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Carbon dioxide removal

Qiulin Wang, Minghui Tang, Yaqi Peng, Cuicui Du, Shengyong Lu
Ozone assisted carbon nanotubes (CNTs) supported vanadium oxide/titanium dioxide (V/Ti-CNTs) or vanadium oxide-manganese oxide/titanium dioxide (V-Mn/Ti-CNTs) catalysts towards gaseous PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans) catalytic oxidations at low temperature (150 °C) were investigated. The removal efficiency (RE) and decomposition efficiency (DE) of PCDD/Fs achieved with V-Mn/Ti-CNTs alone were 95% and 45% at 150 °C under a space velocity (SV) of 14000 h-1 ; yet, these values reached 99% and 91% when catalyst and low concentration (50 ppm) ozone were used in combined...
February 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Tommaso Pettenuzzo, Eddy Fan, Lorenzo Del Sorbo
Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO 2 R) has been proposed as an adjunctive intervention to avoid worsening respiratory acidosis, thereby preventing or shortening the duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This review will present a comprehensive summary of the pathophysiological rationale and clinical evidence of ECCO 2 R in patients suffering from severe COPD exacerbations.
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Jessica Jewell, David McCollum, Johannes Emmerling, Christoph Bertram, David E H J Gernaat, Volker Krey, Leonidas Paroussos, Loïc Berger, Kostas Fragkiadakis, Ilkka Keppo, Nawfal Saadi, Massimo Tavoni, Detlef van Vuuren, Vadim Vinichenko, Keywan Riahi
Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders' Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today's low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices...
February 7, 2018: Nature
Mobolaji Shemfe, Siddharth Gadkari, Eileen Yu, Shahid Rasul, Keith Scott, Ian M Head, Sai Gu, Jhuma Sadhukhan
A novel framework, integrating dynamic simulation (DS), life cycle assessment (LCA) and techno-economic assessment (TEA) of a bioelectrochemical system (BES), has been developed to study for the first time wastewater treatment by removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by oxidation in anode and thereby harvesting electron and proton for carbon dioxide reduction reaction or reuse to produce products in cathode. Increases in initial COD and applied potential increase COD removal and production (in this case formic acid) rates...
January 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Gu Xiaochao, Lu Xuebin, Tian Jin, Li Xiaoyun, Zhou Bin, Zheng Xujing, Xu Jin
The three-dimensional electro-Fenton method was used in the folic acid wastewater pretreatment process. In this study, we researched the degradation of folic acid and the effects of different parameters such as the air sparging rate, current density, pH and reaction time on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in folic acid wastewater. A four-level and four-factor orthogonal test was designed and optimal reaction conditions to pretreat folic acid wastewater by three-dimensional electrode were determined: air sparge rate 0...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Derrick Risner, Avi Shayevitz, Karl Haapala, Lisbeth Meunier-Goddik, Paul Hughes
Whey disposal can be both an environmental and economic challenge for artisanal creameries. Lactose in whey can be fermented to produce ethanol and subsequently distilled. The objective of this study was to use a process-based life cycle analysis to compare carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) emissions and water usage associated with the artisanal or craft production of clear, unaged spirits using whey or malted barley as fermentation substrate. Differences in production were assessed based on key process differences: energy used, water used, distillation by-product disposal, and mass of CO2 produced during fermentation...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Sheila Fraser, Olov Norlén, Kyle Bender, Joanne Davidson, Sonya Bajenov, David Fahey, Shawn Li, Stan Sidhu, Mark Sywak
BACKGROUND: Posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy has gained widespread acceptance for the removal of benign adrenal tumors. Higher insufflation pressures using carbon dioxide (CO2) are required, although the ideal starting pressure is unclear. This prospective, randomized, single-blinded, study aims to compare physiologic differences with 2 different CO2 insufflation pressures during posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to a starting insufflation pressure of 20 mm Hg (low pressure) or 25 mm Hg (high pressure)...
