substantial neuronal death, alternatives to Parkinson's disease treatment have been studied, including cell-based therapies. The present study aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of intravenous and intrastriatal transplant of bone marrow mononuclear cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease...
May 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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