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Respiratory tract infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678751/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signaling-attenuates-rsv-induced-type-2-responses-and-immunopathology
#1
Melissa H Bloodworth, Mark Rusznak, Connor C Pfister, Jian Zhang, Lisa Bastarache, Sandra Alvarez Calvillo, James D Chappell, Kelli L Boyd, Shinji Toki, Dawn C Newcomb, Matthew T Stier, Weisong Zhou, Kasia Goleniewska, Martin L Moore, Tina V Hartert, Kevin D Niswender, R Stokes Peebles
GLP-1R signaling, an emerging anti-inflammatory therapeutic target, attenuated type 2-associated immunopathology in mice infected with a strain of RSV that was isolated from a hospitalized infant with severe lower respiratory tract infection and bronchiolitis.
April 17, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676365/rapid-detection-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children-by-chromatographic-assay
#2
Surinder Kumar, Bhanu Mehra, Gulshan Rai Sethi, Sanjeev R Saigal
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the single most important viral agent causing pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) worldwide. To evaluate the role of RSV in pediatric LRTIs, we studied 85 children <2 years of age hospitalized for community-acquired LRTIs. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained on admission for the detection of RSV antigen by immunochromatographic assay. Demographic, clinical, and radiological findings for RSV antigen were compared. Data analysis was performed by Chi-square test...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676360/detection-of-immunoglobulin-m-and-immunoglobulin-g-antibodies-to-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-in-children-with-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#3
Surinder Kumar, Indu Bala Garg, Gulshan Rai Sethi, Sanchit Kumar, Sanjeev R Saigal
Context: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) causes up to 40% of community-acquired pneumonia in children. It is impossible to identify M. pneumoniae infection on the basis of clinical signs, symptoms, and radiological features. Therefore, correct etiological diagnosis strongly depends on laboratory diagnosis. Aims: This study aims to investigate the role of M. pneumonia e in pediatric lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and particle agglutination (PA) test...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675258/livedo-reticularis-a-cutaneous-clue-to-an-underlying-endocrine-crisis
#4
Natasha Shrikrishnapalasuriyar, Mirena Noyvirt, Philip Evans, Bethan Gibson, Elin Foden, Atul Kalhan
A 54-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with a presumed allergic reaction to a single dose of amoxicillin given for a suspected upper respiratory tract infection. She complained of chest tightness although there was no wheeze or stridor. On examination, she was pyrexial, tachycardic, hypertensive and had a diffuse mottled rash on her lower limbs. Her initial investigations showed raised inflammatory markers. She was treated in the intensive care for a presumed anaphylactic reaction with an underlying sepsis...
2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675019/enhanced-akt-phosphorylation-of-circulating-b-cells-in-patients-with-activated-pi3k%C3%AE-syndrome
#5
Takaki Asano, Satoshi Okada, Miyuki Tsumura, Tzu-Wen Yeh, Kanako Mitsui-Sekinaka, Yuki Tsujita, Youjiro Ichinose, Akira Shimada, Kunio Hashimoto, Taizo Wada, Kohsuke Imai, Osamu Ohara, Tomohiro Morio, Shigeaki Nonoyama, Masao Kobayashi
Activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, lymphoproliferation, and defective IgG production. Heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD, PIK3R1 , or PTEN , which are related to the hyperactive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, were recently presented to cause APDS1 or APDS2 (APDSs), or APDS-like (APDS-L) disorder. In this study, we examined the AKT phosphorylation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes in patients with APDSs and APDS-L by using flow cytometry...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674796/prescriber-and-dispenser-perceptions-about-antibiotic-use-in-acute-uncomplicated-childhood-diarrhea-and-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-new-delhi-qualitative-study
#6
Anita Kotwani, P C Joshi, Urmila Jhamb, Kathleen Holloway
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore the prescribing practices, knowledge, and attitudes of primary care doctors and community pharmacists, regarding antibiotic use in acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and diarrhea in children to better understand causes of misuse and identify provider suggestions to change such behavior. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two focus group discussions (FGDs) each were conducted with primary care government doctors (GDs), private general practitioners (GPs), pediatricians, and community pharmacists in Delhi...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674425/impact-of-gut-colonization-with-butyrate-producing-microbiota-on-respiratory-viral-infection-following-allo-hct
#7
Bastiaan W Haak, Eric R Littmann, Jean-Luc Chaubard, Amanda J Pickard, Emily Fontana, Fatima Adhi, Yangtsho Gyaltshen, Lilan Ling, Sejal M Morjaria, Jonathan U Peled, Marcel R van den Brink, Alexander I Geyer, Justin R Cross, Eric G Pamer, Ying Taur
Respiratory viral infections are frequent in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT), and can potentially progress to lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). The intestinal microbiota contributes to resistance against viral and bacterial pathogens in the lung. However, whether intestinal microbiota composition and associated changes in microbe-derived metabolites contribute to the risk of LRTI following upper respiratory tract viral infection remains unexplored in the setting of allo-HCT...
