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Multidrug-resistant bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031106/new-insights-into-resistance-to-colistin-and-third-generation-cephalosporins-of-escherichia-coli-in-poultry-portugal-novel-blactx-m-166-and-blaesac-genes
#1
Vera Manageiro, Lurdes Clemente, Rafael Graça, Ivone Correia, Teresa Albuquerque, Eugénia Ferreira, Manuela Caniça
The increasing incidence of intestinal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Gram negative organisms that has been observed in food animals such as poultry, cattle and pigs, are suggestive that animals, food and environment are potential sources of ESBL-producing bacteria. Hence, the aim of this study was to characterized commensal E. coli obtained from healthy broiler and turkey flocks at slaughter for the presence of penicillinases-, ESBL-, extended-spectrum AmpC (ESAC)-, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance- and MCR-encoding genes...
October 4, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029149/no-clinical-benefit-of-empirical-antimicrobial-therapy-for-pediatric-diarrhea-in-a-high-usage-high-resistance-setting
#2
Vu Thuy Duong, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Pham Van Minh, James I Campbell, Hoang Le Phuc, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Le Thi Phuong Tu, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Le Thi Quynh Nhi, Nguyen Thanh Hung, Nguyen Minh Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Thanh Huong, Lu Lan Vi, Corinne N Thompson, Guy E Thwaites, Ruklanthi de Alwis, Stephen Baker
Background: Pediatric diarrheal disease presents a major public health burden in low-middle income countries. The clinical benefits of empirical antimicrobial treatment for diarrhea are unclear in settings that lack reliable diagnostics and have high antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Methods: We conducted a prospective multi-center cross-sectional study of pediatric patients hospitalized with diarrhea containing blood and/or mucus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Clinical parameters, including disease outcome and treatment, were measured...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026472/clinical-features-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-bacterial-agents-of-ventilator-associated-tracheobronchitis-in-hamedan-iran
#3
Seyyed Hamid Hashemi, Naeimeh Hashemi, Farzaneh Esna-Ashari, Abbas Taher, Arash Dehghan
OBJECTIVES: Ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) is a common cause of mortality and morbidity in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical course, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance of bacterial agents of VAT in ICUs in Hamedan, Iran. METHODS: During a 12-month period, all patients with VAT in a medical and a surgical ICU were included. The criteria for the diagnosis of VAT were fever, mucus production, a positive culture of tracheal secretions, and the absence of lung infiltration...
September 2017: Oman Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026424/prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-pattern-of-bacteria-isolated-from-urinary-tract-infections-in-northern-iran
#4
Abbas Mihankhah, Rahem Khoshbakht, Mojtaba Raeisi, Vahideh Raeisi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the bacteria associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates during 2013-2015 in Northern Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall 3798 patients with clinical symptoms of UTI were subjected as samples, and they were cultured and pure isolated bacteria were identified using biochemical tests and subjected to antibiogram assessment using disc diffusion method. RESULTS: Totally, 568 (14...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024820/coating-of-silicone-with-mannoside-pamam-dendrimers-to-enhance-formation-of-non-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-biofilms-against-colonization-of-uropathogens
#5
Zhiling Zhu, Fei Yu, Haoqing Chen, Jun Wang, Analette I Lopez, Quan Chen, Siheng Li, Yuyu Long, Rabih O Darouiche, Richard A Hull, Lijuan Zhang, Chengzhi Cai
Bacterial interference using non-pathogenic Escherichia coli 83972 is a novel strategy for preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Crucial to the success of this strategy is to establish a high coverage and stable biofilm of the non-pathogenic bacteria on the catheter surface. However, this non-pathogenic strain is sluggish to form biofilms on silicone as the most widely used material for urinary catheters. We have addressed this issue by modifying the silicone catheter surfaces with mannosides that promote the biofilm formation, but the stability of the non-pathogenic biofilms challenged by uropathogens over long-term remains a concern...
