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Childhood low grade glioma

Catherine Miller, Daniel Guillaume, Kathryn Dusenbery, H Brent Clark, Christopher Moertel
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in childhood, and astrocytomas account for the largest proportion of these tumors. Increasing sophistication in genetic testing has allowed for the detection of specific mutations within tumor subtypes that may represent targets for individualized tumor treatment. The mitogen-activating protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and, more specifically, BRAF mutations have been shown to be prevalent in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and may represent one such area to target...
March 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Wassim Chemaitilly, Gregory T Armstrong, Amar Gajjar, Melissa M Hudson
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Emrah Celtikci, Pinar Celtikci, David Tiago Fernandes-Cabral, Murat Ucar, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Miranda, Alp Ozgun Borcek
OBJECTIVE: Thalamopeduncular tumors (TPTs) of childhood present a challenge for neurosurgeons due to their eloquent location. Preoperative fiber tracking provides total or near-total resection, without additional neurologic deficit. High-definition fiber tractography (HDFT) is an advanced white matter imaging technique derived from magnetic resonance imaging diffusion data, shown to overcome the limitations of diffusion tensor imaging. We aimed to investigate alterations of corticospinal tract (CST) and medial lemniscus (ML) caused by TPTs and to demonstrate the application of HDFT in preoperative planning...
February 2017: World Neurosurgery
Jill Bayliss, Piali Mukherjee, Chao Lu, Siddhant U Jain, Chan Chung, Daniel Martinez, Benjamin Sabari, Ashley S Margol, Pooja Panwalkar, Abhijit Parolia, Melike Pekmezci, Richard C McEachin, Marcin Cieslik, Benita Tamrazi, Benjamin A Garcia, Gaspare La Rocca, Mariarita Santi, Peter W Lewis, Cynthia Hawkins, Ari Melnick, C David Allis, Craig B Thompson, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Alexander R Judkins, Sriram Venneti
Childhood posterior fossa (PF) ependymomas cause substantial morbidity and mortality. These tumors lack recurrent genetic mutations, but a subset of these ependymomas exhibits CpG island (CpGi) hypermethylation [PF group A (PFA)], implicating epigenetic alterations in their pathogenesis. Further, histological grade does not reliably predict prognosis, highlighting the importance of developing more robust prognostic markers. We discovered global H3K27me3 reduction in a subset of these tumors (PF-ve ependymomas) analogous to H3K27M mutant gliomas...
November 23, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
James A McCracken, Michael F Gonzales, Pramit M Phal, Katharine J Drummond
Angiocentric glioma (AG) is a low grade glioma, that was first described in 2002. Since this description, 83 patients with AG have been described, including ours. AG typically presents in childhood with medically refractory seizures that are cured with gross surgical resection. Whilst the natural history is that of a benign tumour, there have been reports of recurrence, transformation, and malignant features that suggest that AG is potentially malignant. We add to the literature a case of a 16-year-old girl who presented in May 2011 with a 3-month history of complex partial seizures, with MRI showing a T2-weighted hyperintense lesion in the left insula and inferior frontal lobe...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Matthew T Brown, Frederick A Boop
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric low-grade tumors are found in roughly 1-3 % of patients with childhood epilepsy; seizures associated with these tumors are often medically refractory and often present a significant morbidity, greater than the presence of the tumor itself. DISCUSSION: The unique morbidity of the seizures often requires an epilepsy surgical approach over a standard oncologic resection to achieve a reduction in morbidity for the child. Multiple quality-of-life studies have shown that unless a patient is seizure-free, they remain disabled throughout their life; the best way to achieve this in our patient population is with a multidisciplinary team approach with treatment goals focusing primarily on the epilepsy...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Luca Mattei, Francesco Prada, Federico Giuseppe Legnani, Alessandro Perin, Alessandro Olivi, Francesco DiMeco
PURPOSE: Pediatric low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are the most frequent solid tumor in childhood. Based on an increasing number of literature reports, maximal safe resection is recommended as the first line of treatment whenever possible. However, distinguishing tumor tissue from the surrounding normal brain is often challenging with infiltrating neoplasms, even with the assistance of intraoperative, microscopic and conventional neuronavigation systems. Therefore, any technique that enhances the detection and visualization of LGGs intraoperatively is certainly desirable...
