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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385477/espen-guideline-clinical-nutrition-in-surgery
#1
Arved Weimann, Marco Braga, Franco Carli, Takashi Higashiguchi, Martin Hübner, Stanislaw Klek, Alessandro Laviano, Olle Ljungqvist, Dileep N Lobo, Robert Martindale, Dan L Waitzberg, Stephan C Bischoff, Pierre Singer
Early oral feeding is the preferred mode of nutrition for surgical patients. Avoidance of any nutritional therapy bears the risk of underfeeding during the postoperative course after major surgery. Considering that malnutrition and underfeeding are risk factors for postoperative complications, early enteral feeding is especially relevant for any surgical patient at nutritional risk, especially for those undergoing upper gastrointestinal surgery. The focus of this guideline is to cover nutritional aspects of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) concept and the special nutritional needs of patients undergoing major surgery, e...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356436/intestinal-barrier-function-and-the-gut-microbiome-are-differentially-affected-in-mice-fed-a-western-style-diet-or-drinking-water-supplemented-with-fructose
#2
Valentina Volynets, Sandrine Louis, Dominik Pretz, Lisa Lang, Maureen J Ostaff, Jan Wehkamp, Stephan C Bischoff
Background: The consumption of a Western-style diet (WSD) and high fructose intake are risk factors for metabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms are largely unclear.Objective: To unravel the mechanisms by which a WSD and fructose promote metabolic disease, we investigated their effects on the gut microbiome and barrier function.Methods: Adult female C57BL/6J mice were fed a sugar- and fat-rich WSD or control diet (CD) for 12 wk and given access to tap water or fructose-supplemented water. The microbiota was analyzed with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324642/cinnamon-reduces-inflammatory-response-in-intestinal-fibroblasts-in-vitro-and-in-colitis-in-vivo-leading-to-decreased-fibrosis
#3
Yvonne Hagenlocher, Sabrina Satzinger, Mehtap Civelek, Katharina Feilhauer, Jörg Köninger, Stephan C Bischoff, Axel Lorentz
Intestinal fibrosis, a complication of inflammatory bowel disease, is currently being addressed by surgery alone, with no adequate alternative therapy available for patients. We propose that anti-inflammatory plant substances like cinnamon extract (CE) or its main compound cinnamaldeyde (CA) could aid in therapy. We recently found CE reducing inflammation in murine colitis. Here, we analysed effects of CE on fibrosis in IL-10(-/-) colitis METHODS AND RESULTS: IL-10(-/-) and wild type (wt) mice were orally treated with/without vehicle or CE...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131521/espen-guideline-clinical-nutrition-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Alastair Forbes, Johanna Escher, Xavier Hébuterne, Stanisław Kłęk, Zeljko Krznaric, Stéphane Schneider, Raanan Shamir, Kalina Stardelova, Nicolette Wierdsma, Anthony E Wiskin, Stephan C Bischoff
INTRODUCTION: The ESPEN guideline presents a multidisciplinary focus on clinical nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODOLOGY: The guideline is based on extensive systematic review of the literature, but relies on expert opinion when objective data were lacking or inconclusive. The conclusions and 64 recommendations have been subject to full peer review and a Delphi process in which uniformly positive responses (agree or strongly agree) were required...
April 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049662/gut-permeability-is-related-to-body-weight-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-individuals-undergoing-weight-reduction
#5
Antje Damms-Machado, Sandrine Louis, Anna Schnitzer, Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Maryam Basrai, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. OBJECTIVE: We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. DESIGN: Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 43...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890486/towards-a-multidisciplinary-approach-to-understand-and-manage-obesity-and-related-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Stephan C Bischoff, Yves Boirie, Tommy Cederholm, Michael Chourdakis, Cristina Cuerda, Nathalie M Delzenne, Nicolaas E Deutz, Denis Fouque, Laurence Genton, Carmen Gil, Berthold Koletzko, Miguel Leon-Sanz, Raanan Shamir, Joelle Singer, Pierre Singer, Nanette Stroebele-Benschop, Anders Thorell, Arved Weimann, Rocco Barazzoni
Overnutrition and sedentary lifestyle result in overweight or obesity defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. According to the WHO, the worldwide prevalence of obesity nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008. In 2008, over 50% of both men and women in the WHO European Region were overweight, and approximately 23% of women and 20% of men were obese. Comprehensive diagnostic and therapeutic approaches should include nutritional treatment to favor the best metabolic and nutritional outcome, as well as to induce potential disease-specific benefits from selected nutritional regimens...
