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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474220/multicolor-imaging-in-a-case-of-acute-retinal-pigment-epitheliitis
#1
Rupak Roy, Kumar Saurabh, Nicey R Thomas
PURPOSE: To describe multicolor imaging findings in a case of acute retinal pigment epitheliitis. SETTING: Vitreoretinal department of a tertiary care center in Eastern India. METHODS: A 28-year-old lady presented with acute vision loss in the right eye since 3 days. Left eye examination was unremarkable. Best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 20/40. Anterior segment examination revealed clear lens with no evidence of inflammation...
February 22, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473105/the-use-of-throat-packs-in-pediatric-cleft-lip-palate-surgery-a-retrospective-study
#2
B J A Smarius, C H A L Guillaume, G Jonker, A B Mink van der Molen, C C Breugem
OBJECTIVES: Throat packs are commonly used to prevent ingestion or aspiration of blood and other debris during cleft lip/palate surgery. However, dislodgement or (partial) retainment after extubation could have serious consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of omitting pharyngeal packing during cleft lip/palate surgery on the incidence of early postoperative complications in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed on all children who underwent cleft lip/palate surgery at the Wilhelmina Children's Hospital...
February 22, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472269/understanding-the-gender-gap-in-antibiotic-prescribing-a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-english-primary-care
#3
David R M Smith, F Christiaan K Dolk, Timo Smieszek, Julie V Robotham, Koen B Pouwels
OBJECTIVES: To explore the causes of the gender gap in antibiotic prescribing, and to determine whether women are more likely than men to receive an antibiotic prescription per consultation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected electronic medical records from The Health Improvement Network (THIN). SETTING: English primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who consulted general practices registered with THIN between 2013 and 2015...
February 22, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471919/dupilumab-a-review-of-its-use-in-the-treatment-of-atopic-dermatitis
#4
Melinda J Gooderham, H Chih-Ho Hong, Panteha Eshtiaghi, Kim A Papp
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis characterized by a T helper 2 (Th2) immune response phenotype and may be associated with systemic inflammation. Dupilumab is an interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptor α-antagonist that inhibits IL-4 and IL-13 signaling through blockade of the shared IL-4α subunit. Blockade of IL-4/13 is effective in reducing Th2 response. Dupilumab has recently been approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe AD...
March 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471679/arise-a-phase-3-randomized-trial-of-erenumab-for-episodic-migraine
#5
David W Dodick, Messoud Ashina, Jan Lewis Brandes, David Kudrow, Michel Lanteri-Minet, Vera Osipova, Kerry Palmer, Hernan Picard, Daniel D Mikol, Robert A Lenz
Background Calcitonin gene-related peptide plays an important role in migraine pathophysiology. Erenumab, a human monoclonal antibody that inhibits the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, is being evaluated for migraine prevention. Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, 577 adults with episodic migraine were randomized to placebo or 70 mg erenumab; 570 patients were included in efficacy analyses. Primary endpoint was change in monthly migraine days. Secondary endpoints were ≥50% reduction in monthly migraine days, change in acute migraine-specific medication treatment days, and ≥5-point reduction in Physical Impairment and Impact on Everyday Activities domain scores measured by the Migraine Physical Function Impact Diary...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471266/genetic-characterization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-highlights-a-new-ba-genotype-and-emergence-of-the-on1-genotype-in-lyon-france-between-2010-and-2014
#6
Alexandre Gaymard, Maude Bouscambert-Duchamp, Maxime Pichon, Emilie Frobert, Julien Vallee, Bruno Lina, Jean-Sébastien Casalegno, Florence Morfin
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a well-recognized cause of respiratory tract infections. Based on G gene variations, 11 RSV-A and 36 RSV-B genotypes have been described to date. The ON1 genotype was detected in Ontario in 2010 and subsequently reported in several countries. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to investigate for the first time the RSV epidemiology and genotype diversity in France between 2010 and 2014. STUDY DESIGN: All respiratory samples received from patients with influenza-like illness or respiratory tract infection were screened for RSV infection by RT-PCR...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467446/oral-cholera-vaccination-promotes-homing-of-iga-memory-b-cells-to-the-large-intestine-and-the-respiratory-tract
#7
M van Splunter, E van Hoffen, E G Floris-Vollenbroek, H Timmerman, E Lucas-van de Bos, B Meijer, L H Ulfman, B Witteman, J M Wells, S Brugman, H F J Savelkoul, R J J van Neerven
Oral cholera vaccination is used to induce immune responses in the intestines to protect against cholera infection. However, oral vaccination may also affect immune responses in other mucosal tissues. To study this, tissue-specific homing potential and kinetics of B-cell responses were characterized after oral cholera vaccination. Healthy adult volunteers received two doses of Dukoral® and blood, saliva, nasal wash, and fecal samples were collected over time to detect vaccine-specific antibodies. Additionally, homing potential of lymphocytes to small intestine, colon, airways, skin, and periphery was measured by expression of Integrin β1 and β7, CCR9, CCR10, CCR7, and CLA...
