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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666572/characterization-of-peripheral-activity-states-and-cortical-local-field-potentials-of-mice-in-an-elevated-plus-maze-test
#1
Toya Okonogi, Ryota Nakayama, Takuya Sasaki, Yuji Ikegaya
Elevated plus maze (EPM) tests have been used to assess animal anxiety levels. Little information is known regarding how physiological activity patterns of the brain-body system are altered during EPM tests. Herein, we monitored cortical local field potentials (LFPs), electrocardiograms (ECGs), electromyograms (EMGs), and respiratory signals in individual mice that were repeatedly exposed to EPM tests. On average, mouse heart rates were higher in open arms. In closed arms, the mice occasionally showed decreased heart and respiratory rates lasting for several seconds or minutes, characterized as low-peripheral activity states of peripheral signals...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664015/a-new-concept-of-fibroblast-dynamics-in-post-myocardial-infarction-remodeling
#2
Thomas Eschenhagen
The identity and function of the fibroblast, a highly prevalent cell type in the heart, have remained poorly defined. Recent faithful genetic lineage-tracing studies revealed that during development, the cardiac fibroblasts are derived from the epicardium and the endothelium, whereas in the adult heart, they constitute the cardiac injury-responsive resident fibroblast. In the current issue of the JCI, Molkentin and colleagues decipher the time course and mechanism of the fibroblast in response to myocardial infarction (MI)...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661203/exploratory-field-study-on-the-effect-of-porcine-circovirus-2-pcv2-sow-vaccination-on-serological-virological-and-reproductive-parameters-in-a-pcv2-subclinically-infected-sow-herd
#3
Salvador Oliver-Ferrando, Joaquim Segalés, Sergio López-Soria, Antonio Callén, Olivier Merdy, François Joisel, Marina Sibila
BACKGROUND: This study sought to evaluate the effect of sow vaccination against Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) on reproductive parameters during two consecutive reproductive cycles. The study was performed in a PCV2 subclinical infected breeding herd (PCV2 circulation but absence of major reproductive problems). Ninety-four pregnant sows were primo-immunized with a commercial PCV2 vaccine and ninety-seven were injected with phosphate-buffered saline at 6 and 3 weeks before the first studied farrowing, and then boosted at 2 weeks before the second one...
April 16, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628633/dosimetric-comparison-of-treatment-plans-using-physical-wedge-and-enhanced-dynamic-wedge-for-the-planning-of-breast-radiotherapy
#4
Zhenia Gopalakrishnan, Raghuram K Nair, P Raghukumar, B Sarin
The aim of this study is to compare the physical wedge (PW) with enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) to determine the difference in the dose distribution affecting the treated breast and the contralateral breast, lungs, heart, esophagus, spine, and surrounding skin in the radiotherapy of breast cancer. Computed tomography (CT) data sets of 30 breast cancer patients were selected from the database for the study. The treatment plans which were executed with PW were re-planned with EDW without changing the beam parameters...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575373/the-anatomical-components-of-the-cardiac-outflow-tract-of-chondrichthyans-and-actinopterygians
#5
Miguel Lorenzale, Miguel A López-Unzu, Cristina Rodríguez, Borja Fernández, Ana C Durán, Valentín Sans-Coma
The outflow tract of the fish heart is the segment interposed between the ventricle and the ventral aorta. It holds the valves that prevent blood backflow from the gill vasculature to the ventricle. The anatomical composition, histological structure and evolutionary changes in the fish cardiac outflow tract have been under discussion for nearly two centuries and are still subject to debate. This paper offers a brief historical review of the main conceptions about the cardiac outflow tract components of chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fish) and actinopterygians (ray-finned fish) which have been put forward since the beginning of the nineteenth century up to the current day...
