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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351056/comparison-of-umbilical-serum-copeptin-relative-to-erythropoietin-and-s100b-as-asphyxia-biomarkers-at-birth
#1
Milla Summanen, Laura Seikku, Petri Rahkonen, Vedran Stefanovic, Kari Teramo, Sture Andersson, Kai Kaila, Leena Rahkonen
BACKGROUND: Birth asphyxia, estimated to account for a million neonatal deaths annually, can cause a wide variety of neurodevelopmental impairments. There is a need to develop new, swift methods to identify those neonates who would benefit from neuroprotective treatments such as hypothermia. OBJECTIVES: To examine the utility of cord serum copeptin, a stable byproduct of arginine vasopressin release, as a biomarker of birth asphyxia based on a comparison with 2 biomarkers of hypoxia and brain trauma: erythropoietin and S100B...
March 29, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351041/mechanisms-of-retinal-fluid-accumulation-and-blood-retinal-barrier-breakdown
#2
José Cunha-Vaz
Macular edema is the swelling of the central portion of the human retina and it is associated with increased retinal thickness. It can be simply defined as an excess of fluid within the retinal tissue. It must be realized that the normal retina possesses a functional extracellular space. With regard to the extracellular volume of the retina, there have been few physiologic studies, but there are reported values of 24.8% for the cerebrum and 23.6% for the cerebellum. It is accepted that the retinal extracellular space is similar to the brain...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351039/prognostic-value-of-the-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-in-newborns-with-hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-treated-with-therapeutic-hypothermia
#3
Eva-Marie Heursen, Amaya Zuazo Ojeda, Isabel Benavente Fernández, Gema Jimenez Gómez, Rosalía Campuzano Fernández-Colima, José Paz-Expósito, Simón Pedro Lubián López
BACKGROUND: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) quantification has been proven to be of prognostic value in term newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) who were treated under normothermia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prognostic value of ADC in standardized brain regions in neonates with HIE who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH). METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 54 term newborns who were admitted with HIE and treated with TH...
March 29, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351035/resting-state-functional-connectivity-changes-associated-with-visuospatial-cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-mild-alzheimer-disease
#4
Rakesh Balachandar, Srikala Bharath, John P John, Himanshu Joshi, Shilpa Sadanand, Jitender Saini, Keshav J Kumar, Mathew Varghese
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive disconnection of various brain networks leading to neuropsychological impairment. Pathology in the visual association areas has been documented in presymptomatic AD and therefore we aimed at examining the relationship between brain connectivity and visuospatial (VS) cognitive deficits in early AD. METHODS: Tests for VS working memory, episodic memory and construction were used to classify patients with AD (n = 48) as having severe VS deficits (n = 12, female = 4) or mild deficits (n = 11, female = 4)...
March 29, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350990/the-putative-drp1-inhibitor-mdivi-1-is-a-reversible-mitochondrial-complex-i-inhibitor-that-modulates-reactive-oxygen-species
#5
Evan A Bordt, Pascaline Clerc, Brian A Roelofs, Andrew J Saladino, László Tretter, Vera Adam-Vizi, Edward Cherok, Ahmed Khalil, Nagendra Yadava, Shealinna X Ge, T Chase Francis, Nolan W Kennedy, Lora K Picton, Tanya Kumar, Sruti Uppuluri, Alexandrea M Miller, Kie Itoh, Mariusz Karbowski, Hiromi Sesaki, R Blake Hill, Brian M Polster
Mitochondrial fission mediated by the GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) is an attractive drug target in numerous maladies that range from heart disease to neurodegenerative disorders. The compound mdivi-1 is widely reported to inhibit Drp1-dependent fission, elongate mitochondria, and mitigate brain injury. Here, we show that mdivi-1 reversibly inhibits mitochondrial complex I-dependent O2 consumption and reverse electron transfer-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at concentrations (e...
