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Second heart field

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043394/in-silico-analyses-reveal-the-relationship-between-six1-eya1-mutations-and-conotruncal-heart-defects
#1
Bojian Li, Lijuan Xu, Nanchao Hong, Sun Chen, Rang Xu
Conotruncal heart defects (CTDs) represent a group of severe and complicated congenital cardiovascular malformations and require opportune clinical interventions once diagnosed. Occurrence of CTD is related to the functional abnormality of the second heart field (SHF), and variants of genes which regulate the development of the second heart field have been recognized as the main genetic factors leading to CTDs. Previous studies indicated that transcriptional complex SIX1/EYA1 may contribute to SHF development, and SIX1/EYA1 knockout mice exhibited a series of conotruncal malformations...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034473/development-and-maturation-of-the-fibrous-components-of-the-arterial-roots-in-the-mouse-heart
#2
Rachel Richardson, Lorraine Eley, Charlotte Donald-Wilson, Jonathon Davis, Natasha Curley, Ahlam Alqahtani, Lindsay Murphy, Robert H Anderson, Deborah J Henderson, Bill Chaudhry
The arterial roots are important transitional regions of the heart, connecting the intrapericardial components of the aortic and pulmonary trunks with their ventricular outlets. They house the arterial (semilunar) valves and, in the case of the aorta, are the points of coronary arterial attachment. Moreover, because of the semilunar attachments of the valve leaflets, the arterial roots span the anatomic ventriculo-arterial junction. By virtue of this arrangement, the interleaflet triangles, despite being fibrous, are found on the ventricular aspect of the root and located within the left ventricular cavity...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965170/the-cardiac-sodium-channel-and-its-protein-partners
#3
Elise Balse, Catherine Eichel
Activation of the electrical signal and its transmission as a depolarizing wave in the whole heart requires highly organized myocyte architecture and cell-cell contacts. In addition, complex trafficking and anchoring intracellular machineries regulate the proper surface expression of channels and their targeting to distinct membrane domains. An increasing list of proteins, lipids, and second messengers can contribute to the normal targeting of ion channels in cardiac myocytes. However, their precise roles in the electrophysiology of the heart are far from been extensively understood...
October 1, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928053/development-of-correction-formula-for-field-potential-duration-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-sheets
#4
Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Yasunari Kanda, Yuji Nakamura, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Takeshi Wada, Kentaro Ando, Atsuhiko T Naito, Yuko Sekino, Atsushi Sugiyama
Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have been used in many studies to assess proarrhythmic risks of chemical compounds. In those studies, field potential durations (FPD) of hiPSC-CMs have been corrected by clinically used Fridericia's and/or Bazett's formulae, however, the rationale for the use of these formulae has not been well established. In the present study, we developed a correction formula for experiments using hiPSC-CMs. First, we analyzed the effect of beating rate on FPD in the hiPSC-CMs sheets with electrical stimuli and a HCN channel inhibitor zatebradine...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885958/repeat-hospitalizations-predict-mortality-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#5
Andrew H Lin, John C Chin, Nicholas M Sicignano, Amber M Evans
INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF) affects more than 5.1 million Americans and is projected to increase. Understanding the relationship between hospitalization and mortality can help to guide clinical management. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of repeat HF hospitalizations on all-cause mortality and to determine risk variables related to patient mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using administrative data from the Military Health System, a cohort of patients with an index admission for HF between 2007 and 2011 was identified...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867834/estimation-of-leaf-area-index-and-its-sunlit-portion-from-dscovr-epic-data-theoretical-basis
#6
Bin Yang, Yuri Knyazikhin, Matti Mõttus, Miina Rautiainen, Pauline Stenberg, Lei Yan, Chi Chen, Kai Yan, Sungho Choi, Taejin Park, Ranga B Myneni
This paper presents the theoretical basis of the algorithm designed for the generation of leaf area index and diurnal course of its sunlit portion from NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). The Look-up-Table (LUT) approach implemented in the MODIS operational LAI/FPAR algorithm is adopted. The LUT, which is the heart of the approach, has been significantly modified. First, its parameterization incorporates the canopy hot spot phenomenon and recent advances in the theory of canopy spectral invariants...
September 1, 2017: Remote Sensing of Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859410/does-the-treadmill-support-valid-energetics-estimates-of-field-locomotion
#7
Owen R Bidder, Colette Goulding, Alejandra Toledo, Tessa A van Walsum, Ursula Siebert, Lewis G Halsey
Quantifying animal energy expenditure during locomotion in the field is generally based either on treadmill measurements or on estimates derived from a measured proxy. Two common proxies are heart rate (ƒH) and dynamic body acceleration (accelerometry). Both ƒH and accelerometry have been calibrated extensively under laboratory conditions, which typically involve prompting the animal to locomote on a treadmill at different speeds while simultaneously recording its rate of oxygen uptake (V̇o2) and the proxy...
