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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945054/intracranial-stereotactic-radiosurgery
#1
Andrew A Fanous, Dheerendra Prasad, David Mathieu, Andrew J Fabiano
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the use of a single high dose of radiation, stereotactically directed to an intracranial region of interest, in order to create a lesion or obliterate a preexisting one. This technology has evolved over the years into the use of multiple radiation sources oriented at a variety of angles, thus permitting the creation of various treatment target shapes. This allows for non-open surgical treatment of intracranial pathologies, which significantly decreases the risk of morbidity...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944976/obesity-and-frontal-striatal-brain-structures-in-offspring-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-results-from-the-global-mood-and-brain-science-initiative
#2
Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger S McIntyre, Bo Cao, Yena Lee, Letícia Japiassú, Kun Chen, Rui Lu, Weicong Lu, Xiaodong Chen, Ting Li, Guiyun Xu, Kangguang Lin
OBJECTIVES: To compare frontal-striatal brain volumes between offspring of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls; to investigate the associations of body mass index (BMI) and age with brain volumes; and to assess the moderating effects of BMI and age on the relationship between risk status and structural brain differences. METHODS: We cross-sectionally assessed structural regional and global brain volumes using magnetic resonance imaging and BMI among 53 BD offspring subjects, stratified by risk status, and 23 non-BD offspring controls (aged 8-28 years)...
September 25, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944949/the-research-progress-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Gang Li, Yue Yang, Hua-Jiang Dong, Ling Lin
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in children and adults throughout the world. It is urgent to ameliorate TBI damage and reduce the disability and case-fatality rate. Stem cell therapy is another medical revolution after drug and surgical medication. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a class of cells with significant self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation properties and be favorable for the treatment of various diseases and injuries, it could be envisioned that MSCs transplantation may be a promising treatment for TBI...
July 16, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944947/posttraumatic-cerebral-infarction-after-decompressive-craniectomy-for-traumatic-brain-injury-incidence-risk-factors-and-outcome
#4
Tsung-Ming Su, Chu-Mei Lan, Tsung-Han Lee, Fu-Yuan Shih, Shih-Wei Hsu, Cheng-Hsien Lu
AIM: To investigate the incidence, timing, risk factors of posttraumatic cerebral infarction (PTCI) and its influence on mortality in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: After reviewing the medical records and radiographs over a 6-year period, 173 patients with moderate to severe TBI were enrolled to determine the risk factors for the development of PTCI following unilateral decompressive craniectomy (DC). RESULTS: The incidence of PTCI following DC was 31...
July 23, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944929/oncogenic-mir%C3%A2-132-sustains-proliferation-and-self%C3%A2-renewal-potential-by-inhibition-of-polypyrimidine-tract%C3%A2-binding-protein-2-in-glioblastoma-cells
#5
Silong Lou, Jia Ji, Xin Cheng, Jian Ruan, Rong Li, Zhengjun Guo
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the leading type of brain tumor, exhibiting unlimited proliferation and invasion potential. The present study indicated that a high expression level of miR‑132 was detected in the neural subtype of GBM and predicted an unfavorable prognosis for patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort (n=526). Cox hazard regression analysis demonstrated miR‑132 as an independent prognostic indicator for GBM patients. Further in vitro experiments indicated that miR‑132 promoted the proliferation and sphere formation of U87 cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944915/neuroprotective-effect-of-total-flavonoids-from-ilex-pubescens-against-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#6
Xiaoyan Fang, Yujie Li, Jingyi Qiao, Ying Guo, Mingsan Miao
Ilex pubescens is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease and stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Ilex pubescens total flavonoids (IPTF) on neuroprotection and the potential mechanisms in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats were pretreated with intragastric administration of IPTF at doses of 200 and 100 mg/kg for 5 days; middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery was then performed to induce cerebral I/R injury...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944912/dhhp%C3%A2-6-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia%C3%A2-reperfusion-injury-in-rats-through-the-inhibition-of-apoptosis
#7
Yingshi Ji, Xin Yan, Yang Hu, Huan Xue, Jianfeng Sun, Huaqiu Chen, Jiayu Zhang, Liping Wang, Baigong Xue, Li Sun
As a novel reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, deuterohemin His peptide‑6 (DhHP‑6) has been demonstrated to prolong the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans and has also exhibited protective effects in myocardial ischemia‑reperfusion injury. Whether similar effects occur during cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (CIR) injury remains to be elucidated. The present study evaluated the function of DhHP‑6 and its underlying mechanisms in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model in rats. The focal transient MCAO model was implemented using the Longa method of ischemia for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h in male Wistar rats...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944900/circulating-mirna%C3%A2-21-is-a-promising-biomarker-for-heart-failure
#8
Jianghua Zhang, Qiang Xing, Xianhui Zhou, Jinxin Li, Yaodong Li, Lin Zhang, Qina Zhou, Baopeng Tang
