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Stephan bischoff

Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (also known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926; in the following S. boulardii) has proven its effectiveness in preventive and therapeutic treatment of many gastrointestinal diseases, especially diseases associated with acute diarrhea. In particular, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, traveller's diarrhea, as well as acute diarrhea due to common viral and bacterial infections in children and adults...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Colm G Connolly, Stephan J Jordan, Gregory G Brown, Martin P Paulus, Susan F Tapert, Robert K Heaton, Steven P Woods, Igor Grant
BACKGROUND: Chronic methamphetamine use may lead to changes in reward-related function of the ventral striatum and caudate nucleus. Whether methamphetamine-dependent individuals show heightened reactivity to positively valenced stimuli (i.e. positive reinforcement mechanisms), or an exaggerated response to negatively valenced stimuli (i.e. driven by negative reinforcement mechanisms) remains unclear. This study investigated neural functioning of expectancy and receipt for gains and losses in adults with (METH+) and without (METH-) histories of methamphetamine dependence...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Gyöngyi Bárdos, Maureen J Ostaff, Jan Wehkamp, Stephan C Bischoff
The intestinal barrier is gaining increasing attention because it is related to intestinal homeostasis and disease. Different parameters have been used in the past to assess intestinal barrier functions in experimental studies; however most of them are poorly defined in healthy mice. Here, we compared a number of barrier markers in healthy mice, established normal values and correlations. In 48 mice (24 C57BL/6J, 24 BALB/cJ background), we measured mucus thickness, and expression of mucin-2, α-defensin-1 and -4, zonula occludens-1, occludin, junctional adhesion molecule-A, claudin-1, 2 and -5...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
Martin Linck, Peter Hartel, Stephan Uhlemann, Frank Kahl, Heiko Müller, Joachim Zach, Max Haider, Marcel Niestadt, Maarten Bischoff, Johannes Biskupek, Zhongbo Lee, Tibor Lehnert, Felix Börrnert, Harald Rose, Ute Kaiser
Atomic resolution in transmission electron microscopy of thin and light-atom materials requires a rigorous reduction of the beam energy to reduce knockon damage. However, at the same time, the chromatic aberration deteriorates the resolution of the TEM image dramatically. Within the framework of the SALVE project, we introduce a newly developed C_{c}/C_{s} corrector that is capable of correcting both the chromatic and the spherical aberration in the range of accelerating voltages from 20 to 80 kV. The corrector allows correcting axial aberrations up to fifth order as well as the dominating off-axial aberrations...
August 12, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Marion Kiechle, Christoph Engel, Anika Berling, Katrin Hebestreit, Stephan C Bischoff, Ricarda Dukatz, Michael Siniatchkin, Katharina Pfeifer, Sabine Grill, Maryam Yahiaoui-Doktor, Ellen Kirsch, Uwe Niederberger, Ute Enders, Markus Löffler, Alfons Meindl, Kerstin Rhiem, Rita Schmutzler, Nicole Erickson, Martin Halle
BACKGROUND: Women with highly penetrant BRCA mutations have a 55-60 % lifetime risk for breast cancer and a 16-59 % lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. However, penetrance differs interindividually, indicating that environmental and behavioral factors may modify this risk. It is well documented that the risk for sporadic breast cancer disease can be modified by changing lifestyle factors that primarily include physical activity, dietary habits, and body weight. It can thus be hypothesized that the modification of these lifestyle factors may also influence the incidence and progression of cancer in BRCA mutation carriers...
2016: Trials
Stephan C Bischoff, Valentina Volynets
Data from literature suggests that laboratory mice are often overfed and malnourished. This might have several reasons, including: (i) we usually offer an ad libitum diet, which is not the natural way of feeding for a wild mouse; (ii) many commercial diets we use contain rather high amounts of carbohydrates, particularly of sugars, and low amounts of fat; and (iii) laboratory mice live in a warm and constricted environment in which energy expenditure is lower than in the wild. Such selective or global overfeeding in laboratory mice, which resembles the widespread overfeeding in humans, although it does not always result in overweight, likely affects a number of outcome variables analyzed in laboratory mice, such as microbiota composition and function, metabolic alterations, longevity, intestinal permeability and inflammation...
