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Paraneoplastic AND brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855355/seizure-control-and-cognitive-improvement-via-immunotherapy-in-late-onset-epilepsy-patients-with-paraneoplastic-versus-gad65-autoantibody-associated-limbic-encephalitis
#1
N Hansen, G Widman, J-A Witt, J Wagner, A J Becker, C E Elger, C Helmstaedter
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of immunotherapy in limbic encephalitis (LE) associated epilepsies with autoantibodies against intracellular antigens in the forms of paraneoplastic autoantibodies versus glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD)-autoantibodies. METHODS: Eleven paraneoplastic-antibodies+ and eleven age- and gender-matched GAD-antibodies+ patients with LE were compared regarding EEG, seizure frequency, MRI volumetry of the brain, and cognition. All patients received immunotherapy with corticosteroids add-on to antiepileptic therapy...
November 14, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818548/rhombencephalitis-pictorial-essay
#2
Líllian Gonçalves Campos, Régis Augusto Reis Trindade, Ângela Faistauer, Juliano Adams Pérez, Leonardo Modesti Vedolin, Juliana Ávila Duarte
The term rhombencephalitis refers to inflammatory diseases affecting the hindbrain (brainstem and cerebellum). Rhombencephalitis has a wide variety of etiologies, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and paraneoplastic syndromes. Infection with bacteria of the genus Listeria is the most common cause of rhombencephalitis. Primary rhombencephalitis caused by infection with Listeria spp. occurs in healthy young adults. It usually has a biphasic time course with a flu-like syndrome, followed by brainstem dysfunction; 75% of patients have cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, and nearly 100% have an abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging scan...
September 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801769/adult-onset-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome-associated-with-ganglionic-acetylcholine-receptor-autoantibody
#3
Jonathan R Galli, Stacey L Clardy, M Mateo Paz Soldán
INTRODUCTION: Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) may have a toxin induced, parainfectious, or paraneoplastic etiology. Several autoantibodies have been associated with adult-onset OMS, most commonly antineuronal nuclear antibody 2 (Ri), and it is most frequently associated with breast or small cell lung cancer. The nicotinic ganglionic acetylcholine receptor autoantibody (α3-AChR Ab) has not been described in association. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old woman was evaluated for symptoms of oscillopsia, tremor, gait imbalance, and mild cognitive deficits that began 6 weeks prior...
November 2016: Neurologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698847/paraneoplastic-morvan-s-syndrome-following-surgical-treatment-of-recurrent-thymoma-a-case-report
#4
Edvina Galié, Rosaria Renna, Domenico Plantone, Andrea Pace, Mirella Marino, Bruno Jandolo, Tatiana Koudriavtseva
Morvan's syndrome (MoS) is a rare, complex neurological disorder characterized by neuromyotonia, neuropsychiatric features, dysautonomia and neuropathic pain. The majority of MoS cases have a paraneoplastic aetiology, usually occurring prior to the diagnosis of the underlying tumour and showing improvement following its treatment. The present study reports the case of a 35-year-old Caucasian male patient who was diagnosed with stage IVA thymoma. Thymectomy, lung resection, diaphragmatic pleurectomy and pericardio-phrenectomy were performed 6 months after neoadjuvant chemotherapy...
October 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687936/distribution-of-feline-lymphoma-in-the-central-and-peripheral-nervous-systems
#5
REVIEW
Maria Teresa Mandara, Luca Motta, Pietro Calò
In cats, lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) is the most common neoplasm affecting the spinal cord and the second most common intracranial tumour. Although lymphoma commonly develops in the spinal cord as a part of a multicentric process, a primary form may occur. Lymphoma can exhibit a wide range of morphological patterns, including intraparenchymal brain mass, lymphomatosis cerebri, intravascular lymphoma, lymphomatous choroiditis and meningitis, extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary lymphoma in the spinal cord, or neurolymphomatosis in the peripheral nerves...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668114/bilateral-vocal-cord-paralysis-and-cervicolumbar-radiculopathy-as-the-presenting-paraneoplastic-manifestations-of-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Jeffrey C Yeung, C Elizabeth Pringle, Harmanjatinder S Sekhon, Shaun J Kilty, Kristian Macdonald
Introduction. Bilateral vocal cord paralysis (BVCP) is a potential medical emergency. The Otolaryngologist plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of BVCP and must consider a broad differential diagnosis. We present a rare case of BVCP secondary to anti-Hu paraneoplastic syndrome. Case Presentation. A 58-year-old female presented to an Otolaryngology clinic with a history of progressive hoarseness and dysphagia. Flexible nasolaryngoscopy demonstrated BVCP. Cross-sectional imaging of the brain and vagus nerves was negative...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606347/paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration-with-anti-yo-antibodies-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Anand Venkatraman, Puneet Opal
The ataxic syndrome associated with Anti-Yo antibody, or Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody type 1 (PCA1), is the most common variant of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD). The typical presentation involves the subacute development of pancerebellar deficits with a clinical plateau within 6 months. The vast majority of cases have been reported in women with pelvic or breast tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain is often normal in the early stages, with cerebellar atrophy seen later. The underlying mechanism is believed to be an immunological reaction to cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2 (CDR2), a protein usually found in the cerebellum that is ectopically produced by tumor cells...
