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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550772/production-of-itaconic-acid-by-biotransformation-of-wheat-bran-hydrolysate-with-aspergillus-terreus-cicc40205-mutant
#1
Xuefeng Wu, Qing Liu, Yongdong Deng, Jinghong Li, Xiaoju Chen, Yongzhong Gu, Xijun Lv, Zhi Zheng, Shaotong Jiang, Xingjiang Li
The replacement of the carbon source in the microbial production of itaconic acid (IA) with economic alternatives has attracted significant attention. In this study, an Aspergillus terreus CICC40205 mutant was used to increase the IA titer and decrease the citric acid titer in the wheat bran hydrolysate compared with the parental strain. The results showed that the IA titer was increased by 33.4%, whereas the citric acid titer was decreased by 75.8%, and were in accordance with those of the improved pathway of co-metabolism of glucose and xylose according to the metabolic flux analysis...
May 17, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550454/oncogenic-roles-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-axis
#2
Masahiro Aoki, Teruaki Fujishita
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in various human cancers and has been considered a promising therapeutic target. Many of the positive regulators of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis, including the catalytic (p110α) and regulatory (p85α), of class IA PI3K, AKT, RHEB, mTOR, and eIF4E, possess oncogenic potentials, as demonstrated by transformation assays in vitro and by genetically engineered mouse models in vivo. Genetic evidences also indicate their roles in malignancies induced by activation of the upstream oncoproteins including receptor tyrosine kinases and RAS and those induced by the loss of the negative regulators of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway such as PTEN, TSC1/2, LKB1, and PIPP...
May 28, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550410/different-exogenous-sugars-affect-the-hormone-signal-pathway-and-sugar-metabolism-in-red-globe-vitis-vinifera-l-plantlets-grown-in-vitro-as-shown-by-transcriptomic-analysis
#3
Juan Mao, Wenfang Li, Baoqin Mi, Mohammed Mujitaba Dawuda, Alejandro Calderón-Urrea, Zonghuan Ma, Yongmei Zhang, Baihong Chen
Exogenously applied 2% fructose is the most appropriate carbon source that enhances photosynthesis and growth of grape plantlets compared with the same concentrations of sucrose and glucose. The role of the sugars was regulated by the expression of key candidate genes related to hormones, key metabolic enzymes, and sugar metabolism of grape plantlets ( Vitis vinifera L.) grown in vitro. The addition of sugars including sucrose, glucose, and fructose is known to be very helpful for the development of grape (V...
May 26, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550180/a-novel-de-novo-mutation-in-prkag2-gene-infantile-onset-phenotype-and-signaling-pathway-involved
#4
Yanchun Xu, Alex Gray, David Grahame Hardie, Alper Uzun, Sunil Shaw, James F Padbury, Chanika Phornphutkul, Yi-Tang Tseng
PRKAG2 encodes the γ2-subunit isoform of the 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a heterotrimeric enzyme with major roles in regulation of energy metabolism in response to cellular stress. Mutations in PRKAG2 have been implicated in a unique hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) characterized by cardiac glycogen overload, ventricular preexcitation and hypertrophy. We identified a novel, de novo PRKAG2 mutation (K475E) in a neonate with prenatal onset of HCM. We aimed to investigate the cellular impact, signaling pathways involved and therapeutic options for K475E mutation using cells stably expressing human wild type (WT) or the K475E mutant...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550000/reversal-of-%C3%AE-oxidative-pathways-for-the-microbial-production-of-chemicals-and-polymer-building-blocks
#5
REVIEW
Nicolai Kallscheuer, Tino Polen, Michael Bott, Jan Marienhagen
β-Oxidation is the ubiquitous metabolic strategy to break down fatty acids. In the course of this four-step process, two carbon atoms are liberated per cycle from the fatty acid chain in the form of acetyl-CoA. However, typical β-oxidative strategies are not restricted to monocarboxylic (fatty) acid degradation only, but can also be involved in the utilization of aromatic compounds, amino acids and dicarboxylic acids. Each enzymatic step of a typical β-oxidation cycle is reversible, offering the possibility to also take advantage of reversed metabolic pathways for applied purposes...
May 23, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549993/evolution-of-thyroid-hormone-signaling-in-animals-non-genomic-and-genomic-modes-of-action
#6
REVIEW
Elias Taylor, Andreas Heyland
Much research has focused on vertebrate thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis and their function in development and metabolism. While important differences in TH synthesis and signaling exist, comparative studies between vertebrates fail to explain the evolutionary origins of this important regulatory axis. For that, one needs to make sense out of the diverse TH effects which have been described in invertebrate phyla but for which a mechanistic understanding is largely missing. Almost every major group of non-vertebrate animals possesses the capability to synthesize and metabolize thyroid hormones and there is evidence for a nuclear thyroid hormone receptor mediated mechanism in the bilateria, especially in molluscs, echinoderms, cephalochordates and ascidians...
