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Childhood astrocytoma

Marios K Georgakis, Maria A Karalexi, Eleni I Kalogirou, Anton Ryzhov, Anna Zborovskaya, Nadya Dimitrova, Sultan Eser, Luis Antunes, Mario Sekerija, Tina Zagar, Joana Bastos, Domenic Agius, Margareta Florea, Daniela Coza, Evdoxia Bouka, Charis Bourgioti, Helen Dana, Emmanuel Hatzipantelis, Maria Moschovi, Savvas Papadopoulos, Georgios Sfakianos, Evgenia Papakonstantinou, Sophia Polychronopoulou, Spyros Sgouros, Kalliopi Stefanaki, Eftichia Stiakaki, Katerina Strantzia, Basilios Zountsas, Apostolos Pourtsidis, Eustratios Patsouris, Eleni Th Petridou
Pilocytic astrocytomas (PA) comprise the most common childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor. Exploiting registry-based data from Southern and Eastern Europe (SEE) and SEER, US, we opted to examine incidence, time trends, survival and tentative outcome disparities of childhood PA by sociodemographic and clinical features. Childhood PA were retrieved from 12 SEE registries (N = 552; 1983-2014) and SEER (N = 2723; 1973-2012). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) were estimated and survival was examined via Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
James A McCracken, Michael F Gonzales, Pramit M Phal, Katharine J Drummond
Angiocentric glioma (AG) is a low grade glioma, that was first described in 2002. Since this description, 83 patients with AG have been described, including ours. AG typically presents in childhood with medically refractory seizures that are cured with gross surgical resection. Whilst the natural history is that of a benign tumour, there have been reports of recurrence, transformation, and malignant features that suggest that AG is potentially malignant. We add to the literature a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented in May 2011 with a 3-month history of complex partial seizures, with MRI showing a T2-weighted hyperintense lesion in the left insula and inferior frontal lobe...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Ian F Pollack, Regina I Jakacki, Lisa H Butterfield, Ronald L Hamilton, Ashok Panigrahy, Daniel P Normolle, Angela K Connelly, Sharon Dibridge, Gary Mason, Theresa L Whiteside, Hideho Okada
Recurrent high-grade gliomas (HGGs) of childhood have an exceedingly poor prognosis with current therapies. Accordingly, new treatment approaches are needed. We initiated a pilot trial of vaccinations with peptide epitopes derived from glioma-associated antigens (GAAs) overexpressed in these tumors in HLA-A2+ children with recurrent HGG that had progressed after prior treatments. Peptide epitopes for three GAAs (EphA2, IL13Rα2, survivin), emulsified in Montanide-ISA-51, were administered subcutaneously adjacent to intramuscular injections of poly-ICLC every 3 weeks for 8 courses, followed by booster vaccines every 6 weeks...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Zuelma A Contreras, Beate Ritz, Jasveer Virk, Myles Cockburn, Julia E Heck
PURPOSE: We aimed to examine the influence of pre-pregnancy diabetes, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational diabetes, and gestational weight gain on childhood cancer risk in offspring. METHODS: We identified cancer cases (n = 11,149) younger than age 6 years at diagnosis from the California Cancer Registry registered between 1988 and 2013. Controls (n = 270,147) were randomly sampled from California birth records, and frequency matched by year of birth to all childhood cancers during the study period...
October 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Gabriel Olabiyi Ogun, Amos Olufemi Adeleye, Taiwo Olabimpe Babatunde, Olufunmilola Abimbola Ogun, Ayodeji Salami, Biobele Jotham Brown, Effiong Akang
INTRODUCTION: Contrary to some earlier teachings that central nervous system (CNS) tumours are uncommon in black children, these neoplasms are the fourth most common paediatric tumours in Ibadan. Our centre is the major referral centre for CNS tumours in Nigeria. The last major study of paediatric CNS neoplasms from Ibadan was in 1985. An update of the data on paediatric CNS neoplasms at our centre is presented. METHODS: A retrospective review of all histologically diagnosed CNS tumours in children (0-14 years) from January 2001 to December 2010 from the database of the Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria was done...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Niloufar Zarinabad, Martin Wilson, Simrandip K Gill, Karen A Manias, Nigel P Davies, Andrew C Peet
PURPOSE: Classification of pediatric brain tumors from (1) H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can aid diagnosis and management of brain tumors. However, varied incidence of the different tumor types leads to imbalanced class sizes and introduces difficulties in classifying rare tumor groups. This study assessed different imbalanced multiclass learning techniques and compared the use of complete spectra and quantified metabolite profiles for classification of three main childhood brain tumor types...
