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Multidrug-resistant bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933056/characterization-of-three-novel-sxt-r391-integrating-conjugative-elements-icemfuind1a-and-icemfuind1b-and-icemprchn1-identified-in-the-genomes-of-marinomonas-fungiae-jcm-18476-t-and-marinomonas-profundimaris-strain-d104
#1
Jhasketan Badhai, Subrata K Das
The genus Marinomonas comprises Gram negative bacteria which are widespread in the marine environment and there is no report on the genomic analysis of SXT/R391 ICEs derived from this group of bacteria. This study describes the genomic features of three new SXT/R391 integrating conjugating elements (ICEs) identified in the genome of Marinomonas fungiae JCM 18476(T) (ICEMfuInd1a and ICEMfuInd1b) and in Marinomonas profundimaris strain D104 (ICEMprChn1). Structural organizations of the three ICEs were similar to the typical SXT/R391 family of ICEs and showed high degree of conservation in the core genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931793/in-vitro-pharmacodynamic-evaluation-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-in-a-hollow-fibre-infection-model
#2
Rachel L Soon, Justin R Lenhard, Zackery P Bulman, Patricia N Holden, Pamela Kelchlin, Judith N Steenbergen, Lawrence V Friedrich, Alan Forrest, Brian T Tsuji
The proliferation of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens has been exacerbated by a lack of novel agents in current development by pharmaceutical companies. Ceftolozane/tazobactam was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. In the present study, the activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam against four isogenic Escherichia coli strains was investigated in a hollow-fibre infection model simulating various clinical dosing regimens...
September 1, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928966/hot-topics-in-perioperative-antibiotics-for-cataract-surgery
#3
Patrycja Kuklo, Andrzej Grzybowski, Stephen G Schwartz, Harry W Flynn, Avinash Pathengay
BACKGROUND: Acute-onset postoperative endophthalmitis is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of cataract surgery. Since there are relatively few randomized clinical trials comparing the timing and administration of prophylactic antibiotics, there are wide variations in prevention practices around the world. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Antibiotics may be used before surgery, during surgery, or after surgery in an attempt to decrease the rates of endophthalmitis...
December 7, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927087/multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-new-zealand-a-current-perspective
#4
L J Toombs-Ruane, J Benschop, S Burgess, P Priest, D R Murdoch, N P French
In this article we review mechanisms and potential transmission pathways of multidrug resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, with an emphasis on extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-production. This provides background to better understand challenges presented by this important group of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, and inform measures aimed at prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance in general. Humans and animals interact at various levels; household pets cohabit with humans, and other animals interact with people through direct contact, as well as through the food chain and the environment...
December 7, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917795/lytic-activity-of-various-phage-cocktails-on-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#5
I Ozkan, E Akturk, N Yeshenkulov, S Atmaca, N Rahmanov, H I Atabay
PURPOSE: A bacteriophage is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium following the injection of phage genome into the bacterial cytoplasm. They are seen as a possible therapy for multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria. The aim of this study is to evaluate the lytic activity of the Pyo, Intesti and Fersisi bacteriophage cocktails on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. METHODS: Ten different S. aureus and P. aeruginosa strains, which were isolated from hospitalized patients in Turkey, were used in the study...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917719/prevention-and-treatment-of-postoperative-endophthalmitis-using-povidone-iodine
#6
Hiroyuki Shimada, Hiroyuki Nakashizuka, Andrzej Grzybowski
Postoperative endophthalmitis is typically caused by patient's conjunctival bacterial flora or contaminated solutions and instruments. Visual outcome is often poor in severe cases, and treatment is especially difficult when endophthalmitis is caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Povidone-iodine is used worldwide due to its wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity, absence of resistant bacteria to povidone-iodine, and low cost. Furthermore, the effective concentration against microorganisms and safe concentration for ocular tissues have been well established...
December 4, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916622/a-novel-group-of-incq1-plasmids-conferring-multidrug-resistance
#7
M Oliva, R Monno, P D'Addabbo, G Pesole, A M Dionisi, M Scrascia, M Chiara, D S Horner, C Manzari, I Luzzi, C Calia, A M D'Erchia, C Pazzani
The IncQ is a group of non-conjugative but mobilisable plasmids that are stably maintained and found in a wide range of bacteria, contributing to the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes and to the insurgence of multidrug resistant bacteria. Here we report the identification, in clinical Salmonella Typhimurium strains, of an IncQ1 plasmid (pNUC) conferring resistance to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and tetracycline encoded by sul2, strAB and tetA, respectively. pNUC was detected in five multidrug resistant S...