May 23, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549934/in-vitro-metabolomic-approaches-to-investigating-the-potential-biological-effects-of-phenolic-compounds-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Úrsula Catalán, Laura Barrubés, Rosa Maria Valls, Rosa Solà, Laura Rubió
Dietary phenolic compounds (PCs) have been receiving interest for their presumed roles in disease prevention. However, there is a lack of studies on the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this regard, in vitro metabolomic approaches are suitable for the investigation of the molecular changes in response to PC exposure. Up to date, the biological effects of PCs have only been examined for PCs from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), olive oil, and resveratrol using cell-based metabolomic approach, although transcriptomic and/or proteomic studies have also been conducted in the same in vitro cell experiment in some cases...
May 23, 2017: Genomics, Proteomics & Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549860/crude-terpene-glycoside-component-from-radix-paeoniae-rubra-protects-against-isoproterenol-induced-myocardial-ischemic-injury-via-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-signaling-pathway
#8
Zhongcheng Ke, Gang Wang, Lei Yang, Huihui Qiu, Hao Wu, Mei Du, Juan Chen, Jie Song, Xiaobin Jia, Liang Feng
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Radix paeoniae rubra, also known as chishao (CS), is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine that can promote blood circulation to remove blood stasis. It has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in China. Although terpene glycoside (TG), the major component in CS, has been shown to possess cardioprotective properties, the mechanism underlying CS-TG's preventive effect against myocardial ischemia injury is unknown...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549851/identification-of-pathway-based-prognostic-gene-signatures-in-patients-with-multiple-myeloma
#9
Mohamad Zamani-Ahmadmahmudi, Shahreyar Dabiri, Nadia Nadimi
Molecular profiling is used to extract prognostic gene signatures in different cancers such as multiple myeloma (MM), which is the second most common hematological malignancy. In this study, we utilized gene expression profiles to find biological pathways that could efficiently predict survival time in patients with MM. Four data sets-namely GSE2658 (559 samples), GSE9782 (264 samples), GSE6477 (147 samples), and GSE57317 (55 samples)-were employed. GSE2658 was used as a training data set and the others as validation data sets...
May 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549813/mining-terpenoids-production-and-biosynthetic-pathway-in-thraustochytrids
#10
REVIEW
Yunxuan Xie, Biswarup Sen, Guangyi Wang
Terpenoids are major bioactive compounds produced by microalgae and other eukaryotic microorganisms. Mining metabolic potential of marine microalgae for commercial production of terpenoids suggest thraustochytrids as one of the promising cell factories. The identification of potential thraustochytrid strains and relevant laboratory scale bioprocesses has been pursued largely. Further investigations in the improvement of terpenoids biosynthesis expect relevant molecular mechanisms to be understood directing metabolic engineering of the pathways...
May 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549809/metabolic-engineering-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-j2b-for-the-production-of-1-3-propanediol-from-glucose
#11
Suman Lama, Eunhee Seol, Sunghoon Park
The production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from glucose was investigated using Klebsiella pneumoniae J2B, which converts glycerol to 1,3-PDO and synthesize an essential coenzyme B12. In order to connect the glycolytic pathway with the pathway of 1,3-PDO synthesis from glycerol, i.e., to directly produce diol from glucose, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were overexpressed. Additionally, the effect of expression levels and the use of isoforms of these two enzymes on glycerol and 1,3-PDO production were studied...
May 12, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549804/the-efficient-clade-lactic-acid-bacteria-for-industrial-chemical-production
#12
REVIEW
Michael Sauer, Hannes Russmayer, Reingard Grabherr, Clemens K Peterbauer, Hans Marx
Lactic acid bacteria are well known to be beneficial for food production and, as probiotics, they are relevant for many aspects of health. However, their potential as cell factories for the chemical industry is only emerging. Many physiological traits of these microorganisms, evolved for optimal growth in their niche, are also valuable in an industrial context. Here, we illuminate these features and describe why the distinctive adaptation of lactic acid bacteria is particularly useful when developing a microbial process for chemical production from renewable resources...
