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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889018/posterior-fossa-tumors
#1
REVIEW
Lara A Brandão, Tina Young Poussaint
Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of death from solid tumors in childhood. The most common posterior fossa tumors in children are medulloblastoma, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma, ependymoma, and brainstem glioma. Location, and imaging findings on computed tomography (CT) and conventional MR (cMR) imaging may provide important clues to the most likely diagnosis. Moreover, information obtained from advanced MR imaging techniques increase diagnostic confidence and help distinguish between different histologic tumor types...
February 2017: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888085/high-definition-fiber-tractography-in-evaluation-and-surgical-planning-of-thalamopeduncular-pilocytic-astrocytomas-in-pediatric-population-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#2
Emrah Celtikci, Pinar Celtikci, David Tiago Fernandes-Cabral, Murat Ucar, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Miranda, Alp Ozgun Borcek
OBJECTIVE: Thalamopeduncular tumors (TPTs) of the childhood present a challenge for neurosurgeons due to their eloquent location. Preoperative fiber tracking provides total or near-total resection, without additional neurological deficit. High-definition fiber tractography (HDFT) is an advanced white matter imaging technique derived from magnetic resonance imaging diffusion data, shown to overcome limitation of diffusion tensor imaging. We aimed to investigate alterations of corticospinal tract (CST) and medial lemniscus (ML) caused by TPTs and to demonstrate the application of HDFT in preoperative planning...
November 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809914/efficacy-and-safety-of-everolimus-in-children-with-tsc-associated-epilepsy-pilot-data-from-an-open-single-center-prospective-study
#3
Sharon Samueli, Klaus Abraham, Anastasia Dressler, Gudrun Gröppel, Angelika Mühlebner-Fahrngruber, Theresa Scholl, Gregor Kasprian, Franco Laccone, Martha Feucht
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy occurs in up to 90 % of all individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). In 67 % disease onset is during childhood. In ≥ 50 % seizures are refractory to currently available treatment options. The mTOR-Inhibitor Everolimus (Votubia®) was approved for the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) and renal angiomyolipoma (AML) in Europe in 2011. It's anticonvulsive/antiepileptic properties are promising, but evidence is still limited. Study aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Everolimus in children and adolescents with TSC-associated epilepsies...
November 3, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804208/birth-weight-and-subsequent-risk-of-childhood-primary-brain-tumors-an-updated-meta-analysis
#4
Anne Dahlhaus, Peggy Prengel, Logan Spector, Dawid Pieper
BACKGROUND: Primary brain tumors are common in childhood, but the etiology is largely unclear. As studies on birth weight as a risk factor for the occurrence of histologically specified tumors have been inconclusive, we decided to update a 2008 meta-analysis on the subject. METHODS: A search strategy was performed in Medline and EMBASE for the period 2007-2016. We included six new studies and performed further subgroup analyses for medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs)...
November 2, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785688/dti-fiber-tractography-of-cerebro-cerebellar-pathways-and-clinical-evaluation-of-ataxia-in-childhood-posterior-fossa-tumor-survivors
#5
Myung Eun Oh, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Rajiv K Khajuria, Stefan Mark Rueckriegel, Elisabeth Koustenis, Harald Bruhn, Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale
Pediatric posterior fossa (PF) tumor survivors experience long-term motor deficits. Specific cerebrocerebellar connections may be involved in incidence and severity of motor dysfunction. We examined the relationship between long-term ataxia as well as fine motor function and alteration of differential cerebellar efferent and afferent pathways using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography. DTI-based tractography was performed in 19 patients (10 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and 9 medulloblastoma patients (MB)) and 20 healthy peers...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743145/incidence-time-trends-and-survival-patterns-of-childhood-pilocytic-astrocytomas-in-southern-eastern-europe-and-seer-us
#6
Marios K Georgakis, Maria A Karalexi, Eleni I Kalogirou, Anton Ryzhov, Anna Zborovskaya, Nadya Dimitrova, Sultan Eser, Luis Antunes, Mario Sekerija, Tina Zagar, Joana Bastos, Domenic Agius, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Evdoxia Bouka, Charis Bourgioti, Helen Dana, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Maria Moschovi, Savvas Papadopoulos, Georgios Sfakianos, Evgenia Papakonstantinou, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Spyros Sgouros, Kalliopi Stefanaki, Eftichia Stiakaki, Katerina Strantzia, Basilios Zountsas, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Eustratios Patsouris, Eleni Th Petridou
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) comprise the most common childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Exploiting registry-based data from Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) and SEER, US, we opted to examine incidence, time trends, survival and tentative outcome disparities of childhood PA by sociodemographic and clinical features. Childhood PA were retrieved from 12 SEE registries (N = 552; 1983-2014) and SEER (N = 2723; 1973-2012). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were estimated and survival was examined via Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742374/angiocentric-glioma-transformed-into-anaplastic-ependymoma-review-of-the-evidence-for-malignant-potential
#7
James A McCracken, Michael F Gonzales, Pramit M Phal, Katharine J Drummond
