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Carbon dioxide removal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078748/low-temperature-hydrogenation-of-carbon-dioxide-to-methanol-with-a-homogeneous-cobalt-catalyst
#1
Jacob Schneidewind, Rosa Adam, Wolfgang Baumann, Ralf Jackstell, Matthias Beller
Herein we describe the first homogeneous non-noble metal catalyst for the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The catalyst is formed in situ from [Co(acac)3 ], Triphos, and HNTf2 and enables the reaction to be performed at 100 °C without a decrease in activity. Kinetic studies suggest an inner-sphere mechanism, and in situ NMR and MS experiments reveal the formation of the active catalyst through slow removal of the acetylacetonate ligands.
January 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061397/subcritical-carbon-dioxide-water-hydrolysis-of-sugarcane-bagasse-pith-for-reducing-sugars-production
#2
Jiezhen Liang, Xiaopeng Chen, Linlin Wang, Xiaojie Wei, Huasheng Wang, Songzhou Lu, Yunhua Li
The aim of present study was to obtain total reducing sugars (TRS) by hydrolysis in subcritical CO2-water from sugarcane bagasse pith (SCBP), the fibrous residue remaining after papermaking from sugarcane bagasse. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were evaluated by L16(4(5)) orthogonal experiments. The TRS yield achieved 45.8% at the optimal conditions: 200°C, 40min, 500rmin(-1), CO2 initial pressure of 1MPa and liquid-to-solid ratio of 50:1. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance were used to characterize hydrolysis liquor, treated and untreated SCBP, resulting in the removal of hemicelluloses to mainly produce xylose, glucose and arabinose during hydrolysis...
December 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060486/highly-porous-rigid-rod-polyamide-aerogels-with-superior-mechanical-properties-and-unusually-high-thermal-conductivity
#3
Jarrod C Williams, Baochau N Nguyen, Linda McCorkle, Daniel Scheiman, Justin S Griffin, Stephen A Steiner, Mary Ann B Meador
We report here the fabrication of polyamide aerogels composed of poly-p-phenylene-terephthalamide, the same backbone chemistry as DuPont's Kevlar. The all-para-substituted polymers gel without the use of cross-linker and maintain their shape during processing-an improvement over the meta-substituted cross-linked polyamide aerogels reported previously. Solutions containing calcium chloride (CaCl2) and para-phenylenediamine (pPDA) in N-methylpyrrolidinone (NMP) at low temperature are reacted with terephthaloyl chloride (TPC)...
January 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045053/complex-roles-of-solution-chemistry-on-graphene-oxide-coagulation-onto-titanium-dioxide-batch-experiments-spectroscopy-analysis-and-theoretical-calculation
#4
Shujun Yu, Xiangxue Wang, Rui Zhang, Tongtong Yang, Yuejie Ai, Tao Wen, Wei Huang, Tasawar Hayat, Ahmed Alsaedi, Xiangke Wang
Although graphene oxide (GO) has been used in multidisciplinary areas due to its excellent physicochemical properties, its environmental behavior and fate are still largely unclear. In this study, batch experiments, spectroscopy analysis and theoretical calculations were addressed to promote a more comprehensive understanding toward the coagulation behavior of GO onto TiO2 under various environmental conditions (pH, co-existing ions, temperature, etc.). The results indicated that neutral pH was beneficial to the removal of GO due to the electrostatic interaction...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039643/respiratory-dynamics-and-dead-space-to-tidal-volume-ratio-of-volume-controlled-versus-pressure-controlled-ventilation-during-prolonged-gynecological-laparoscopic-surgery
#5
Ming Lian, Xiao Zhao, Hong Wang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic operations have become longer and more complex and applied to a broader patient population in the last decades. Prolonged gynecological laparoscopic surgeries require prolonged pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position, which can influence respiratory dynamics and other measurements of pulmonary function. We investigated the differences between volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) and pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) and tried to determine the more efficient ventilation mode during prolonged pneumoperitoneum in gynecological laparoscopy...