August 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Cheng Jun Jin, Anna Janina Engstler, Doreen Ziegenhardt, Stephan C Bischoff, Christian Trautwein, Ina Bergheim
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested in several studies that an increased translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequently an activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent signaling pathways in the liver may contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Eight-week old lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) -/- and wild-type (WT) mice were pair-fed either a liquid diet rich in fat, fructose and cholesterol (=Western-style diet, WSD) or a control liquid diet for eight weeks...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Sonja N Heinritz, Eva Weiss, Meike Eklund, Tobias Aumiller, Charlotte M E Heyer, Sabine Messner, Andreas Rings, Sandrine Louis, Stephan C Bischoff, Rainer Mosenthin
To further elaborate interactions between nutrition, gut microbiota and host health, an animal model to simulate changes in microbial composition and activity due to dietary changes similar to those in humans is needed. Therefore, the impact of two different diets on cecal and colonic microbial gene copies and metabolic activity, organ development and biochemical parameters in blood serum was investigated using a pig model. Four pigs were either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for seven weeks, with both diets being isocaloric...
2016: Nutrients
Lisa Bounoure, Filomena Gomes, Zeno Stanga, Ulrich Keller, Rémy Meier, Peter Ballmer, Rebecca Fehr, Beat Mueller, Laurence Genton, Pauline Coti Bertrand, Kristina Norman, Christoph Henzen, Alessandro Laviano, Stephan Bischoff, Stéphane M Schneider, Jens Kondrup, Philipp Schuetz
OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of malnutrition in the general inpatient population, there is a lack of knowledge in regard to detecting disease-related malnutrition and implementing nutritional support. Our aim was to suggest practical procedures for screening and treating malnourished or at-risk patients hospitalized in medical wards, thereby fostering a straightforward implementation of nutritional therapy independent of the underlying disease and comorbidities. METHODS: A working group of experts in clinical nutrition selected and analyzed published disease-specific European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines relevant for our aim...
July 2016: Nutrition
Sonja N Heinritz, Eva Weiss, Meike Eklund, Tobias Aumiller, Sandrine Louis, Andreas Rings, Sabine Messner, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Jana Seifert, Stephan C Bischoff, Rainer Mosenthin
The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host's health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks...
2016: PloS One
Philipp Rausch, Marijana Basic, Arvind Batra, Stephan C Bischoff, Michael Blaut, Thomas Clavel, Joachim Gläsner, Shreya Gopalakrishnan, Guntram A Grassl, Claudia Günther, Dirk Haller, Misa Hirose, Saleh Ibrahim, Gunnar Loh, Jochen Mattner, Stefan Nagel, Oliver Pabst, Franziska Schmidt, Britta Siegmund, Till Strowig, Valentina Volynets, Stefan Wirtz, Sebastian Zeissig, Yvonne Zeissig, André Bleich, John F Baines
The intestinal microbiota is involved in many physiological processes and it is increasingly recognized that differences in community composition can influence the outcome of a variety of murine models used in biomedical research. In an effort to describe and account for the variation in intestinal microbiota composition across the animal facilities of participating members of the DFG Priority Program 1656 "Intestinal Microbiota", we performed a survey of C57BL/6J mice from 21 different mouse rooms/facilities located at 13 different institutions across Germany...
August 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Yvonne Hagenlocher, Katharina Feilhauer, Michael Schäffer, Stephan C Bischoff, Axel Lorentz
PURPOSE: Allergic diseases with mast cells (MC) as main effector cells show an increased prevalence. MC also play an essential role in other inflammatory conditions. Therapeutical use of anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals directly targeting MC activation could be of interest for afflicted patients. Nobiletin and tangeretin are citrus peel polymethoxyflavones, a group of citrus flavonoids, possessing anticancer, antimetastatic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we analyzed the effects of nobiletin/tangeretin on LPS- and IgE-mediated stimulation of human intestinal mast cells (hiMC)...
March 28, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Yvonne Hagenlocher, Angela Hösel, Stephan C Bischoff, Axel Lorentz
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) shows an increasing prevalence and harm in western countries. Conventional therapies are associated with bad compliance and adverse side effects. Natural substances like cinnamon extract (CE) could be an additional therapy. We found recently that CE acts anti-inflammatory on mast cells - discussed of being relevant in IBD. Here, we analysed the effects of CE on murine IL-10(-/-) colitis as model for IBD. Mice were treated 12 weeks with or without CE in drinking water. Clinical scores and disease activity index were assessed...