January 30, 2018: Surgery
J S Jennings, B E Meyer, P J Guiroy, N A Cole
The increased use of byproducts in finishing diets leads to diets that contain greater concentrations of CP and MP than required by cattle. The hypothesis was that excess dietary CP and MP would increase maintenance energy requirements due to the energy costs of removing excess N as urea in urine. To evaluate the potential efficiency lost, two experiments were performed to determine the effects of feeding excess CP and MP to calves fed a finishing diet at 1 x maintenance energy intake (Exp. 1) and at 2 x maintenance intake (Exp...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Deog Kyeom Kim, Jungsil Lee, Ju Hee Park, Kwang Ha Yoo
Acute exacerbation(s) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) tend to be critical and debilitating events leading to poorer outcomes in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment modalities, and contribute to a higher and earlier mortality rate in COPD patients. Besides pro-active preventative measures intended to obviate acquisition of AECOPD, early recovery from severe AECOPD is an important issue in determining the long-term prognosis of patients diagnosed with COPD. Updated GOLD guidelines and recently published American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society clinical recommendations emphasize the importance of use of pharmacologic treatment including bronchodilators, systemic steroids and/or antibiotics...
January 24, 2018: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Fabio Mencarelli, Andrea Bellincontro
BACKGROUND: Postharvest techniques are widely used for the handling and storage of fresh horticultural crops. Some of these crops are interesting for use with wine grapes to improve the quality of wine. In this review, we consider the postharvest techniques that are already commercially used in wine sector and others that may be significant in inducing or extracting the aroma from grapes to produce high-quality wines. RESULTS: Precooling consists of rapidly lowering the grape temperature, which allows the preservation/increase of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
January 25, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
A Belcheva, R El Feghali, T Nihtianova, S Parker
The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate positive effects of the carbon dioxide laser (CO2, 10,600 nm) with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on enamel acid resistance. Twenty extracted human third molars (40 surfaces) were randomly assigned into four groups: group C, untreated control; group L, CO2 laser alone group; group F, APF 1.23% fluoride gel; and group FL, APF 1.23% gel and laser. Samples from group L were irradiated with a CO2 laser for 30s. The parameter settings used were average power, 0...
January 21, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Qing-Song Li, Hui-Wen Cai, Guo-Xin Li, Guo-Yuan Chen, Xiao-Yan Ma, Wen-Long He
This study investigated the transformation of triclosan (TCS) following co-exposure to UV irradiation and ClO2. Special attention was given to understand the influencing of water quality parameters and toxicity changes during the co-exposure process. The results show that the co-exposure process prompted TCS elimination quickly and effectively, with more than 99% of TCS degraded under the experimental conditions. The molar yield ratios of 2,4-dichlorophenol/TCS (2,4-DCP/TCS) were calculated to be 35.81-74.49%; however, the by-product of 2,8-dichlorodibenzop-dioxin (2,8-Cl2DD) was not detected...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fatma Eldsouky, Howyda Mohamed Ebrahim
BACKGROUND: Cellulite is an irregular alteration of the skin surface giving it cottage cheese appearance. Carboxytherapy is transcutaneous infusion of carbon dioxide into the affected site. Mesolipolysis aims to remove cellulite and improve skin texture. AIMS: To verify the efficacy and safety of carboxytherapy versus mesolipolysis using phosphatidylcholine (PPC) in treatment of cellulite in thighs area. METHODS: Forty-eight female patients with different grades of cellulite at thighs area were enrolled in this study...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy: Official Publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
Bibhuti Ranjan, Santhosh Pillai, Kugenthiren Permaul, Suren Singh
Cyanase detoxifies cyanate by transforming it to ammonia and carbon dioxide in a bicarbonate-dependent reaction, however, dependence on bicarbonate limits its utilization in large-scale applications. A novel strategy was therefore developed for overcoming this bottleneck by the combined application of cyanase (rTl-Cyn) and carbonic anhydrase (rTl-CA). The synergistic effect of rTl-Cyn and rTl-CA could reduce the dependence of bicarbonate by 80%, compared to using rTl-Cyn alone. Complete degradation of cyanate (4 mM) was achieved with buffered conditions and 85 ± 5% degradation with industrial wastewater sample, when 20 U of rTl-Cyn was applied...