December 30, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030765/nonionic-fluorinated-surfactant-removal-from-mesoporous-film-using-sc-co2
#6
Elvia Annabella Chavez Panduro, Karine Assaker, Thomas Beuvier, Jean-Luc Blin, Marie Jose Stebe, Oleg V Konovalov, Alain Gibaud
Surfactant templated silica thin films were self-assembled on solid substrates by dip-coating using a partially fluorinated surfactant RF8(EO)9 as the liquid crystal template. The aim was twofold: first we checked which composition in the phase diagram was corresponding to a 2D rectangular highly ordered crystalline phase and second we exposed the films to sc-CO2 to foster the removal of the surfactant. The films were characterized by in-situ X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) and Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) under CO2 pressure from 0 to 100 bars at 34°C...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024340/superhydrophobic-cones-for-continuous-collection-and-directional-transportation-of-co2-microbubbles-in-co2-supersaturated-solutions
#7
Xiuzhan Xue, Cunming Yu, Jingming Wang, Lei Jiang
Microbubbles are tiny bubbles with diameters below 50 μm. Because of their minute buoyant force, the microbubbles stagnate in aqueous media for a long time, and they sometimes cause serious damage. Most traditional methods chosen for elimination of gas bubbles utilize buoyancy forces including chemical methods and physical methods, and they only have a minor effect on microbubbles. Several approaches have been developed to collect and transport microbubbles in aqueous media. However, the realization of innovative strategies to directly collect and transport microbubbles in aqueous media remains a big challenge...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006710/predicting-scale-formation-during-electrodialytic-nutrient-recovery
#8
Emma Thompson Brewster, Andrew J Ward, Chirag M Mehta, Jelena Radjenovic, Damien J Batstone
Electro-concentration of nutrients from waste streams is a promising technology to enable resource recovery, but has several operational concerns. One key concern is the formation of inorganic scale on the concentrate side of cation exchange membranes when recovering nutrients from wastewaters containing calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and carbonate, commonly present in anaerobic digester rejection water. Electrodialytic nutrient recovery was trialed on anaerobic digester rejection water in a laboratory scale electro-concentration unit without treatment (A), following struvite recovery (B), and following struvite recovery as well as concentrate controlled at pH 5 for scaling control (C)...
November 30, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925406/iodide-photocatalyzed-reduction-of-carbon-dioxide-to-formic-acid-with-thiols-and-hydrogen-sulfide
#9
Mateo Berton, Rossella Mello, María Elena González-Núñez
The photolysis of iodide anions promotes the reaction of carbon dioxide with hydrogen sulfide or thiols to quantitatively yield formic acid and sulfur or disulfides. The reaction proceeds in acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature by irradiation using a low-pressure mercury lamp. This transition-metal-free photocatalytic process for CO2 capture coupled with H2 S removal may have been relevant as a prebiotic carbon dioxide fixation.
December 20, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904081/development-of-a-novel-milling-system-using-supercritical-carbon-dioxide-for-improvement-of-dissolution-characteristics-of-water-poorly-soluble-drugs
#10
Jennifer Chia Wee Fern, Hideya Nakamura, Satoru Watano
The aim of this study is to develop a novel milling system using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for the improvement of dissolution characteristics of water-poorly soluble drugs. SC-CO2 possesses high potential in the application of nanotechnology, due to the attractive properties of SC-CO2 fluid such as cheap, inert and non-polluting. In addition, SC-CO2 has density comparable to a liquid, viscosity similar to a gas, and high diffusion capacity. Most of all, carbon dioxide exists as gas in room temperature and pressure, which enables the removal of fluid instantaneously...
2016: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903208/early-experience-of-a-new-extracorporeal-carbon-dioxide-removal-device-for-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure
#11
Ravindranath Tiruvoipati, Hergen Buscher, James Winearls, Jeff Breeding, Debasish Ghosh, Shimonti Chaterjee, Gary Braun, Eldho Paul, John F Fraser, John Botha
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the technology of extracorporeal respiratory assist systems have led to a renewed interest in extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCOR). The Hemolung is a new, low-flow, venovenous, minimally invasive, partial ECCOR device that has recently been introduced to clinical practice to aid in avoiding invasive ventilation or to facilitate lung-protective ventilation. OBJECTIVE: We report our early experience on use, efficacy and safety of the Hemolung in three Australian intensive care units...
December 2016: Critical Care and Resuscitation: Journal of the Australasian Academy of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898802/nutrient-cycling-in-grassed-roadside-ditches-and-lawns-in-a-suburban-watershed
#12
Lauren E McPhillips, Peter M Groffman, Rebecca L Schneider, M Todd Walter
Roadside ditches are ubiquitous in developed landscapes. They are designed to route water from roads for safety, with little consideration of water quality or biogeochemical implications in ditch design and minimal data on environmental impacts. We hypothesize that periodic saturation and nutrient influxes may make roadside ditches hotspots for nitrogen (N) removal via denitrification as well as biological production of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH), and carbon dioxide (CO). Research sites included 12 grassed ditches and adjacent lawns with varying fertilization in a suburban watershed in central New York, where lawns represented a reference with similar soils as ditches but differing hydrology...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896375/-extracorporeal-co2-removal-as-an-alternative-to-tracheotomy-in-a%C3%A2-patient-with-extubation-failure
#13
A Redel, M Ritzka, S Kraus, A Philipp, H-J Schlitt, B Graf, T Bein
We report a patient with chest trauma who was admitted to the ICU after surgery. As he fulfilled protocol-based criteria, he was extubated 7 days after admission. However, despite intermittent non-invasive ventilation, the patient had to be re-intubated on day 10 owing to progressive hypercapnia. We decided to support the patient with a mid-flow veno-venous extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2‑R) system instead of a tracheotomy. Sufficient CO2 removal was established with a blood flow of 1.5 l/min and the patient was successfully extubated within a few hours...