October 9, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023522/microencapsulation-of-clostridium-difficile-specific-bacteriophages-using-microfluidic-glass-capillary-devices-for-colon-delivery-using-ph-triggered-release
#6
Gurinder K Vinner, Goran T Vladisavljević, Martha R J Clokie, Danish J Malik
The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria acquiring multidrug antibiotic resistance is a global health threat to mankind. This has motivated a renewed interest in developing alternatives to conventional antibiotics including bacteriophages (viruses) as therapeutic agents. The bacterium Clostridium difficile causes colon infection and is particularly difficult to treat with existing antibiotics; phage therapy may offer a viable alternative. The punitive environment within the gastrointestinal tract can inactivate orally delivered phages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023034/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolated-from-different-clinical-sources-in-al-najaf-province-iraq
#7
Ahmed Abduljabbar Jaloob Aljanaby, Haneen Mohammed Reda Jaber Alhasnawi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Burns infections and urinary tract infections are the most important prevalent diseases in Asian countries, such as Iraq. Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important bacteria cause this type of infections especially in hospitals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of multi-drug resistance K. pneumoniae and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing K. pneumoniae isolates from inpatients with urinary tract infection and burns infections in Al-Kufa hospital in Al-Najaf province, Iraq...
2017: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020364/antimicrobial-resistance-in-gram-negative-rods-causing-bacteremia-in-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-patients-intercontinental-prospective-study-of-infectious-diseases-working-party-of-the-european-bone-marrow-transplantation-group
#8
Diana Averbuch, Gloria Tridello, Jennifer Hoek, Malgorzata Mikulska, Hamdi Akan, Lucrecia Yanez San Segundo, Thomas Pabst, Tülay Özçelik, Galina Klyasova, Irene Donnini, Depei Wu, Zafer Gülbas, Tsila Zuckerman, Aida Botelho de Sousa, Yves Beguin, Aliénor Xhaard, Emmanuel Bachy, Per Ljungman, Rafael de la Camara, Jelena Rascon, Isabel Ruiz Camps, Antonin Vitek, Francesca Patriarca, Laura Cudillo, Radovan Vrhovac, Peter J Shaw, Tom Wolfs, Tracey O'Brien, Batia Avni, Gerda Silling, Firas Al Sabty, Stelios Graphakos, Marja Sankelo, Henrik Sengeloev, Srinivas Pillai, Susanne Matthes, Frederiki Melanthiou, Simona Iacobelli, Jan Styczynski, Dan Engelhard, Simone Cesaro
Background: This intercontinental study aimed to study Gram-negative rods (GNR) resistance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Methods: GNR bacteremias occurring during six months post-HSCT (February/2014-May/2015) were prospectively collected, and analysed for rates and risk factors for resistance to fluoroquinolones, non-carbapenem anti-Pseudomonas beta-lactams (non-carbapenems), carbapenems and multidrug-resistance (MDR). Results: Sixty-five HSCT centers from 25 countries (Europe, Australia, Asia) reported data on 655 GNR episodes/704 pathogens in 591 patients (Enterobacteriaceae, 73%; non-fermentatives, 24% and 3% others)...
July 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020222/antimicrobial-resistance-gene-acquisition-and-depletion-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-fmt-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection
#9
Victor Leung, Caroline Vincent, Thaddeus Edens, Mark Miller, Amee R Manges
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be a novel approach to eliminate multidrug-resistant bacteria from the gut and to prevent future infections. Using whole metagenome sequencing data from eight FMT donor-recipient pairs, we identified 37 and 95 antimicrobial resistance genes that were acquired by or removed from FMT recipients, respectively.
