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Folate absence

Ilaria Peluso, Mauro Serafini
Consumption of Tea (Camellia Sinensis) has been correlated with low incidence of chronic pathologies, such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers, in which oxidative stress is deeply involved. Tea catechins and theaflavins are, respectively, the bioactive phytochemicals responsible for the antioxidant activity of Green Tea (GT) and Black Tea (BT). Apart from the redox properties, tea catechins and theaflavins could have also pharmacological activities, such as lowering effects on glucose, lipid and uric acid (UA)...
October 16, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
Hong-Li Huang, Hao Zhou, Nuan Wang, Chun-Yu Yu
Epilepsy is a common neurodegenerative disease with an increasing morbidity. Clinical treatment of epilepsy includes symptomatic treatment, etiological treatment, surgery and prevention. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on serum folate and vitamin B12 in various epileptic patients, and to examine the correlation between these effects and secondary cerebrovascular events. A total of 68 epileptic patients, diagnosed between May 2012 and May 2014, were included in the present study...
October 2016: Biomedical Reports
Sunil Kumar Rai, Royana Singh, Sharad Pandey, Kulwant Singh, Neeraj Shinde, Sangita Rai, Rajniti Prasad, Satya Narayan Shama
BACKGROUND: In the absence of primary care and prevailing associated social stigma, many patients of neural tube defects (NTDs) from remote areas die without getting any treatment. The high number of such untreated cases and unregistered deaths in these areas made us ponders to the fact that tertiary care center-based studies do not represent the true incidence of NTDs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We did a population-based survey for NTDs births of rural areas from Jaunpur to Ghazipur district in Eastern Uttar Pradesh...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Jiancong Ni, Qingxiang Wang, Weiqiang Yang, Mengmeng Zhao, Ying Zhang, Longhua Guo, Bin Qiu, Zhenyu Lin, Huang-Hao Yang
The determination of folate receptor (FR) that over expressed in vast quantity of cancerous cells frequently is significant for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancers. Many DNA-based electrochemical biosensors have been developed for FR detection with high selectivity and sensitivity, but most of them need complicated immobilization of DNA on the electrode surface firstly, which is tedious and therefore results in the poor reproducibility. In this study, a simple, sensitive, and selective electrochemical FR biosensor in cancer cells has been proposed, which combines the advantages of the convenient immobilization-free homogeneous indium tin oxide (ITO)-based electrochemical detection strategy and the high selectivity of the terminal protection of small molecule linked DNA...
December 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
A Sobczyńska-Malefora, J Cutler, Y Rahman
A 21 year old male presented with a history of intermittent, transient neurological events. A brain MRI showed an area of restricted diffusion in keeping with an infarct, and an angiogram demonstrated an intracranial stenosis in the internal carotid artery, consistent with atherosclerosis. Laboratory investigations revealed a highly elevated plasma homocysteine, with low plasma folate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and methionine at the lower end of the normal ranges. The homocysteine normalized following treatment with folic acid...
October 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Ying Zhao, William R Shadrick, Miranda J Wallace, Yinan Wu, Elizabeth C Griffith, Jianjun Qi, Mi-Kyung Yun, Stephen W White, Richard E Lee
The sulfonamide class of antibiotics has been in continuous use for over 70years. They are thought to act by directly inhibiting dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), and also acting as prodrugs that sequester pterin pools by forming dead end pterin-sulfonamide conjugates. In this study, eight pterin-sulfonamide conjugates were synthesized using a novel synthetic strategy and their biochemical and microbiological properties were investigated. The conjugates were shown to competitively inhibit DHPS, and inhibition was enhanced by the presence of pyrophosphate that is crucial to catalysis and is known to promote an ordering of the DHPS active site...
August 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Fangfang Ban, Hai Shi, Chang Feng, Xiaoxia Mao, Yongmei Yin, Xiaoli Zhu
In this work, we report a facile one-pot strategy for protein detection based on sterically and allosterically tunable hybridization chain reaction (HCR). In our strategy, DNA hairpins H1 and H2 are dual-labeled with pyrene moieties through a six-carbon-atom spacer at each end; and a single-stranded DNA primer is designed to contain two small molecules near each end. In the absence of target protein, the primer can trigger HCR events between alternating H1 and H2 hairpins to form a nicked double-helix. As a result, the pyrene excimers are formed to emit at approximately 485nm...