February 21, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467318/adenovirus-infection-of-human-enteroids-reveals-interferon-sensitivity-and-preferential-infection-of-goblet-cells
#8
Mayumi K Holly, Jason G Smith
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are significant human pathogens. Although only a subset of HAdV serotypes commonly cause gastroenteritis in humans, most HAdV species replicate in the gastrointestinal tract. Knowledge of the complex interaction between HAdVs and the human intestinal epithelium has been limited by the lack of a suitable cell culture system containing relevant cell types. Recently, this need has been met by the stable and prolonged cultivation of primary intestinal epithelial cells as enteroids. Human enteroids have been used to reveal novel and interesting aspects of rotavirus, norovirus, and enterovirus replication, prompting us to explore their suitability for HAdV culture...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466690/safety-and-efficacy-of-etanercept-methotrexate-combination-therapy-in-patients-with-rhupus-an-observational-study-of-non-glucocorticoid-treatment-for-rheumatic-diseases
#9
Bei-Bei Yang, Hua Xiao, Xiao-Jie Li, Min Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of etanercept (ETN) plus methotrexate (MTX) in patients with rhupus without using corticosteroids. METHODS: Twenty rhupus patients [meeting the criteria for both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)] who had never been treated with corticosteroids, DMARDs, or biological agents with a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) >3.2 and lupus nephritis determined from histopathological specimens were enrolled...
January 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466680/cytokine-responses-to-rhinovirus-and-development-of-asthma-allergic-sensitization-and-respiratory-infections-during-childhood
#10
Adnan Custovic, Danielle Belgrave, Lijing Lin, Eteri Bakhsoliani, Aurica G Telcian, Roberto Solari, Clare S Murray, Ross P Walton, John Curtin, Michael R Edwards, Angela Simpson, Magnus Rattray, Sebastian L Johnston
BACKGROUND: Immunophenotypes of anti-viral responses, and their relationship with asthma, allergy and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are poorly understood. We characterized multiple cytokine responses of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells to rhinovirus stimulation, and their relationship with clinical outcomes. METHODS: In a population-based birth cohort, we measured 28 cytokines post-stimulation with rhinovirus-16 in 307 children aged 11 years. We used machine learning to identify patterns of cytokine responses, and related these patterns to clinical outcomes using longitudinal models...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464408/isolation-and-identification-of-bovine-nasopharyngeal-mucosal-epithelial-cells-and-establishment-of-cell-models-of-acute-infection-by-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus
#11
Wan-Fu Bai, Lu Li, Ting Zhang, Xiao-Hu Su, Yong-Wei Wang, Bing-Wu Zhao, Tao Zhang, Huan-Min Zhou
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) commonly occurs via the respiratory tract, and bovine nasopharyngeal mucosal epithelial cells are the primary infection cells in cattle. The aim of the present study was to isolate and culture epithelial cells from the bovine nasopharyngeal mucosa in vitro using a mechanical separation method. The cells were expanded, established in continuous cell culture, and used for immunofluorescence cytochemistry and establishment of infection models. We detected pan-cytokeratin markers of bovine nasopharyngeal mucosal epithelial cells by immunofluorescence...
February 20, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464281/varying-susceptibility-of-clinical-and-environmental-scedosporium-isolates-to-chemical-oxidative-stress-in-conidial-germination
#12
Cindy Staerck, Charlotte Godon, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Scedosporium species are opportunistic pathogens causing a great variety of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. The Scedosporium genus ranks the second among the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), after Aspergillus fumigatus, and most species are capable to chronically colonize the respiratory tract of these patients. Nevertheless, few data are available regarding evasion of the inhaled conidia to the host immune response. Upon microbial infection, macrophages and neutrophils release reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
February 20, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462231/efficacy-and-safety-of-apremilast-in-systemic-and-biologic-naive-patients-with-moderate-plaque-psoriasis-52-week-results-of-unveil
#13
Linda Stein Gold, Jerry Bagel, Mark Lebwohl, J Mark Jackson, Rongdean Chen, Joana Goncalves, Eugenia Levi, Kristina Callis Duffin
<p>BACKGROUND: Many patients with moderate plaque psoriasis are undertreated despite broadening treatment options. In the phase IV UNVEIL study, oral apremilast demonstrated efficacy and safety in systemic-naive patients with chronic moderate plaque psoriasis with lower psoriasis-involved body surface area (BSA; 5%-10%) during the 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase. We describe efficacy and safety of apremilast in this population through week 52 in UNVEIL.</p> <p>METHODS: Patients with moderate plaque psoriasis (BSA 5%-10%; static Physician's Global Assessment [sPGA] score of 3 [moderate]) and naive to systemic therapies for psoriasis were randomized (2:1) to receive apremilast 30 mg twice daily or placebo for 16 weeks...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460253/neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-brainstem-medulla-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-sudi-and-the-importance-of-standardized-sudi-classification
#14
Natalie Ambrose, Karen A Waters, Michael L Rodriguez, Kendall Bailey, Rita Machaalani
The purpose of this study was to examine the neuronal expression of apoptotic markers in the rostral medulla of a newly characterized dataset of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and to determine the impact of diagnostic groupings on these findings and whether they pertain to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Immunohistochemical staining was quantified to determine the percentage of neurons positive for active caspase-9 (specific to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway), active caspase-3 (common to the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) (labels DNA fragmentation) in nine nuclei of the rostral medulla...