October 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Lennox Byer, Cassie Kline, Sabine Mueller
Brain tumors are the most common solid tumor in childhood, yet outcomes vary dramatically. High-grade gliomas have dismal outcomes with poor survival. By contrast, low-grade gliomas, have high survival rates, but children suffer from morbidity of tumor burden and therapy-associated side effects. In this article, we discuss how current trial designs often miss the opportunity to include end points beyond tumor response and thus fail to offer complete assessments of therapeutic approaches. Quality of life, neurocognitive function and neurofunctional deficits need to be considered when assessing overall success of a therapy...
October 2016: CNS Oncology
Scott Ryall, Rahul Krishnatry, Anthony Arnoldo, Pawel Buczkowicz, Matthew Mistry, Robert Siddaway, Cino Ling, Sanja Pajovic, Man Yu, Joshua B Rubin, Juliette Hukin, Paul Steinbok, Ute Bartels, Eric Bouffet, Uri Tabori, Cynthia Hawkins
Paediatric brain tumours arising in the thalamus present significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges to physicians due to their sensitive midline location. As such, genetic analysis for biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of these tumours is needed. Here, we identified 64 thalamic gliomas with clinical follow-up and characterized targeted genomic alterations using newly optimized droplet digital and NanoString-based assays. The median age at diagnosis was 9.25 years (range, 0...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Kellie N Clark, Jason M Ashford, Atmaram S Pai Panandiker, Paul Klimo, Thomas E Merchant, Catherine A Billups, Heather M Conklin
Pediatric focal low-grade brainstem tumors are associated with excellent prognosis. Surgical resection and conformal radiation therapy are front-line treatment options; radiation therapy (RT) serves as an excellent treatment for disease progression. Given high survival rates and limited research regarding functional outcomes, the current study examined neurocognitive outcomes in a group of low-grade brainstem glioma survivors. Forty-three survivors of focal low-grade brainstem gliomas underwent neurocognitive assessment (58 % male; median = 6...
September 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Andrew J Dodgshun, Alexandra Sexton-Oates, Richard Saffery, Duncan MacGregor, Michael J Sullivan
Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) is a rare brain tumor that usually occurs in children and young adults. It has characteristic histologic features and is regarded as a WHO grade II lesion. Overall survival is reported to be >60%, but published series usually consist of a range of ages and treatment modalities. Gross total resection is associated with superior survival but recurrence rates after gross total resection are not well described, particularly in a pediatric population. We describe 16 cases over 20 years at our institution of pediatric PXA treated with surgical resection alone with a 5-year relapse-free survival of 40% (95% confidence interval, 20%-82%) and overall survival of 76% (95% confidence interval, 55%-100%)...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Rishi R Lulla, Amanda Muhs Saratsis, Rintaro Hashizume
Pediatric central nervous system tumors are the most common solid tumor of childhood. Of these, approximately one-third are gliomas that exhibit diverse biological behaviors in the unique context of the developing nervous system. Although low-grade gliomas predominate and have favorable outcomes, up to 20% of pediatric gliomas are high-grade. These tumors are a major contributor to cancer-related morbidity and mortality in infants, children, and adolescents, with long-term survival rates of only 10 to 15%. The recent discovery of somatic oncogenic mutations affecting chromatin regulation in pediatric high-grade glioma has markedly improved our understanding of disease pathogenesis, and these findings have stimulated the development of novel therapeutic approaches targeting epigenetic regulators for disease treatment...
March 2016: Science Advances
Hemi Malkki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Ian F Pollack, Regina I Jakacki, Lisa H Butterfield, Ronald L Hamilton, Ashok Panigrahy, Daniel P Normolle, Angela K Connelly, Sharon Dibridge, Gary Mason, Theresa L Whiteside, Hideho Okada
BACKGROUND: Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are the most common brain tumors of childhood. Although surgical resection is curative for well-circumscribed superficial lesions, tumors that are infiltrative or arise from deep structures are therapeutically challenging, and new treatment approaches are needed. Having identified a panel of glioma-associated antigens (GAAs) overexpressed in these tumors, we initiated a pilot trial of vaccinations with peptides for GAA epitopes in human leukocyte antigen-A2+ children with recurrent LGG that had progressed after at least 2 prior regimens...