December 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Sang-Wook Kang, Emad Kandil, Min Jhi Kim, Kwang Soon Kim, Cho Rok Lee, Jong Ju Jeong, Kee-Hyun Nam, Woong Youn Chung, Cheong Soo Park
BACKGROUND: The posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalec tomy has several advantages compared with the transperitoneal approach such as a shorter and more direct route to the target organ, no breach of the intraperitoneal space, and no required retraction of the adjacent organs. It also is a safe procedure with a short learning curve.1-5 This report presents a challenging case of an extra-adrenal paraganglioma located in the aorto-caval space and managed using the retroperitoneal approach...
January 12, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Qinhua Pu, Jinxian Qian, Weiyi Tao, Aixiang Yang, Jian Wu, Yaodong Wang
RATIONALE: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a highly corrosive agent and can cause corrosive burns. HF can penetrate deeply into tissues through intact skin and the lipid barrier, leading to painful liquefactive necrosis, and inducing hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. In this study, we hypothesize that continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may be beneficial in addressing hemodynamic instability in cases of HF poisoning. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 25-year-old man fell into an electroplating pool containing 10% HF and 50% nitric acid...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Juan de Villiers Hugo, Ajay S Sharma, Usaama Ahmed, Patrick W Weerwind
Advancement in oxygenator membrane technology has further expanded the boundaries in the clinical application of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R). Despite the advent of modern poly-4-methyl-1-pentene (PMP) membranes, limited information exists on the performance of these membranes at low sweep gas and blood flows. Moreover, physiological relationships for CO2 removal at these flows are less explored. Hence, CO2 removal was quantified in an in vitro setting using a PMP membrane oxygenator. ECCO2R was performed using a ...
December 2017: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
Ebba Kihlstedt Pasquier, Ellen Andersson
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary recruitment maneuver (PRM) at the end of laparoscopic gynecologic surgery has been shown to reduce postoperative pain. This prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial aimed to investigate postoperative pain (primary endpoint) and nausea when performing a ventilator-piloted PRM at the end of laparoscopic bariatric surgery. SETTINGS: A secondary-level public hospital in Sweden. METHODS: After giving written consent, patients undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery were randomized to receive routine exsufflation (control group) or a ventilator-piloted PRM to remove residual carbon dioxide from the abdomen at the end of surgery...
November 22, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Ariel R Donovan, Craig D Adams, Yinfa Ma, Chady Stephan, Todd Eichholz, Honglan Shi
In this study, aluminum sulfate, ferric sulfate, ferric chloride, and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) coagulation removal of citrate-stabilized silver and gold nanoparticles (NPs) and uncoated titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide, and zinc oxide NPs was investigated using a single particle (SP) ICP-MS direct monitoring technique. Zone 2 (charge neutralization) coagulation was performed in river water and more commonly used Zone 4 (sweep floc) coagulation was performed in both river and lake water with environmentally relevant concentrations of selected NPs added...
December 19, 2017: Chemosphere
Wenli Qin, Zongli Xie, Derrick Ng, Ying Ye, Xiaosheng Ji, Stephen Gray, Jianhua Zhang
Colloidal silica involved fouling behaviors in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD), vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) and sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) were studied. Three foulants were used in the experiments, including colloidal silica as representative of particulate foulants, calcium bicarbonate as dissolved inorganic foulant, and NOM (humic acid + alginate + BSA) as the dissolved organic foulant. The three types of fouants were combined to produce four different feed waters: silica alone; silica + calcium bicarbonate; silica + NOM; and silica + calcium bicarbonate + NOM...
December 5, 2017: Water Research
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