March 25, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574767/patient-specific-estimation-of-spatially-variant-image-noise-for-a-pinhole-cardiac-spect-camera
#6
Sarah G Cuddy-Walsh, R Glenn Wells
PURPOSE: New single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras using fixed pinhole collimation are increasingly popular. Pinhole collimators are known to have variable sensitivity with distance and angle from the pinhole aperture. It follows that pinhole SPECT systems will also have spatially-variant sensitivity and hence spatially-variant image noise. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a rapid method for analytically estimating a map of the noise magnitude in a reconstructed image using data from a single clinical acquisition...
March 25, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559131/balancing-knowledge-and-basic-principles-in-veterinary-parasitology-competencies-for-future-danish-veterinary-graduates
#7
Stig Milan Thamsborg, Maria Vang Johansen, Peter Nejsum, Andrew R Williams, Helena Mejer
Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only a few parasites have Danish names. In our veterinary curriculum, zoology has disappeared as a discipline, and parasitology has gradually moved from the third year to the beginning of the second year, which implies that, for example, pathology and pharmacology are "unknown fields"...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553538/following-endocardial-tissue-movements-via-cell-photoconversion-in-the-zebrafish-embryo
#8
Renee Wei-Yan Chow, Paola Lamperti, Emily Steed, Francesco Boselli, Julien Vermot
During embryogenesis, cells undergo dynamic changes in cell behavior, and deciphering the cellular logic behind these changes is a fundamental goal in the field of developmental biology. The discovery and development of photoconvertible proteins have greatly aided our understanding of these dynamic changes by providing a method to optically highlight cells and tissues. However, while photoconversion, time-lapse microscopy, and subsequent image analysis have proven to be very successful in uncovering cellular dynamics in organs such as the brain or the eye, this approach is generally not used in the developing heart due to challenges posed by the rapid movement of the heart during the cardiac cycle...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550033/impact-of-spot-size-and-spacing-on-the-quality-of-robustly-optimized-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-plans-for-lung-cancer
#9
Chenbin Liu, Steven E Schild, Joe Y Chang, Zhongxing Liao, Shawn Korte, Jiajian Shen, Xiaoning Ding, Yanle Hu, Yixiu Kang, Sameer R Keole, Terence T Sio, William W Wong, Narayan Sahoo, Martin Bues, Wei Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate how spot size and spacing affect plan quality, robustness, and interplay effects of robustly optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for lung cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two robustly optimized IMPT plans were created for 10 lung cancer patients: first by a large-spot machine with in-air energy-dependent large spot size at isocenter (σ: 6-15 mm) and spacing (1.3 σ), and second by a small-spot machine with in-air energy-dependent small spot size (σ: 2-6 mm) and spacing (5 mm)...
February 14, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515582/cd4-t-cell-help-is-mandatory-for-naive-and-memory-donor-specific-antibody-responses-impact-of-therapeutic-immunosuppression
#10
Chien-Chia Chen, Alice Koenig, Carole Saison, Suzan Dahdal, Guillaume Rigault, Thomas Barba, Morgan Taillardet, Dimitri Chartoire, Michel Ovize, Emmanuel Morelon, Thierry Defrance, Olivier Thaunat
Antibody-mediated rejection is currently the leading cause of transplant failure. Prevailing dogma predicts that B cells differentiate into anti-donor-specific antibody (DSA)-producing plasma cells only with the help of CD4+ T cells. Yet, previous studies have shown that dependence on helper T cells decreases when high amounts of protein antigen are recruited to the spleen, two conditions potentially met by organ transplantation. This could explain why a significant proportion of transplant recipients develop DSA despite therapeutic immunosuppression...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490984/the-heart-tube-forms-and-elongates-through-dynamic-cell-rearrangement-coordinated-with-foregut-extension
#11
Hinako Kidokoro, Sayuri Yonei-Tamura, Koji Tamura, Gary C Schoenwolf, Yukio Saijoh
In the initiation of cardiogenesis, the heart primordia transform from bilateral, flat sheets of mesoderm into an elongated, midline tube. Here, we discover that this rapid architectural change is driven by actomyosin-based oriented cell rearrangement and resulting dynamic tissue reshaping (convergent extension: CE). By labeling clusters of cells spanning the entire heart primordia, we show that the heart primordia converge toward the midline to form a narrow tube, while extending perpendicularly to rapidly lengthen it...