November 16, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695355/influence-of-saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745on-the-gut-associated-immune-system
#7
Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (also known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926; in the following S. boulardii) has proven its effectiveness in preventive and therapeutic treatment of many gastrointestinal diseases, especially diseases associated with acute diarrhea. In particular, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, traveller's diarrhea, as well as acute diarrhea due to common viral and bacterial infections in children and adults...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649775/altered-reward-expectancy-in-individuals-with-recent-methamphetamine-dependence
#8
Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Colm G Connolly, Stephan J Jordan, Gregory G Brown, Martin P Paulus, Susan F Tapert, Robert K Heaton, Steven P Woods, Igor Grant
BACKGROUND: Chronic methamphetamine use may lead to changes in reward-related function of the ventral striatum and caudate nucleus. Whether methamphetamine-dependent individuals show heightened reactivity to positively valenced stimuli (i.e. positive reinforcement mechanisms), or an exaggerated response to negatively valenced stimuli (i.e. driven by negative reinforcement mechanisms) remains unclear. This study investigated neural functioning of expectancy and receipt for gains and losses in adults with (METH+) and without (METH-) histories of methamphetamine dependence...
January 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583194/intestinal-barrier-analysis-by-assessment-of-mucins-tight-junctions-and-%C3%AE-defensins-in-healthy-c57bl-6j-and-balb-cj-mice
#9
Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Gyöngyi Bárdos, Maureen J Ostaff, Jan Wehkamp, Stephan C Bischoff
The intestinal barrier is gaining increasing attention because it is related to intestinal homeostasis and disease. Different parameters have been used in the past to assess intestinal barrier functions in experimental studies; however most of them are poorly defined in healthy mice. Here, we compared a number of barrier markers in healthy mice, established normal values and correlations. In 48 mice (24 C57BL/6J, 24 BALB/cJ background), we measured mucus thickness, and expression of mucin-2, α-defensin-1 and -4, zonula occludens-1, occludin, junctional adhesion molecule-A, claudin-1, 2 and -5...
July 2016: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563976/chromatic-aberration-correction-for-atomic-resolution-tem-imaging-from-20-to-80%C3%A2-kv
#10
Martin Linck, Peter Hartel, Stephan Uhlemann, Frank Kahl, Heiko Müller, Joachim Zach, Max Haider, Marcel Niestadt, Maarten Bischoff, Johannes Biskupek, Zhongbo Lee, Tibor Lehnert, Felix Börrnert, Harald Rose, Ute Kaiser
Atomic resolution in transmission electron microscopy of thin and light-atom materials requires a rigorous reduction of the beam energy to reduce knockon damage. However, at the same time, the chromatic aberration deteriorates the resolution of the TEM image dramatically. Within the framework of the SALVE project, we introduce a newly developed C_{c}/C_{s} corrector that is capable of correcting both the chromatic and the spherical aberration in the range of accelerating voltages from 20 to 80 kV. The corrector allows correcting axial aberrations up to fifth order as well as the dominating off-axial aberrations...
August 12, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473440/effects-of-lifestyle-intervention-in-brca1-2-mutation-carriers-on-nutrition-bmi-and-physical-fitness-libre-study-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Marion Kiechle, Christoph Engel, Anika Berling, Katrin Hebestreit, Stephan C Bischoff, Ricarda Dukatz, Michael Siniatchkin, Katharina Pfeifer, Sabine Grill, Maryam Yahiaoui-Doktor, Ellen Kirsch, Uwe Niederberger, Ute Enders, Markus Löffler, Alfons Meindl, Kerstin Rhiem, Rita Schmutzler, Nicole Erickson, Martin Halle
BACKGROUND: Women with highly penetrant BRCA mutations have a 55-60 % lifetime risk for breast cancer and a 16-59 % lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer. However, penetrance differs interindividually, indicating that environmental and behavioral factors may modify this risk. It is well documented that the risk for sporadic breast cancer disease can be modified by changing lifestyle factors that primarily include physical activity, dietary habits, and body weight. It can thus be hypothesized that the modification of these lifestyle factors may also influence the incidence and progression of cancer in BRCA mutation carriers...