December 15, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Satish C Kalhan
One carbon metabolism or methyl transfer, a crucial component of metabolism in all cells and tissues, supports the critical function of synthesis of purines, thymidylate and methylation via multiple methyl transferases driven by the ubiquitous methyl donor s-adenosylmethionine. Serine is the primary methyl donor to the one carbon pool. Intracellular folates and methionine metabolism are the critical components of one carbon transfer. Methionine metabolism requires vitamin B12, B6 as cofactors and is modulated by endocrine signals and is responsive to nutrient intake...
November 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Elie Isenberg-Grzeda, Megan Johnson Shen, Yesne Alici, Jonathan Wills, Christian Nelson, William Breitbart
OBJECTIVE: Thiamine deficiency (TD) is increasingly recognized in medically ill patients. The prevalence of TD among cancer patients is unknown. This study aims to characterize the prevalence of TD among inpatients with cancer. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients admitted to a large cancer center who were referred for psychiatric consultation and whose serum thiamine concentration was measured. Patients with alcohol use were excluded. RESULTS: Among 217 patients with various cancer types, TD was found in 55...
May 26, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Sharleen L O'Reilly, Angela P McGlynn, Helene McNulty, John Reynolds, Gillian R Wasson, Anne M Molloy, J J Strain, Donald G Weir, Mary Ward, George McKerr, John M Scott, C Stephen Downes
BACKGROUND: Low folate status is associated with an increased risk of colorectal carcinogenesis. Optimal folate status may be genoprotective by preventing uracil misincorporation into DNA and DNA hypomethylation. Adenomatous polyps have low folate status compared with normal colonic mucosa, and they are surrounded by histologically normal mucosa that also is of low folate status. OBJECTIVE: In a randomized controlled trial conducted at a single Dublin hospital between April 2002 and March 2004, we assessed the effect of folic acid supplementation on tissue folate, uracil misincorporation into DNA, and global DNA hypomethylation in colonocytes isolated from sites of adenomatous polyps and from histologically normal tissue adjacent and 10-15 cm distal to them...
May 2016: Journal of Nutrition
Qingshou Chen, Xiangjun Meng, Paul McQuade, Daniel Rubins, Shu-An Lin, Zhizhen Zeng, Hyking Haley, Patricia Miller, Dinko González Trotter, Philip S Low
UNLABELLED: Folate-receptor-targeted PET radiotracers can potentially serve as versatile imaging agents for the diagnosis, staging, and prediction of response to therapy of patients with folate-receptor (FR)-expressing cancers. Because current FR-targeted PET reagents can be compromised by complex labeling procedures, low specific activities, poor radiochemical yields, or unwanted accumulation in FR negative tissues, we have undertaken to design an improved folate-PET agent that might be more amenable for clinical development...
May 2, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Swapneeta S Date, Cheng-Yen Charles Chen, Yidong Chen, Michaela Jansen
The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT, SLC46A1) transports folic acid across the plasma membrane, together with an excess of protons such that the net charge translocation is positive. We developed 3D structural models of PCFT threaded onto the X-ray structures of major facilitator superfamily (MFS) members that were identified as close structural homologues. The model of PCFT threaded onto the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter (GlpT) structure is consistent with detailed accessibility studies in the absence of extracellular substrate and at pH 7...
March 2016: FEBS Open Bio
Cassandra C Skinner, Elizabeth L McMichael, Alena C Jaime-Ramirez, Zachary B Abrams, Robert J Lee, William E Carson
The folate receptor (FR) is overexpressed on the vascular side of cancerous cells including those of the breast, ovaries, testes, and cervix. We hypothesized that a folate-conjugated immunoglobulin (F-IgG) would bind to the FR that is overexpressed on melanoma tumor cells to target these cells for lysis by natural killer (NK) cells. Folate receptor expression was confirmed in the Mel-39 (human melanoma) cell line by flow cytometry and immunoblot analysis using KB (human oral epithelial) and F01 (human melanoma) as a positive and a negative control, respectively...