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020166/long-term-impact-of-an-educational-antimicrobial-stewardship-program-on-hospital-acquired-candidemia-and-multidrug-resistant-bloodstream-infections-a-quasi-experimental-study-of-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#10
José Molina, Germán Peñalva, María V Gil-Navarro, Julia Praena, José A Lepe, María A Pérez-Moreno, Carmen Ferrándiz, Teresa Aldabó, Manuela Aguilar, Peter Olbrich, Manuel E Jiménez-Mejías, María L Gascón, Rosario Amaya-Villar, Olaf Neth, María J Rodríguez-Hernández, Antonio Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, José Garnacho-Montero, Cristina Montero, Josefina Cano, Julián Palomino, Raquel Valencia, Rocío Álvarez, Elisa Cordero, Marta Herrero, José M Cisneros
Background: The global crisis of bacterial resistance urges the scientific community to implement intervention programs in healthcare facilities to promote an appropriate use of antibiotics. However, the clinical benefits or the impact on resistance of these interventions has not been definitively proven. Methods: We designed a quasi-experimental intervention study with an interrupted time-series analysis. A multidisciplinary team conducted a multifaceted educational intervention in our tertiary-care hospital over a five-year period...
August 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019016/repurposing-zidovudine-in-combination-with-tigecycline-for-treating-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections
#11
S M S Ng, J S P Sioson, J M Yap, F M Ng, H S V Ching, J W P Teo, R Jureen, J Hill, C S B Chia
The global emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) presents a significant clinical concern, prompting the WHO to prioritize CRE as a top priority pathogen in their 2017 global antibiotic-resistant bacteria priority list. Due to the fast-depleting antibiotic arsenal, clinicians are now resorting to using once-abandoned, highly toxic antibiotics such as the polymyxins and aminoglycosides, creating an urgent need for new antibiotics. Drug repurposing, the application of an approved drug for a new therapeutic indication, is deemed a plausible solution to this problem...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018773/activity-of-bacteriophages-in-removing-biofilms-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-chronic-rhinosinusitis-patients
#12
Stephanie A Fong, Amanda Drilling, Sandra Morales, Marjolein E Cornet, Bradford A Woodworth, Wytske J Fokkens, Alkis J Psaltis, Sarah Vreugde, Peter-John Wormald
Introduction:Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are prevalent amongst chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) sufferers. Many P. aeruginosa strains form biofilms, leading to treatment failure. Lytic bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that infect, replicate within, and lyse bacteria, causing bacterial death. Aim: To assess the activity of a phage cocktail in eradicating biofilms of ex vivo P.aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients. Methods: P. aeruginosa isolates from CRS patients with and without cystic fibrosis (CF) across three continents were multi-locus sequence typed and tested for antibiotic resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018426/transfer-and-persistence-of-a-multi-drug-resistance-plasmid-in-situ-of-the-infant-gut-microbiota-in-the-absence-of-antibiotic-treatment
#13
Heidi Gumpert, Jessica Z Kubicek-Sutherland, Andreas Porse, Nahid Karami, Christian Munck, Marius Linkevicius, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Agnes E Wold, Dan I Andersson, Morten O A Sommer
The microbial ecosystem residing in the human gut is believed to play an important role in horizontal exchange of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes that threatens human health. While the diversity of gut-microorganisms and their genetic content has been studied extensively, high-resolution insight into the plasticity, and selective forces shaping individual genomes is scarce. In a longitudinal study, we followed the dynamics of co-existing Escherichia coli lineages in an infant not receiving antibiotics...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017263/progress-in-the-fight-against-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-2005-2016-modern-noninferiority-trial-designs-enable-antibiotic-development-in-advance-of-epidemic-bacterial-resistance
#14
John H Rex, George H Talbot, Mark J Goldberger, Barry I Eisenstein, Roger M Echols, John F Tomayko, Michael N Dudley, Aaron Dane
From a public health perspective, new antibacterial agents should be evaluated and approved for use before widespread resistance to existing agents emerges. However, for multidrug-resistant pathogens, demonstration of superior efficacy of a new agent over a current standard-of-care agent is routinely feasible only when epidemic spread of these dangerous organisms has already occurred. One solution to enable proactive drug development is to evaluate new antibiotics with improved in vitro activity against MDR pathogens using recently updated guidelines for active control, noninferiority trials of selected severe infections caused by more susceptible pathogens...