July 29, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432516/nutritional-influences-of-overfeeding-on-experimental-outcomes-in-laboratory-mice-consequences-for-gut-microbiota-and-other-functional-studies
#12
REVIEW
Stephan C Bischoff, Valentina Volynets
Data from literature suggests that laboratory mice are often overfed and malnourished. This might have several reasons, including: (i) we usually offer an ad libitum diet, which is not the natural way of feeding for a wild mouse; (ii) many commercial diets we use contain rather high amounts of carbohydrates, particularly of sugars, and low amounts of fat; and (iii) laboratory mice live in a warm and constricted environment in which energy expenditure is lower than in the wild. Such selective or global overfeeding in laboratory mice, which resembles the widespread overfeeding in humans, although it does not always result in overweight, likely affects a number of outcome variables analyzed in laboratory mice, such as microbiota composition and function, metabolic alterations, longevity, intestinal permeability and inflammation...
August 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404046/loss-of-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-attenuates-the-development-of-diet-induced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#13
Cheng Jun Jin, Anna Janina Engstler, Doreen Ziegenhardt, Stephan C Bischoff, Christian Trautwein, Ina Bergheim
BACKGROUND AND AIM: It has been suggested in several studies that an increased translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and, subsequently, an activation of toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent signaling pathways in the liver may contribute to the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. METHODS: Eight-week-old lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP)-/- and wild-type (WT) mice were pair fed either a liquid diet rich in fat, fructose, and cholesterol (Western-style diet [WSD]) or a control liquid diet for 8 weeks...
March 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223303/impact-of-a-high-fat-or-high-fiber-diet-on-intestinal-microbiota-and-metabolic-markers-in-a-pig-model
#14
Sonja N Heinritz, Eva Weiss, Meike Eklund, Tobias Aumiller, Charlotte M E Heyer, Sabine Messner, Andreas Rings, Sandrine Louis, Stephan C Bischoff, Rainer Mosenthin
To further elaborate interactions between nutrition, gut microbiota and host health, an animal model to simulate changes in microbial composition and activity due to dietary changes similar to those in humans is needed. Therefore, the impact of two different diets on cecal and colonic microbial gene copies and metabolic activity, organ development and biochemical parameters in blood serum was investigated using a pig model. Four pigs were either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for seven weeks, with both diets being isocaloric...
May 23, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27160498/detection-and-treatment-of-medical-inpatients-with-or-at-risk-of-malnutrition-suggested-procedures-based-on-validated-guidelines
#15
Lisa Bounoure, Filomena Gomes, Zeno Stanga, Ulrich Keller, Rémy Meier, Peter Ballmer, Rebecca Fehr, Beat Mueller, Laurence Genton, Pauline Coti Bertrand, Kristina Norman, Christoph Henzen, Alessandro Laviano, Stephan Bischoff, Stéphane M Schneider, Jens Kondrup, Philipp Schuetz
OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of malnutrition in the general inpatient population, there is a lack of knowledge in regard to detecting disease-related malnutrition and implementing nutritional support. Our aim was to suggest practical procedures for screening and treating malnourished or at-risk patients hospitalized in medical wards, thereby fostering a straightforward implementation of nutritional therapy independent of the underlying disease and comorbidities. METHODS: A working group of experts in clinical nutrition selected and analyzed published disease-specific European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) guidelines relevant for our aim...