December 2016: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889667/the-impact-of-a-pulmonary-recruitment-maneuver-to-reduce-post-laparoscopic-shoulder-pain-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Kyoungho Ryu, Wonjun Choi, Jaegeum Shim, Taejong Song
OBJECTIVE: A pulmonary recruitment maneuver (PRM) can effectively reduce post-laparoscopic shoulder pain (PLSP). However, a high-pressure PRM may cause pulmonary barotrauma. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a PRM using two different maximum inspiratory pressures (40 and 60cmH2O) for reducing PLSP. STUDY DESIGN: Patients undergoing gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly allocated to a control group (n=30), a 40 cmH2O PRM group (n=30), and a 60 cmH2O PRM group (n=30)...
January 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881667/a-mechanistic-physicochemical-model-of-carbon-dioxide-transport-in-blood
#15
David Patrick O'Neill, Peter A Robbins
A number of mathematical models have been produced that, given the Pco2 and Po2 of blood, will calculate the total concentrations for CO2 and O2 in blood. However, all these models contain at least some empirical features, and thus do not represent all of the underlying physicochemical processes in an entirely mechanistic manner. The aim of this study was to develop a physicochemical model of CO2 carriage by the blood to determine whether our understanding of the physical chemistry of the major chemical components of blood together with their interactions is sufficiently strong to predict the physiological properties of CO2 carriage by whole blood...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852158/biodegradation-of-low-and-high-molecular-weight-hydrocarbons-in-petroleum-refinery-wastewater-by-a-thermophilic-bacterial-consortium
#16
Arulazhagan Pugazhendi, Hadeel Abbad Wazin, Huda Qari, Jalal Mohammad Al-Badry Basahi, Jean Jacques Godon, Jeyakumar Dhavamani
Clean-up of contaminated wastewater remains to be a major challenge in petroleum refinery. Here, we describe the capacity of a bacterial consortium enriched from crude oil drilling site in Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, to utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as sole carbon source at 60°C. The consortium reduced low molecular weight (LMW; naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene and anthracene) and high molecular weight (HMW; pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene and benzo(k)fluoranthene) PAH loads of up to 1.5 g/L with removal efficiencies of 90% and 80% within 10 days...
December 5, 2016: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847920/removal-of-foreign-bodies-embedded-in-the-urinary-bladder-wall-by-a-combination-of-laparoscopy-and-carbon-dioxide-cystoscopic-assistance-case-report-and-literature-review
#17
Chengyue Jin, Yu Fan, Qian Zhang, Yu Wang, Shiliang Wu, Jie Jin
PURPOSE: To report a case of combined laparoscopic and carbon dioxide partial cystectomy and foreign body removal and to review the existing literature on the topic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 43-year-old Asian woman was found to have an intrauterine device embedded in the bladder wall during evaluation for chronic pelvic pain and urinary tract infection. She underwent cystoscopic-laparoscopic partial cystectomy, with an uncomplicated postoperative course. She had normal renal function during the follow-up period...
November 2016: Investigative and Clinical Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847813/jet-ventilation-during-rigid-bronchoscopy-in-adults-a-focused-review
#18
REVIEW
Laurie Putz, Alain Mayné, Anne-Sophie Dincq
The indications for rigid bronchoscopy for interventional pulmonology have increased and include stent placements and transbronchial cryobiopsy procedures. The shared airway between anesthesiologist and pulmonologist and the open airway system, requiring specific ventilation techniques such as jet ventilation, need a good understanding of the procedure to reduce potentially harmful complications. Appropriate adjustment of the ventilator settings including pause pressure and peak inspiratory pressure reduces the risk of barotrauma...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847183/management-effects-on-greenhouse-gas-dynamics-in-fen-ditches
#19
Mike Peacock, Luke M Ridley, Chris D Evans, Vincent Gauci
Globally, large areas of peatland have been drained through the digging of ditches, generally to increase agricultural production. By lowering the water table it is often assumed that drainage reduces landscape-scale emissions of methane (CH4) into the atmosphere to negligible levels. However, drainage ditches themselves are known to be sources of CH4 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs), but emissions data are scarce, particularly for carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and show high spatial and temporal variability...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842755/extracorporeal-gas-exchange-the-expanding-role-of-extracorporeal-support-in-respiratory-failure
#20
REVIEW
Nikunj Bhatt, Erik Osborn
The use of extracorporeal support is expanding quickly in adult respiratory failure. Extracorporeal gas exchange is an accepted rescue therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in select patients. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal is also being investigated as a preventative, preemptive, and management platform in patients with respiratory failure other than severe ARDS. The non-ARDS patient population is much larger, so the potential for rapid growth is high. This article hopes to inform decisions about the use of extracorporeal support by increasing understanding concerning the past and present practice of extracorporeal gas exchange...
December 2016: Clinics in Chest Medicine
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