April 19, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673880/french-hospital-discharge-database-pmsi-and-bacterial-resistance-is-coding-adapted-to-hospital-epidemiology
#8
L de Léotoing, F Barbier, A Dinh, D Breilh, G Chaize, A Vainchtock, L Levy-Bachelot, C Bensoussan, S Dramard, J Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: A preliminary analysis of data consistency on different types of bacterial resistance by infection site and causative agents was conducted using the French hospital discharge database (French acronym PMSI) to assess the use of the database in a national cartography tool. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hospital stays in medical, surgical, and obstetrical units were extracted from the 2014 PMSI database using the ICD-10 diagnosis codes. Bacterial infections, causative agents, and resistance corresponding to these stays were also identified...
April 17, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673810/a-systematic-review-of-emerging-respiratory-viruses-at-the-hajj-and-possible-coinfection-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#9
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Samir Benkouiten, Ziad A Memish
BACKGROUND: The annual Hajj to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia attracts millions of pilgrims from around the world. International health community's attention goes towards this mass gathering and the possibility of the development of any respiratory tract infections due to the high risk of acquisition of respiratory viruses. METHOD: We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and Scopus databases for relevant papers describing the prevalence of respiratory viruses among Hajj pilgrims...
April 16, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673200/surface-and-extracellular-proteome-of-the-emerging-pathogen-corynebacterium-ulcerans
#10
Miriam Bittel, Susanne Gastiger, Bushra Amin, Jörg Hofmann, Andreas Burkovski
Corynebacterium ulcerans is an emerging pathogen, which is increasingly recognized as an etiological agent of diphtheria, but can also evoke ulcers of the skin and systemic infections in humans. Besides man, the bacteria can colonize a wide variety of different animals, including cattle and pet animals, which might serve as a reservoir for human infections. In this study, surface-located proteins and the exoproteome of two Corynebacterium ulcerans strains were analyzed, since these may have key roles in the interaction of the pathogen with host cells...
April 17, 2018: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673075/limited-pathogenicity-and-transmissibility-of-korean-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h5n6-clade-2-3-4-4-in-ferrets
#11
J-Y Noh, D-H Lee, S-S Yuk, J-H Kwon, E-O Tseren-Ochir, W-T Hong, J-H Jeong, S Jeong, C-S Song
The pathogenicity and transmissibility of a reassortant clade 2.3.4.4 avian influenza A (H5N6) virus were evaluated in ferrets. Virus excretion was detected in the upper respiratory tract, but the ferrets did not show any clinical signs of infection. Transmission did not occur between cohoused or respiratory droplet-contact ferrets.
April 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672626/engystol-reduces-onset-of-experimental-respiratory-syncytial-virus-induced-respiratory-inflammation-in-mice-by-modulating-macrophage-phagocytic-capacity
#12
Sabine Wronski, Julia Dannenmaier, Sabine Schild, Olaf Macke, Laura Müller, Yvonne Burmeister, Bernd Seilheimer, Meike Müller
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or rhinovirus are one of the major causes for respiratory tract infections causing common cold disease. Respiratory viral infections range from mild symptoms in adults to serious illness especially in the very young or elderly as well as patients suffering from lung diseases or being immunocompromised due to other reasons. Engystol (EGY-2) is a multicomponent, multitarget preparation consisting of Vincetoxicum hirundinaria and Sulfur in various dilutions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672552/induction-of-salivary-antibody-levels-in-dutch-adolescents-after-immunization-with-monovalent-meningococcal-serogroup-c-or-quadrivalent-meningococcal-serogroup-a-c-w-and-y-conjugate-vaccine
#13
Mariëtte B van Ravenhorst, Gerco den Hartog, Fiona R M van der Klis, Debbie M van Rooijen, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Guy A M Berbers
BACKGROUND: Meningococcal infection starts with colonisation of the upper respiratory tract. Mucosal immunity is important for protection against acquisition and subsequent meningococcal carriage. In this study, we assessed salivary antibody levels against meningococcal serogroup A (MenA), W (MenW) and Y (MenY) after vaccination with a quadrivalent MenACWY conjugated vaccine. We also compared salivary meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody levels after monovalent MenC and quadrivalent MenACWY conjugated vaccination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670379/assessment-of-an-accessorized-pre-filled-syringe-for-home-administered-benralizumab-in-severe-asthma
#14
Gary T Ferguson, Adel H Mansur, Joshua S Jacobs, Jacques Hebert, Corbin Clawson, Wenli Tao, Yanping Wu, Mitchell Goldman