August 2016: Neuro-oncology
Rahul Krishnatry, Nataliya Zhukova, Ana S Guerreiro Stucklin, Jason D Pole, Matthew Mistry, Iris Fried, Vijay Ramaswamy, Ute Bartels, Annie Huang, Normand Laperriere, Peter Dirks, Paul C Nathan, Mark Greenberg, David Malkin, Cynthia Hawkins, Pratiti Bandopadhayay, Mark W Kieran, Peter E Manley, Eric Bouffet, Uri Tabori
BACKGROUND: The determinants of outcomes for adult survivors of pediatric low-grade glioma (PLGG) are largely unknown. METHODS: This study collected population-based follow-up information for all PLGG patients diagnosed in Ontario, Canada from 1985 to 2012 (n = 1202) and determined factors affecting survival. The impact of upfront radiation treatment on overall survival (OS) was determined for a cohort of Ontario patients and an independent reference cohort from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database...
April 15, 2016: Cancer
Noelle L Williams, Ronny L Rotondo, Julie A Bradley, David W Pincus, John A Fort, Tung Wynn, Christopher G Morris, Nancy P Mendenhall, Daniel J Indelicato
OBJECTIVES: This single-institution report describes long-term disease control and late effects in pediatric patients with low-grade glioma (LGG) following radiotherapy (RT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine pediatric patients with LGG were treated with photon-based RT from 1970 to 2004 (mean age at time of RT, 9.8 y; range, 0.6 to 19 y). One patient underwent gross total resection, 25 underwent subtotal resection or biopsy, and 3 were treated based on radiographic characteristics alone...
January 22, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Benedetto Falsini, Antonio Chiaretti, Daniela Rizzo, Marco Piccardi, Antonio Ruggiero, Luigi Manni, Marzia Soligo, Anna Dickmann, Matteo Federici, Annabella Salerni, Laura Timelli, Gaspare Guglielmi, Ilaria Lazzareschi, Massimo Caldarelli, Lucia Galli-Resta, Cesare Colosimo, Riccardo Riccardi
Paediatric optic pathway gliomas are low-grade brain tumours characterized by slow progression and invalidating visual loss. Presently there is no strategy to prevent visual loss in this kind of tumour. This study evaluated the effects of nerve growth factor administration in protecting visual function in patients with optic pathway glioma-related visual impairment. A prospective randomized double-blind phase II clinical trial was conducted in 18 optic pathway glioma patients, aged from 2 to 23 years, with stable disease and severe visual loss...
February 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Suzanne J Baker, David W Ellison, David H Gutmann
Brain tumors represent the most common solid tumor of childhood, with gliomas comprising the largest fraction of these cancers. Several features distinguish them from their adult counterparts, including their natural history, causative genetic mutations, and brain locations. These unique properties suggest that the cellular and molecular etiologies that underlie their development and maintenance might be different from those that govern adult gliomagenesis and growth. In this review, we discuss the genetic basis for pediatric low-grade and high-grade glioma in the context of developmental neurobiology, and highlight the differences between histologically-similar tumors arising in children and adults...
June 2016: Glia
A Laprie, Y Hu, C Alapetite, C Carrie, J-L Habrand, S Bolle, P-Y Bondiau, A Ducassou, A Huchet, A-I Bertozzi, Y Perel, É Moyal, J Balosso
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brain tumours are the most frequent solid tumours in children and the most frequent radiotherapy indications in paediatrics, with frequent late effects: cognitive, osseous, visual, auditory and hormonal. A better protection of healthy tissues by improved beam ballistics, with particle therapy, is expected to decrease significantly late effects without decreasing local control and survival. This article reviews the scientific literature to advocate indications of protontherapy and carbon ion therapy for childhood central nervous system cancer, and estimate the expected therapeutic benefits...
December 2015: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Omar Chamdine, Alberto Broniscer, Shengjie Wu, Amar Gajjar, Ibrahim Qaddoumi
BACKGROUND: Patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG), which are the most common childhood brain tumors, have excellent long-term survival. Dissemination of LGG is rare. Robust data on the incidence, presentation, patterns of dissemination, disease behavior, outcome, and best-management approaches do not exist. We describe 20 years of follow-up of children with metastatic LGG. PROCEDURE: Data collected during the period 1990-2010 were retrospectively reviewed for the following inclusion criteria: diagnosis of metastatic LGG, age younger than 21 years at initial diagnosis, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and/or spine at diagnosis and/or follow-up...
January 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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