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SGLT2 inhibition type 1 diabetes mellitus

Ildiko Lingvay
OBJECTIVE: This article reviews evidence supporting sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor combination therapy for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We conducted a non-systematic review of the literature focusing on single-pill or fixed-dose combinations of SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors available in the United States. RESULTS: SGLT2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors have complementary mechanisms of action that address several of the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities present in T2DM without overlapping toxicities...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
Marino Quarella, Daniel Walser, Michael Brändle, Jean-Yves Fournier, Stefan Bilz
Context: Diabetic ketoacidosis has been described as a rare complication of acromegaly and may be observed in 1% of affected patients. The well described direct lipolytic effect of growth hormone results in increased availability of free fatty acids (FFA) for hepatic ketogenesis and is an important pathogenic event. More recently, ketoacidosis has been identified as an important complication of sodium-glucose-transport-protein 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i). Increased pancreatic glucagon secretion, impaired renal ketone body clearance and an increase in FFA concentrations secondary to decreased insulin concentrations are likely precipitating factors...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Hussein Al Jobori, Giuseppe Daniele, John Adams, Eugenio Cersosimo, Curtis Triplitt, Ralph A DeFronzo, Muhammad Abdul-Ghani
AIM: To examine metabolic factors that influence ketone production after sodium-glucose cotransport inhibitor (SGLT2) administration RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, free fatty acid and ketone concentrations were measured in 15 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 16 non-diabetic subjects before and at 1 and 14 days after treatment with empagliflozin. RESULTS: Empagliflozin caused 38 mg/dl reduction in the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration in T2DM patients...
January 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Hongyu Qiu, Aleksandra Novikov, Volker Vallon
Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 are a new class of anti-hyperglycemic drugs that have been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These drugs inhibit glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubules of the kidney thereby enhancing glucosuria and lowering blood glucose levels. Additional consequences and benefits include a reduction in body weight, uric acid levels, and blood pressure. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibition can have protective effects on the kidney and cardiovascular system in patients with T2DM and high cardiovascular risk...
January 18, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Thomas C Blevins, Azeez Farooki
Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), lowers blood glucose by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and increasing urinary glucose excretion. It has been reported that SGLT2 inhibitors may have potential adverse effects on bone, including increased fracture risk and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Across clinical studies, canagliflozin was not associated with meaningful changes in serum or urine calcium, vitamin D, or parathyroid hormone...
January 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
Mathew John, Sonia Cerdas, Rafael Violante, Chaicharn Deerochanawong, Mohamed Hassanein, April Slee, William Canovatchel, Gill Hamilton
AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have increased risk of adverse events (AEs; e.g. dehydration, hypoglycaemia) in hot weather. This analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in patients with T2DM who live in hot climates. METHODS: This post hoc analysis evaluated patients with T2DM using pooled data from four 26-week, placebo-controlled studies (N=2,313) and data from a 104-week, active-controlled study (add-on to metformin vs glimepiride; N=1,450)...
September 2016: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Jagdeep S S Singh, Amir Fathi, Keeran Vickneson, Ify Mordi, Mohapradeep Mohan, J Graeme Houston, Ewan R Pearson, Allan D Struthers, Chim C Lang
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) and diabetes (DM) are a lethal combination. The current armamentarium of anti-diabetic agents has been shown to be less efficacious and sometimes even harmful in diabetic patients with concomitant cardiovascular disease, especially HF. Sodium glucose linked co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of anti-diabetic agent that has shown potentially beneficial cardiovascular effects such as pre-load and after load reduction through osmotic diuresis, blood pressure reduction, reduced arterial stiffness and weight loss...
July 15, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Yoon-Kyung Chang, Hyunsu Choi, Jin Young Jeong, Ki-Ryang Na, Kang Wook Lee, Beom Jin Lim, Dae Eun Choi
Dapagliflozin, a new type of drug used to treat diabetes mellitus (DM), is a sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. Although some studies showed that SGLT2 inhibition attenuated reactive oxygen generation in diabetic kidney the role of SGLT2 inhibition is unknown. We evaluated whether SLT2 inhibition has renoprotective effects in ischemia-reperfusion (IR) models. We evaluated whether dapagliflozin reduces renal damage in IR mice model. In addition, hypoxic HK2 cells were treated with or without SGLT2 inhibitor to investigate cell survival, the apoptosis signal pathway, and the induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) and associated proteins...
2016: PloS One
Lawrence Blonde, Kaj Stenlöf, Albert Fung, John Xie, William Canovatchel, Gary Meininger
OBJECTIVES: Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with weight loss in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis further evaluated changes in body weight and composition with canagliflozin in two 104-week, Phase 3 studies. METHODS: In Study 1, patients aged 18-80 years (N = 1,450) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or glimepiride as add-on to metformin for a 52-week core treatment period, followed by a 52-week extension period...
May 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Kristina Johnsson, Eva Johnsson, Traci A Mansfield, Yshai Yavin, Agata Ptaszynska, Shamik J Parikh
OBJECTIVE: Dapagliflozin reduces hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and lowers blood pressure, at least in part, secondary to mild diuresis consequent to dapagliflozin-induced glucosuria. While blood-pressure lowering may contribute to cardiovascular risk reduction, dapagliflozin-induced diuresis may potentially contribute to adverse events (AEs) of volume reduction. The present analysis compared the frequency of AEs of volume reduction between dapagliflozin and placebo...
