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Cytochrome P

Kalahe Hewage Iresha Nadeeka Madushani Herath, Jinhee Cho, Areum Kim, Tae Kil Eom, Ju-Sung Kim, Jae-Bum Kim, Yang Hoi Doh, Youngheun Jee
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sasa quelpaertensis Nakai is an edible dwarf bamboo cultivated mainly in Jeju Island, South Korea and its leaf displays various health-promoting properties including antioxidant scavenging. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aimed at elucidating its hepatoprotective effect against alcohol-induced fatty liver. METHODS: In in vitro study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and hepatoprotective effect of different solvent fractions (aqua, butanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and hexane) of 80% EtOH extract of S...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Aditi Mukherjee, Ayan Adhikari, Priya Das, Saroj Biswas, Supratim Mukherjee, Subrata Adak
Leishmania promastigotes have the ability to synthesize essential polyunsaturated fatty acids de novo and can grow in lipid free media. Recently, we have shown that NAD(P)H cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase (Ncb5or) enzyme in Leishmania acts as the redox partner for Δ12 fatty acid desaturase, which catalyses the conversion of oleate to linoleate. So far, the exact role of Leishmania derived linoleate synthesis is still incomplete in the literature. The viability assay by flow cytometry as well as microscopic studies suggests that linoleate is an absolute requirement for Leishmania promastigote survival in delipidated media...
June 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Minh P Lê, Marie-Laure Chaix, Sylvie Chevret, Julie Bertrand, François Raffi, Sébastien Gallien, El Mountacer Billah El Abbassi, Christine Katlama, Pierre Delobel, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Juliette Saillard, Jean-Michel Molina, Gilles Peytavin
Background: In the ANRS 165 DARULIGHT study (NCT02384967) carried out in HIV-infected patients, the use of a darunavir/ritonavir-containing regimen with a switch to a reduced dose of darunavir maintained virological efficacy (≤50 copies/mL) for 48 weeks with a good safety profile. Objectives: To assess the total and unbound blood plasma pharmacokinetics of darunavir and associated antiretrovirals, and their penetration into semen before and after dose reduction...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Li Wang, Fenglian Zhao, Mengying Kan, Zhaoyan Wen, Yongbing Zhou, Lili Yu, Hui Liu
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects on oxidative stress and the expression of PPARα-related genes and protein in the liver of rats induced by pentadecafluorooctanoic acid( PFOA). METHODS: A total of 28 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group: double distilled water, low dose group: PFOA 1 mg/( kg·d), middle dose group: PFOA 5 mg/( kg·d), high dose group: PFOA 25 mg/( kg·d), and were administrated by gavage once a day for 14 days take the organization after anesthesia, according to the follow-up experiments need treatment...
September 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Mathias T Nielsen, Klaus A Moltved, Kasper P Kepp
Electron transfer (ET) is broadly described by Marcus-type theories and plays a central role in many materials and catalytic systems and in biomolecules such as cytochromes. Classic ET processes are the self-exchange reactions between hydrated transition-metal ions such as Fe2+ (aq) + Fe3+ (aq) → Fe3+ (aq) + Fe2+ (aq). A well-known anomaly of Marcus theory is Co2+ /Co3+ exchange, which proceeds ∼105 times faster than predicted. Co3+ (aq) is a complex and reactive system widely thought to feature low-spin Co3+ ...
June 14, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Gyeong-Ji Kim, Hyeon-Ju Jo, Kwon-Jai Lee, Jeong Woo Choi, Jeung Hee An
We evaluated oleanolic acid (OA)-induced anti-cancer activity, apoptotic mechanism, cell cycle status, and MAPK kinase signaling in DU145 (prostate cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), U87 (human glioblastoma), normal murine liver cell (BNL CL.2) and human foreskin fibroblast cell lines (Hs 68). The IC50 values for OA-induced cytotoxicity were 112.57 in DU145, 132.29 in MCF-7, and 163.60 in U87 cells, respectively. OA did not exhibit toxicity in BNL CL. 2 and Hs 68 cell lines in our experiments. OA, at 100 µg/mL, increased the number of apoptotic cells to 27...