April 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Christiane Druml, Peter E Ballmer, Wilfred Druml, Frank Oehmichen, Alan Shenkin, Pierre Singer, Peter Soeters, Arved Weimann, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The worldwide debate over the use of artificial nutrition and hydration remains controversial although the scientific and medical facts are unequivocal. Artificial nutrition and hydration are a medical intervention, requiring an indication, a therapeutic goal and the will (consent) of the competent patient. METHODS: The guideline was developed by an international multidisciplinary working group based on the main aspects of the Guideline on "Ethical and Legal Aspects of Artificial Nutrition" published 2013 by the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) after conducting a review of specific current literature...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Sandrine Louis, Rewati-Mukund Tappu, Antje Damms-Machado, Daniel H Huson, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cross-sectional studies suggested that obesity is promoted by the gut microbiota. However, longitudinal data on taxonomic and functional changes in the gut microbiota of obese patients are scarce. The aim of this work is to study microbiota changes in the course of weight loss therapy and the following year in obese individuals with or without co-morbidities, and to asses a possible predictive value of the gut microbiota with regard to weight loss maintenance. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixteen adult patients, who followed a 52-week weight-loss program comprising low calorie diet, exercise and behavioral therapy, were selected according to their weight-loss course...
2016: PloS One
Stephan Halle, Kirsten Anja Keyser, Felix Rolf Stahl, Andreas Busche, Anja Marquardt, Xiang Zheng, Melanie Galla, Vigo Heissmeyer, Katrin Heller, Jasmin Boelter, Karen Wagner, Yvonne Bischoff, Rieke Martens, Asolina Braun, Kathrin Werth, Alexey Uvarovskii, Harald Kempf, Michael Meyer-Hermann, Ramon Arens, Melanie Kremer, Gerd Sutter, Martin Messerle, Reinhold Förster
According to in vitro assays, T cells are thought to kill rapidly and efficiently, but the efficacy and dynamics of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated killing of virus-infected cells in vivo remains elusive. We used two-photon microscopy to quantify CTL-mediated killing in mice infected with herpesviruses or poxviruses. On average, one CTL killed 2-16 virus-infected cells per day as determined by real-time imaging and by mathematical modeling. In contrast, upon virus-induced MHC class I downmodulation, CTLs failed to destroy their targets...
February 16, 2016: Immunity
Stephan C Bischoff
Mast cells are constitutively found in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The three major physiological functions of GI mast cells comprise of - as far as we know - regulation of GI functions, namely epithelial and endothelial functions, crosstalk with the enteric nervous system, and contribution to the host defense against bacterial, viral and parasitic agents. A number of chronic GI diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and food allergies, are thought to be associated with mast cell hyperplasia and humoral activity...
May 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Asja E Schollenberger, Judith Karschin, Tobias Meile, Markus A Küper, Alfred Königsrainer, Stephan C Bischoff
OBJECTIVES: Bariatric patients are at risk of protein deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine possible benefits of postoperative protein supplementation weight reduction, body composition, and protein status. METHODS: Twenty obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery were randomized either to the protein (PRO) group, which received a daily protein supplement over 6 months postoperatively, or to the control (CON) group, which received an isocaloric placebo in a double-blind fashion...
February 2016: Nutrition
Stanislaw Klek, Michael Chourdakis, Stephan Bischoff, Sergiej Dubrov, Alastair Forbes, Aleksander Galas, Laurence Genton, Haldun R Gundogdu, Oivind Irtun, Ilze Jagmane, Triin Jakobson-Forbes, Adam Jirka, Nicholas Kennedy, Andrius Klimasauskas, Igor Khoroshilov, Miguel Leon-Sanz, Maurizio Muscaritoli, Marina Panisic-Sekeljic, Kalliopi Anna Poulia, Stephane Schneider, Ulla Siljamäki-Ojansuu, Mehmet Uyar, Geert Wanten, Zeljko Krznaric
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Malnutrition represents a serious health care threat, as it increases morbidity, mortality and health care cost. The effective screening and treatment with enteral (EN) or parenteral (PN) nutrition are the key elements of the policy called Optimal Nutrition Care for All (ONCA). The study tried to analyze the impact of the state's economy on the implementation of EN and PN to define its role in ONCA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: an international survey in twenty two European countries was performed between January and December 2014...
October 30, 2015: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Stephan C Bischoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes our current knowledge of changes in the intestinal microbiota in elderly people and centenarians. RECENT FINDINGS: Age-related processes comprise specific changes in the intestinal microbiota and related metabolic alterations. They result in 'inflamm-aging', which is associated with age-related inflammatory processes and diseases, including cachexia, frailty, cancer, and metabolic as well as neurological diseases. Age-related microbial changes consist of an increase in proteolytic bacteria and a decrease in saccharolytic bacteria...
January 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
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