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Johann-Martin Hempel, Sotirios Bisdas, Jens Schittenhelm, Cornelia Brendle, Benjamin Bender, Henk Wassmann, Marco Skardelly, Ghazaleh Tabatabai, Salvador Castaneda Vega, Ulrike Ernemann, Uwe Klose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Andreas Maus, Godefridus J Peters
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), or grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common type of primary brain tumor. It has a devastating prognosis with a 2-year-overall survival rate of only 26 % after standard treatment, which includes surgery, radiation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Also lower grade gliomas are difficult to treat, because they diffusely spread into the brain, where extensive removal of tissue is critical. Better understanding of the cancer's biology is a key for the development of more effective therapy approaches...
October 17, 2016: Amino Acids
Ashley M Stokes, Charles P Hart, C Chad Quarles
High-grade gliomas are often characterized by hypoxia, which is associated with both poor long-term prognosis and therapy resistance. The adverse role hypoxia plays in treatment resistance and disease progression has led to the development of hypoxia imaging methods and hypoxia-targeted treatments. Here, we determined the tumor hypoxia and vascular perfusion characteristics of 2 rat orthotopic glioma models using 18-fluoromisonidozole positron emission tomography. In addition, we determined tumor response to the hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide (TH-302) in these rat glioma models...
September 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
Pedro Roldán, Sergio García, Josep González, Luis Alberto Reyes, Jorge Torales, Ricard Valero, Laura Oleaga, Joaquim Enseñat
OBJECTIVES: Intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) is a recently introduced tool in the most advanced neurosurgical operating rooms worldwide. We present our preliminary experience in brain tumour surgery with low field PoleStar N30® intraoperative MRI since its introduction in 2013 in the Barcelona Clinic Hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective non-randomised study was conducted on cases operated on using iMRI and intention of complete removal up to October 2015...
October 14, 2016: Neurocirugía
Adomas Bunevicius, Sarunas Tamasauskas, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Albertas Sliauzys, Robertas Bunevicius
BACKGROUND: The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) reflects prenatal estrogen and testosterone exposure, and is established in utero. Sex steroids are implicated in development and progression of primary brain tumors. AIMS: To investigate whether there is a link between 2D:4D ratio and primary brain tumors, and age at presentation. METHODS: Digital images of the right and left palms of 85 primary brain tumor patients (age 56.96±13.68years; 71% women) and 106 (age 54...
October 14, 2016: Early Human Development
Le Xie, Guang-Hong Xiang, Tao Tang, Yan Tang, Ling-Yun Zhao, Dong Liu, You-Ren Zhang, Jin-Tian Tang, Shen Zhou, Da-Hua Wu
Human glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumor and one of the most invasive and aggressive tumors, which, even with treatments including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, often relapses and exhibits resistance to conventional treatment methods. Developing novel strategies to control human glioma is, therefore, an important research focus. The present study investigated the mechanism of apoptosis induction in U251 human glioma cells by capsaicin (Cap) and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), the major pungent ingredients of red chili pepper, using the Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay, transmission electron microscopy analysis, flow cytometry analysis, laser scanning confocal microscope analysis and immunohistochemical staining...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zhijie Dai, Jun Wu, Fenghua Chen, Quan Cheng, Mingyu Zhang, Ying Wang, Yong Guo, Tao Song
CXCL5 and its receptor CXCR2 have been found to be involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Recent studies have shown that CXCR2 is upregulated in glioma tissues, and associated with poor prognosis and recurrence. However, the role of CXCL5/CXCR2 signaling in mediating the malignant phenotypes of glioma cells, as well as the underlying mechanism, still remains unclear. In the present study, we found that CXCL5 was upregulated in glioma tissues compared to that noted in normal brain tissues. High CXCL5 levels were significantly associated with higher tumor grade, advanced clinical stage, and shorter survival time of glioma patients...
October 10, 2016: Oncology Reports
Ai-Shun Guo, Yi-Qun Huang, Xu-Dong Ma, Rui-Sheng Lin
The present study aimed to investigate the differential expression and clinical significance of histone methyltransferase G9a, histone H3K9me2 and histone H3K9me1 in human brain glioma and adjacent tissue samples. It also aimed to observe the effect and mechanism of BIX‑01294, as an inhibitor of methyltransferase G9a, on the proliferation, apoptosis, methylation of H3K9 and H3K27, and the acetylation in U251 glioma cells in vitro. The differential expression of methyltransferase G9a, histone H3K9me2 and histone H3K9me1 in in human brain glioma and adjacent tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, a growth curve of U251 cells following treatment with BIX‑01294 was determined using the MTT assay...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yu Zhou, Yang Liu, Chao Hu, Yugang Jiang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), a class of non-coding RNAs 18-25 nucleotides in length, act as key regulators in the development and malignant progression of various human cancers by modulating the expression of their target genes. Recently, miR‑16 has been demonstrated to be play a role in glioma. However, the regulatory mechanisms of miR‑16 in glioma growth and metastasis remain largely unclear. In the present study, qRT-PCR revealed that miR‑16 was significantly downregulated in 23 glioma tissue specimens compared to 7 normal brain tissue specimens...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Gengqiang Ling, Qiao Ji, Wei Ye, Dongying Ma, Yuena Wang
TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in tumor progression. We assessed whether the TGF-β-induced EMT contributed to vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation in glioma, we established an SHG44 cell line stably transfected with TGF-β cDNA loaded lentivirus. SB203580 was employed to inhibit the TGF-β-induced EMT. The results showed that the VM forming ability of cells could be improved by TGF-β over-expression. The migration and invasion capabilities of cells were also enhanced due to EMT...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
Jianheng Wu, Linfan Li, Guangyuan Jiang, Hui Zhan, Nannan Wang
Aberrant expression of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of glioma. B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL3) was previously found to be a putative proto-oncogene in human cancers and the decoy receptor DcR1 is induced in a p50/Bcl3-dependent manner and attenuates the efficacy of temozolomide in glioblastoma cells. However, its expression status, clinical significance and biological functions in glioma remain largely unknown. In the present study, the levels of BCL3 were overexpressed in glioma compared to normal brain tissues...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
F Faião-Flores, D K Alves-Fernandes, P C Pennacchi, S Sandri, A L S A Vicente, C Scapulatempo-Neto, V L Vazquez, R M Reis, J Chauhan, C R Goding, K S Smalley, S S Maria-Engler
BRAF inhibitor (BRAFi) therapy for melanoma patients harboring the V600E mutation is initially highly effective, but almost all patients relapse within a few months. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning BRAFi-based therapy is therefore an important issue. Here we identified a previously unsuspected mechanism of BRAFi resistance driven by elevated Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activation that is observed in a cohort of melanoma patients after vemurafenib treatment. Specifically, we demonstrate that melanoma cell lines, with acquired in vitro-induced vemurafenib resistance, show increased levels of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 and 2 (GLI1/GLI2) compared with naïve cells...