Background: Patients prefer at-home subcutaneous administration of biologics across different diseases, yet no biologic is approved for at-home use for severe, uncontrolled asthma. Objective: We assessed at-home functionality, reliability, and performance of an accessorized pre-filled syringe (APFS) for subcutaneous benralizumab administration, an anti-eosinophil monoclonal antibody indicated for add-on maintenance treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668598/brain-abscess-caused-by-chronic-invasive-actinomycosis-in-the-nasopharynx-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Chi Sang Hwang, Haneul Lee, Min Pyo Hong, Ji Hyung Kim, Kyung-Su Kim
RATIONALE: Actinomycosis is a rare anaerobic, gram-positive bacterial infection caused by Actinomyces, which is part of the normal flora in the oral cavity and respiratory and female genitourinary tracts. The cervicofacial area is the most common site of involvement, and involvement of the central nervous system is rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case involving a 51-year-old woman who developed an actinomycotic brain abscess 15 months after the treatment of noninvasive nasopharyngeal actinomycosis, which recurred as an invasive form...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667896/a-phase-1-study-to-assess-the-pharmacokinetics-safety-and-tolerability-of-fremanezumab-doses-225-mg-675-mg-and-900-mg-in-japanese-and-caucasian-healthy-subjects
#16
Orit Cohen-Barak, Sivan Weiss, Michele Rasamoelisolo, Nicola Faulhaber, Paul P Yeung, Pippa S Loupe, Esther Yoon, Mohit D Gandhi, Ofer Spiegelstein, Ernesto Aycardi
Objectives The primary and secondary objectives of this phase 1 study were to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile, safety, and immunogenicity of fremanezumab subcutaneous (sc) doses tested in phase 2 and 3 trials (225 mg, 675 mg and 900 mg) following single administration in Japanese (n = 32) and Caucasian (n = 32) healthy subjects. Methods Japanese and matched Caucasian healthy subjects were enrolled into one of four cohorts and were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 225, 675, or 900 mg fremanezumab, or placebo...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666919/prevalence-of-vitamin-d-insufficiency-and-evidence-for-disease-prevention-in-the-older-population
#17
REVIEW
Julia Kühn, Paula Trotz, Gabriele I Stangl
The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency, usually assessed by the analysis of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH])D), is very high in the aging German population. An important factor that reduces endogenous vitamin D synthesis in older persons is physical inactivity or care-dependency that limits the time spent outside. Additionally, it has been suggested that the age-dependent decline in the glomerular filtration rate is associated with a reduced production of bioactive calcitriol. As this phenomenon is not detectable by the assessment of 25(OH)D, it is necessary to analyze the level of parathyroid hormone as a marker of calcitriol function...
April 17, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665907/-influencing-factors-of-nosocomial-infection-after-chemotherapy-in-adult-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-and-its-control-strategy
#18
Shu-Tan Li, Liu Tang, Xiao-Min Chen, Xiao-Ming Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influencing factors of nosocomial infection in adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its control strategies. METHODS: The clinical data of 109 patients with AML treated in our hospital from June 2014 to June 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical factors were analyzed retrospectively, and the influencing factors of infection after chemotherapy were explored. RESULTS: A total of 109 patients received chemotherapy for 267 case-times, the infection occurred in 168 case-times, the nosocomial infection rate was 62...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665161/poverty-as-an-independent-risk-factor-for-in-hospital-mortality-in-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-study-in-a-developing-country-population
#19
Hassan Jahanihashemi, Mona Babaie, Soroush Bijani, Maryam Bazzazan, Behzad Bijani
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most severe lower respiratory tract infections with a high in-hospital mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic and medical risk factors affecting the prognosis of acute pneumonia. The results of this study can mention the value of socioeconomic backgrounds like poverty and illiteracy in clinical practice, even in a well-known biological phenomenon (eg acute pneumonia). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, all admitted patients to a tertiary teaching hospital with a diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia in a 12-month period were enrolled...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664460/a-novel-variant-in-atm-gene-causes-ataxia-telangiectasia-revealed-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#20
Noufa A Alonazi, Khalid J Hundallah, Amal M Al Hashem, Sarar Mohamed
Ataxia-Telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by variants in ATM gene and characterized by progressive neurologic impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and oculo-cutaneous telangiectasia. Immunodeficiency with a recurrent sinopulmonary infections are observed in patients with A-T. Here, we report a novel stop codon variant, c.5944 C>T (p.Gln1982*), revealed by whole-exome sequencing in a 9-year old boy. He presented with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections, failure to thrive, developmental delay, ataxic gait, and bulbar telangiectasia...
April 2018: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
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