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Cytochrome P

Boris A Levin, Evgeniy Simonov, Michael P Matveyev, Oleg N Artaev, Namig J Mustafayev, Andrey N Pashkov, Haikaz R Roubenyan
Spirlins of the genus Alburnoides are widespread fishes, which taxonomy has been rapidly developing in recent years. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was used as DNA barcode marker to create a reference dataset of Caucasian Alburnoides and to test its barcoding efficiency. All four previously known Caucasian species of Alburnoides were confirmed as valid species with high genetic distances to sister species as well confirmed as Caucasian endemics. Alburnoides samiii, previously known from Sefidroud basin (Iran), was discovered in Transcaucasia...
October 19, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Meghan MacKenzie, Richard Hall
PURPOSE: Knowledge of how alterations in pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics may affect drug therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) has received little study. We review the clinically relevant application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to drugs and conditions encountered in the ICU. SOURCE: We selected relevant literature to illustrate the important concepts contained within. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two main approaches have been used to identify genetic abnormalities - the candidate gene approach and the genome-wide approach...
October 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Sedar Karakurt
Expression of a drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, cytochrome P450s (CYPs), and antioxidant enzymes can be modulated by various factors. The flavonoid rutin was investigated for its anti-carcinogen and protective effects as well as modulatory action on CYPs and phase II enzymes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Rutin inhibited proliferation of HEPG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 value of 52.7 μmol L-1 and invasion of HEPG2 cells (21.6 %, p = 0.0018) and colony formation of those invaded cells (57...
December 1, 2016: Acta Pharmaceutica
Bor-Show Tzang, Szu-Yi Chiang, Hsu-Chin Chan, Chung-Hsien Liu, Tsai-Ching Hsu
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is harmful during pregnancy since it can be vertically transmitted to the developing fetus. In addition, the anti‑B19 antibodies induced by B19 infection are believed to have a cytopathic role in B19 transmission; however, knowledge regarding the effects of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy is limited. To investigate the possible roles of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy, the present study examined the effects of anti‑B19‑VP1 unique region (VP1u), anti‑B19‑VP2 and anti‑B19‑nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies on BeWo trophoblasts...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
P-H Liao, H-H Hsu, T-S Chen, M-C Chen, C-H Day, C-C Tu, Y-M Lin, F-J Tsai, W-W Kuo, C-Y Huang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. Despite the availability of several treatment strategies, resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which limits the effectiveness of anticancer drugs, is a major problem in cancer therapy. In this study, we used a histone deacetylases inhibitor (HDACi) to establish drug-resistant HCC cells and further analyzed the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of resistance in HCC cells. Compared with the parental cells, HDACi-resistant cells showed high metastatic and pro-survival abilities...
October 17, 2016: Oncogene
Sankar N Maity, Mark A Titus, Revekka Gyftaki, Guanglin Wu, Jing-Fang Lu, S Ramachandran, Elsa M Li-Ning-Tapia, Christopher J Logothetis, John C Araujo, Eleni Efstathiou
Cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) is a validated treatment target for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Abiraterone acetate (AA) inhibits both 17α-hydroxylase (hydroxylase) and 17,20-lyase (lyase) reactions catalyzed by CYP17A1 and thus depletes androgen biosynthesis. However, coadministration of prednisone is required to suppress the mineralocorticoid excess and cortisol depletion that result from hydroxylase inhibition. VT-464, a nonsteroidal small molecule, selectively inhibits CYP17A1 lyase and therefore does not require prednisone supplementation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Carmela E Corallo, Louise Grannell, Huyen Tran
A 62-year-old man was admitted to hospital for elective revision of a left total hip arthroplasty. His history was significant for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for which he was taking the following antiretroviral agents (ARVs): etravirine, ritonavir, darunavir, raltegravir and tenofovir/emtricitabine. Rivaroxaban 10 mg daily was commenced on the second postoperative day for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis. Approximately 24 h later, the patient developed hypotension and anaemia, accompanied by thigh swelling due to bleeding at the surgical site...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Yusuf Haydar Ertekin, Burkay Yakar, Hülya Ertekin, Ayşegül Uludağ, Murat Tekin
BACKGROUND: Drugs represent one of the etiologic causes of acute rhabdomyolysis (AR) with drug-induced rhabdomyolysis most commonly associated with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. AR etiology can also result from the use of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor. Cases of AR triggered by pantoprazole have never before been reported, although it has been observed that its inclusion in multiple drug therapies can result in muscle events...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Dal-Sik Kim, Yunjeong Kim, Ji-Young Jeon, Min-Gul Kim
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the drug interaction profile of Red Ginseng (RG) with respect to the activities of major cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in healthy Korean volunteers. METHODS: This article describes an open-label, crossover study. CYP probe cocktail drugs, caffeine, losartan, dextromethorphan, omeprazole, midazolam, and fexofenadine were administered before and after RG supplementation for 2 wk. Plasma samples were collected, and tolerability was assessed...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Amy E Mendham, Rob Duffield, Aaron J Coutts, Frank E Marino, Andriy Boyko, Andrew J McAinch, David John Bishop
PURPOSE: This study assessed the mitochondrial related signaling responses to a single bout of non-contact, modified football (touch rugby), played as small-sided games (SSG), or cycling (CYC) exercise in sedentary, obese, middle-aged men. METHOD: In a randomized, cross-over design, nine middle-aged, sedentary, obese men completed two, 40-min exercise conditions (CYC and SSG) separated by a 21-d recovery period. Heart rate (HR) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion were collected during each bout...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Elizaveta A Kovrigina, Brian Pattengale, Chuanwu Xia, Azamat R Galiakhmetov, Jier Huang, Jung-Ja P Kim, Evgenii L Kovrigin
NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) was demonstrated to undergo large conformational rearrangements in its functional cycle. Using a new FRET approach based on femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (TA), we determined the donor-acceptor distance distribution in the reduced and oxidized states of CYPOR. Unmatched time resolution of TA enabled the quantitative assessment of the donor-acceptor FRET indicating that CYPOR assumes a closed conformation in both reduced and oxidized states in the absence of the redox partner...