March 27, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350890/quantification-of-motor-network-dynamics-in-parkinson-s-disease-by-means-of-landscape-and-flux-theory
#6
Han Yan, Jin Wang
The basal ganglia neural circuit plays an important role in motor control. Despite the significant efforts, the understanding of the principles and underlying mechanisms of this modulatory circuit and the emergence of abnormal synchronized oscillations in movement disorders is still challenging. Dopamine loss has been proved to be responsible for Parkinson's disease. We quantitatively described the dynamics of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit in Parkinson's disease in terms of the emergence of both abnormal firing rates and firing patterns in the circuit...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350856/a-fat-derived-metabolite-regulates-a-peptidergic-feeding-circuit-in-drosophila
#7
Do-Hyoung Kim, Minjung Shin, Sung-Hwan Jung, Young-Joon Kim, Walton D Jones
Here, we show that the enzymatic cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) inhibits feeding in Drosophila. BH4 biosynthesis requires the sequential action of the conserved enzymes Punch, Purple, and Sepiapterin Reductase (Sptr). Although we observe increased feeding upon loss of Punch and Purple in the adult fat body, loss of Sptr must occur in the brain. We found Sptr expression is required in four adult neurons that express neuropeptide F (NPF), the fly homologue of the vertebrate appetite regulator neuropeptide Y (NPY)...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350844/isolation-and-characterization-of-alternatively-spliced-variants-of-the-mouse-sigma1-receptor-gene-sigmar1
#8
Ling Pan, David A Pasternak, Jin Xu, Mingming Xu, Zhigang Lu, Gavril W Pasternak, Ying-Xian Pan
The sigma1 receptor acts as a chaperone at the endoplasmic reticulum, associates with multiple proteins in various cellular systems, and involves in a number of diseases, such as addiction, pain, cancer and psychiatric disorders. The sigma1 receptor is encoded by the single copy SIGMAR1 gene. The current study identifies five alternatively spliced variants of the mouse sigma1 receptor gene using a polymerase chain reaction cloning approach. All the splice variants are generated by exon skipping or alternative 3' or 5' splicing, producing the truncated sigma1 receptor...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350821/neuropathological-diagnoses-and-clinical-correlates-in-older-adults-in-brazil-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Claudia K Suemoto, Renata E L Ferretti-Rebustini, Roberta D Rodriguez, Renata E P Leite, Luciana Soterio, Sonia M D Brucki, Raphael R Spera, Tarcila M Cippiciani, Jose M Farfel, Alexandre Chiavegatto Filho, Michel Satya Naslavsky, Mayana Zatz, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Ricardo Nitrini, Lea T Grinberg
BACKGROUND: Clinicopathological studies are important in determining the brain lesions underlying dementia. Although almost 60% of individuals with dementia live in developing countries, few clinicopathological studies focus on these individuals. We investigated the frequency of neurodegenerative and vascular-related neuropathological lesions in 1,092 Brazilian admixed older adults, their correlation with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the accuracy of dementia subtype diagnosis...
March 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350803/pharmacogenomic-identification-of-small-molecules-for-lineage-specific-manipulation-of-subventricular-zone-germinal-activity
#10
Kasum Azim, Diane Angonin, Guillaume Marcy, Francesca Pieropan, Andrea Rivera, Vanessa Donega, Claudio Cantù, Gareth Williams, Benedikt Berninger, Arthur M Butt, Olivier Raineteau
Strategies for promoting neural regeneration are hindered by the difficulty of manipulating desired neural fates in the brain without complex genetic methods. The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest germinal zone of the forebrain and is responsible for the lifelong generation of interneuron subtypes and oligodendrocytes. Here, we have performed a bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome of dorsal and lateral SVZ in early postnatal mice, including neural stem cells (NSCs) and their immediate progenies, which generate distinct neural lineages...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350782/acknowledging-the-risk-for-traumatic-brain-injury-in-women-veterans
#11
Timothy Amoroso, Katherine M Iverson
Since the Iraq and Afghanistan wars began, an unprecedented number of women have been engaging in combat operations. Likewise, the number of women using Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) services has doubled since 2001. Military service, and deployment to combat in particular, poses certain risks for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-for all service members. However, women may have additional military and nondeployment risk factors such as intimate partner violence (IPV). We briefly review the definition and classification issues related to TBI, as well as common acute and chronic health symptoms after TBI...
April 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350777/understanding-brain-reorganization-in-infants-with-perinatal-stroke-through-neuroexcitability-and-neuroimaging
#12
Chao-Ying Chen, Michael Georgieff, Jed Elison, Mo Chen, James Stinear, Bryon Mueller, Raghavendra Rao, Kyle Rudser, Bernadette Gillick
PURPOSE: The primary aim of this proposed study is to evaluate brain reorganization patterns in infants with perinatal stroke between 3 and 5 months of age using transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetic resonance imaging, with the addition of the General Movements Assessment. A secondary aim is to demonstrate feasibility and safety of infant-appropriate brain assessment protocols. METHODS: Ten infants with perinatal stroke will be enrolled. In this exploratory study, infants will first receive magnetic resonance imaging scanning during natural sleep to examine their corticospinal tract integrity...
April 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350677/insight-into-the-pathophysiologic-mechanisms-behind-cognitive-dysfunction-in-trigonocephaly
#13
Joris J B van der Vlugt, Jacques J M N van der Meulen, Robert R J Coebergh van den Braak, Christl Vermeij-Keers, Edwin G C Horstman, Steven E R Hovius, Frank C Verhulst, André I Wierdsma, Maarten H Lequin, Jolanda M E Okkerse
BACKGROUND: The relationship between trigonocephaly and cognitive problems might be explained by: secondary mechanical factors related to growth restriction of the skull, and primary structural defects caused by a shared mechanism related to brain developmental disorder(s) and skull malformation. However, because the exact pathophysiology remains unknown, we examined the pathophysiologic mechanisms behind cognitive dysfunction in patients with trigonocephaly, with an aim of providing a model for cognitive dysfunction based on routinely available variables...