February 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459525/-the-causes-of-acute-cough-a-single-center-study-in-japan
#15
Tomoko Tajiri, Ayano Toriyama, Akihiko Sokai, Kenichi Goto, Hiroko Fukata, Yasukiyo Nakamura, Hideo Kita
BACKGROUND: Cough is the most frequent presenting complaint in clinics, and is classified into the following three groups: acute, subacute and chronic. The major causes of acute cough are infectious diseases, however, few observations on acute cough have been reported. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the causes of acute cough among patients who had visited the respiratory clinic of our hospital because of acute cough from September 2014 to August 2015. RESULTS: Of 374 patients (195 females, mean age 60...
2018: Arerugī, [Allergy]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458565/the-dnases-of-pathogenic-lancefield-streptococci
#16
Alex Remmington, Claire E Turner
DNases are abundant among the pathogenic streptococci, with most species harbouring genes for at least one. Despite their prevalence, however, the role for these extracellular enzymes is still relatively unclear. The DNases of the Lancefield group A Streptococcus, S. pyogenes are the best characterized, with a total of eight DNase genes identified so far. Six are known to be associated with integrated prophages. Two are chromosomally encoded, and one of these is cell-wall anchored. Homologues of both prophage-associated and chromosomally encoded S...
January 25, 2018: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458556/sequence-analysis-of-the-g-gene-of-hrsva-on1-genotype-from-egyptian-children-with-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#17
Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim, May S Soliman, Mahmoud M Kamel, Amani A El-Kholy
Human respiratory syncytial virus causes severe lower respiratory tract infection in neonates and children. Genotype ON1, with duplication of 72-nt in the G gene, was first detected in Canada and then recorded in other countries. In the current study, we describe the first detection of the ON1 genotype among children in Egypt in 2014/2015. Sequence analysis of the full-attachment G gene revealed that the majority of the strains examined were related to the ON1 genotype and only one sample related to N1 genotype...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458350/obesity-and-risk-of-respiratory-tract-infections-results-of-an-infection-diary-based-cohort-study
#18
Livia Maccioni, Susanne Weber, Magdeldin Elgizouli, Anne-Sophie Stoehlker, Ilona Geist, Hans-Hartmut Peter, Werner Vach, Alexandra Nieters
BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a major morbidity factor contributing largely to health care costs and individual quality of life. The aim of the study was to test whether obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 ) is one of the risk factors underlying frequent RTIs in the German adult population. METHODS: We recruited 1455 individuals between 18 to 70 years from a cross-sectional survey on airway infections in Germany and invited them to self-report in diaries incident RTIs experienced during three consecutive winter/spring seasons...
February 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457209/agreement-between-integrated-management-of-childhood-illness-and-final-diagnosis-in-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#19
Sıddika Songül Yalçın, Beril Özdemir, Sadriye Özdemir, Esra Baskın
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the agreement between integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) and final diagnosis in patients presenting with cough at the second and third level health institutions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 373 children aged 2-60 mo who presented with cough at the pediatric emergency and outpatient clinics in the Department of Pediatrics. After clinical examination of children, body temperature, respiratory rate, saturation, presence or absence of the chest indrawing, rales, wheezing and laryngeal stridor were recorded...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457208/children-deserve-smoke-free-world
#20
REVIEW
R Remesh Kumar, P R Jayakumar, R Krishna Mohan
Tobacco smoke, active or passive exposure was the major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the world during twentieth century and will continue to be the same in the twenty-first century also if the current trends continue. Both active and passive smoking are having significance in relation to child health. Exposure starts antenatally from placenta to the fetus and later phases through passive exposure to experimental and regular smoking and ultimately addiction and habitual smoking. Evidences are in favour of causal relationship with intrauterine growth restriction, sudden infant death syndrome, decreased pulmonary function, increased risk for respiratory tract infection, otitis media, wheeze, asthma, neurobehavioral disorders, cleft palate and triggering pathogenesis of fetal and childhood onset of adult diseases, especially pulmonary and cardio vascular diseases...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
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