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Respiratory tract infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052924/mers-sars-and-other-coronaviruses-as-causes-of-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
Yudong Yin, Richard G Wunderink
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have been considered to be relatively harmless respiratory pathogens in the past. However, after the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), HCoVs have received worldwide attention as important pathogens in respiratory tract infection. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical characteristics among SARS-coronaviruses (CoV), MERS-CoV and other HCoV infections.
October 20, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052109/assessments-of-opportunities-to-improve-antibiotic-prescribing-in-an-emergency-department-a-period-prevalence-survey
#2
Tristan T Timbrook, Aisling R Caffrey, Anais Ovalle, Maya Beganovic, William Curioso, Melissa Gaitanis, Kerry L LaPlante
INTRODUCTION: Approximately 30% of all outpatient antimicrobials are inappropriately prescribed. Currently, antimicrobial prescribing patterns in emergency departments (ED) are not well described. Determining inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing patterns and opportunities for interventions by antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) are needed. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed among a random sample of non-admitted, adult patients who received an antimicrobial prescription in the ED from January 1 to December 31, 2015...
October 19, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050864/outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-evaluation-of-practices-and-limits-of-use-in-rural-areas-in-france
#3
C Triffault-Fillit, T Ferry, T Perpoint, L Adélaïde, S Le Ngoc Tho, F Ader, C Chidiac, F Valour
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) practices in a French rural area. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive study assessing knowledge, practices, and limitations of OPAT use among hospital practitioners (HP), family physicians (FP), and private nurses (PN). RESULTS: OPAT (mainly ceftriaxone and penicillins) was used by 69.6%, 73.3%, and 97.7% of the 23 HPs, 45 FPs, and 46 PNs mostly for respiratory or urinary tract infections, bacteremia, and/or multidrug-resistant bacterial infections...
October 16, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048511/impact-of-implementing-national-guidelines-on-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-pediatric-emergency-departments-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#4
Naïm Ouldali, Xavier Bellêttre, Karen Milcent, Romain Guedj, Loïc de Pontual, Bogdan Cojocaru, Valérie Soussan-Banini, Irina Craiu, David Skurnik, Vincent Gajdos, Gérard Chéron, Robert Cohen, Corinne Alberti, François Angoulvant
Background: Many antibiotics are prescribed inappropriately in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs), but little data are available in these settings about effective interventions based on guidelines that follow the antimicrobial stewardship principle. Our aim was to assess the impact of implementing the 2011 national guidelines on antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) in PEDs. Method: We conducted a multicentric, quasiexperimental, interrupted time series analysis of prospectively collected electronic data from 7 French PEDs...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046368/enhancement-of-lung-gene-delivery-after-aerosol-a-new-strategy-using-non-viral-complexes-with-antibacterial-properties
#5
Angelique Mottais, Tony Le Gall, Yann Sibiril, Julian Ravel, Véronique Laurent, Frédérique d'Arbonneau, Tristan Montier
The pathophysiology of obstructive pulmonary diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, leads to the development of chronic infections in the respiratory tract. Thus, the symptomatic management of the disease requires, in particular, repetitive antibiotherapy. Besides these antibacterial treatments, certain pathologies, such as cystic fibrosis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, require the intake of many drugs. This simultaneous absorption may lead to undesired drug interactions. For example, Orkambi® (lumacaftor/Ivacaftor, Vertex), a pharmacological drug employed to treat F508del patients, cannot be used with antibiotics such as rifampicin or rifabutin (rifamycin family) which are necessary to treat Mycobacteriaceae...