April 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350623/ocular-surface-squamous-neoplasia-in-papillon-lef%C3%A3-vre-syndrome-outcome-at-long-term-follow-up-of-12-years
#14
Swathi Kaliki, Swati Singh, Swarnalata Gowrishankar, Vijay Anand P Reddy
PURPOSE: To discuss the association between ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) and present the long-term outcome in a patient with these diseases. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 14-year-old boy presented with a raised pigmented mass lesion at the limbus in the right eye, which was clinically suggestive of OSSN. He also had palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and periodontosis suggestive of PLS. Excision biopsy of the lesion confirmed the diagnosis of OSSN...
March 21, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350475/occupational-radiation-exposure-and-deaths-from-malignant-intracranial-neoplasms-of-the-brain-and-cns-in-u-s-radiologic-technologists-1983-2012
#15
Cari M Kitahara, Martha S Linet, Stephen Balter, Donald L Miller, Preetha Rajaraman, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Raquel Velazquez-Kronen, Steven L Simon, Mark P Little, Michele M Doody, Bruce H Alexander, Dale L Preston
OBJECTIVE: Childhood exposure to acute, high-dose radiation has consistently been associated with risk of benign and malignant intracranial tumors of the brain and CNS, but data on risks of adulthood exposure to protracted, low-to-moderate doses of radiation are limited. In a large cohort of radiologic technologists, we quantified the association between protracted, low-to-moderate doses of radiation and malignant intracranial tumor mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 83,655 female and 26,642 male U...
March 28, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350440/identification-of-trypanosoma-brucei-adometdc-inhibitors-using-a-high-throughput-mass-spectrometry-based-assay
#16
Oleg A Volkov, Casey C Cosner, Anthony J Brockway, Martin Kramer, Michael Booker, Shihua Zhong, Ariel Ketcherside, Shuguang Wei, Jamie Longgood, Melissa K McCoy, Thomas E Richardson, Stephen A Wring, Michael Peel, Jeffrey D Klinger, Bruce A Posner, Jef K De Brabander, Margaret A Phillips
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a fatal infectious disease caused by the eukaryotic pathogen Trypanosoma brucei. Available treatments are difficult to administer and have significant safety issues. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) is an essential enzyme in the parasite polyamine biosynthetic pathway. Previous attempts to develop TbAdoMetDC inhibitors into anti-HAT therapies failed due to poor brain exposure. Here, we describe a large screening campaign of two small-molecule libraries (~400,000 compounds) employing a new high-throughput (~7 s per sample) mass spectrometry-based assay for AdoMetDC activity...
March 28, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346963/point-of-care-testing-in-neurosurgery
#17
Christopher Beynon, Lars Wessels, Andreas W Unterberg
Coagulation disorders can have a major impact on the outcome of neurosurgical patients. The central nervous system is located within the closed space of the skull, and therefore, intracranial hemorrhage can lead to intracranial hypertension. Acute brain injury has been associated with alterations of various hemostatic parameters. Point-of-care (POC) techniques such as rotational thromboelastometry are able to identify markers of coagulopathy which are not reflected by standard assessment of hemostasis (e.g...
March 27, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#18
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346912/optimizing-the-dose-of-erythropoietin-required-to-prevent-acute-ventilation-induced-cerebral-white-matter-injury-in-preterm-lambs
#19
Kyra Y Y Chan, Domenic A LaRosa, Mary Tolcos, Anqi Li, Valerie A Zahra, Graeme R Polglase, Samantha K Barton
Erythropoietin (EPO) is being trialed in preterm neonates for neuroprotection. We have recently demonstrated that a single high bolus dose (5,000 IU/kg) of recombinant human EPO amplified preterm lung and brain ventilation-induced injury. We aimed to determine the optimal dose of EPO to reduce ventilation-induced cerebral white matter inflammation and injury in preterm lambs. Lambs (0.85 gestation) were ventilated with an injurious strategy for 15 min followed by conventional ventilation for 105 min. Lambs were randomized to no treatment (VENT; n = 8) or received a bolus dose of EPO (EPREX®): 300 IU/kg (EPO 300; n = 5), 1,000 IU/kg (EPO 1,000; n = 5), or 3,000 IU/kg (EPO 3,000; n = 5)...
March 28, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346885/plasma-and-brain-pharmacokinetics-of-ganoderic-acid-a-in-rats-determined-by-a-developed-uflc-ms-ms-method
#20
Fang-Rui Cao, Bing-Xin Xiao, Li-Sha Wang, Xue Tao, Ming-Zhu Yan, Rui-Le Pan, Yong-Hong Liao, Xin-Min Liu, Qi Chang
Ganoderic acid A (GAA), an active triterpenoid of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Lingzhi, has been reported to exhibit antinociceptive, antioxidative, and anti-cancer activities. The present study aims to establish a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method for studying the plasma and brain pharmacokinetics of GAA in rats. The analytes were separated on a C18 column eluted with a gradient mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% aqueous formic acid at 0.3mL/min. The eluate was monitored by a mass detector using an MRM (m/z, 515...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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