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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110501/worldwide-variability-in-growth-and-its-association-with-health-incorporating-body-composition-developmental-plasticity-and-intergenerational-effects
#1
REVIEW
Jonathan C K Wells
In their seminal book "Worldwide variation in human growth," published in 1976, Eveleth and Tanner highlighted substantial variability within and between populations in the magnitude and schedule of human growth. In the four decades since then, research has clarified why growth variability is so closely associated with human health. First, growth patterns are strongly associated with body composition, both in the short- and long-term. Poor growth in early life constrains the acquisition of lean tissue, while compensatory "catch-up" growth may elevate body fatness...
January 22, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110276/photosynthesis-in-c3-c4-intermediate-moricandia-species
#2
Urte Schlüter, Andrea Bräutigam, Udo Gowik, Michael Melzer, Pascal-Antoine Christin, Samantha Kurz, Tabea Mettler-Altmann, Andreas Pm Weber
Evolution of C4 photosynthesis is not distributed evenly in the plant kingdom. Particularly interesting is the situation in the Brassicaceae, because the family contains no C4 species, but several C3-C4 intermediates, mainly in the genus Moricandia Investigation of leaf anatomy, gas exchange parameters, the metabolome, and the transcriptome of two C3-C4 intermediate Moricandia species, M. arvensis and M. suffruticosa, and their close C3 relative M. moricandioides enabled us to unravel the specific C3-C4 characteristics in these Moricandia lines...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110268/metabolic-and-physiological-adjustment-of-suaeda-maritima-to-combined-salinity-and-hypoxia
#3
Jan H Behr, Alain Bouchereau, Solenne Berardocco, Charlotte E Seal, Timothy J Flowers, Christian Zörb
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Suaeda maritima is a halophyte commonly found on coastal wetlands in the intertidal zone. Due to its habitat S. maritima has evolved tolerance to high salt concentrations and hypoxic conditions in the soil caused by periodic flooding. In the present work, the adaptive mechanisms of S. maritima to salinity combined with hypoxia were investigated on a physiological and metabolic level. METHODS: To compare the adaptive mechanisms to deficient, optimal and stressful salt concentrations, S...
January 20, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110245/bipartite-network-analysis-reveals-metabolic-gene-expression-profiles-that-are-highly-associated-with-the-clinical-outcomes-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#4
Fanfan Xie, Mingxiong He, Li He, Keqin Liu, Menglong Li, Guoquan Hu, Zhining Wen
Dysregulated and reprogrammed metabolism are one of the most important characteristics of cancer, and exploiting cancer cell metabolism can aid in understanding the diverse clinical outcomes for patients. To investigate the differences in metabolic pathways among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and differential survival outcomes, we systematically conducted microarray data analysis of the metabolic gene expression profiles from 384 patients available from the Gene Expression Omnibus and Cancer Genome Atlas databases...
January 6, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110213/cannabidiol-attenuates-ogd-r-induced-damage-by-enhancing-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-modulating-glucose-metabolism-via-pentose-phosphate-pathway-in-hippocampal-neurons
#5
Shanshan Sun, Fangyuan Hu, Jihong Wu, Shenghai Zhang
Deficient bioenergetics and diminished redox conservation have been implicated in the development of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychotropic compound derived from Cannabis sativa with FDA-approved antiepilepsy properties, were studied in vitro using an oxygen-glucose-deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) model in a mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line. CBD supplementation during reperfusion rescued OGD/R-induced cell death, attenuated intracellular ROS generation and lipid peroxidation, and simultaneously reversed the abnormal changes in antioxidant biomarkers...
December 31, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110148/ciprofloxacin-induces-oxidative-stress-in-duckweed-lemna-minor-l-implications-for-energy-metabolism-and-antibiotic-uptake-ability
#6
Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes, Cíntia Almeida Gonçalves, Júlio César Moreira de Brito, Amanda Miranda Souza, Fernanda Vieira da Silva Cruz, Elisa Monteze Bicalho, Cleber Cunha Figueredo, Queila Souza Garcia
We investigate the physiological responses and antibiotic-uptake capacity of Lemna minor exposed to ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) induced toxic effects and hormesis in plants by significantly modifying photosynthesis and respiration pathways. A toxic effect was induced by a concentration ≥1.05mg ciprofloxacin l(-1) while hormesis occurs at the lowest concentration studied (0.75mg ciprofloxacin l(-1)). By impairing normal electron flow in the respiratory electron transport chain, ciprofloxacin induces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110102/transcriptional-profiling-reveals-protective-mechanisms-in-brains-of-long-lived-mice
#7
Christiane Frahm, Akash Srivastava, Silvio Schmidt, Jule Mueller, Marco Groth, Madlen Guenther, Yuanyuan Ji, Steffen Priebe, Matthias Platzer, Otto W Witte
The brain plays a central role in organismal aging but is itself most sensitive to aging-related functional impairments and pathologies. Insights into processes underlying brain aging are the basis to positively impact brain health. Using high-throughput RNA sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we monitored cerebral gene expression in mice throughout their whole lifespan (2, 9, 15, 24, and 30 months). Differentially expressed genes were clustered in 6 characteristic temporal expression profiles, 3 of which revealed a distinct change between 24 and 30 months, the period when most mice die...