February 28, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487868/the-reliability-and-validity-of-a-modified-squat-test-to-predict-cardiopulmonary-fitness-in-healthy-older-men
#12
Chiu-Ping Yeh, Hsien-Cheng Huang, Yaju Chang, Ming-De Chen, Miaoju Hsu
Background: Shortcomings are noted in currently available cardiopulmonary field tests for the older adult and thus relevant research is still ongoing. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a modified squat test and to establish a regression model for predicting aerobic fitness in the older adult. Methods: Twenty-five healthy men aged 60 to 75 years completed this study. Each subject performed two modified squat tests with a prototype testing equipment and a maximal exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483765/clinical-use-of-the-amplatzer-device-in-the-management-of-intracardiac-defects-a-single-center-experience
#13
Seema S Rao, Tyler L Scaff, John Gurley, Sibu Saha
Device therapy is a viable alternative to open heart surgery in the management of intracardiac defects. The Amplatzer septal occluder (ASO) is one such device that has been adapted to close a wide variety of cardiac defects with few complications and a high success rate. This is a retrospective review of all the patients who received the ASO between 2012 and 2016 at the University of Kentucky. In total, 169 patients underwent percutaneous closure of a septal defect with Amplatzer during the timeframe studied, and of those, 91% received the device for an atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale...
March 2018: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453834/demystifying-evidence-based-policy-analysis-by-revealing-hidden-value-laden-constraints
#14
Adam M Finkel
Consider any choice that affects some social policy. A decision that considers evidence will, at its heart, contain some kind of explicit or implicit "because" statement: "We are doing X because the evidence says Y." But can evidence ever truly speak for itself, in the sense of being reducible to objective utterances that are either correct or in need of correction? Before answering, consider what you'd prefer. Would you rather receive evidence that was free of any value judgments imposed by human actors, that was laden with value judgments that you agree with, or laden with value judgments that you disagree with? The central assertion of this essay is that, throughout policy analysis but especially in assessments of the costs and benefits of regulating versus encouraging new technologies (cost-benefit analysis, or CBA), the first possibility above is a mirage, and the second and third are self-contradictory...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431097/an-fgf-driven-feed-forward-circuit-patterns-the-cardiopharyngeal-mesoderm-in-space-and-time
#15
Florian Razy-Krajka, Basile Gravez, Nicole Kaplan, Claudia Racioppi, Wei Wang, Lionel Christiaen
In embryos, multipotent progenitors divide to produce distinct progeny and express their full potential. In vertebrates, multipotent cardiopharyngeal progenitors produce second-heart-field-derived cardiomyocytes, and branchiomeric skeletal head muscles. However, the mechanisms underlying these early fate choices remain largely elusive. The tunicate Ciona emerged as an attractive model to study early cardiopharyngeal development at high resolution: through two asymmetric and oriented divisions, defined cardiopharyngeal progenitors produce distinct first and second heart precursors, and pharyngeal muscle (aka atrial siphon muscle, ASM) precursors...
February 6, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382818/tbx5a-lineage-tracing-shows-cardiomyocyte-plasticity-during-zebrafish-heart-regeneration
#16
Héctor Sánchez-Iranzo, María Galardi-Castilla, Carolina Minguillón, Andrés Sanz-Morejón, Juan Manuel González-Rosa, Anastasia Felker, Alexander Ernst, Gabriela Guzmán-Martínez, Christian Mosimann, Nadia Mercader
During development, mesodermal progenitors from the first heart field (FHF) form a primitive cardiac tube, to which progenitors from the second heart field (SHF) are added. The contribution of FHF and SHF progenitors to the adult zebrafish heart has not been studied to date. Here we find, using genetic tbx5a lineage tracing tools, that the ventricular myocardium in the adult zebrafish is mainly derived from tbx5a+ cells, with a small contribution from tbx5a- SHF progenitors. Notably, ablation of ventricular tbx5a+ -derived cardiomyocytes in the embryo is compensated by expansion of SHF-derived cells...
