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Carbon dioxide removal

Laëtitia M Bréchet, Luis Lopez-Sangil, Charles George, Ali J Birkett, Catherine Baxendale, Biancolini Castro Trujillo, Emma J Sayer
Global change is affecting primary productivity in forests worldwide, and this, in turn, will alter long-term carbon (C) sequestration in wooded ecosystems. On one hand, increased primary productivity, for example, in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), can result in greater inputs of organic matter to the soil, which could increase C sequestration belowground. On other hand, many of the interactions between plants and microorganisms that determine soil C dynamics are poorly characterized, and additional inputs of plant material, such as leaf litter, can result in the mineralization of soil organic matter, and the release of soil C as CO 2 during so-called "priming effects"...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
M G L Cândido, Y Xiong, R S Gates, I F F Tinôco, K W Koelkebeck
Appropriate ventilation of poultry facilities is critical for achieving optimum performance. Ventilation promotes good air exchange to remove harmful gases, excessive heat, moisture, and particulate matter. In a turkey brooder barn, carbon dioxide (CO2) may be present at higher levels during the winter due to reduced ventilation rates to maintain high temperatures. This higher CO2 may negatively affect turkey poult performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of subjecting tom turkey poults (commercial Large White Hybrid Converters) to different constant levels of atmospheric CO2 on their growth performance and behavior...
April 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Mei-Ling Fang, Ching-Yi Wu, Ming-Shean Chou
Some metal etching operations emit limited flow rates of waste gases with reddish-brown NO2 fume which may cause visual and acidic-odor complaints as well as negative healthy effects. In this study, tests were performed by passing caustic-treated waste gases vented from Al-etching operations through columns packed either with virgin or regenerated GAC (granular activated carbon) to test their adsorptive conversion performance of NO2 in the gases. The gases contained 5-55 ppm NO2 and acetic and nitric acids of below 3 ppm...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Emily M Bock, Brady S L Coleman, Zachary M Easton
Denitrifying bioreactors are recently-established agricultural best management practices with growing acceptance in the US Midwest but less studied in other agriculturally significant regions, such as the US Mid-Atlantic. A bioreactor was installed in the Virginia Coastal Plain to evaluate performance in this geographically novel region facing challenges managing nutrient pollution. The 25.3 m3 woodchip bed amended with 10% biochar (v/v) intercepted subsurface drainage from 6.5 ha cultivated in soy. Influent and effluent nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and flowrate were monitored intensively during the second year of operation...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Y Arij, S Fatihah, A R Rakmi
The anaerobic treatment of leachate from a municipal waste transfer station in Malaysia was tested using a pilot scale anaerobic biofilm digester system that was operated under HRT sequence of 30-day, 25-day, 20-day and 10-day for 163 days under mesophilic conditions. Despite the leachate's complex characteristics, the system showed great performance given its maximum COD, BOD5 and total phosphorus removal efficiencies of 98 ± 1%, 99 ± 1% and 92 ± 9% respectively. The system was stable throughout its operation and showed optimal average values for the monitored parameters such as pH (7...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
David C Grills, Sergei V Lymar
The solvated electron in CH3CN is scavenged by CO2 with a rate constant of 3.2 × 1010 M-1 s-1 to produce the carbon dioxide radical anion (CO2˙-), a strong and versatile reductant. Using pulse radiolysis with time-resolved IR detection, this radical is unambiguously identified by its absorption band at 1650 cm-1 corresponding to the antisymmetric CO2˙- stretch. This assignment is confirmed by 13C isotopic labelling experiments and DFT calculations. In neat CH3CN, CO2˙- decays on a ∼10 μs time scale via recombination with solvent-derived radicals (R˙) and solvated protons...
April 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Claudia Ursino, Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Enrico Drioli, Lassaad Gzara, Mohammad H Albeirutty, Alberto Figoli
The use of membrane-based technologies has been applied for water treatment applications; however, the limitations of conventional polymeric membranes have led to the addition of inorganic fillers to enhance their performance. In recent years, nanocomposite membranes have greatly attracted the attention of scientists for water treatment applications such as wastewater treatment, water purification, removal of microorganisms, chemical compounds, heavy metals, etc. The incorporation of different nanofillers, such as carbon nanotubes, zinc oxide, graphene oxide, silver and copper nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, 2D materials, and some other novel nano-scale materials into polymeric membranes have provided great advances, e...