Angiocentric glioma (AG) is a low grade glioma, that was first described in 2002. Since this description, 83 patients with AG have been described, including ours. AG typically presents in childhood with medically refractory seizures that are cured with gross surgical resection. Whilst the natural history is that of a benign tumour, there have been reports of recurrence, transformation, and malignant features that suggest that AG is potentially malignant. We add to the literature a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented in May 2011 with a 3-month history of complex partial seizures, with MRI showing a T2-weighted hyperintense lesion in the left insula and inferior frontal lobe...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624914/antigen-specific-immunoreactivity-and-clinical-outcome-following-vaccination-with-glioma-associated-antigen-peptides-in-children-with-recurrent-high-grade-gliomas-results-of-a-pilot-study
#8
Ian F Pollack, Regina I Jakacki, Lisa H Butterfield, Ronald L Hamilton, Ashok Panigrahy, Daniel P Normolle, Angela K Connelly, Sharon Dibridge, Gary Mason, Theresa L Whiteside, Hideho Okada
Recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGGs) of childhood have an exceedingly poor prognosis with current therapies. Accordingly, new treatment approaches are needed. We initiated a pilot trial of vaccinations with peptide epitopes derived from glioma-associated antigens (GAAs) overexpressed in these tumors in HLA-A2+ children with recurrent HGG that had progressed after prior treatments. Peptide epitopes for three GAAs (EphA2, IL13Rα2, survivin), emulsified in Montanide-ISA-51, were administered subcutaneously adjacent to intramuscular injections of poly-ICLC every 3 weeks for 8 courses, followed by booster vaccines every 6 weeks...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613707/maternal-pre-pregnancy-and-gestational-diabetes-obesity-gestational-weight-gain-and-risk-of-cancer-in-young-children-a-population-based-study-in-california
#9
Zuelma A Contreras, Beate Ritz, Jasveer Virk, Myles Cockburn, Julia E Heck
PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the influence of pre-pregnancy diabetes, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational diabetes, and gestational weight gain on childhood cancer risk in offspring. METHODS: We identified cancer cases (n = 11,149) younger than age 6 years at diagnosis from the California Cancer Registry registered between 1988 and 2013. Controls (n = 270,147) were randomly sampled from California birth records, and frequency matched by year of birth to all childhood cancers during the study period...
October 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27583098/central-nervous-system-tumours-in-children-in-ibadan-nigeria-a-histopathologic-study
#10
Gabriel Olabiyi Ogun, Amos Olufemi Adeleye, Taiwo Olabimpe Babatunde, Olufunmilola Abimbola Ogun, Ayodeji Salami, Biobele Jotham Brown, Effiong Akang
INTRODUCTION: Contrary to some earlier teachings that central nervous system (CNS) tumours are uncommon in black children, these neoplasms are the fourth most common paediatric tumours in Ibadan. Our centre is the major referral centre for CNS tumours in Nigeria. The last major study of paediatric CNS neoplasms from Ibadan was in 1985. An update of the data on paediatric CNS neoplasms at our centre is presented. METHODS: A retrospective review of all histologically diagnosed CNS tumours in children (0-14 years) from January 2001 to December 2010 from the database of the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria was done...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404900/multiclass-imbalance-learning-improving-classification-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-from-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy
#11
Niloufar Zarinabad, Martin Wilson, Simrandip K Gill, Karen A Manias, Nigel P Davies, Andrew C Peet
PURPOSE: Classification of pediatric brain tumors from (1) H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can aid diagnosis and management of brain tumors. However, varied incidence of the different tumor types leads to imbalanced class sizes and introduces difficulties in classifying rare tumor groups. This study assessed different imbalanced multiclass learning techniques and compared the use of complete spectra and quantified metabolite profiles for classification of three main childhood brain tumor types...
July 12, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323560/morphological-pattern-and-frequency-of-central-nervous-system-tumours-in-children
#12
Fatima Bilqees, Khaleeq Samina, Tahir Mohammad, Khaleeq-uz-Zamaan
BACKGROUND: Recent studies, including a comprehensive study by National Cancer Institute, have shown that a significant increase in the incidence of childhood brain tumours makes them the most common paediatric tumour. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of central nervous system tumours in paediatric age group (0-12 years), and to segregate various morphologic types according to WHO classification. METHODS: The study included consecutive cases of central nervous system tumours diagnosed in children in the histopathology department at Federal Government Polyclinic, PGMI, Islamabad, during a period of 4...
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27157245/clinical-characteristics-and-late-effects-in-cns-tumours-of-childhood-do-not-forget-long-term-follow-up-of-the-low-grade-tumours
#13
Christoffer Ehrstedt, Ingela Kristiansen, Gunnar Ahlsten, Olivera Casar-Borota, Margareta Dahl, Sylwia Libard, Bo Strömberg
AIM: To investigate clinical characteristics and late effects of CNS tumours in childhood with a special focus on low-grade tumours, especially low-grade astrocytoma and glioneuronal tumours. METHODS: A retrospective population based study was performed at Uppsala University Children's Hospital, a tertiary referral centre for children with CNS tumours. Patients were identified from the National Brain Tumour Registry and the National Epilepsy Surgery Registry. Hospital medical records were analysed for patients with a follow up of ≥5 years after diagnosis...