December 1, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916419/comparative-transcriptomics-analyses-of-the-different-growth-states-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#8
Shuai Li, Haitao Li, Tianjie Qi, Xixin Yan, Boli Wang, Jitao Guan, Yu Li
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is an important bacterial pathogen commonly associated with hospital acquired infections. A. baumannii can remain viable and hence virulent in the environment for a long period of time due primarily to its ability to form biofilms. A total of 459 cases of MDR A. baumannii our hospital collected from March 2014 to March 2015 were examined in this study, and a representative isolate selected for high-throughput mRNA sequencing and comparison of gene expression profiles under the biofilm and exponential growth conditions...
December 1, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#9
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907875/s-substituted-3-5-dinitrophenyl-1-3-4-oxadiazole-2-thiols-and-tetrazole-5-thiols-as-highly-efficient-antitubercular-agents
#10
Galina Karabanovich, Jan Němeček, Lenka Valášková, Alejandro Carazo, Klára Konečná, Jiřina Stolaříková, Alexandr Hrabálek, Oto Pavliš, Petr Pávek, Kateřina Vávrová, Jaroslav Roh, Věra Klimešová
Two new classes of antitubercular agents, namely 5-alkylsulfanyl-1-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazoles and 2-alkylsulfanyl-5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, and their structure-activity relationships are described. These compounds possessed excellent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the clinically isolated multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains, with no cross resistance with first or second-line anti-TB drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the most promising compounds reached 0...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902427/phenotypic-and-genetic-characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-tropics-of-southeast-asia
#11
Siti Norayuni Mohd Zulkeflle, Yus Amira Yusaimi, Norio Sugiura, Koji Iwamoto, Masafumi Goto, Motoo Utsumi, Nor'azizi Bin Othman, Zuriati Zakaria, Hirofumi Hara
Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem throughout the world. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in hospital wastewater is cause for great concern today. In this study, 276 S. aureus isolates were recovered from hospital wastewater samples in Malaysia. All of the isolates were screened for susceptibility to nine different classes of antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), ciprofloxacin (CFX), gentamicin (GMN), kanamycin (KMN), erythromycin (ERM), vancomycin (VAN), trimetoprim and sulfamethaxazole (TM-SMZ), chloramphenicol (CMP), tetracycline (TET), and nalidixic acid (NAL)...
November 3, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900326/case-of-severe-alcoholic-hepatitis-treated-with-granulocytapheresis
#12
Yukari Watanabe, Kenya Kamimura, Tomohiro Iwasaki, Hiroyuki Abe, Shunsaku Takahashi, Ken-Ichi Mizuno, Manabu Takeuchi, Atsushi Eino, Ichiei Narita, Shuji Terai
Severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH) has a high mortality, and it is associated with encephalopathy, acute renal failure, sepsis, gastrointestinal bleeding, and endotoxemia. The 28-d mortality remains poor (34%-40%), because no effective treatment has been established. Recently, corticosteroids (CS) have been considered effective for significantly improving the prognosis of those with AH, as it prevents the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, CS are not always appropriate as an initial therapeutic option, such as in cases with an infection or resistance to CS...