August 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593992/how-far-to-investigate-presumed-psychosomatic-symptoms-lessons-from-a-particular-case%C3%A2
#8
Marie Angélique De Scheerder, Sylvie Rottey, An Mariman, Marleen Praet, Dirk Vogelaers
We describe a 43-year-old patient with subacute appearance of neurological and atypical complaints of anergia, anorexia and weight loss six months earlier. In spite of several admissions in different hospitals, no underlying somatic cause could be found and he was admitted to a psychiatric hospital with a tentative diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Subsequently, he was referred to the unit of medically unexplained physical symptoms within the department of general internal medicine for assessment by the psychiatrist, involved in this programme...
September 2, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592059/autoimmune-neurological-syndromes-associated-limbic-encephalitis-and-paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration
#9
Zeynep Özözen Ayas, Dilcan Kotan, Yeşim Güzey Aras
INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune neurological syndrome is a group of disorders caused by cancer affecting nervous system by different immunological mechanisms. In this study, we aim to study the clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, autoantibody tests, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs and treatment outcome of patients with autoimmune syndromes. METHODS: In this study, 7 patients (4 male, 3 female) diagnosed with autoimmune neurological syndrome were retrospectively examined...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557073/-autoimmune-encephalitis
#10
Albrecht Günther, Julia Schubert, Dirk Brämer, Otto Wilhelm Witte
Autoimmune encephalitis, an inflammatory disease of the brain, is usually attributed to antibody-mediated damage and dysfunction of neuronal structures. A distinction is made between onconeuronal antibodies (directed against intracellular neuronal antigens with resulting paraneoplastic neurological syndromes) and antibodies directed against neuronal cell surface proteins (with resulting synaptic encephalopathies). Anti-NMDA-Receptor-Encephalitis, the most common form of autoimmune encephalopathy, is characterized by a phased course of disease...
August 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545842/current-trends-in-autoimmunity-and-the-nervous-system
#11
Carlo Selmi, Jobert G Barin, Noel R Rose
In the broad field of autoimmunity and clinical immunology, experimental evidence over the past few years have demonstrated several connections between the immune system and the nervous system, both central and peripheral, leading to the definition of neuroimmunology and of an immune-brain axis. Indeed, the central nervous system as an immune-privileged site, thanks to the blood-brain barrier, is no longer a dogma as the barrier may be altered during chronic inflammation with disruptive changes of endothelial cells and tight junctions, largely mediated by adenosine receptors and the expression of CD39/CD73...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498818/a-case-of-possible-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndrome-presenting-as-multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies-associated-with-gallbladder-cancer
#12
Misako Kaido, Yoshihito Yuasa, Tameyoshi Yamamoto, Satoru Munakata, Naohiro Tagawa, Keiko Tanaka
We report the case of a patient who had developed multiple cranial nerve palsies in the course of possible paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS) associated with gallbladder cancer. Twelve days prior to visiting our hospital, a 69-year-old man began experiencing neurological symptoms, beginning with diplopia and progressing to ptosis of the left palpebra and subsequent complete closure of the eye within 8 days. Results of the initial medical examination indicated paresis of left oculomotor (III) and abducens (VI) nerves...
September 29, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27470606/paraneoplastic-neuropsychiatric-syndrome-presenting-as-delirium
#13
Gloria Roldan Urgoiti, Aynharan Sinnarajah, Seema Hussain, Desiree Hao
Delirium in patients with cancer is associated with poor outcomes, but reversible causes need to be ruled out. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman who was presented with behavioural and cognitive changes over 2 weeks. She was non-verbal and combative, requiring involuntary admission and declaration of incompetence to make healthcare treatment decisions. Infectious and metabolic investigations and initial brain imaging were unremarkable. She was diagnosed with limited-stage small cell lung cancer and a paraneoplastic neuropsychiatric syndrome...