May 29, 2018: Oncotarget
Wei Li, Yun Yang, Chong Qiao, Guolin Zhang, Yinggang Luo
Galanthamine (GAL), the well-known Amaryllidaceae alkaloid, is a clinically used drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. L-Phenylalanine (Phe) and trans-cinnamic acid (CA) were enzymatically transformed into the catechol portion of GAL. Herein, a Phe ammonia-lyase-encoding gene LrPAL3 and a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase-encoding gene LrC4H were cloned from Lycoris radiata, a GAL-producing plant. LrPAL3 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. LrPAL3 catalyzes the forward deamination conversion of L-Phe into trans-CA...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Lei Li, Eva-Mari Aro, A Harvey Millar
Rapid protein degradation and replacement is an important response to photodamage and a means of photoprotection by recovering proteostasis. Protein turnover and translation efficiency studies have discovered fast turnover subunits in cytochrome b6 f and the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) complex, in addition to PSII subunit D1. Mutations of these complexes have been linked to enhanced photodamage at least partially via cyclic electron flow. Photodamage and photoprotection involving cytochrome b6 f, NDH complex, cyclic electron flow, PSI, and nonphotochemical quenching proteins have been reported...
June 7, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
Emine B Yalcin, Ming Tong, Gina Gallucci, Suzanne M de la Monte
BACKGROUND: The high levels of blood alcohol achieved with chronic plus binge alcohol exposures are somewhat reduced by co-administration of tobacco specific Nicotine-Derived Nitrosamine Ketone (NNK) suggesting that NNK may alter alcohol metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To test this hypothesis, we We examined ethanol and acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzyme activities and malondialdehyde adduct formation in rats exposed to ethanol (chronic + binge), NNK, or both. METHODS: 4-week old Long Evans rats were fed liquid diets containing 0% or 26% caloric ethanol for 8 weeks...
June 10, 2018: Drug Metabolism Letters
Hiroyuki Kumata, Keigo Murakami, Kazuyuki Ishida, Shigehito Miyagi, Atsushi Arakawa, Yoshiaki Inayama, Keiichi Kinowaki, Atsushi Ochiai, Motohiro Kojima, Michiyo Higashi, Suzuko Moritani, Kyoko Kuwahara, Yukio Nakatani, Dai Kajiura, Gen Tamura, Hiroshi Kijima, Mitsunori Yamakawa, Taizo Shiraishi, Yukinori Inadome, Kazuhiro Murakami, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Takashi Sawai, Michiaki Unno, Takashi Kamei, Hironobu Sasano
Mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs) occur in the ovary, pancreas and retroperitoneum but very rarely in the liver. MCNs are known to harbor ovarian-like mesenchymal stroma (OLS) expressing progesterone- and estrogen receptors. In this study we evaluated steroidogenesis in OLS of 25 hepatic MCNs and 24 pancreatic MCNs. Both steroid receptors and steroidogenic factors were immunohistochemically evaluated using H-score and results were compared with those in 15 ovarian MCNs and 10 normal ovaries. Androgen receptor (AR) H-scores in OLS were significantly higher in hepatic, pancreatic and ovarian MCN than those in normal ovaries...
June 7, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Jingjing Jia, Ting Zhang, Jieshan Chi, Xiaoma Liu, Jingjing Sun, Qizhi Xie, Sijia Peng, Changyan Li, Li Yi
CeO2 nanoparticles (nanoceria) have been used in many studies as a powerful free radical scavenger, and LXW7, a small-molecule peptide, can specifically target the integrin αvβ3, whose neuroprotective effects have also been demonstrated. The objective of this study is to observe the neuroprotective effect and potential mechanism of CeO2 @PAA-LXW7, a new compound that couples CeO2 @PAA (nanoceria modified with the functional group of polyacrylic acid) with LXW7 via a series of chemical reactions, in H2 O2 -induced NGF-differentiated PC12 cells...
June 7, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Yong Peng, Zhong-Hua Tong, Han-Juan Chong, Xin-Yue Shao
Ionic liquids (ILs) are gradually concerned due to their potential environmental and health risks. In this work, the chronic effects of imidazolium-based ILs, using [C14 mim]Br as a representative, were evaluated using model animal Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results show that prolonged exposure (72 h) of ILs to the nematodes at concentrations of 5 and 10 mg/L induced adverse effects on the growth, locomotive behaviors and development. To explore the toxicity mechanism, lipofuscin content, ROS level and the expressions of five superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes were determined after the prolonged exposure...
May 29, 2018: Chemosphere
Guadalupe Núñez, Nelly Villalobos, Cinthia P Herrera, José Navarrete-Perea, Adriana Méndez, José J Martinez-Maya, Raúl J Bobes, Gladis Fragoso, Edda Sciutto, Laura Aguilar, Irene P Del Arenal
Taeniasis-cysticercosis, a zoonosis caused by Taenia solium, is prevalent in underdeveloped countries, where marginalization promotes its continued transmission. Pig cysticercosis, an essential stage for transmission, is preventable by vaccination. An efficient multiepitope vaccine against pig cysticercosis, S3Pvac, was developed. Previous studies showed that antibodies against one of the S3Pvac components, GK-1, are capable of damaging T. solium cysticerci, inhibiting their ability to transform into the adult stage in golden hamster gut...