November 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895627/distribution-and-classification-of-serine-%C3%AE-lactamases-in-brazilian-hospital-sewage-and-other-environmental-metagenomes-deposited-in-public-databases
#13
Adriana M Fróes, Fábio F da Mota, Rafael R C Cuadrat, Alberto M R Dávila
β-lactam is the most used antibiotic class in the clinical area and it acts on blocking the bacteria cell wall synthesis, causing cell death. However, some bacteria have evolved resistance to these antibiotics mainly due the production of enzymes known as β-lactamases. Hospital sewage is an important source of dispersion of multidrug-resistant bacteria in rivers and oceans. In this work, we used next-generation DNA sequencing to explore the diversity and dissemination of serine β-lactamases in two hospital sewage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (South Zone, SZ and North Zone, NZ), presenting different profiles, and to compare them with public environmental data available...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891339/bacteriological-profile-of-isolates-from-urine-samples-in-patients-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-and-or-prostatitis-showing-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#14
Prem Prakash Mishra, Ved Prakash, Kashmir Singh, H Mog, Sumit Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) or Prostatitis is increasing considerably worldwide. The Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) due to bacterial aetiology are one of the common factors for the complications among the patients. AIM: To determine the bacterial agents and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern from the urine samples of patients of BPH or Prostatitis showing symptoms of LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital of Northern India from June 2014 to May 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891118/colistin-in-pig-production-chemistry-mechanism-of-antibacterial-action-microbial-resistance-emergence-and-one-health-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Mohamed Rhouma, Francis Beaudry, William Thériault, Ann Letellier
Colistin (Polymyxin E) is one of the few cationic antimicrobial peptides commercialized in both human and veterinary medicine. For several years now, colistin has been considered the last line of defense against infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Colistin has been extensively used orally since the 1960s in food animals and particularly in swine for the control of Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the recent discovery of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance encoded by the mcr-1 gene and the higher prevalence of samples harboring this gene in animal isolates compared to other origins, livestock has been singled out as the principal reservoir for colistin resistance amplification and spread...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889528/tailoring-shape-and-size-of-biogenic-silver-nanoparticles-to-enhance-antimicrobial-efficacy-against-mdr-bacteria
#16
Madhuree Kumari, Shipra Pandey, Ved Prakash Giri, Arpita Bhattacharya, Richa Shukla, Aradhana Mishra, C S Nautiyal
Spherical, rectangular, penta, and hexagonal silver nanoparticles of different dimensions were biosynthesized in an eco-friendly manner by biocontrol agent, Trichoderma viride by manipulating physical parameters, pH, temperature, and reaction time. The particles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy; Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR). Shape and size dependent antimicrobial activity of nanoparticles against human pathogens was observed...
November 23, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887765/activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-multidrug-resistance-enterobacteriaceae-expressing-combined-mechanisms-of-resistance
#17
Inmaculada López-Hernández, Noemí Alonso, Marta Fernández-Martínez, Laura Zamorano, Alba Rivera, Antonio Oliver, M Carmen Conejo, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Ferrán Navarro, Alvaro Pascual
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is increasing worldwide and is making treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae a challenge. The use of β-lactam agents is compromised by microorganisms harboring extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and other mechanisms of resistance. Avibactam is a non β-lactam agent that inhibits clinically relevant β-lactamases, such as ESBL and AmpC. The ceftazidime-avibactam combination (CAZ-AVI) was recently approved for use in certain complicated infections, and may provide a therapeutic alternative for infections caused by these microorganisms...
November 22, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886033/efficacy-of-lytic-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteriophage-against-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-mice
#18
Joseph Michael Ochieng' Oduor, Nyamongo Onkoba, Fredrick Maloba, Washingtone Ouma Arodi, Atunga Nyachieo
INTRODUCTION: The use of bacteriophages as an alternative treatment method against multidrug-resistant bacteria has not been explored in Kenya. This study sought to determine the efficacy of environmentally obtained lytic bacteriophage against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) bacterium in mice. METHODOLOGY: Staphylococcus aureus bacterium and S. aureus-specific lytic phage were isolated from sewage and wastewater collected within Nairobi County, Kenya...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885865/delivering-phage-therapy-per-os-benefits-and-barriers
#19
Susan Zelasko, Andrzej Gorski, Krystyna Dabrowska
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections of the gastrointestinal tract pose a serious public health concern. High levels of antibiotic drug resistance, along with the potential for antibiotics to precipitate disease or alter the gut microbiome has prompted research into alternative treatment methods. Evidence suggests that bacteriophage therapy delivered per os may be well-suited to target such infections. Areas covered: Herein, we discuss the specific advantages and challenges of using orally administered phage therapy...
November 25, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885285/emergence-of-aminoglycoside-resistance-due-to-arma-methylase-in-multi-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-in-a-university-hospital-in-nepal
#20
S Shrestha, T Tada, B Shrestha, T Kirikae, H Ohara, B P Rijal, B M Pokhrel, J B Sherchand
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii associated with hospital-acquired infections has been increasingly reported worldwide. 16S rRNA methylase producing Gram-negative bacteria are highly resistant to all clinically important aminoglycosides. We analyzed A. baumannii clinical isolates resistant to aminoglycosides from hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the emergence of armA in A.baumannii species associated with nosocomial infection in a university hospital in Nepal...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
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