December 0: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27110958/risk-of-childhood-cancer-by-maternal-birthplace-a-test-of-the-hispanic-paradox
#14
Julia E Heck, Andrew S Park, Zuelma A Contreras, Tom B Davidson, Katherine J Hoggatt, Myles Cockburn, Beate Ritz
IMPORTANCE: The Hispanic epidemiologic paradox is the phenomenon that non-US-born Hispanic mothers who immigrate to the United States have better pregnancy outcomes than their US-born counterparts. It is unknown whether this advantage extends to childhood cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk for childhood cancers among Hispanic children varies by maternal birthplace. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this population-based case-control study conducted in June 2015, cohort members were identified through California birth records of children born in California from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 2011...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046034/childhood-optic-nerve-glioma-vision-loss-due-to-biopsy
#15
Karen E Revere, William R Katowitz, James A Katowitz, Lucy Rorke-Adams, Michael J Fisher, Grant T Liu
Two children without neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with unilateral decreased vision and MRI revealing optic nerve tumors. In the first case, chemotherapy was initiated empirically for presumed optic pathway glioma, but the lesion increased in size with associated clinical worsening, raising concern for a possible alternate diagnosis. Biopsy of the involved optic nerve resulted in worsening of vision due to a branch retinal artery occlusion and showed a grade I pilocytic astrocytoma. In the second case, sudden symptom onset and rapid tumor growth prompted an optic nerve biopsy, resulting in vision loss due to a central retinal artery occlusion and revealing grade I pilocytic astrocytoma...
April 4, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26942148/demographic-and-histopathologic-profile-of-pediatric-brain-tumors-a-hospital-based-study
#16
Harshil C Shah, Bhushan P Ubhale, Jaimin K Shah
BACKGROUND: Very few hospital-based or population-based studies are published in the context to the epidemiologic profile of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) in India and Indian subcontinent. AIM: To study the demographic and histopathologic profile of PBTs according to World Health Organization 2007 classification in a single tertiary health care center in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data regarding age, gender, topography, and histopathology of 76 pediatric patients (0-19 years) with brain tumors operated over a period of 24 months (January-2012 to December-2013) was collected retrospectively and analyzed using EpiInfo 7...
July 2015: South Asian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26886222/a-case-series-characterizing-pilomyxoid-astrocytomas-in-childhood
#17
Amy Rosenfeld, Michael Etzl, David Lee, Jeffrey Miller, David Carpenteri, David Shafron, Allen Kaplan
BACKGROUND: The term pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) was added to the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the central nervous system in 2007. Pilomyxoid tumors are grade II tumors, considered to be variants of pilocytic astrocytomas. We attempted to determine if positron emission tomography (PET), proliferative index (PI), and BRAF V600E mutation help better define PMAs. OBSERVATIONS: We report 5 patients' clinical and neuroimaging findings, pathology (PI), and outcome...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811531/hearing-loss-in-patients-who-received-cranial-radiation-therapy-for-childhood-cancer
#18
Johnnie K Bass, Chia-Ho Hua, Jie Huang, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Kirsten K Ness, Skye Jones, Stephanie White, Shaum P Bhagat, Kay W Chang, Thomas E Merchant
PURPOSE: Patients treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT) are at risk for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Although SNHL is often characterized as a delayed consequence of anticancer therapy, longitudinal reports of SNHL in childhood cancer survivors treated with contemporary RT are limited. We report the incidence, onset, severity, and long-term trajectory of SNHL among children receiving RT. Potential risk factors for SNHL were also identified. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serial audiologic testing was conducted on 235 pediatric patients who were treated with conformal or intensity-modulated RT as part of an institutional phase II trial for localized primary brain tumors, including craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma...
April 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26743385/posterior-fossa-intra-axial-tumors-in-adults
#19
REVIEW
Rachel Grossman, Zvi Ram
BACKGROUND: The posterior fossa is the site of many types of tumors, and brain metastases are the most common malignancies in that location among adults. Other brain tumors, such as ependymomas, medulloblastomas, and juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, mostly occur during childhood and are relatively rare in adults. Most primary malignant brain tumors, such as gliomas and lymphomas, tend to be located in the supratentorial compartment. METHODS: This review summarizes prognostic factors, therapeutic management, and molecular data of intra-axial posterior fossa tumors in adults, including ependymomas, medulloblastomas, and pilocytic astrocytomas...
April 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26732081/the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-multiparametric-mri-to-determine-pediatric-brain-tumor-grades-and-types
#20
Mériam Koob, Nadine Girard, Badih Ghattas, Slim Fellah, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Didier Scavarda
Childhood brain tumors show great histological variability. The goal of this retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of multimodal MR imaging (diffusion, perfusion, MR spectroscopy) in the distinction of pediatric brain tumor grades and types. Seventy-six patients (range 1 month to 18 years) with brain tumors underwent multimodal MR imaging. Tumors were categorized by grade (I-IV) and by histological type (A-H). Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of single and combined MR modalities, and of single imaging parameters to distinguish the different groups...
April 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
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