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Risk sharing

Suresh Venkateswaran, Jarod Prince, David J Cutler, Urko M Marigorta, David T Okou, Sampath Prahalad, David Mack, Brendan Boyle, Thomas Walters, Anne Griffiths, Cary G Sauer, Neal LeLeiko, David Keljo, James Markowitz, Susan S Baker, Joel Rosh, Marian Pfefferkorn, Melvin B Heyman, Ashish Patel, Anthony Otley, Robert Baldassano, Joshua Noe, Paul Rufo, Maria Oliva-Hemker, Sonia Davis, Michael E Zwick, Greg Gibson, Lee A Denson, Jeffrey Hyams, Subra Kugathasan
Background: The genetic contributions to pediatric onset ulcerative colitis (UC), characterized by severe disease and extensive colonic involvement, are largely unknown. In adult onset UC, Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) has identified numerous loci, most of which have a modest susceptibility risk (OR 0.84-1.14), with the exception of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region on Chromosome 6 (OR 3.59). Method: To study the genetic contribution to exclusive pediatric onset UC, a GWAS was performed on 466 cases with 2099 healthy controls using UK Biobank array...
March 19, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Rupen Shah, Kristopher Attwood, Shipra Arya, Daniel E Hall, Jason M Johanning, Emmanuel Gabriel, Anthony Visioni, Steven Nurkin, Moshim Kukar, Steven Hochwald, Nader N Massarweh
Importance: Failure to rescue (FTR), or death after a potentially preventable complication, is a nationally endorsed, publicly reported quality measure. However, little is known about the impact of frailty on FTR, in particular after low-risk surgical procedures. Objective: To assess the association of frailty with FTR in patients undergoing inpatient surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study assessed a cohort of 984 550 patients undergoing inpatient general, vascular, thoracic, cardiac, and orthopedic surgery in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Jo Durham, Lisa Schubert, Lisa Vaughan, Cameron D Willis
BACKGROUND: Middle ear disease (otitis media) is endemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia and represents an important cause of hearing loss. The disease is the result of a mix of biological, environmental and host risk factors that interact in complex, non-linear ways along a dynamic continuum. As such, it is generally recognised that a holistic, systems approach is required to reverse the high rates of otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children...
2018: PloS One
Emma Weiss, Cristina Japie, Ana Maria Balahura, Daniela Bartos, Elisabeta Badila
BACKGROUND: The Roma population has a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, higher mortality, and shorter life expectancy. It is found in largest numbers in Romania, but published data are still scarce here. We studied cardiovascular risk factors and disease along with target organ damage on a population of Roma inhabitants from Bucharest, Romania. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled, in a community-based participatory research manner, 806 Roma subjects (18-83 years)...
March 19, 2018: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
Richard Mbundu Ilunga, Céline Helbling, Lucie Favre, Tinh-Hai Collet
Obesity is associated with elevated levels of triglycerides, sometimes LDL-cholesterol, and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. Management should first focus on dietary advices and increased physical activity, while lipid-lowering drugs are indicated only in patients at intermediate or high cardiovascular risk. We summarize nutritional recommendations from scientific societies: although they do not always overlap, they agree on lowering consumption of dietary fat (20-35 % of total energy intake) and favoring non-saturated fatty acids...
March 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
Susanna Esposito, Manuel E Soto-Martinez, Wojciech Feleszko, Marcus H Jones, Kun-Ling Shen, Urs B Schaad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the mechanistic and clinical evidence for the use of nonspecific immunomodulators in paediatric respiratory tract infection (RTI) and wheezing/asthma prophylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonspecific immunomodulators have a long history of empirical use for the prevention of RTIs in vulnerable populations, such as children. The past decade has seen an increase in both the number and quality of studies providing mechanistic and clinical evidence for the prophylactic potential of nonspecific immunomodulators against both respiratory infections and wheezing/asthma in the paediatric population...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Michael D Masucci, Amanda Lister, Cheryl M Corcoran, Gary Brucato, Ragy R Girgis
The Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS) contains criteria for the Attenuated Positive Symptom Syndrome (APSS), a period of subthreshold positive symptoms that predates full-blown psychosis. Motor abnormalities are often associated with these symptoms but have not been adequately studied. We assessed a diverse sample of 192 APSS participants (27.1% female; 47.9% white; mean age = 20.03 years) for motor dysfunction (SIPS G.3. score) at baseline and conversion to psychosis every 3 months for up to 2 years...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
Shuhei Mayanagi, Kosuke Kashiwabara, Michitaka Honda, Koji Oba, Toru Aoyama, Mitsuro Kanda, Hiromichi Maeda, Chikuma Hamada, Sotaro Sadahiro, Junichi Sakamoto, Shigetoyo Saji, Takaki Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND: Most previous reports to analyze risk factors for peritoneal recurrence in patients with colon cancer have been observational studies of a population-based cohort. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the risk factors for peritoneal recurrence in patients with stage II to III colon cancer who underwent curative resection. DESIGN: This was a pooled analysis using a combined database obtained from 3 large phase III randomized trials (N = 3714)...