July 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017247/a-17-year-nationwide-study-of-burkholderia-cepacia-complex-bloodstream-infections-among-patients-in-the-united-states-veterans-health-administration
#15
Nadim G El Chakhtoura, Elie Saade, Brigid M Wilson, Federico Perez, Krisztina M Papp-Wallace, Robert A Bonomo
Background: Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are a group of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria rarely reported in patients without cystic fibrosis (CF) or immunocompromising conditions. We investigated Bcc bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a cohort of non-CF patients from the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Methods: Using VHA databases, we identified patients with Bcc BSI at facilities nationwide from 1999 through 2015. We ascertained clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes and identified factors associated with 30-day mortality in logistic regression analysis...
October 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016585/isolation-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-from-patients-medical-charts
#16
Roshan Thapa, Narayan Dutt Pant, Uday Narayan Yadav, Eliza Thapa, Anjana Singh, Bharat Mani Pokhrel, Upendra Devkota
BACKGROUND: Patient's medical charts in hospitals are potentially contaminated by pathogenic bacteria and might act as vehicles for transmission of bacterial infections.This study was aimed to determine the rate of contamination of medical charts by multidrug resistant bacteria. METHODS: Sampling of total 250 patient's medical charts from different wards was done with the help of cotton swabs soaked in sterile normal saline. The swabs thus collected were cultured using standard microbiological procedures...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994446/colonization-of-residents-and-staff-of-an-italian-long-term-care-facility-and-an-adjacent-acute-care-hospital-geriatric-unit-by-multidrug-resistant-bacteria
#17
Albert March, Richard Aschbacher, Ferisa Sleghel, Gertrud Soelva, Malgorzata Kaczor, Roberta Migliavacca, Aurora Piazza, Vittoria Mattioni Marchetti, Laura Pagani, Katia Scalzo, Valentina Pasquetto, Elisabetta Pagani
In 2016, we undertook a point prevalence screening study for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), high-level AmpC cephalosporinases and carbapenemases, and also methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in a long-term care facility (LTCF) and the associated acute care hospital geriatric unit in Bolzano, Northern Italy. Urine samples and rectal, inguinal, oropharyngeal and nasal swabs were plated on selective agars. Demographic data were collected...
October 10, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992133/intestinal-carriage-of-third-generation-cephalosporin-resistant-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-healthy-us-children
#18
Shamim Islam, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Neena Kanwar, Rendie McHenry, James D Chappell, Natasha Halasa, Mary E Wikswo, Daniel C Payne, Parvin H Azimi, L Clifford McDonald, Oscar G Gomez-Duarte
Background: The epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae intestinal carriage in healthy US children has not been well characterized. Methods: Children between 14 days and 14 years of age were enrolled during well-child visits in Oakland, California, Kansas City, Kansas, and Nashville, Tennessee, between December 2013 and March 2015. Data on recent antibiotic use by the child and travel and hospitalization history of all members of each child's household were obtained with a risk-factor survey...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989972/a-new-take-on-an-old-remedy-generating-antibodies-against-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria-in-a-postantibiotic-world
#19
Michael P Motley, Bettina C Fries
With the problem of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens becoming increasingly dire, new strategies are needed to protect and treat infected patients. Though abandoned in the past, monoclonal antibody therapy against Gram-negative bacteria remains a potential solution and has potential advantages over the broad-spectrum antibiotics they were once replaced by. This Perspective reviews the prospect of utilizing monoclonal antibody therapy against these pathogens, as well as the challenges of doing so and the current therapy targets under investigation...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989875/bacteriological-profile-of-diabetic-foot-ulcer-with-special-reference-to-drug-resistant-strains-in-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-east-india
#20
Sudhir K Jain, Rashmisnata Barman
AIM: This study was carried out to determine the bacteriological profile of infected diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and the antibiotic resistance pattern from the isolates. An attempt was made to suggest an empiric antibiotic regimen to treat such patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue samples were collected from 150 patients between February 2015 and January 2016 with DFUs under aseptic precautions and they were processed as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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