May 23, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549747/increased-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-accelerates-diet-related-vascular-aging-and-atherosclerosis-in-apoe-deficient-mice-under-chronic-stress
#13
Yanna Lei, Guang Yang, Lina Hu, Limei Piao, Aiko Inoue, Haiying Jiang, Takeshi Sasaki, Guangxian Zhao, Maimaiti Yisireyili, Chenglin Yu, Wenhu Xu, Kyosuke Takeshita, Kenji Okumura, Masafumi Kuzuya, Xian Wu Cheng
OBJECTIVES: Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Given that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) regulates several intracellular signaling pathways associated with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) metabolism, we investigated the role of DPP4 in stress-related vascular senescence and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: ApoE(-/-) mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet were randomly assigned to one of non-stress and immobilized stress groups for 12weeks...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549626/cell-biology-metabolic-crosstalk-in-glioma
#14
REVIEW
Alison Colquhoun
The renewed interest in cancer metabolism in recent years has been fuelled by the identification of the involvement of key oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes in the control of metabolic pathways. Many of these alterations lead to dramatic changes in bioenergetics, biosynthesis and redox balance within tumour cells. The complex relationship between tumour cell metabolism and the tumour microenvironment has turned this field of biochemistry and cell biology into a challenging and exciting area for study. In the case of gliomas the involvement of altered metabolic pathways including glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation and glutaminolysis are pointing the way to new possibilities for treatment...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549374/metabolic-engineering-of-escherichia-coli-to-high-efficient-synthesis-phenylacetic-acid-from-phenylalanine
#15
Lihua Zhang, Qian Liu, Hong Pan, Xun Li, Daoyi Guo
Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is a fine chemical with a high industrial demand for its widespread uses. Whereas, microorganic synthesis of PAA is impeded by the formation of by-product phenethyl alcohol due to quick, endogenous, and superfluous conversion of aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols, which resulted in less conversation of PAA from aldehydes. In this study, an Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 strain with reduced aromatic aldehyde reduction (RARE) that does duty for a platform for aromatic aldehyde biosynthesis was used to prompt more PAA biosynthesis...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549333/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-camp-pka-pathway-mediated-zn-induced-hepatic-lipolysis
#16
Yu-Feng Song, Christer Hogstrand, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo
The present study was performed to determine the effect of Zn exposure influencing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, explore the underlying molecular mechanism of Zn-induced hepatic lipolysis in a fish species of significance for aquaculture, yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We found that waterborne Zn exposure evoked ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), and activated cAMP/PKA pathway, and up-regulated hepatic lipolysis. The increase in ER stress and lipolysis were associated with activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549198/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-sugarcane-leaves-submitted-to-prolonged-water-deficit-stress
#17
A A Belesini, F M S Carvalho, B R Telles, G M de Castro, P F Giachetto, J S Vantini, S D Carlin, J O Cazetta, D G Pinheiro, M I T Ferro
Sugarcane production is strongly influenced by drought, which is a limiting factor for agricultural productivity in the world. In this study, the gene expression profiles obtained by de novo assembly of the leaf transcriptome of two sugarcane cultivars that differ in their physiological response to water deficit were evaluated by the RNA-Seq method: drought-tolerant cultivar (SP81-3250) and drought-sensitive cultivar (RB855453). For this purpose, plants were grown in a greenhouse for 60 days and were then submitted to three treatments: control (-0...
May 25, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549159/a-non-photosynthetic-diatom-reveals-early-steps-of-reductive-evolution-in-plastids
#18
Ryoma Kamikawa, Daniel Moog, Stefan Zauner, Goro Tanifuji, Ken-Ichiro Ishida, Hideaki Miyashita, Shigeki Mayama, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Uwe-G Maier, John M Archibald, Yuji Inagaki
Non-photosynthetic plastids retain important biological functions and are indispensable for cell viability. However, the detailed processes underlying the loss of plastidal functions other than photosynthesis remain to be fully understood. In this study, we used transcriptomics, subcellular localization, and phylogenetic analyses to characterize the biochemical complexity of the non-photosynthetic plastids of the apochlorotic diatom Nitzschia sp. NIES-3581. We found that these plastids have lost isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) biosynthesis and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO)-based carbon fixation but have retained various proteins for other metabolic pathways, including amino acid biosynthesis, and a portion of the Calvin-Benson cycle comprised only of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and the reductive pentose phosphate pathway (rPPP)...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549153/chippi-a-novel-method-for-mapping-chimeric-protein-protein-interactions-uncovers-selection-principles-of-protein-fusion-events-in-cancer
#19
Milana Frenkel-Morgenstern, Alessandro Gorohovski, Somnath Tagore, Vaishnovi Sekar, Miguel Vazquez, Alfonso Valencia
Fusion proteins, comprising peptides deriving from the translation of two parental genes, are produced in cancer by chromosomal aberrations. The expressed fusion protein incorporates domains of both parental proteins. Using a methodology that treats discrete protein domains as binding sites for specific domains of interacting proteins, we have cataloged the protein interaction networks for 11 528 cancer fusions (ChiTaRS-3.1). Here, we present our novel method, chimeric protein-protein interactions (ChiPPI) that uses the domain-domain co-occurrence scores in order to identify preserved interactors of chimeric proteins...
May 26, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549143/bile-acids-and-tryptophan-metabolism-are-novel-pathways-involved-in-metabolic-abnormalities-in-bpa-exposed-pregnant-mice-and-male-offspring
#20
Martha Susiarjo, Frances Xin, Martha Stefaniak, Clementina Mesaros, Rebecca A Simmons, Marisa S Bartolomei
Increasing evidence has demonstrated that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) impacts maternal and fetal health, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We have previously shown that dietary exposure to 10 µg/kg bw/day and 10 mg/kg bw/day bisphenol A (BPA) during pregnancy induced metabolic abnormalities in F1 male offspring and gestational glucose intolerance in F0 pregnant mice. The aim of this study is to elucidate the underlying etiologies of BPA exposure-induced metabolic disease by analyzing male fetal liver metabolome...
May 25, 2017: Endocrinology
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