March 20, 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Meghan R Swanson, Mark D Shen, Jason J Wolff, Jed T Elison, Robert W Emerson, Martin A Styner, Heather C Hazlett, Kinh Truong, Linda R Watson, Sarah Paterson, Natasha Marrus, Kelly N Botteron, Juhi Pandey, Robert T Schultz, Stephen R Dager, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Annette M Estes, Joseph Piven
BACKGROUND: Younger siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are themselves at increased risk for ASD and other developmental concerns. It is unclear if infants who display developmental concerns, but are unaffected by ASD, share similar or dissimilar behavioral and brain phenotypes to infants with ASD. Most individuals with ASD exhibit heterogeneous difficulties with language, and their receptive-expressive language profiles are often atypical. Yet, little is known about the neurobiology that contributes to these language difficulties...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Lijie Zhao, Guojing Jiang, Xingfang Tian, Xiaoqin Zhang, Ting Zhu, Beibei Chen, Yongxiang Wang, Qingliang Ma
The aim of this study is to estimate the timing impact on levothyroxine replacement among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Ninety-eight pregnant women diagnosed as SCH in the first trimester were randomly divided into three groups: Group A, instantly initiated levothyroxine after diagnosis; Group B, administrated treatment in the second trimester, and Group C, received no prescription. Incidence of pregnancy complications and pregnancy outcomes were compared among three groups and subgroup analysis were performed stratified with TPO status in Group B...
March 21, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
David R Vinson, E Margaret Warton, Dustin G Mark, Dustin W Ballard, Mary E Reed, Uli K Chettipally, Nimmie Singh, Sean Z Bouvet, Bory Kea, Patricia C Ramos, David S Glaser, Alan S Go
Introduction: Many patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (AF/FL) who are high risk for ischemic stroke are not receiving evidence-based thromboprophylaxis. We examined anticoagulant prescribing within 30 days of receiving dysrhythmia care for non-valvular AF/FL in the emergency department (ED). Methods: This prospective study included non-anticoagulated adults at high risk for ischemic stroke (ATRIA score ≥7) who received emergency AF/FL care and were discharged home from seven community EDs between May 2011 and August 2012...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Marzia Dolcino, Andrea Pelosi, Piera Filomena Fiore, Giuseppe Patuzzo, Elisa Tinazzi, Claudio Lunardi, Antonio Puccetti
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by three pathogenetic hallmarks: vasculopathy, dysregulation of the immune system, and fibrosis. A particular feature of SSc is the increased frequency of some types of malignancies, namely breast, lung, and hematological malignancies. Moreover, SSc may also be a paraneoplastic disease, again indicating a strong link between cancer and scleroderma. The reason of this association is still unknown; therefore, we aimed at investigating whether particular genetic or epigenetic factors may play a role in promoting cancer development in patients with SSc and whether some features are shared by the two conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wandong Hong, Lemei Dong, Maddalena Zippi, Simon Stock, Wujun Geng, Chunfang Xu, Mengtao Zhou
Background and aims: Colonic diverticulosis may represent a risk factor for colonic adenomas by virtue of the fact that evolving data suggest that these 2 conditions may share common risk factors such as Western dietary pattern and physical inactivity. This study aims to investigate the association between colonic diverticulosis and colonic adenomas in mainland China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on patients who underwent colonoscopic examination between October 2013 and December 2014 in a university hospital in mainland China...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Shomi Oka, Takashi Higuchi, Hiroshi Furukawa, Minoru Nakamura, Atsumasa Komori, Seigo Abiru, Shinya Nagaoka, Satoru Hashimoto, Atsushi Naganuma, Noriaki Naeshiro, Kaname Yoshizawa, Masaaki Shimada, Hideo Nishimura, Minoru Tomizawa, Masahiro Kikuchi, Fujio Makita, Haruhiro Yamashita, Keisuke Ario, Hiroshi Yatsuhashi, Shigeto Tohma, Aya Kawasaki, Naoyuki Tsuchiya, Kiyoshi Migita