August 2016: Melanoma Research
Theresa Köbe, A Veronica Witte, Ariane Schnelle, Ulrike Grittner, Valentina A Tesky, Johannes Pantel, Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Andreas Hahn, Jens Bohlken, Dan Rujescu, Agnes Flöel
BACKGROUND: Low-normal concentrations of vitamin B-12 (VitB12) may be associated with worse cognition. However, previous evidence has been mixed, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether serum VitB12 concentrations within the normal range were linked to memory functions and related neuronal structures in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN: In a cross-sectional design, we assessed 100 amnestic MCI patients (52 women; age range: 50-80 y) with low- and high-normal VitB12 concentration (median split: 304 pmol/L) for memory functions with the use of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test...
April 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Michela Pelloso, Daniela Basso, Andrea Padoan, Paola Fogar, Mario Plebani
AIM: To identify the best management strategy for improving the appropriateness of vitamin D, vitamin B12 and folate retesting. METHODS: The study was conducted between 3 November 2012 and 8 June 2015, with inpatients and outpatients being considered separately. After an observational reference period (3 November 2012 to 14 September 2013), an information technology (IT)-based permissive strategy (16 September 2013 to 27 July 2014) followed by a limiting strategy was used to manage the demand for inpatient retesting...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Yogita Patil, Yasmine Amitay, Patricia Ohana, Hilary Shmeeda, Alberto Gabizon
Mitomycin C (MMC) is a powerful anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-tumor antibiotic, often active against multidrug resistant cells. Despite a broad spectrum of antitumor activity, MMC clinical use is relatively limited due to its fast clearance and dose-limiting toxicity. To exploit the potential antitumor activity of MMC and reduce its toxicity we have previously developed a formulation of pegylated liposomes with a lipophilic prodrug of MMC (PL-MLP), activated by endogenous reducing agents which are abundant in the tumor cell environment in the form of different thiols...
March 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Maxime François, Wayne Richard Leifert, Ross Tellam, Michael Felix Fenech
G-quadruplexes (G4) are highly stable tetra-stranded DNA secondary structures known to mediate gene regulation and to trigger genomic instability events during replication. G4 structural stability can be affected by DNA methylation and oxidation modifications; thus nutrients such as folate that have the ability to alter these processes could potentially modify the genomic occurrence of G4 elements. Hela cells were cultured in a range of folate concentrations or in the presence or absence of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA-methyltransferase inhibitor...
July 2016: Mutagenesis
Susan J van Rensburg, Ronald van Toorn, Kelebogile E Moremi, Armand V Peeters, Adesola Oguniyi, Maritha J Kotze
In contrast to malaria, multiple sclerosis (MS) is infrequently found in Black Africans. We describe a 29 year old Nigerian female who developed an MS-like condition with symptoms similar to relapsing-remitting MS following malaria infection, leading to a diagnosis of MS. However, absence of hyperintense lesions in the brain and spinal cord presented a conundrum since not all the diagnostic criteria for MS were met. Pathology supported genetic testing (PSGT) was applied to combine family and personal medical history, lifestyle factors, and biochemical test results for interpretation of genetic findings...
February 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Kelly Hew, Sue-Li Dahlroth, Saranya Veerappan, Lucy Xin Pan, Tobias Cornvik, Pär Nordlund
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a highly infectious human herpesvirus that is the causative agent for chicken pox and shingles. VZV encodes a functional thymidylate synthase (TS), which is the sole enzyme that produces dTMP from dUMP de novo. To study substrate binding, the complex structure of TSVZV with dUMP was determined to a resolution of 2.9 Å. In the absence of a folate co-substrate, dUMP binds in the conserved TS active site and is coordinated similarly as in the human encoded TS (TSHS) in an open conformation...
2015: PloS One
Wen Li, Huan Liu, Min Yu, Xumei Zhang, Yan Zhang, Hongbo Liu, John X Wilson, Guowei Huang
Dementia has emerged as a major societal issue because of the worldwide aging population and the absence of any effective treatment. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that evidently plays a role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Folate acts through one-carbon metabolism to support the methylation of multiple substrates including DNA. We aimed to test the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation alters DNA methylation profiles in AD models. Mouse Neuro-2a cells expressing human APP695 (N2a-APP cells) were incubated with folic acid (2...
December 1, 2015: Molecular Neurobiology
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