October 14, 2016: Biochemistry
Ga Hun Boo, Jeffery R Hughey, Kathy Ann Miller, Sung Min Boo
DNA sequences from type specimens provide independent, objective characters that enhance the value of type specimens and permit the correct application of species names to phylogenetic clades and specimens. We provide mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from archival type specimens of ten species in agar-producing red algal genera Gelidium and Pterocladiella. The genomes contain 43-44 genes, ranging in size from 24,910 to 24,970 bp with highly conserved gene synteny. Low Ka/Ks ratios of apocytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase genes support their utility as markers...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eric A Lewallen, Andrew J Bohonak, Carolina A Bonin, Andre J van Wijnen, Robert L Pitman, Nathan R Lovejoy
Delineating populations of pantropical marine fish is a difficult process, due to widespread geographic ranges and complex life history traits in most species. Exocoetus volitans, a species of two-winged flyingfish, is a good model for understanding large-scale patterns of epipelagic fish population structure because it has a circumtropical geographic range and completes its entire life cycle in the epipelagic zone. Buoyant pelagic eggs should dictate high local dispersal capacity in this species, although a brief larval phase, small body size, and short lifespan may limit the dispersal of individuals over large spatial scales...
2016: PloS One
Steven A Lacy, Dale R Miles, Linh T Nguyen
Cabozantinib inhibits receptor tyrosine kinases involved in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. The capsule formulation (Cometriq(®)) is approved for the treatment of progressive metastatic medullary thyroid cancer at a 140-mg free base equivalent dose. The tablet formulation (Cabometyx™, 60-mg free base equivalent dose) is approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma following anti-angiogenic therapy. Cabozantinib displays a long terminal plasma half-life (~120 h) and accumulates ~fivefold by day 15 following daily dosing based on area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Youngshim Choi, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Byoung-Joon Song
We hypothesized that dietary walnut would prevent high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic apoptosis based on its antioxidant properties. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a rodent chow or HFD (45% energy-derived)±walnuts (21.5% energy-derived) for 6 weeks. Liver histological and biochemical analyses revealed significantly elevated fat accumulation in mice fed HFD compared to mice fed the chow or HFD±walnuts. Walnut supplementation prevented HFD-mediated alteration of the levels of key proteins in lipid homeostasis such as Sirt1, AMPK and FAS, leading to decreased fat accumulation...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Tahir Ali, Min Ju Kim, Shafiq Ur Rehman, Ashfaq Ahmad, Myeong Ok Kim
Nanomedicine is an emerging research area. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective efficacy of anthocyanin-loaded polyethylene glycol-gold nanoparticles (PEG-AuNPs) for enhancing the neuroprotective efficacy of anthocyanins in an amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. We observed that both anthocyanin-loaded PEG-AuNPs and anthocyanins treatment (12 μg/g/day for 14 days) ameliorated memory impairments in the Aβ1-42-injected mice. However, the anthocyanin-loaded PEG-AuNPs were more effective than free anthocyanins...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Jordyn M Wolfand, Gregory H LeFevre, Richard G Luthy
Fipronil is a recalcitrant phenylpyrazole-based pesticide used for flea/tick treatment and termite control that is distributed in urban aquatic environments via stormwater and contributes to stream toxicity. We discovered that fipronil is rapidly metabolized (t1/2 = 4.2 d) by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor to fipronil sulfone and multiple previously unknown fipronil transformation products, lowering fipronil concentration by 96.5%. Using an LC-QTOF-MS untargeted metabolomics approach, we identified four novel fipronil fungal transformation products: hydroxylated fipronil sulfone, glycosylated fipronil sulfone, and two compounds with unresolved structures...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Hye-Eun Choi, Ji-Sun Shin, Dong-Gyu Leem, Soo-Dong Kim, Won-Jea Cho, Kyung-Tae Lee
Previously, we reported that 6-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl) nicotinamide (DIMN) analogues inhibited the growth of prostate cancer cells as an anti-androgenic compound. In the present study, we evaluated cytotoxic effects of these DIMN derivatives and found that DIMN-26 most potently inhibited the proliferation of the LNCap-LN3 androgen-dependent and DU145 androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through induction of G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis. The G2/M phase arrest was found due to increases in the activation of cdc2 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase 1, CDK1)/cyclin B1 complex...
October 5, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Yongjie Zhang, Nico P E Vermeulen, Jan N M Commandeur
AIMS: Oxidative bioactivation of amodiaquine (AQ) by cytochrome P450s to a reactive quinoneimine is considered as an important mechanism underlying its idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. However, because internal exposure to its major metabolite N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) is up to 240 fold higher than AQ, bioactivation of DEAQ might significant contribute to covalent binding. The aim of the present study was to compare the kinetics of bioactivation of AQ and DEAQ by human liver microsomes and to characterize the CYPs involved in bioactivation of AQ and DEAQ...
October 8, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Carlos R P Dechandt, Carlos A Couto-Lima, Luciane C Alberici
The research on mitochondrial functions in adipocytes has increasingly evidenced that mitochondria plays an important role in the onset and/or progression of obesity and related pathologies. Mitochondrial function in brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been classically assessed by measuring either the levels/activity of mitochondrial enzymes, or the respiration in isolated mitochondria. Isolation of mitochondria is not advantageous because it demands significant time and amount of tissue and, as tissue homogenates, disrupts biochemical and physical connections of mitochondria within the cell...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Biochemistry
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