October 18, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046207/-clinical-characteristics-and-gaa-gene-mutation-in-children-with-glycogen-storage-disease-type-ii-an-analysis-of-3-cases
#6
Shan Yuan, Jie Jiang, Lu-Ting Zha, Zuo-Cheng Yang
Glycogen storage disease type II (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal glycogen-hydrolyzing enzyme acid α-glucosidase (GAA) and can affect multiple systems including the heart and skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate three children with GSD II confirmed by GAA gene analysis and to report their clinical characteristics and gene mutations. One case was classified as infantile-onset GSD II, and two cases as late-onset GSD II. The infantile-onset patient (aged 4 months) showed no weight increase and had dyspnea, muscle hypotonia, and increased alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase; echocardiography showed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046200/-readmission-of-children-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-the-first-2-years-of-life-a-clinical-analysis-of-121-cases
#7
Jing-Yi You, Chang Shu, Cai-Hui Gong, Sha Liu, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features of readmitted children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in the first 2 years of life. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 242 children with BPD who were readmitted due to recurrent lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in the first 2 years of life. RESULTS: Among all the 242 children with BPD, 115(47.5%) had wheezing, and the children aged 1-2 years had a significantly higher incidence rate of wheezing than those aged less than 1 year (P<0...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045961/-effects-of-recent-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-on-incidence-of-the-perioperative-respiratory-adverse-events-in-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#8
C Q Li, D X Wang, T Cheng, X Y Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of the recent upper respiratory tract infections (URI) on the incidence of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children scheduled to undergo general anesthesia and elective surgery. METHODS: In the study, 232 children undergoing general anesthesia with laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for elective ophthalmic surgeries at Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China, from Nov. 1, 2015 to May 10, 2016 were enrolled. On the day of the surgery, the parents of the children were preoperatively asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding the baseline characteristics and medical history of the children, including gender, age, height, weight, history of URI within the last 2 weeks before anesthesia, history of premature, long-term passive smoking exposure, habitual sleep snoring, and history of asthma...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045699/impact-of-hiv-on-the-burden-and-severity-of-influenza-illness-in-malawian-adults-a-prospective-cohort-and-parallel-case-control-study
#9
Antonia Ho, Stephen J Aston, Hannah Jary, Tamara Mitchell, Maaike Alaerts, Mavis Menyere, Jane Mallewa, Mulinda Nyirenda, Dean Everett, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French
Background: The impact of HIV infection on influenza incidence and severity in adults in sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected persons in developed settings, but is rarely implemented in Africa. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study to compare the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza illness between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in Blantyre, Malawi. In a parallel case-control study, we explored risk factors for severe influenza presentation of severe (hospitalized lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)), and mild influenza (influenza-like illness (ILI))...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042873/comparison-of-cytokine-expression-profiles-in-infants-with-a-rhinovirus-induced-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-with-or-without-wheezing-a-comparison-with-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#10
Da Eun Roh, Sook-Hyun Park, Hee Joung Choi, Yeo Hyang Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether infants with rhinovirus (RV) infection-induced wheezing and those with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection-induced wheezing have different cytokine profiles in the acute stage. METHODS: Of the infants with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) between September 2011 and May 2012, 88 were confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and hospitalized. Systemic interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and Treg-type cytokine (IL-10) responses were examined with multiplex assay using acute phase serum samples...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042834/improving-palivizumab-compliance-rough-a-pharmacist-managed-rsv-prevention-clinic
#11
Jennifer W Chow, Michael F Chicella, Anthony M Christensen, Carolyn S Moneymaker, John Harrington, James E Dice
OBJECTIVES: Palivizumab is a monoclonal antibody approved for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in high-risk pediatric patients. While palivizumab is more effective if used correctly, compliance with the monthly dosing is suboptimal. We established a pharmacist-managed RSV prevention clinic in an effort to improve compliance. The primary objective of this study was to determine the impact of a pharmacist-managed RSV prevention clinic on palivizumab compliance...
September 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042485/maternal-stress-during-pregnancy-and-allergic-diseases-in-children-during-the-first-year-of-life
#12
Katarzyna Smejda, Kinga Polanska, Dorota Merecz-Kot, Anna Krol, Wojciech Hanke, Joanna Jerzynska, Wlodzimierz Stelmach, Paweł Majak, Iwona Stelmach
BACKGROUND: Many recent studies indicate that prenatal maternal distress increases the risk of allergic diseases in children. The mechanisms that favor it are still unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between exposure to different kinds of prenatal stress and the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, food allergy, wheezing, and recurrent respiratory tract infections in children. METHODS: The study population consisted of 370 mother-child pairs from a Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)...
October 17, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038184/optimising-the-quality-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-out-of-hours-primary-care-in-belgium-a-study-protocol-for-an-action-research-project
#13
Annelies Colliers, Samuel Coenen, Hilde Philips, Roy Remmen, Sibyl Anthierens
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health threat driven by inappropriate antibiotic use, mainly in general practice and for respiratory tract infections. In Belgium, the quality of general practitioners' (GPs) antibiotic prescribing is low. To improve antibiotic use, we need a better understanding of this quality problem and corresponding interventions. A general practitioners cooperative (GPC) for out-of-hours (OOH) care presents a unique opportunity to reach a large group of GPs and work on quality improvement...