July 12, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Fatima Bilqees, Khaleeq Samina, Tahir Mohammad, Khaleeq-uz-Zamaan
BACKGROUND: Recent studies, including a comprehensive study by National Cancer Institute, have shown that a significant increase in the incidence of childhood brain tumours makes them the most common paediatric tumour. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of central nervous system tumours in paediatric age group (0-12 years), and to segregate various morphologic types according to WHO classification. METHODS: The study included consecutive cases of central nervous system tumours diagnosed in children in the histopathology department at Federal Government Polyclinic, PGMI, Islamabad, during a period of 4...
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Christoffer Ehrstedt, Ingela Kristiansen, Gunnar Ahlsten, Olivera Casar-Borota, Margareta Dahl, Sylwia Libard, Bo Strömberg
AIM: To investigate clinical characteristics and late effects of CNS tumours in childhood with a special focus on low-grade tumours, especially low-grade astrocytoma and glioneuronal tumours. METHODS: A retrospective population based study was performed at Uppsala University Children's Hospital, a tertiary referral centre for children with CNS tumours. Patients were identified from the National Brain Tumour Registry and the National Epilepsy Surgery Registry. Hospital medical records were analysed for patients with a follow up of ≥5 years after diagnosis...
July 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Julia E Heck, Andrew S Park, Zuelma A Contreras, Tom B Davidson, Katherine J Hoggatt, Myles Cockburn, Beate Ritz
IMPORTANCE: The Hispanic epidemiologic paradox is the phenomenon that non-US-born Hispanic mothers who immigrate to the United States have better pregnancy outcomes than their US-born counterparts. It is unknown whether this advantage extends to childhood cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk for childhood cancers among Hispanic children varies by maternal birthplace. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this population-based case-control study conducted in June 2015, cohort members were identified through California birth records of children born in California from January 1, 1983, to December 31, 2011...
June 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Karen E Revere, William R Katowitz, James A Katowitz, Lucy Rorke-Adams, Michael J Fisher, Grant T Liu
Two children without neurofibromatosis type 1 presented with unilateral decreased vision and MRI revealing optic nerve tumors. In the first case, chemotherapy was initiated empirically for presumed optic pathway glioma, but the lesion increased in size with associated clinical worsening, raising concern for a possible alternate diagnosis. Biopsy of the involved optic nerve resulted in worsening of vision due to a branch retinal artery occlusion and showed a grade I pilocytic astrocytoma. In the second case, sudden symptom onset and rapid tumor growth prompted an optic nerve biopsy, resulting in vision loss due to a central retinal artery occlusion and revealing grade I pilocytic astrocytoma...
April 4, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Harshil C Shah, Bhushan P Ubhale, Jaimin K Shah
BACKGROUND: Very few hospital-based or population-based studies are published in the context to the epidemiologic profile of pediatric brain tumors (PBTs) in India and Indian subcontinent. AIM: To study the demographic and histopathologic profile of PBTs according to World Health Organization 2007 classification in a single tertiary health care center in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data regarding age, gender, topography, and histopathology of 76 pediatric patients (0-19 years) with brain tumors operated over a period of 24 months (January-2012 to December-2013) was collected retrospectively and analyzed using EpiInfo 7...
July 2015: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Amy Rosenfeld, Michael Etzl, David Lee, Jeffrey Miller, David Carpenteri, David Shafron, Allen Kaplan
BACKGROUND: The term pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) was added to the World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of the central nervous system in 2007. Pilomyxoid tumors are grade II tumors, considered to be variants of pilocytic astrocytomas. We attempted to determine if positron emission tomography (PET), proliferative index (PI), and BRAF V600E mutation help better define PMAs. OBSERVATIONS: We report 5 patients' clinical and neuroimaging findings, pathology (PI), and outcome...