Several studies reported that autoimmune diseases share a number of susceptibility genes. Of these genes, a SNP rs7708392 in TNIP1 was reported to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), a rare chronic progressive liver disease, shares some clinical features with SLE. Therefore, we investigated whether the SNP is associated with Japanese AIH. An association study of rs7708392 was conducted in 343 Japanese AIH patients and 828 controls. We found that rs7708392 is associated with AIH (P = 0...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
Freja Herborg, Thorvald F Andreassen, Frida Berlin, Claus J Loland, Ulrik Gether
Genetic factors are known to significantly contribute to the etiology of psychiatric diseases such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum and bipolar disorders, but the underlying molecular processes remain largely elusive. The dopamine transporter (DAT) has received continuous attention as a potential risk factor for psychiatric disease, as it is critical for dopamine homeostasis and serves as principal target for ADHD medications. Constrain metrics for the DAT-encoding gene solute carrier family 6 member 3 (SLC6A3) indicate that missense mutations are under strong negative selection, pointing to pathophysiological outcomes when DAT function is compromised...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
T N Anand, Linju M Joseph, A V Geetha, Joyita Chowdhury, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Panniyammakal Jeemon
BACKGROUND: One of the potential strategies to improve health care delivery in understaffed low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is task sharing, where specific tasks are transferred from more qualified health care cadre to a lesser trained cadre. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease but often it is not managed appropriately. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review with the objective to identify and evaluate the effect of task sharing interventions on dyslipidemia in LMICs...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Chunxiao Liao, Wenjing Gao, Weihua Cao, Jun Lv, Canqing Yu, Shengfeng Wang, Chunxiao Li, Zengchang Pang, Liming Cong, Zhong Dong, Fan Wu, Hua Wang, Xianping Wu, Guohong Jiang, Xiaojie Wang, Binyou Wang, Liming Li
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is growing rapidly in many countries. Socioeconomic inequalities might be important for this increase. The aim of this study was to determine associations of body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity with educational level and marital status in Chinese twins. Participants were adult twins recruited through the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), aged 18 to 79 years, and the sample comprised 10,448 same-sex twin pairs. Current height, weight, educational attainment, and marital status were self-reported...
March 21, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
Yoshihiro Ueda, Jun-Ichi Fukunaga, Tatsuya Kamima, Yumiko Adachi, Kiyoshi Nakamatsu, Hajime Monzen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercial knowledge-based planning system, in volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer at multiple radiation therapy departments. METHODS: In each institute, > 20 cases were assessed. For the knowledge-based planning, the estimated dose (ED) based on geometric and dosimetric information of plans was generated in the model. Lower and upper limits of estimated dose were saved as dose volume histograms for each organ at risk...
March 20, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Yefei Zhang, Maha R Boktour
INTRODUCTION: The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) instituted the Share 35 policy in June 2013 in order to reduce death on liver transplant waitlist. The effect of this policy on patient survival among patients with gender- and race-mismatched donors has not been examined. RESEARCH QUESTION: To assess the impact of Share 35 policy on posttransplantation patient survival among patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) transplanted with gender- and race-mismatched donors...
January 1, 2018: Progress in Transplantation
Kelly Whalon
Foundational to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are difficulties developing joint attention, social reciprocity, and language/communication. These challenges place children with ASD at risk for future reading failure. Research suggests that many school-aged children with ASD will learn the decoding skills necessary to effectively read text, but will struggle with comprehension. Yet, the reading profiles of learners with ASD also show great heterogeneity, with some also unable to effectively decode new words...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
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