May 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
Bertrand Cariou, Bernard Charbonnel
INTRODUCTION: SGLT1 is the primary transporter responsible for the absorption of glucose and galactose in the intestine, while SGLT2 and SGLT1 are both involved in the renal reabsorption of glucose. SGLT2 inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs, acting by increasing urinary glucose excretion (UGE). They offer the advantages of a reduced risk of hypoglycaemia, a decrease in body weight and blood pressure and an efficacy at all stages of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). AREAS COVERED: Herein, the authors focus specifically on sotagliflozin (LX4211), the first-in-class dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor...
2015: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Paola Fioretto, Andrea Giaccari, Giorgio Sesti
Although antidiabetic agents have been developed to target one or more of the core defects of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), many patients do not achieve glycemic goals. Inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) induces glycosuria, reduces glucose toxicity and improves insulin sensitivity and β-cell function. As the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors is different from other agents and completely insulin-independent, the use of these drugs might potentially be efficacious alone or in combination with any other antidiabetic drug, including insulin...
October 17, 2015: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Meiyan Jiang, Peter S Steyger
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing and serious global health problem. Pharmacological inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) increases urinary glucose excretion, decreasing plasma glucose levels in an insulin-independent manner. Agents that inhibit SGLT2 have recently become available for clinical therapy of T2DM. AREAS COVERED: The patent claims a new class of SGLT2 inhibitors: derivatives of dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2,3,4-triol (including ertugliflozin; PF-04971729)...
2015: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Meiyan Jiang, Peter S Steyger
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing and serious global health problem. Pharmacological inhibition of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2; SLC5A2) increases urinary glucose excretion, decreasing plasma glucose levels in an insulin-independent manner. Agents that inhibit SGLT2 have recently become available for clinical therapy of T2DM. Areas covered: The patent claims a new class of SGLT2 inhibitors: derivatives of dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2,3,4-triol (including ertugliflozin; PF-04971729). The invention describes the design, synthesis and pharmacological tests related to ertugliflozin, which could ultimately lead to efficacious therapy for T2DM alone or in combination with other anti-diabetic agents...
August 6, 2015: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
Takahiro Oguma, Keiko Nakayama, Chiaki Kuriyama, Yasuaki Matsushita, Kumiko Yoshida, Kumiko Hikida, Naoyuki Obokata, Minoru Tsuda-Tsukimoto, Akira Saito, Kenji Arakawa, Kiichiro Ueta, Masaharu Shiotani
The sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1 plays a major role in glucose absorption and incretin hormone release in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the impact of SGLT1 inhibition on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in vivo is controversial. We analyzed the effects of SGLT1 inhibitors on GLP-1 secretion in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rodents using phloridzin, CGMI [3-(4-cyclopropylphenylmethyl)-1-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-4-methylindole], and canagliflozin. These compounds are SGLT2 inhibitors with moderate SGLT1 inhibitory activity, and their IC50 values against rat SGLT1 and mouse SGLT1 were 609 and 760 nM for phloridzin, 39...
September 2015: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Greg Fulcher, David R Matthews, Vlado Perkovic, Dick de Zeeuw, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Robert Weiss, Julio Rosenstock, George Capuano, Mehul Desai, Wayne Shaw, Frank Vercruysse, Gary Meininger, Bruce Neal
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, was evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled on sulfonylurea monotherapy. METHODS: The CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcomes study that randomized participants to placebo or canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg once daily in addition to routine therapy...
September 2015: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Martin Prázný, Jiří Slíva
Empagliflozin is a new medicine used to reduce hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. It belongs to the most advanced class of antidiabetic drugs, known as gliflozins, which prevent reabsorption of glucose through inhibiting SGLT2 sodium-glucose cotransporter. Thereby they cause therapeutic glycosuria, thanks to which a loss of approximately 70 g of glucose per day occurs. This not only effects the decrease in glycemia, but also the loss of body mass, since this excreted glucose cannot be used as an energetic substrate...
February 2015: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Tsuyoshi Ohkura
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition induces glucosuria and decreases blood glucose levels in diabetic patients and lowers hypoglycemic risk. SGLT1 is expressed in the kidney and intestine; SGLT1 inhibition causes abdominal symptoms such as diarrhea and reduces incretin secretion. Therefore, SGLT2 selectivity is important. Ipragliflozin is highly selective for SGLT2. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), urinary glucose excretion increased to 90 g/24 h after 28 d of treatment with ipragliflozin 300 mg/d...
February 15, 2015: World Journal of Diabetes
Manoj Khurana, Jayabharathi Vaidyanathan, Anshu Marathe, Nitin Mehrotra, Chandrahas G Sahajwalla, Issam Zineh, Lokesh Jain
Canagliflozin (INVOKANA™) is approved as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Canagliflozin inhibits renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), thereby, reducing reabsorption of filtered glucose and increasing urinary glucose excretion. Given the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, we assessed the interplay between renal function, efficacy (HbA1c reduction), and safety (renal adverse reactions). The focus of this article is to highlight the FDA's quantitative clinical pharmacology analyses that were conducted to support the regulatory decision on dosing in patients with renal impairment (RI)...
June 2015: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Brian Zambrowicz, Pablo Lapuerta, Paul Strumph, Phillip Banks, Alan Wilson, Ike Ogbaa, Arthur Sands, David Powell
PURPOSE: We sought to assess the efficacy and safety profile of LX4211, a dual inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter1 (SGLT1) and SGLT2, in patients with type 2 diabetes and renal impairment. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were randomly assigned to receive 400 mg of LX4211 or placebo for 7 days. The primary end point was the change from baseline to day 7 in postprandial glucose (PPG) levels...
January 1, 2015: Clinical Therapeutics
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