December 27, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110083/preconditioning-in-neuroprotection-from-hypoxia-to-ischemia
#8
REVIEW
Sijie Li, Adam Hafeez, Fatima Noorulla, Xiaokun Geng, Guo Shao, Changhong Ren, Guowei Lu, Heng Zhao, Yuchuan Ding, Xunming Ji
Sublethal hypoxic or ischemic events can improve the tolerance of tissues, organs, and even organisms from subsequent lethal injury caused by hypoxia or ischemia. This phenomenon has been termed hypoxic or ischemic preconditioning (HPC or IPC) and is well established in the heart and the brain. This review aims to discuss HPC and IPC with respect to their historical development and advancements in our understanding of the neurochemical basis for their neuroprotective role. Through decades of collaborative research and studies of HPC and IPC in other organ systems, our understanding of HPC and IPC-induced neuroprotection has expanded to include: early- (phosphorylation targets, transporter regulation, interfering RNA) and late- (regulation of genes like EPO, VEGF, and iNOS) phase changes, regulators of programmed cell death, members of metabolic pathways, receptor modulators, and many other novel targets...
January 18, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109953/the-classic-pathways-of-thyroid-hormone-metabolism
#9
Anne H van der Spek, Eric Fliers, Anita Boelen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109940/proteome-response-of-fish-under-multiple-stress-exposure-effects-of-pesticide-mixtures-and-temperature-increase
#10
Allison Gandar, Pascal Laffaille, Nathalie Marty-Gasset, Didier Viala, Caroline Molette, Séverine Jean
Aquatic systems can be subjected to multiple stressors, including pollutant cocktails and elevated temperature. Evaluating the combined effects of these stressors on organisms is a great challenge in environmental sciences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the molecular stress response of an aquatic fish species subjected to individual and combined pesticide mixtures and increased temperatures. For that, goldfish (Carassius auratus) were acclimated to two different temperatures (22 and 32°C) for 15 days...
January 15, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109906/succinate-in-the-cancer-immune-cycle
#11
Shuai Jiang, Wei Yan
Succinate is an important intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In mitochondria, it plays a crucial role in generating adenosine triphosphate. Succinate metabolism is also intertwined with the metabolism of other metabolites and with the "GABA shunt" of the glutamine pathway. Recently, it has become increasingly apparent that the roles of succinate extend into the realms of immunity and cancer. Succinate is a key modulator of the hypoxic response, an important player in tumorigenesis; succinate is also involved in protein succinylation, a novel posttranslational modification pathway...
January 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109891/redox-regulation-of-electrophilic-signaling-by-reactive-persulfides-in-cardiac-cells
#12
REVIEW
Motohiro Nishida, Akiyuki Nishimura, Tetsuro Matsunaga, Hozumi Motohashi, Shingo Kasamatsu, Takaaki Akaike
Maintaining a redox balance by means of precisely controlled systems that regulate production, and elimination, and metabolism of electrophilic substances (electrophiles) is essential for normal cardiovascular function. Electrophilic signaling is mainly regulated by endogenous electrophiles that are generated from reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and the derivative reactive species of nitric oxide during stress responses, as well as by exogenous electrophiles including compounds in foods and environmental pollutants...
January 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109592/short-communication-limitations-of-glucose-tolerance-tests-in-the-assessment-of-peripheral-tissue-insulin-sensitivity-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-in-dairy-heifers
#13
J De Koster, M Van Eetvelde, K Hermans, W Van den Broeck, M Hostens, G Opsomer
The aim of the present study was to point at the limitations of glucose tolerance tests (GTT) to assess peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity in dairy heifers in different physiological states (pregnancy and lactation). Intravenous GTT were performed in 5 nonpregnant, nonlactating heifers, 5 heifers at the end of pregnancy (12-7 d before calving), and 5 lactating primiparous cows (11-14 d after calving). Glucose and insulin concentrations were determined and area under the curve (AUC) and clearance rate of glucose and insulin were calculated...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109586/elevation-of-blood-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-concentration-affects-glucose-metabolism-in-dairy-cows-before-and-after-parturition
#14
M Zarrin, L Grossen-Rösti, R M Bruckmaier, J J Gross
Recent studies in mid- and late-lactation dairy cows showed that β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) infusion had a considerable effect on glucose metabolism and immune response during intramammary lipopolysaccharide challenge. The objective of the present study was to infuse BHB during the dry period and after parturition to investigate the effects of elevated plasma BHB concentrations on metabolism and endocrine changes in transition dairy cows. The hypothesis tested was that regulation of glucose metabolism would change at different physiological stages and an additional elevation of BHB concentration would alter glucose concentration...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109168/integrated-omics-analysis-of-specialized-metabolism-in-medicinal-plants
#15
Amit Rai, Kazuki Saito, Mami Yamazaki
Medicinal plants are the rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their approach to explore biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. Recent advancements in the high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. Reduced cost to generate omics datasets, and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several plant origin bio-active metabolites...