January 30, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367542/insights-from-second-line-treatments-for-idiopathic-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#17
Marco Luciani, Federica Del Monte
BACKGROUND: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an independent nosographic entity characterized by left ventricular dilatation and contractile dysfunction leading to heart failure (HF). The idiopathic form of DCM (iDCM) occurs in the absence of coronaropathy or other known causes of DCM. Despite being different from other forms of HF for demographic, clinical, and prognostic features, its current pharmacological treatment does not significantly diverge. METHODS: In this study we performed a Pubmed library search for placebo-controlled clinical investigations and a post-hoc analysis recruiting iDCM from 1985 to 2016...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367466/mutations-in-hnrnpa1-cause-congenital-heart-defects
#18
Zhe Yu, Paul Lf Tang, Jing Wang, Suying Bao, Joseph T Shieh, Alan Wl Leung, Zhao Zhang, Fei Gao, Sandra Yy Wong, Andy Lc Hui, Yuan Gao, Nelson Dung, Zhi-Gang Zhang, Yanhui Fan, Xueya Zhou, Yalun Zhang, Dana Sm Wong, Pak C Sham, Abid Azhar, Pui-Yan Kwok, Patrick Pl Tam, Qizhou Lian, Kathryn Se Cheah, Binbin Wang, You-Qiang Song
Incomplete penetrance of congenital heart defects (CHDs) was observed in a mouse model. We hypothesized that the contribution of a major genetic locus modulates the manifestation of the CHDs. After genome-wide linkage mapping, fine mapping, and high-throughput targeted sequencing, a recessive frameshift mutation of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (Hnrnpa1) gene was confirmed (Hnrnpa1ct). Hnrnpa1 was expressed in both the first heart field (FHF) and second heart field (SHF) at the cardiac crescent stage but was only maintained in SHF progenitors after heart tube formation...
January 25, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361575/nkx-genes-establish-second-heart-field-cardiomyocyte-progenitors-at-the-arterial-pole-and-pattern-the-venous-pole-through-isl1-repression
#19
Sophie Colombo, Carmen de Sena-Tomás, Vanessa George, Andreas A Werdich, Sunil Kapur, Calum A MacRae, Kimara L Targoff
NKX2-5 is the most commonly mutated gene associated with human congenital heart defects (CHDs), with a predilection for cardiac pole abnormalities. This homeodomain transcription factor is a central regulator of cardiac development and is expressed in both the first and second heart fields (FHF and SHF). We have previously revealed essential functions of nkx2.5 and nkx2.7 , two Nkx2-5 homologs expressed in zebrafish cardiomyocytes, in maintaining ventricular identity. However, the differential roles of these genes in the specific subpopulations of the anterior (aSHF) and posterior (pSHF) SHFs have yet to be fully defined...
February 5, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345005/-there-s-no-acknowledgement-of-what-this-does-to-people-a-qualitative-exploration-of-mental-health-among-parents-of-children-with-critical-congenital-heart-defects
#20
Sarah Woolf-King, Emily Arnold, Sandra Weiss, David Teitel
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to explore the psychological impact of parenting a child with a critical congenital heart defect (CHD), and the feasibility and acceptability of integrating psychological services into pediatric cardiology care. BACKGROUND: Children with critical CHD are at an increased risk for long-term behavioral, social, and emotional difficulties. Data suggest that this risk is partially attributable to parental mental health, which is a stronger predictor of long-term behavioral problems in CHD children than disease-specific and surgical factors...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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