July 2016: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100182/intestinal-microbiota-and-microbial-metabolites-are-changed-in-a-pig-model-fed-a-high-fat-low-fiber-or-a-low-fat-high-fiber-diet
#16
Sonja N Heinritz, Eva Weiss, Meike Eklund, Tobias Aumiller, Sandrine Louis, Andreas Rings, Sabine Messner, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Jana Seifert, Stephan C Bischoff, Rainer Mosenthin
The intestinal microbiota and its metabolites appear to be an important factor for gastrointestinal function and health. However, research is still needed to further elaborate potential relationships between nutrition, gut microbiota and host's health by means of a suitable animal model. The present study examined the effect of two different diets on microbial composition and activity by using the pig as a model for humans. Eight pigs were equally allotted to two treatments, either fed a low-fat/high-fiber (LF), or a high-fat/low-fiber (HF) diet for 7 weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053239/analysis-of-factors-contributing-to-variation-in-the-c57bl-6j-fecal-microbiota-across-german-animal-facilities
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Philipp Rausch, Marijana Basic, Arvind Batra, Stephan C Bischoff, Michael Blaut, Thomas Clavel, Joachim Gläsner, Shreya Gopalakrishnan, Guntram A Grassl, Claudia Günther, Dirk Haller, Misa Hirose, Saleh Ibrahim, Gunnar Loh, Jochen Mattner, Stefan Nagel, Oliver Pabst, Franziska Schmidt, Britta Siegmund, Till Strowig, Valentina Volynets, Stefan Wirtz, Sebastian Zeissig, Yvonne Zeissig, André Bleich, John F Baines
The intestinal microbiota is involved in many physiological processes and it is increasingly recognized that differences in community composition can influence the outcome of a variety of murine models used in biomedical research. In an effort to describe and account for the variation in intestinal microbiota composition across the animal facilities of participating members of the DFG Priority Program 1656 "Intestinal Microbiota", we performed a survey of C57BL/6J mice from 21 different mouse rooms/facilities located at 13 different institutions across Germany...
August 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27021766/citrus-peel-polymethoxyflavones-nobiletin-and-tangeretin-suppress-lps-and-ige-mediated-activation-of-human-intestinal-mast-cells
#18
Yvonne Hagenlocher, Katharina Feilhauer, Michael Schäffer, Stephan C Bischoff, Axel Lorentz
PURPOSE: Allergic diseases with mast cells (MC) as main effector cells show an increased prevalence. MC also play an essential role in other inflammatory conditions. Therapeutical use of anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals directly targeting MC activation could be of interest for afflicted patients. Nobiletin and tangeretin are citrus peel polymethoxyflavones, a group of citrus flavonoids, possessing anticancer, antimetastatic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we analyzed the effects of nobiletin/tangeretin on LPS- and IgE-mediated stimulation of human intestinal mast cells (hiMC)...
March 28, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012624/cinnamon-extract-reduces-symptoms-inflammatory-mediators-and-mast-cell-markers-in-murine-il-10-colitis
#19
Yvonne Hagenlocher, Angela Hösel, Stephan C Bischoff, Axel Lorentz
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) shows an increasing prevalence and harm in western countries. Conventional therapies are associated with bad compliance and adverse side effects. Natural substances like cinnamon extract (CE) could be an additional therapy. We found recently that CE acts anti-inflammatory on mast cells - discussed of being relevant in IBD. Here, we analysed the effects of CE on murine IL-10(-/-) colitis as model for IBD. Mice were treated 12 weeks with or without CE in drinking water. Clinical scores and disease activity index were assessed...
April 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923519/espen-guideline-on-ethical-aspects-of-artificial-nutrition-and-hydration
#20
Christiane Druml, Peter E Ballmer, Wilfred Druml, Frank Oehmichen, Alan Shenkin, Pierre Singer, Peter Soeters, Arved Weimann, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The worldwide debate over the use of artificial nutrition and hydration remains controversial although the scientific and medical facts are unequivocal. Artificial nutrition and hydration are a medical intervention, requiring an indication, a therapeutic goal and the will (consent) of the competent patient. METHODS: The guideline was developed by an international multidisciplinary working group based on the main aspects of the Guideline on "Ethical and Legal Aspects of Artificial Nutrition" published 2013 by the German Society for Nutritional Medicine (DGEM) after conducting a review of specific current literature...
June 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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