August 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853530/-novelties-in-pericardial-diseases-a-focused-review-of-the-latest-european-guidelines
#8
Alexander Fardman, Yehuda Adler
More than a decade has elapsed since the first international guidelines on the diagnosis and management of pericardial diseases were issued by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in 2004. Since then, significant advances have been made in this field due to several randomized double blinded controlled trials and also retrospective, as well as prospective, cohort studies that were conducted during this time frame. However, despite the amount of knowledge that has been accumulated, only Spanish and Brazilian national societies of cardiology have so far published national guidelines on the management of pericardial diseases...
August 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793912/re-evaluation-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-from-a-developmental-and-morphological-perspective
#9
A Crucean, A Alqahtani, D J Barron, W J Brawn, R V Richardson, J O'Sullivan, R H Anderson, D J Henderson, B Chaudhry
BACKGROUND: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) covers a spectrum of rare congenital anomalies characterised by a non-apex forming left ventricle and stenosis/atresia of the mitral and aortic valves. Despite many studies, the causes of HLHS remain unclear and there are conflicting views regarding the role of flow, valvar or myocardial abnormalities in its pathogenesis, all of which were proposed prior to the description of the second heart field. Our aim was to re-evaluate the patterns of malformation in HLHS in relation to recognised cardiac progenitor populations, with a view to providing aetiologically useful sub-groupings for genomic studies...
August 10, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754980/regulation-of-sema3c-and-the-interaction-between-cardiac-neural-crest-and-second-heart-field-during-outflow-tract-development
#10
Kazuki Kodo, Shinsuke Shibata, Sachiko Miyagawa-Tomita, Sang-Ging Ong, Hiroshi Takahashi, Tsutomu Kume, Hideyuki Okano, Rumiko Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Yamagishi
The cardiac neural crest cells (cNCCs) and the second heart field (SHF) play key roles in development of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT) for establishment of completely separated pulmonary and systemic circulations in vertebrates. A neurovascular guiding factor, Semaphorin 3c (Sema3c), is required for the development of the OFT, however, its regulation of the interaction between cNCCs and SHF remains to be determined. Here, we show that a Sema3c is a candidate that mediates interaction between cNCCs and the SHF during development of the OFT...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730886/is-the-10-m-incremental-shuttle-walk-test-a-useful-test-of-exercise-capacity-for-patients-referred-to-cardiac-rehabilitation
#11
Lisa C Hanson, Helen McBurney, Nicholas F Taylor
BACKGROUND: Field exercise tests are a feasible alternative to the symptom-limited exercise test for measuring exercise capacity in patients attending cardiac rehabilitation. AIMS: To evaluate the criterion validity of the 10 m incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) as a useful tool for measurement of exercise capacity for patients eligible for cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Fifteen patients eligible for cardiac rehabilitation completed a treadmill symptom-limited exercise test and two ISWTs with the order of testing randomised...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668371/the-versatility-of-heart-cutting-and-comprehensive-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography-in-monoclonal-antibody-clone-selection
#12
Koen Sandra, Mieke Steenbeke, Isabel Vandenheede, Gerd Vanhoenacker, Pat Sandra
In recent years, two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has seen an enormous evolution and one of the fields where it is being widely adopted is in the analysis of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We here further add to the many flavours of this powerful technology. Workflows based on heart-cutting (LC-LC) and comprehensive (LC×LC) 2D-LC are described that allow to guide the clone selection process in mAb and biosimilar development. Combining Protein A affinity chromatography in the first dimension with size exclusion (SEC), cation exchange (CEX) or reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS) in the second dimension simultaneously allows to assess mAb titer and critical structural aspects such as aggregation, fragmentation, charge heterogeneity, molecular weight (MW), amino acid sequence and glycosylation...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663257/smooth-muscle-cells-derived-from-second-heart-field-and-cardiac-neural-crest-reside-in-spatially-distinct-domains-in-the-media-of-the-ascending-aorta-brief-report
#13
Hisashi Sawada, Debra L Rateri, Jessica J Moorleghen, Mark W Majesky, Alan Daugherty
OBJECTIVE: Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the proximal thoracic aorta are embryonically derived from the second heart field (SHF) and cardiac neural crest (CNC). However, distributions of these embryonic origins are not fully defined. The regional distribution of SMCs of different origins is speculated to cause region-specific aortopathies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of SMCs of SHF and CNC origins in the proximal thoracic aorta. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Mice with repressed LacZ in the ROSA26 locus were bred to those expressing Cre controlled by either the Wnt1 or Mef2c (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c) promoter to trace CNC- and SHF-derived SMCs, respectively...