microRNA 21 (miRNA‑21) promotes the development of cardiac fibrosis, hypertrophy and heart failure. However, whether it can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure remains unclear. The current study assessed circulating miRNA‑21 as a viable indicator for diagnosis and prognosis of heart failure. The levels of miRNA‑21 and brain natriuretic peptide were measured in serum obtained from the peripheral vein (miRNA‑21‑PV) and coronary sinus (miRNA‑21‑CS) of 80 patients with heart failure and 40 control individuals via reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and ELISA, respectively...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944896/microrna%C3%A2-186-targets-igf%C3%A2-1r-and-exerts-tumor%C3%A2-suppressing-functions-in-glioma
#9
Jian Jiang, Weijie Wang, Dazhao Fang, Xiaodong Jin, Lianshu Ding, Xiaoyang Sun
Glioma is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults and represents one of the most aggressive and life‑threatening types of cancer in humans. Increasing studies have revealed that microRNAs are abnormally expressed in various types of human cancer, and have oncogenic or tumor suppressive roles, which depend primarily on the type of cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the expression level and effects of microRNA‑186 (miR‑186) on glioma, and its underlying molecular mechanism. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) analysis was performed to detect the expression of miR‑186 in glioma tissues and cell lines...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944872/isoflurane-exposure-regulates-the-cell-viability-and-bdnf-expression-of-astrocytes-via-upregulation-of-trek%C3%A2-1
#10
Cui-Hong Zhou, Ya-Hong Zhang, Fen Xue, Shan-Shan Xue, Yun-Chun Chen, Ting Gu, Zheng-Wu Peng, Hua-Ning Wang
Neonatal isoflurane exposure in rodents disrupts hippocampal cognitive functions, including learning and memory, and astrocytes may have an important role in this process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this disruption are not fully understood. The present study investigated the role of TWIK‑related K+ channel (TREK‑1) in isoflurane‑induced cognitive impairment. Lentiviruses were used to overexpress or knockdown TREK‑1 in astrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of isoflurane or O2 for 2 h...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944860/polyaniline-promotes-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-by-enhancement-of-the-brain%C3%A2-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-ciliary-neurotrophic-factor-expression-and-activation-of-the-erk1-2-mapk-signaling-pathway
#11
Lin Fan, Yan Xiong, Zhen Fu, Dingfeng Xu, Lei Wang, Yong Chen, Haoyang Xia, Na Peng, Shaojun Ye, Yanfeng Wang, Lina Zhang, Qifa Ye
A previous study has demonstrated a progression in the nerve regeneration by polyaniline/cellulose (PANI/RC), although the underlying mechanism was not elucidated. In the present study, regenerated nerves were investigated, using histological techniques, functional assays and western blot analysis. The triceps surae muscle weight ratio percentages of the sham, regenerated cellulose (RC) and the PANI/RC groups were 38.88±4.76 and 76.32±7.11%, respectively. The thickness of the myelin sheath for the aforementioned groups were as follows: 1...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944855/integrated-mrnaseq-and-micrornaseq-data-analysis-for-grade%C3%A2-iii-gliomas
#12
Junqiang Dai, Zhitong Bing, Yinian Zhang, Qiao Li, Liang Niu, Wentao Liang, Guoqiang Yuan, Lei Duan, Hang Yin, Yawen Pan
The World Health Organization classification distinguishes four grades for gliomas. Grade III gliomas, which are brain malignant brain tumors with variable biological behavior and propensity, have been not widely investigated. The objective of the present study was to identify specific gene modules and valuable hubs associated with gliomagenesis and molecular signatures to assist in determining grade III glioma prognosis. mRNAseq and micro (mi)RNAseq data were used to construct a co‑expression network of gliomas using weight gene co‑expression network analysis, and revealed the prognostic molecular signature of grade III gliomas...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944854/effect-of-hippocampal-l%C3%A2-nbp-on-bdnf-and-trkb-expression-and-neurological-function-of-vascular-dementia-rats
#13
Yujing Huang, Zhaohui Li, Guangxian Nan
The pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD) is associated with neuronal degeneration, apoptosis or necrosis following ischemic brain injury. L‑butylphthalide (L‑NBP), has been demonstrated to exhibit potent anti‑ischemic and anti‑VD effects, however the associated specific mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study generated a VD rat model, in which the effect of L‑NBP on neurological function and expression levels of brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) were observed...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944830/application-of-the-amniotic-fluid-metabolome-to-the-study-of-fetal-malformations-using-down-syndrome-as-a-specific-model
#14
Jun Huang, Jinhua Mo, Guili Zhao, Qiyin Lin, Guanhui Wei, Weinan Deng, Dunjin Chen, Bolan Yu
Although monitoring and diagnosis of fetal diseases in utero remains a challenge, metabolomics may provide an additional tool to study the etiology and pathophysiology of fetal diseases at a functional level. In order to explore specific markers of fetal disease, metabolites were analyzed in two separate sets of experiments using amniotic fluid from fetuses with Down syndrome (DS) as a model. Both sets included 10‑15 pairs of controls and cases, and amniotic fluid samples were processed separately; metabolomic fingerprinting was then conducted using UPLC‑MS...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944802/subcellular-compartmentalisation-of-copper-iron-manganese-and-zinc-in-the-parkinson-s-disease-brain
#15
Sian Genoud, Blaine R Roberts, Adam P Gunn, Glenda M Halliday, Simon J G Lewis, Helen J Ball, Dominic J Hare, Kay L Double
Elevated iron and decreased copper levels are cardinal features of the degenerating substantia nigra pars compacta in the Parkinson's disease brain. Both of these redox-active metals, and fellow transition metals manganese and zinc, are found at high concentrations within the midbrain and participate in a range of unique biological reactions. We examined the total metal content and cellular compartmentalisation of manganese, iron, copper and zinc in the degenerating substantia nigra, disease-affected but non-degenerating fusiform gyrus, and unaffected occipital cortex in the post mortem Parkinson's disease brain compared with age-matched controls...