April 3, 2018: Membranes
Elmar Kriegler, Gunnar Luderer, Nico Bauer, Lavinia Baumstark, Shinichiro Fujimori, Alexander Popp, Joeri Rogelj, Jessica Strefler, Detlef P van Vuuren
We explore the feasibility of limiting global warming to 1.5°C without overshoot and without the deployment of carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies. For this purpose, we perform a sensitivity analysis of four generic emissions reduction measures to identify a lower bound on future CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes. Final energy demand reductions and electrification of energy end uses as well as decarbonization of electricity and non-electric energy supply are all considered...
May 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Rick T Driessen, Martin J Bos, Derk W F Brilman
Currently there are significant amounts of natural gas that cannot be produced and treated to meet pipeline specifications, because that would not be economically viable. This work investigates a bench scale multistage fluidized bed (MSFB) with shallow beds for sour gas removal from natural gas using a commercially available supported amine sorbent. A MSFB is regarded as a promising adsorber type for deep sour gas removal to parts per million concentrations. A series of experiments was conducted using carbon dioxide as sour gas and nitrogen to mimic natural gas...
March 21, 2018: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research
Saziye Ilgaz, Ihsan Gungor Sat, Atilla Polat
In this pilot-scale study supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2 ) extraction technique was used for decaffeination of black tea. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO2 flow rate (1, 2, 3 L/min) and modifier quantity (0, 2.5, 5 mol%) were selected as extraction parameters. Three-level and five-factor response surface methodology experimental design with a Box-Behnken type was employed to generate 46 different processing conditions. 100% of caffeine from black tea was removed under two different extraction conditions; one of which was consist of 375 bar pressure, 62...
April 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
René Ullrich, Marzena Poraj-Kobielska, Steffi Scholze, Claire Halbout, Martin Sandvoss, Marek J Pecyna, Katrin Scheibner, Martin Hofrichter
Two unspecific peroxygenases (UPO, EC from the basidiomycetous fungi Marasmius rotula and Marasmius wettsteinii oxidized steroids with hydroxyacetyl and hydroxyl functionalities at C17 - such as cortisone, Reichstein's substance S and prednisone - via stepwise oxygenation and final fission of the side chain. The sequential oxidation started with the hydroxylation of the terminal carbon (C21) leading to a stable geminal alcohol (e.g. cortisone 21-gem-diol) and proceeded via a second oxygenation resulting in the corresponding α-ketocarboxylic acid (e...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Jungyu Park, Beom Lee, Peng Shi, Hyejeong Kwon, Sang Mun Jeong, Hangbae Jun
In this study, the metabolism of methanol and changes in an archaeal community were examined in a bioelectrochemical anaerobic digestion sequencing batch reactor with a copper-coated graphite cathode (BEAD-SBRCu ). Copper-coated graphite cathode produced methanol from food waste. The BEAD-SBRCu showed higher methanol removal and methane production than those of the anaerobic digestion (AD)-SBR. The methane production and pH of the BEAD-SBRCu were stable even under a high organic loading rate (OLR). The hydrogenotrophic methanogens increased from 32...
March 6, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Mingming Liu, Xiaoyan Zhang, Bingwei Li, Bing Wang, Qingbin Wu, Fei Shang, Ailing Li, Hongwei Li, Ruijuan Xiu
As a functional status of microcirculation, microvascular vasomotion is important for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients and the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products. The impairment of microvascular vasomotion might be a crucial step in the development of microcirculation-related diseases. In addition, the highly vascularized pancreatic islet is adapted to support endocrine function. In this respect, it seems possible to infer that the functional status of pancreatic islet microvascular vasomotion might affect pancreatic islet function...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Dean Calahan, Edward Osenbaugh, Walter Adey
Humanity is degrading multiple ecosystem services, potentially irreversibly. Two of the most important human impacts are excess agricultural nutrient loading in our fresh and estuarine waters and excess carbon dioxide in our oceans and atmosphere. Large-scale global intervention is required to slow, halt, and eventually reverse these stresses. Cultivating attached polyculture algae within controlled open-field photobioreactors is a practical technique for exploiting the ubiquity and high primary productivity of algae to capture and recycle the pollutants driving humanity into unsafe regimes of biogeochemical cycling, ocean acidification, and global warming...