September 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657804/physiological-profile-of-an-uphill-time-trial-in-elite-cyclists
#14
Ana B Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A Castro, Francisco J Calderón, Pedro J Benito
PURPOSE: While a number of studies have researched road cycling performance, few studies have attempted to investigate the physiological response in field conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the physiological and performance profile of an uphill time-trial frequently used in cycling competitions. METHODS: Fourteen elite road cyclists (mean±SD: age 25±6 years, height 174±4.2 cm, body mass 64.4±6.1 kg and fat mass 7.48±2.82%) performed a graded exercise test until exhaustion to determine maximal parameters...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639443/relationship-between-the-handball-specific-complex-test-nonspecific-field-tests-and-the-match-performance-score-in-elite-professional-handball-players
#15
Souhail Hermassi, Mohamed S Chelly, Rainer Wollny, Birgit Hoffmeyer, Georg Fieseler, Stephan Schulze, Lars Irlenbusch, Karl-Stefan Delank, Roy J Shephard, Thomas Bartels, René Schwesig
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the validity of the handball-specific complex-test (HBCT) and two nonspecific field tests in professional elite handball athletes, using the match performance score (MPS) as the gold standard of performance. METHODS: Thirteen elite male handball players (age: 27.4 ± 4.8 years; premier German league) performed the HBCT, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo-IR1-test) and a repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSA) test at the beginning of pre-season training...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628036/arcuate-neuropeptide-y-inhibits-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-multiple-neuropathways
#16
Zhigang Shi, Christopher J Madden, Virginia L Brooks
Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620608/a-path-to-implement-precision-child-health-cardiovascular-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Marlin Touma, Brian Reemtsen, Nancy Halnon, Juan Alejos, J Paul Finn, Stanley F Nelson, Yibin Wang
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) affect approximately 1% of live births and are a major source of childhood morbidity and mortality even in countries with advanced healthcare systems. Along with phenotypic heterogeneity, the underlying etiology of CHDs is multifactorial, involving genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental contributors. Clear dissection of the underlying mechanism is a powerful step to establish individualized therapies. However, the majority of CHDs are yet to be clearly diagnosed for the underlying genetic and environmental factors, and even less with effective therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620054/an-assessment-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-the-electrohypersensitive-population-a-heart-rate-variability-and-skin-conductance-study
#18
Soafara Andrianome, Jonathan Gobert, Laurent Hugueville, Erwan Stéphan-Blanchard, Frederic Telliez, Brahim Selmaoui
The aim of the study was twofold: first, to compare the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) between the population self-declared as electrohypersensitive (EHS) and their matched control individuals without intended exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The second objective was to determine whether acute exposure to different radiofrequency signals modifies ANS activity in EHS. For that purpose, two different experiments were undertaken, in which ANS activity was assessed through heart rate variability (HRV) and skin conductance (SC)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587865/impact-of-vat-resistance-in-melon-on-viral-epidemics-and-genetic-structure-of-virus-populations
#19
Schoeny Alexandra, Desbiez Cécile, Millot Pauline, Wipf-Scheibel Catherine, Nozeran Karine, Gognalons Patrick, Lecoq Hervé, Boissot Nathalie
Cultivar choice is at the heart of cropping systems and resistant cultivars should be at the heart of disease management strategies whenever available. They are the easiest, most efficient and environmentally friendly way of combating viral diseases at the farm level. Among the melon genetic resources, Vat is a unique gene conferring resistance to both the melon aphid Aphis gossypii and the viruses it carries. The 'virus side' of this pleiotropic phenotype is seldom regarded as an asset for virus control. Indeed, the effect of Vat on virus epidemics in the field is expected to vary according to the composition of aphid populations in the environment and long-term studies are needed to draw a correct trend...
June 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584083/gene-regulatory-networks-and-cell-lineages-that-underlie-the-formation-of-skeletal-muscle
#20
Margaret Buckingham
Skeletal muscle in vertebrates is formed by two major routes, as illustrated by the mouse embryo. Somites give rise to myogenic progenitors that form all of the muscles of the trunk and limbs. The behavior of these cells and their entry into the myogenic program is controlled by gene regulatory networks, where paired box gene 3 (Pax3) plays a predominant role. Head and some neck muscles do not derive from somites, but mainly form from mesoderm in the pharyngeal region. Entry into the myogenic program also depends on the myogenic determination factor (MyoD) family of genes, but Pax3 is not expressed in these myogenic progenitors, where different gene regulatory networks function, with T-box factor 1 (Tbx1) and paired-like homeodomain factor 2 (Pitx2) as key upstream genes...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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