January 21, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109165/melatonin-and-sirtuins-a-not-so-unexpected-relationship
#16
Juan C Mayo, Rosa M Sainz, Pedro González Menéndez, Vanesa Cepas, Dun-Xian Tan, Russel J Reiter
Epigenetic modifications, including methylation or acetylation as well as posttranscriptional modifications are mechanisms used by eukaryotic cells to increase the genome diversity in terms of differential gene expression and protein diversity. Among these modifying enzymes, sirtuins, a class III histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes are of particular importance. Sirtuins regulate the cell cycle, DNA repair, cell survival and apoptosis, thus having important roles in normal and cancer cells. Sirtuins can also regulate metabolic pathways by changing preference for glycolysis under aerobic conditions as well as glutaminolysis...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109123/sodium-butyrate-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-and-metabolic-disorders-in-type-ii-diabetic-mice
#17
Ling Zhang, Jianfeng Du, Naohiro Yano, Hao Wang, Yu Tina Zhao, Dubielecka-Szczerba Patricia, Shougang Zhuang, Eugene Y Chin, Gangjian Qin, Ting C Zhao
Histone deacetylases are recently identified to act as key regulators for cardiac pathophysiology and metabolic disorders. However, the function of histone deacetylase (HDAC) in controlling cardiac performance in type II diabetes and obesity remains unknown. Here we determine whether HDAC inhibition attenuates high fat diet (HFD)-induced cardiac dysfunction and improves metabolic features. Adult mice were fed with either HFD or standard chow food for 24 weeks. Starting at 12 weeks, mice were divided into four groups randomly, in which sodium butyrate (1%), a potent HDAC inhibitor, was provided to chow and HFD-fed mice in drinking water, respectively...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109099/-effect-of-hugan-qingzhi-tablets-on-ampk-pathway-activation-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-protein-expression-in-the-liver-of-rats-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Xiao-Rui Yao, Fan Xia, Wai-Jiao Tang, Ben-Jie Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Hugan Qingzhi tablets on lipid metabolism and inflammation in rats fed on high-fat diet and explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely HFD group (with high-fat diet and distilled water), control group (with normal diet and distilled water), fenofibrate group (with high-fat diet and treatment with 0.1 g<kg fenofibrate suspension), and low-, moderate- and high-dose Hugan Qingzhi tablet groups (with high-fat diet and treatment with 0...
January 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108964/heme-oxygenase-1-defects-lead-to-reduced-chlorophyll-in-brassica-napus
#19
Lixia Zhu, Zonghui Yang, Xinhua Zeng, Jie Gao, Jie Liu, Bin Yi, Chaozhi Ma, Jinxiong Shen, Jinxing Tu, Tingdong Fu, Jing Wen
We previously described a Brassica napus chlorophyll-deficient mutant (ygl) with yellow-green seedling leaves and mapped the related gene, BnaC.YGL, to a 0.35 cM region. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this chlorophyll defect are still unknown. In this study, the BnaC07.HO1 gene (equivalent to BnaC.YGL) was isolated by the candidate gene approach, and its function was confirmed by genetic complementation. Comparative sequencing analysis suggested that BnaC07.HO1 was lost in the mutant, while a long noncoding-RNA was inserted into the promoter of the homologous gene BnaA07...
January 20, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108951/physiological-links-of-circadian-clock-and-biological-clock-of-aging
#20
REVIEW
Fang Liu, Hung-Chun Chang
Circadian rhythms orchestrate biochemical and physiological processes in living organisms to respond the day/night cycle. In mammals, nearly all cells hold self-sustained circadian clocks meanwhile couple the intrinsic rhythms to systemic changes in a hierarchical manner. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus functions as the master pacemaker to initiate daily synchronization according to the photoperiod, in turn determines the phase of peripheral cellular clocks through a variety of signaling relays, including endocrine rhythms and metabolic cycles...
January 20, 2017: Protein & Cell
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