July 28, 2016: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446766/poorly-differentiated-neuroendocrine-tumor-of-the-esophagus-with-hypertrophic-osteoarthropathy-and-brain-metastasis-a-success-story
#14
Muhammad W Saif, Chandra Vethody
Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) of the esophagus are very rare. The majority of the patients with NECs present with metastasis. Paraneoplastic syndromes, such as syndrome of inappropriate secretion of anti-diuretic hormone and watery diarrhea-hypokalemia-achlorhydria syndrome, have been reported in previous reports. Esophageal NECs are related to a poor prognosis. A 38-year-old male with the histologic diagnosis of esophageal NEC, which initially manifested as hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), later developed brain metastases...
2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27432679/cerebellar-disorders-clinical-radiologic-findings-and-modern-imaging-tools
#15
Mario Manto, Christophe Habas
Cerebellar disorders, also called cerebellar ataxias, comprise a large group of sporadic and genetic diseases. Their core clinical features include impaired control of coordination and gait, as well as cognitive/behavioral deficits usually not detectable by a standard neurologic examination and therefore often overlooked. Two forms of cognitive/behavioral syndromes are now well identified: (1) the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, which combines an impairment of executive functions, including planning and working memory, deficits in visuospatial skills, linguistic deficiencies such as agrammatism, and inappropriate behavior; and (2) the posterior fossa syndrome, a very acute form of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome occurring essentially in children...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356731/a-case-of-slowly-progressive-anti-yo-associated-paraneoplastic-cerebellar-degeneration-successfully-treated-with-antitumor-and-immunotherapy
#16
Shintaro Tsuboguchi, Ryuji Yajima, You Higuchi, Masanori Ishikawa, Izumi Kawachi, Yu Koyama, Masatoyo Nishizawa
We report a case of slowly progressive anti-Yo-associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) with breast cancer in a 54-year-old woman. The symptoms of limb and truncal ataxia, and dysarthria gradually progressed during the course of 1 year, and the modified Rankin scale (mRS) score was 2. A mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection was performed for the breast cancer. No malignant cells were found on histopathological examination of the lymph node. Combination chemotherapy with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide (AC) prevented neurologic deterioration...
July 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27356651/anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase-antibody-positive-neurological-syndromes
#17
Hassaan Tohid
A rare kind of antibody, known as anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) autoantibody, is found in some patients. The antibody works against the GAD enzyme, which is essential in the formation of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the brain. Patients found with this antibody present with motor and cognitive problems due to low levels or lack of GABA, because in the absence or low levels of GABA patients exhibit motor and cognitive symptoms. The anti-GAD antibody is found in some neurological syndromes, including stiff-person syndrome, paraneoplastic stiff-person syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), limbic encephalopathy, cerebellar ataxia, eye movement disorders, and epilepsy...
July 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354985/lgi1-antibody-encephalopathy-overlapping-with-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#18
Boaz Kim, Patrick Yoo, Tom Sutherland, Alison Boyd, Christiane Stehmann, Catriona McLean, Steven Collins
OBJECTIVE: To report a rare case of leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalopathy clinically overlapping with pathologically confirmed sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). METHODS: The patient was investigated with repeated brain MRI, EEG, CSF examination, whole-body fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography, genetic analysis of the prion protein gene (PRNP), and extensive serologic screening for paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalopathy markers...
August 2016: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27318703/paraneoplastic-erythrocytosis-of-colon-cancer-with-serum-erythropoietin-within-the-normal-reference-range
#19
Hiromitsu Kitayama, Tomonhiro Kondo, Junko Sugiyama, Michiaki Hirayama, Yumiko Oyamada, Yasushi Tsuji
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic erythrocytosis can be brought on by ectopic erythropoietin production usually in kidney, brain, and liver tumor with increase of serum erythropoietin level. We report here a paraneoplastic erythrocytosis of colon cancer with serum erythropoietin within the normal reference, which required an immunohistologic test for erythropoietin-antibody to be diagnosed. CASE REPORT: Our case report was of a 75-year-old woman with erythrocytosis. Her hemoglobin and serum erythropoietin levels were 191 g/dL and 12...
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27303263/detection-and-characterization-of-autoantibodies-to-neuronal-cell-surface-antigens-in-the-central-nervous-system
#20
REVIEW
Marleen H van Coevorden-Hameete, Maarten J Titulaer, Marco W J Schreurs, Esther de Graaff, Peter A E Sillevis Smitt, Casper C Hoogenraad
Autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) is a group of disorders in which autoantibodies directed at antigens located on the plasma membrane of neurons induce severe neurological symptoms. In contrast to classical paraneoplastic disorders, AIE patients respond well to immunotherapy. The detection of neuronal surface autoantibodies in patients' serum or CSF therefore has serious consequences for the patients' treatment and follow-up and requires the availability of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. This mini-review provides a guideline for both diagnostic and research laboratories that work on the detection of known surface autoantibodies and/or the identification of novel surface antigens...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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