October 17, 2016: Oncogene
Chloé Najac, Sabrina M Ronen
Metabolic reprogramming is an important hallmark of cancer. Alterations in many metabolic pathways support the requirement for cellular building blocks that are essential for cancer cell proliferation. This metabolic reprogramming can be imaged using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). H MRS can inform on alterations in the steady-state levels of cellular metabolites, but the emergence of hyperpolarized C MRS has now also enabled imaging of metabolic fluxes in real-time, providing a new method for tumor detection and monitoring of therapeutic response...
October 2016: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
Hongjie Wu, Jing Li, Dongxiao Xu, Donghui Jv, Xiaofeng Meng, Peng Qiao, Tao Cui, Baozhong Shi
Glioma is one of the most common brain tumors and one of the most aggressive cancers. Although extensive progress has been made regarding to the diagnosis and treatment, the mortality in glioma patients is still high. Therefore, finding new therapeutic targets to the glioma is critical to the advancement in cancer treatment. Recently, the 37-kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP) was reported to play important roles in occurrence of some types of cancer, indicating that this molecule may function as a key regulator in the tumor migration and metastasis...
October 2016: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Geoffrey C Halling, Charles Grose
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Heng Cai, Hongxing Li, Jingmin Li, Xiaoyan Li, Yana Li, Yan Shi, Dong Wang
Although abnormal activation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway has been demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and in most HCC cell lines, the mechanism by which the Shh pathway promotes the development of HCC remains uncertain. Using a liver cancer model induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) which mimics the process from liver injury, abnormal hepatocyte proliferation, and hepatocirrhosis to hepatocyte canceration, we investigated the abnormal activation of the Shh pathway by examining the expression of Shh, patched-1 (Ptch), smoothened (SMO), and glioma-associated oncogene-1 (Gli1) genes...
October 15, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Divine E Ediebah, Jaap C Reijneveld, Martin J B Taphoorn, Corneel Coens, Efstathios Zikos, Neil K Aaronson, Jan J Heimans, Andrew Bottomley, Martin Klein
PURPOSE: Clinical trials in glioma patients with neurocognitive deficits face challenges due to lacking or unreliable patient self-reports on their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Patient-proxy data could help solve this issue. We determined whether patient-proxy concordance levels were affected by patients' neurocognitive functioning. METHODS: Patient and patient-by-proxy HRQOL ratings were assessed via SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-BN20, respectively, in 246 patients...
October 15, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Tamara Ius, Luca Turella, Giada Pauletto, Miriam Isola, Marta Maieron, Giovanni Sciacca, Riccardo Budai, Serena D'Agostini, Roberto Eleopra, Miran Skrap
BACKGROUND: Pre-operative diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) has recently been utilized to aid in the mapping of functional pathways in order to limit damage associated with resection of low-grade gliomas. OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive capacity of DTT as a biomarker of post-operative motor outcomes in patients with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) involving the corticospinal tract (CST). CST parameters obtained using a quantitative fiber-tracking approach were used to investigate the reliability of the DTT biomarker by comparing their values in the tumoral (Tcst) and healthy (Hcst) hemispheres...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Shaofeng Yan, Hao Xue, Ping Zhang, Xiao Han, Xing Guo, Guang Yuan, Lin Deng, Gang Li
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play the important role in the process of glioblastoma cell invasion through 3D matrices. However, the effects of MMP inhibitors used in the treatment of malignant gliomas are unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to explore the reason and mechanism by which cells move through the dense extracellular matrix without proteolysis. The results showed that MMP inhibitor (MMPI), Ilomastat, induced glioma cells to have an amoeboid-like morphology with invasive ability. Moreover, the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK)/myosin light chain (MLC) signal is involved in the MMPI-induced movement mode switch, and RhoA activation is dependent on P115RhoGEF...
October 14, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Yueling Jin, Weizhong Xiao, Tingting Song, Guangjia Feng, Zhensheng Dai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Neurochemical Research
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