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Second heart field

José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
Michael K L Man, Athanasios Margiolakis, Skylar Deckoff-Jones, Takaaki Harada, E Laine Wong, M Bala Murali Krishna, Julien Madéo, Andrew Winchester, Sidong Lei, Robert Vajtai, Pulickel M Ajayan, Keshav M Dani
Technological progress since the late twentieth century has centred on semiconductor devices, such as transistors, diodes and solar cells. At the heart of these devices is the internal motion of electrons through semiconductor materials due to applied electric fields or by the excitation of photocarriers. Imaging the motion of these electrons would provide unprecedented insight into this important phenomenon, but requires high spatial and temporal resolution. Current studies of electron dynamics in semiconductors are generally limited by the spatial resolution of optical probes, or by the temporal resolution of electronic probes...
October 10, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Sophie van Baalen, Annamaria Carusi, Ian Sabroe, David G Kiely
In recent years there has been growing attention to the epistemology of clinical decision-making, but most studies have taken the individual physicians as the central object of analysis. In this paper we argue that knowing in current medical practice has an inherently social character and that imaging plays a mediating role in these practices. We have analyzed clinical decision-making within a medical expert team involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare disease requiring multidisciplinary team involvement in diagnosis and management...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Craig J Goergen, Howard H Chen, Sava Sakadžić, Vivek J Srinivasan, David E Sosnovik
Myocardial infarction leads to complex changes in the fiber architecture of the heart. Here, we present a novel optical approach to characterize these changes in intact hearts in three dimensions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to derive a depth-resolved field of orientation on which tractography was performed. Tractography of healthy myocardium revealed a smooth linear transition in fiber inclination or helix angle from the epicardium to endocardium. Conversely, in infarcted hearts, no coherent microstructure could be identified in the infarct with OCT Additional characterization of the infarct was performed by the measurement of light attenuation and with two-photon microscopy...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Josep Figueras-Aloy, Paolo Manzoni, Bosco Paes, Eric A F Simões, Louis Bont, Paul A Checchia, Brigitte Fauroux, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) series provide a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This second publication covers the risk and burden of RSV infection in preterm infants born at <37 weeks' gestational age (wGA) without chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken for articles published between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015...
September 14, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Jing Yu, Tao Hu, Yeshan Chen
Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is considered to deliver a better dose distribution and to shorten treatment time. There is a lack of research regarding breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) using VMAT with prone positioning. We developed a new small-arc VMAT methodology and compared it to conventional (fixed-field) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the dosimetric and treatment relevant parameters for breast cancer patients in the prone position.Ten early-stage breast cancer patients were included in this exploratory study...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Stephanie A Weber, Tabassum Z Insaf, Eric S Hall, Thomas O Talbot, Amy K Huff
An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements and generate realistic and representative concentration fields for use in epidemiological studies of human exposure to ambient air particulate concentrations. The general approach for research designed to analyze health impacts of exposure to PM2.5 is to use concentration data from the nearest ground-based air quality monitor(s), which typically have missing data on the temporal and spatial scales due to filter sampling schedules and monitor placement, respectively...
August 17, 2016: Environmental Research
Aaron So, Yasuhiro Imai, Brian Nett, John Jackson, Liz Nett, Jiang Hsieh, Gerald Wisenberg, Patrick Teefy, Andrew Yadegari, Ali Islam, Ting-Yim Lee
PURPOSE: The authors investigated the performance of a recently introduced 160-mm/256-row CT system for low dose quantitative myocardial perfusion (MP) imaging of the whole heart. This platform is equipped with a gantry capable of rotating at 280 ms per full cycle, a second generation of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR-V) to correct for image noise arising from low tube voltage potential/tube current dynamic scanning, and image reconstruction algorithms to tackle beam-hardening, cone-beam, and partial-scan effects...
August 2016: Medical Physics
Eric G Schmuck, Jill M Koch, John M Centanni, Timothy A Hacker, Rudolf K Braun, Marlowe Eldridge, Derek J Hei, Peiman Hematti, Amish N Raval
: : Cell tracking is a critical component of the safety and efficacy evaluation of therapeutic cell products. To date, cell-tracking modalities have been hampered by poor resolution, low sensitivity, and inability to track cells beyond the shortterm. Three-dimensional (3D) cryo-imaging coregisters fluorescent and bright-field microcopy images and allows for single-cell quantification within a 3D organ volume. We hypothesized that 3D cryo-imaging could be used to measure cell biodistribution and clearance after intravenous infusion in a rat lung injury model compared with normal rats...
July 26, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Hongjun Shi, Victoria C O'Reilly, Julie L M Moreau, Therese R Bewes, Michelle X Yam, Bogdan E Chapman, Stuart M Grieve, Roland Stocker, Robert M Graham, Gavin Chapman, Duncan B Sparrow, Sally L Dunwoodie
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is an enigma. It is the most common human birth defect and yet, even with the application of modern genetic and genomic technologies, only a minority of cases can be explained genetically. This is because environmental stressors also cause CHD. Here we propose a plausible non-genetic mechanism for induction of CHD by environmental stressors. We show that exposure of mouse embryos to short-term gestational hypoxia induces the most common types of heart defect. This is mediated by the rapid induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which profoundly reduces FGF signaling in cardiac progenitor cells of the second heart field...
July 15, 2016: Development
Milena Bellin, Christine L Mummery
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were first generated 10 years ago. Their ability to differentiate into any somatic cell type of the body including cardiomyocytes has already made them a valuable resource for modelling cardiac disease and drug screening. Initially human iPSCs were used mostly to model known disease phenotypes; more recently, and despite a number of recognised shortcomings, they have proven valuable in providing fundamental insights into the mechanisms of inherited heart disease with unknown genetic cause using surprisingly small cohorts...