June 6, 2018: Parasitology Research
Laureen A Lammers, Roos Achterbergh, Johannes A Romijn, Ron A A Mathôt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that nutritional status can alter drug metabolism which may result in treatment failure or untoward side effects. This study assesses the effect of two nutritional conditions, short-term fasting, and a short-term high fat diet (HFD) on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) mediated drug metabolism by studying the pharmacokinetics of midazolam and its main metabolites. METHODS: In a randomized-controlled cross-over trial, nine healthy subjects received a single intravenous administration of 0...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
M Kotula-Balak, P Pawlicki, A Milon, W Tworzydlo, M Sekula, A Pacwa, E Gorowska-Wojtowicz, B Bilinska, B Pawlicka, J Wiater, M Zarzycka, J Galas
In this study, G-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) was inactivated, by treatment with antagonist (G-15), in testes of C57BL/6 mice: immature (3 weeks old), mature (3 months old) and aged (1.5 years old) (50 μg/kg bw), as well as MA-10 mouse Leydig cells (10 nM/24 h) alone or in combination with 17β-estradiol or antiestrogen (ICI 182,780). In G-15-treated mice, overgrowth of interstitial tissue was found in both mature and aged testes. Depending on age, differences in structure and distribution of various Leydig cell organelles were observed...
June 6, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Bodhisattwa Mondal, Hongxia Chen, Weihua Wen, Ercole L Cavalieri, Eleanor G Rogan, Muhammad Zahid
Arsenic trioxide (As2 O3 ) is an environmental carcinogen and a putative endocrine disruptor. Resveratrol has been shown to reverse As2 O3 -induced oxidative damage. In immortalized but nontransformed estrogen receptor α-negative human breast cells (MCF10A), we observed that 25 μM resveratrol ameliorated As2 O3 -induced cytotoxicity. As2 O3 , in the presence or absence of 25 μM resveratrol, induced quinone reductase (NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1), via the induction of NFE2-related factor 2. As2 O3 caused a repression of cytochrome P450 (CYP)1B1, but the addition of 25 μM resveratrol rescued the expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 and kept it at a constant level...
May 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Xiaori Zhan, Xinyue Liao, Xiujun Luo, Yujia Zhu, Shangguo Feng, Chunna Yu, Jiangjie Lu, Chenjia Shen, Huizhong Wang
Cutleaf groundcherry (Physalis angulata L.) is an annual plant with a number of medicinal ingredients. However, studies about the secondary metabolism of P. angulata are very limited. An integrated metabolome and proteome approach was used to reveal the variations in the metabolism associated with bioactive compounds under methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Application of MeJA to the hairy roots could significantly increase the accumulation of most active ingredients. A targeted approach confirmed the variations in physalins D and H between MeJA treatment and the controls...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
William Rosenblum
Endothelium dependent responses were first demonstrated 40 years ago in the aorta. Since then extensive research has been conducted in vitro using conductance vessels and materials derived from them. However the microcirculation controls blood flow to vital organs and has been the focus of in vivo studies of endothelium dependent dilation beginning immediately after the first in vitro report. Initial in vivo studies employed a light/dye technique for selectively damaging the endothelium to unequivocally prove, in vivo, the existence of endothelium dependent dilation and in the microvasculature...
June 6, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Tiago J Costa, Graziela S Ceravolo, Cinthya Echem, Carolina M Hashimoto, Beatriz P Costa, Rosangela A Santos-Eichler, Maria Aparecida Oliveira, Francesc Jiménez-Altayó, Eliana H Akamine, Ana Paula Dantas, Maria Helena C Carvalho
Postmenopausal period has been associated to different symptoms such as hot flashes, vulvovaginal atrophy, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and others. Clinical studies have described postmenopausal women presenting HSDD can benefit from the association of testosterone to conventional hormonal therapy. Testosterone has been linked to development of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and it also increases cytochrome P -450-induced 20-HETE synthesis which in turn results in vascular dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Fuli Ya, Qing Li, Dongliang Wang, Shuangfeng Xie, Fenglin Song, Reid C Gallant, Zezhong Tian, Jianbo Wan, Wenhua Ling, Yan Yang
Apoptotic-like phase is an essential step in thrombopoiesis from megakaryocytes. Anthocyanins are natural flavonoid pigments that possess a wide range of biological activities, including protection against cardiovascular diseases and induction of tumour cell apoptosis. We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of cyanidin-3-o-β-glucoside (Cy-3-g, the major bioactive compound in anthocyanins) on the apoptosis of human primary megakaryocytes and Meg-01 cell line in vitro . We found that Cy-3-g dose-dependently increased the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activity in megakaryocytes from patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia but not in those from healthy volunteers...
June 4, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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