February 2018: Heliyon
Diem-Mai Kim Nguyen, Tsuyoshi Imai, Thanh-Loc Thi Dang, Ariyo Kanno, Takaya Higuchi, Koichi Yamamoto, Masahiko Sekine
This paper presents the results from using a physical absorption process to absorb gaseous CO2 mixed with N2 using water by producing tiny bubbles via a liquid-film-forming device (LFFD) that improves the solubility of CO2 in water. The influence of various parameters-pressure, initial CO2 concentration, gas-to-liquid ratios, and temperature-on the CO2 removal efficiency and its absorption rate in water were investigated and estimated thoroughly by statistical polynomial models obtained by the utilization of the response surface method (RSM) with a central composite design (CCD)...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Ejeong Baik, Daniel L Sanchez, Peter A Turner, Katharine J Mach, Christopher B Field, Sally M Benson
Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is a negative-emissions technology that may play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. BECCS relies on the capture and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) following bioenergy production to remove and reliably sequester atmospheric CO2 Previous BECCS deployment assessments have largely overlooked the potential lack of spatial colocation of suitable storage basins and biomass availability, in the absence of long-distance biomass and CO2 transport. These conditions could constrain the near-term technical deployment potential of BECCS due to social and economic barriers that exist for biomass and CO2 transport...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yaguang Zhang, Ning Du, Yifan Chen, Yangfan Lin, Jinwei Jiang, Yuanhong He, Yu Lei, Deren Yang
Si/C composite is one of the most promising candidate materials for next-generation lithium-ion battery anodes. Herein, we demonstrate the novel structure of carbon cages encapsulating porous Si synthesized by the reaction between magnesium silicide (Mg2 Si) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and subsequent acid washing. Benefitting from the in situ deposition through magnesiothermic reduction of CO2 , the carbon cage seals the inner Si completely and shows higher graphitization than that obtained from the decomposition of acetylene...
March 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Xing Fan, Jie Chang, Yuan Ren, Xu Wu, Yuanyuan Du, Ronghua Xu, Dong Liu, Scott X Chang, Laura A Meyerson, Changhui Peng, Ying Ge
Dairy production is becoming more industrialized globally, especially in developing countries. The large amount of animal wastes from industrial feedlots cannot be fully used on nearby farmlands, leading to severe environmental problems. Using China as a case study, we found that most dairy feedlots employ a semi-coupled mode that only recycles solid manure to farmlands, and only a few dairy feedlots employ a fully-coupled mode that recycles both solid and liquid animal manure. To produce one ton of milk, the fully-coupled mode could reduce greenhouse gas (including carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide in this paper) emissions by 24%, ammonia emissions by 14%, and N discharge into water by 29%, compared with the semi-coupled systems...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Lisa Repsold, Anna Margaretha Joubert
Erythrocytes play an important role in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Although erythrocytes possess no nucleus or mitochondria, they fulfil several metabolic activities namely, the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, as well as the hexose monophosphate shunt. Metabolic processes within the erythrocyte contribute to the morphology/shape of the cell and important constituents are being kept in an active, reduced form. Erythrocytes undergo a form of suicidal cell death called eryptosis. Eryptosis results from a wide variety of contributors including hyperosmolarity, oxidative stress, and exposure to xenobiotics...
2018: BioMed Research International
Charles A Baumann, John R Baumann, Chantelle C Bozynski, Aaron M Stoker, James P Stannard, James L Cook
Articular defects are a major problem with few effective treatment options. Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation can be an effective treatment; however, lack of OCA bone integration can cause failure. This controlled laboratory study was designed to compare clinically applicable methods for marrow element removal and enhanced delivery of bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMC) to OCA bone. We hypothesized that compressed carbon dioxide (CO2 ) treatment of OCA bone would result in significantly better marrow element removal, significantly more retention and distribution of viable osteoprogenitor cells, and significantly higher osteoinductive protein elution from OCAs compared with other preimplantation treatments...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
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