August 2016: FEBS Letters
Yi-Kan Cheng, Lei Zeng, Shu-Biao Ye, Jian Zheng, Lin Zhang, Peng Sun, Xiao-Bo Jiang, Wen-Zhao Sun, Tao Xu, Lei Chen
OBJECTIVE: To report a novel approach for craniospinal irradiation (CSI) using a supine isocentric technique. METHODS: Patients were treated in the supine position using CT simulation. Half-beam-blocked lateral cranial fields and superior spinal fields have the same isocentre, and their beam divergences match. Tangential irradiation provides a non-divergent junction for the other two full-beam spinal fields. Shielding for cranial fields was generated, and dose distribution was calculated using a three-dimensional planning system...
September 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Javier Linares, Estibaliz Arellano-Viera, Olalla Iglesias-García, Carmen Ferreira, Elena Iglesias, Gloria Abizanda, Felipe Prósper, Xonia Carvajal-Vergara
Mef2c Anterior Heart Field (AHF) enhancer is activated during embryonic heart development and it is expressed in multipotent cardiovascular progenitors (CVP) giving rise to endothelial and myocardial components of the outflow tract, right ventricle and ventricular septum. Here we have generated iPSC from transgenic Mef2c-AHF-Cre x Ai6(RCLZsGreen) mice. These iPSC will provide a novel tool to investigate the AHF-CVP and their cell progeny.
May 2016: Stem Cell Research
Ina Völker, Christine Kirchner, Otmar L Bock
BACKGROUND: Work-related fatigue has a strong impact on performance and safety but so far, no agreed upon method exists to detect and quantify it. It has been suggested that work-related fatigue cannot be quantified with just one test alone, possibly because fatigue is not a uniform construct. The purpose of this study is therefore to measure work-related fatigue with multiple tests and then to determine the underlying factorial structure. METHODS: Twenty-eight employees (mean: 36...
June 2016: Safety and Health At Work
Ozanna Burnicka-Turek, Jeffrey D Steimle, Wenhui Huang, Lindsay Felker, Anna Kamp, Junghun Kweon, Michael Peterson, Roger H Reeves, Cheryl L Maslen, Peter J Gruber, Xinan H Yang, Jay Shendure, Ivan P Moskowitz
Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) are a common severe form of congenital heart disease (CHD). In this study we identified deleterious non-synonymous mutations in two cilia genes, Dnah11 and Mks1, in independent ENU-induced mouse mutant lines with heritable recessive AVSDs by whole-exome sequencing (WES). Cilia are required for left/right body axis determination and second heart field (SHF) Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, and we find that cilia mutations affect these requirements differentially. Dnah11(avc4) did not disrupt SHF Hh signaling and caused AVSDs only concurrently with heterotaxy, a left/right axis abnormality...
June 23, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Yuji Nakajima
D-transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is one of the most common conotruncal heart defects at birth and is characterized by a discordant ventriculoarterial connection with a concordant atrioventricular connection. The morphological etiology of TGA is an inverted or arrested rotation of the heart outflow tract (OFT, conotruncus), by which the aorta is transposed in the right ventral direction to the pulmonary trunk. The rotational defect of the OFT is thought to be attributed to hypoplasia of the subpulmonic conus, which originates from the left anterior heart field (AHF) residing in the mesodermal core of the first and second pharyngeal arches...
September 2016: Congenital Anomalies
Jameel Winter, John Kattwinkel, Christian Chisholm, Amy Blackman, Sarah Wilson, Karen Fairchild
Background Establishing lung inflation prior to umbilical cord clamping may improve the cardiovascular transition and reduce the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants. We developed a pilot feasibility and safety study in which infants < 33 weeks' gestation received assisted ventilation during delayed cord clamping (DCC). Methods Infants born between 24 0/7 and 32 6/7 weeks' gestation whose mothers consented were enrolled. All infants received continuous positive airway pressure or positive pressure ventilation during 90 seconds of DCC...
June 15, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
Michael Ghijsen, Bernard Choi, Anthony J Durkin, Sylvain Gioux, Bruce J Tromberg
In this work we present and validate a wide-field method for the real-time mapping of tissue absorption, scattering and blood flow properties over wide regions of tissue (15 cm x 15 cm) with high temporal resolution (50 frames per second). We achieve this by applying Fourier Domain demodulation techniques to coherent spatial frequency domain imaging to extract optical properties and speckle flow index from a single snapshot. Applying this technique to forearm reactive hyperemia protocols demonstrates the ability to resolve intrinsic physiological signals such as the heart beat waveform and the buildup of deoxyhemoglobin associated with oxygen consumption...
March 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
Kohji Nishida
Japan faces an aging population and a declining birth rate, so medical professionals and the public are seeking next-generation ophthalmological treatments to preserve and restore visual function. Two fields lie at the heart of this future concept of ophthalmological treatments. The first is predictive medicine and early intervention and treatment. This field is based on precision medicine to treat chronic conditions such as keratoconus, glaucoma, and macular degeneration while the condition is latent or soon after it has developed...
March 2016: Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
Stacey A Elmore, Kathryn P Huyvaert, Larissa L Bailey, Asma Iqbal, Chunlei Su, Brent R Dixon, Ray T Alisauskas, Alvin A Gajadhar, Emily J Jenkins
Increasingly, birds are recognised as important hosts for the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii, although little experimental evidence exists to determine which tissues should be tested to maximise the detection probability of T. gondii. Also, Arctic-nesting geese are suspected to be important sources of T. gondii in terrestrial Arctic ecosystems, but the parasite has not previously been reported in the tissues of these geese. Using a domestic goose model, we applied a multi-scale occupancy framework to demonstrate that the probability of detection of T...
August 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
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