March 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Johnnie K Bass, Chia-Ho Hua, Jie Huang, Arzu Onar-Thomas, Kirsten K Ness, Skye Jones, Stephanie White, Shaum P Bhagat, Kay W Chang, Thomas E Merchant
PURPOSE: Patients treated with cranial radiation therapy (RT) are at risk for sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Although SNHL is often characterized as a delayed consequence of anticancer therapy, longitudinal reports of SNHL in childhood cancer survivors treated with contemporary RT are limited. We report the incidence, onset, severity, and long-term trajectory of SNHL among children receiving RT. Potential risk factors for SNHL were also identified. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serial audiologic testing was conducted on 235 pediatric patients who were treated with conformal or intensity-modulated RT as part of an institutional phase II trial for localized primary brain tumors, including craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma...
April 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Rachel Grossman, Zvi Ram
BACKGROUND: The posterior fossa is the site of many types of tumors, and brain metastases are the most common malignancies in that location among adults. Other brain tumors, such as ependymomas, medulloblastomas, and juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, mostly occur during childhood and are relatively rare in adults. Most primary malignant brain tumors, such as gliomas and lymphomas, tend to be located in the supratentorial compartment. METHODS: This review summarizes prognostic factors, therapeutic management, and molecular data of intra-axial posterior fossa tumors in adults, including ependymomas, medulloblastomas, and pilocytic astrocytomas...
April 2016: World Neurosurgery
Mériam Koob, Nadine Girard, Badih Ghattas, Slim Fellah, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Didier Scavarda
Childhood brain tumors show great histological variability. The goal of this retrospective study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of multimodal MR imaging (diffusion, perfusion, MR spectroscopy) in the distinction of pediatric brain tumor grades and types. Seventy-six patients (range 1 month to 18 years) with brain tumors underwent multimodal MR imaging. Tumors were categorized by grade (I-IV) and by histological type (A-H). Multivariate statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of single and combined MR modalities, and of single imaging parameters to distinguish the different groups...
April 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Giorgio Tettamanti, Rickard Ljung, Tiit Mathiesen, Judith Schwartzbaum, Maria Feychting
BACKGROUND: Tobacco metabolites and carcinogens can be found in placental and umbilical cord tissues of fetuses exposed to maternal smoking. However, studies regarding maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood brain tumor (CBT) have shown inconsistent results. METHODS: All children born in Sweden between 1983 and 2010 and with information about maternal smoking during pregnancy, obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, were included in this population based cohort study (n=2,577,305)...
February 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Swati Choudhry, Hoang Hiep Nguyen, Shafkat Anwar
Cardiac rhabdomyoma is the most common primary cardiac tumour during childhood and is usually associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). These tumours are generally considered benign, and spontaneous regression occurs commonly. However, when the tumours cause significant symptoms, the current standard treatment is surgical resection. Everolimus is an mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 inhibitor that has been successfully used to treat subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas associated with TSC...
2015: BMJ Case Reports
Jeng-Dau Tsai, Chang-Ching Wei, Teng-Fu Tsao, Yu-Ping Hsiao, Henry J Tsai, Sheng-Hui Yang, Min-Ling Tsai, Ji-Nan Sheu
PURPOSE: The most common neurological complications associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) include intractable seizures that begin in infancy and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) complicated by hydrocephalus with increasing age. Information on SEGA growth of TSC patients is limited. This study aimed to examine the TSC-SEGA growth rates by periodic neuroimaging. METHODS: This study evaluated the TSC-SEGA growth rates by serial neuroimaging. Fifty-eight patients with TSC underwent systematic evaluation, including a review of medical history and serial brain neuroimaging...
January 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Ondine S von Ehrenstein, Julia E Heck, Andrew S Park, Myles Cockburn, Loraine Escobedo, Beate Ritz
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the influence of environmental factors on the etiology of childhood brain tumors. OBJECTIVES: We examined risks for brain tumors in children after prenatal and infant exposure to monitored ambient air toxics. METHODS: We ascertained all cases of medulloblastoma, central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), and astrocytoma before 6 years of age diagnosed in 1990-2007 from the California Cancer Registry and selected controls randomly from birth rolls matched by birth year...
July 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
Adam H Kibola, Shearwood McClelland, Joseph Hlavin, Jonathan A Friedman
Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently classified WHO grade II astrocytoma that is histologically similar to pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). Both tumors typically present in childhood, but PMA is more aggressive with higher rates of recurrence and cerebrospinal fluid dissemination. Currently, there is no standardized treatment protocol for PMA although this will change with increased awareness of this disease entity within the neurosurgical community. We present a 22-year-old patient with a left frontal lobe PMA manifesting with atypical radiographic findings...
July 2015: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
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