September 25, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944773/the-effect-of-treatment-with-guanfacine-an-alpha2-adrenergic-agonist-on-dopaminergic-tone-in-tobacco-smokers-an-11-c-flb457-pet-study
#16
Christine M Sandiego, David Matuskey, Meaghan Lavery, Erin McGovern, Yiyun Huang, Nabeel Nabulsi, Jim Ropchan, Marina R Picciotto, Evan D Morris, Sherry A McKee, Kelly P Cosgrove
Guanfacine, a noradrenergic alpha2a agonist, reduced tobacco smoking in a 4-week trial and in animal models has been shown to reduce cortical dopamine release, which is critically involved in the reinforcing effect of tobacco smoking. We measured amphetamine-induced extrastriatal dopamine release before and after treatment with guanfacine with [(11)C]FLB457, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor radiotracer, and positron emission tomography (PET). Sixteen tobacco smokers had one set of [(11)C]FLB457 PET scans on the same day, one before and one at 2...
September 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944772/multimodal-investigation-of-network-level-effects-using-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-anatomical-covariance-and-structure-to-function-correlations-in-unmedicated-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Dustin Scheinost, Sophie E Holmes, Nicole DellaGioia, Charlie Schleifer, David Matuskey, Michelle Hampson, John H Krysta, Alan Anticevic, Irina Esterlis
Converging evidence suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) affects multiple large-scale brain networks. Analyses of the correlation or covariance of regional brain structure and function applied to structural and functional MRI data may provide insights into systems-level organization and structure-to-function correlations in the brain in MDD. This study applied Tensor-Based Morphometry (TBM) and Intrinsic Connectivity Distribution (ICD) to identify regions of altered volume and intrinsic functional connectivity in data from unmedicated individuals with MDD (n=17) and healthy comparison participants (HC, n=20)...
September 25, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944754/a-double-sided-microscope-to-realize-whole-ganglion-imaging-of-membrane-potential-in-the-medicinal-leech
#18
Yusuke Tomina, Daniel A Wagenaar
Studies of neuronal network emergence during sensory processing and motor control are greatly promoted by technologies that allow us to simultaneously record the membrane potential dynamics of a large population of neurons in single cell resolution. To achieve whole-brain recording with the ability to detect both small synaptic potentials and action potentials, we developed a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging technique based on a double-sided microscope that can image two sides of a nervous system simultaneously...
September 25, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944741/the-application-of-nanoparticles-for-neuroprotection-in-acute-ischemic-stroke
#19
Lepei Chen, Xiaoling Gao
Stroke still represents one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS), caused by brain arterial occlusion resulting from a thrombus or embolus, is the most common form of stroke. However, current therapies in AIS are inadequate, and the only US FDA approved treatment is the thrombolytic drug Alteplase. Therefore, establishing effective therapeutic strategies for AIS is urgently needed. Using nanoparticle-based technologies to deliver neuroprotective agents to the ischemic area has attracted increasing attention of late...
October 2017: Therapeutic Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944718/obesity-is-associated-with-altered-mid-insula-functional-connectivity-to-limbic-regions-underlying-appetitive-responses-to-foods
#20
Jason A Avery, Joshua N Powell, Florence J Breslin, Rebecca J Lepping, Laura E Martin, Trisha M Patrician, Joseph E Donnelly, Cary R Savage, W Kyle Simmons
Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obesity one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance to both individual and public health that we understand the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral regulation of energy balance...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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