October 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036182/proteome-analysis-of-bronchoalveolar-lavage-from-calves-infected-with-bovine-respiratory-syncytial-virus-insights-in-pathogenesis-and-perspectives-for-new-treatments
#14
Sara Hägglund, Krister Blodörn, Katarina Näslund, Karin Vargmar, Sara Bergström Lind, Jia Mi, Mariluz Araínga, Sabine Riffault, Geraldine Taylor, John Pringle, Jean François Valarcher
Human and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (HRSV/BRSV) are major causes of severe lower respiratory tract infections in children and calves, respectively. Shared epidemiological, clinical, pathological and genetic characteristics of these viruses make comparative research highly relevant. To characterise the host response against BRSV infection, bronchoalveolar lavage supernatant (BAL) from i) non-vaccinated, BRSV-infected ii) vaccinated, BRSV-infected and iii) non-infected calves was analysed by tandem mass spectrometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034936/synergistic-antiviral-effect-of-curcumin-functionalized-graphene-oxide-against-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#15
Xiao Xi Yang, Chun Mei Li, Yuan Fang Li, Jian Wang, Cheng Zhi Huang
The diseases attributable to viruses remain a global burden. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is considered as the major viral pathogen of the lower respiratory tract of infants, has been implicated in severe lung disease. In this contribution, we developed a β-cyclodextrin (CD) functionalized graphene oxide (GO) composite, which displayed excellent antiviral activity and could load curcumin efficiently. RSV, a negative-sense single-stranded enveloped RNA virus, was employed as a model virus to investigate the antiviral activity of multifunctional GO...
October 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034326/bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-destabilizes-influenza-viruses
#16
Christopher Bandoro, Jonathan A Runstadler
Depending on the specific viral pathogen, commensal bacteria can promote or reduce the severity of viral infection and disease progression in their hosts. Influenza A virus (IAV) has a broad host range, comprises many subtypes, and utilizes different routes of transmission, including the fecal-oral route in wild birds. It has been previously demonstrated that commensal bacteria can interact with the host's immune system to protect against IAV pathogenesis. However, it is unclear whether bacteria and their products may be interacting directly with IAV to impact virion stability...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033947/interferon-%C3%AE-s-front-line-guardians-of-immunity-and-homeostasis-in-the-respiratory-tract
#17
REVIEW
Evangelos Andreakos, Maria Salagianni, Ioanna E Galani, Ourania Koltsida
Type III interferons (IFNs), also termed lambda IFNs (IFNλs) or interleukins-28/29, constitute a new addition to the IFN family. They are induced upon infection and are particularly abundant at barrier surfaces, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Although they signal through a unique heterodimeric receptor complex comprising IFNLR1 and IL10RB, they activate a downstream signaling pathway remarkably similar to that of type I IFNs and share many functions with them. Yet, they also have important differences which are only now starting to unfold...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033599/primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-mechanisms-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Nadirah Damseh, Nada Quercia, Nisreen Rumman, Sharon D Dell, Raymond H Kim
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder of motile cilia that is predominantly inherited in an autosomal-recessive fashion. It is associated with abnormal ciliary structure and/or function leading to chronic upper and lower respiratory tract infections, male infertility, and situs inversus. The estimated prevalence of primary ciliary dyskinesia is approximately one in 10,000-40,000 live births. Diagnosis depends on clinical presentation, nasal nitric oxide, high-speed video-microscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, genetic testing, and immunofluorescence...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031546/influenza-virus-but-not-mers-coronavirus-circulation-in-iran-2013-2016-comparison-between-pilgrims-and-general-population
#19
Jila Yavarian, Nazanin Zahra Shafiei Jandaghi, Maryam Naseri, Peyman Hemmati, Mohhamadnasr Dadras, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Talat Mokhtari Azad
BACKGROUND: The pilgrimage to Mecca and Karbala bring many Muslims to a confined area. Respiratory tract infections are the most common diseases transmitted during mass gatherings in Hajj, Umrah and Karbala. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza virus infections among Iranian general population and pilgrims with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) returning from Mecca and Karbala during 2013-2016...
October 11, 2017: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031288/case-report-old-world-mucosal-leishmaniasis-report-of-five-imported-cases-to-the-hospital-for-tropical-diseases-london-united-kingdom
#20
Trupti A Patel, Glenis K Scadding, David E Phillips, Diana N Lockwood
Old World species of Leishmania typically cause visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mucosal involvement is typically seen with infection by Leishmania species found in South America, usually after the healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis. We present five imported cases of mucosal leishmaniasis caused by Old World Mediterranean Leishmania infantum exclusively affecting the nasal mucosa or vocal cord. In only one case was there a recollection of a preceding cutaneous lesion compatible with cutaneous Leishmaniasis...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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