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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893754/cyp26-enzymes-facilitate-second-heart-field-progenitor-addition-and-maintenance-of-ventricular-integrity
#1
Ariel B Rydeen, Joshua S Waxman
Although retinoic acid (RA) teratogenicity has been investigated for decades, the mechanisms underlying RA-induced outflow tract (OFT) malformations are not understood. Here, we show zebrafish embryos deficient for Cyp26a1 and Cyp26c1 enzymes, which promote RA degradation, have OFT defects resulting from two mechanisms: first, a failure of second heart field (SHF) progenitors to join the OFT, instead contributing to the pharyngeal arch arteries (PAAs), and second, a loss of first heart field (FHF) ventricular cardiomyocytes due to disrupted cell polarity and extrusion from the heart tube...
November 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890346/the-uk-heartspare-study-stage-ii-multicentre-evaluation-of-a-voluntary-breath-hold-technique-in-patients-receiving-breast-radiotherapy
#2
F R Bartlett, E M Donovan, H A McNair, L A Corsini, R M Colgan, P M Evans, L Maynard, C Griffin, J S Haviland, J R Yarnold, A M Kirby
AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility and heart-sparing ability of the voluntary breath-hold (VBH) technique in a multicentre setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were recruited from 10 UK centres. Following surgery for early left breast cancer, patients with any heart inside the 50% isodose from a standard free-breathing tangential field treatment plan underwent a second planning computed tomography (CT) scan using the VBH technique. A separate treatment plan was prepared on the VBH CT scan and used for treatment...
November 24, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886501/fate-of-alpha-dynamos-at-large-rm
#3
Alexandre Cameron, Alexandros Alexakis
At the heart of today's solar magnetic field evolution models lies the alpha dynamo description. In this work, we investigate the fate of alpha dynamos as the magnetic Reynolds number Rm is increased. Using Floquet theory, we are able to precisely quantify mean-field effects like the alpha and beta effect (i) by rigorously distinguishing dynamo modes that involve large-scale components from the ones that only involve small scales, and by (ii) providing a way to investigate arbitrary large-scale separations with minimal computational cost...
November 11, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872471/recent-progress-in-xenotransplantation-with-emphasis-on-virological-safety
#4
Joachim Denner
Xenotransplantation is a new technology that may help to overcome the shortage of human tissues and organs available for the treatment of tissue and organ failure. Remarkable progress has recently been made in this field. First, understanding of the mechanisms of immunological rejection, mainly of the hyperacute rejection, allowed generating numerous genetically modified pigs to overcome rejection. Second, based on these genetically modified animals and new immunosuppression regimens, long-term survival of non-human primate recipients of heart, kidney, and islet cell cells has been reported...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821521/from-cytoskeletal-dynamics-to-organ-asymmetry-a-nonlinear-regulative-pathway-underlies-left-right-patterning
#5
Gary McDowell, Suvithan Rajadurai, Michael Levin
Consistent left-right (LR) asymmetry is a fundamental aspect of the bodyplan across phyla, and errors of laterality form an important class of human birth defects. Its molecular underpinning was first discovered as a sequential pathway of left- and right-sided gene expression that controlled positioning of the heart and visceral organs. Recent data have revised this picture in two important ways. First, the physical origin of chirality has been identified; cytoskeletal dynamics underlie the asymmetry of single-cell behaviour and patterning of the LR axis...
December 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808412/potassium-currents-in-the-heart-functional-roles-in-repolarization-arrhythmia-and-therapeutics
#6
Nipavan Chiamvimonvat, Ye Chen-Izu, Colleen E Clancy, Isabelle Deschenes, Dobromir Dobrev, Jordi Heijman, Leighton Izu, Zhilin Qu, Crystal M Ripplinger, Jamie I Vandenberg, James N Weiss, Gideon Koren, Tamas Banyasz, Eleonora Grandi, Michael C Sanguinetti, Donald M Bers, Jeanne M Nerbonne
This is the second of the two white papers from the fourth UC Davis Systems Approach to Understanding Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Arrhythmias Symposium (March 3-4, 2016), a biannual event that brings together leading experts in different fields of cardiovascular research. The theme of the 2016 symposium was "K(+) Channels and Regulation", and the objectives of the conference were several fold: 1) to identify current knowledge gaps; 2) to understand what may go wrong in the diseased heart and why; 3) to identify possible novel therapeutic targets; and 4) to further the development of systems biology approaches to decipher the molecular mechanisms and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794491/vegf-regulates-relative-allocation-of-isl1-cardiac-progenitors-to-myocardial-and-endocardial-lineages
#7
Zhiheng He, Myriam Grunewald, Yuval Dor, Eli Keshet
A fundamental issue in organogenesis is how dichotomous fate decisions are made securing proper allocation of multipotent progenitors to their respective descendants. Previous lineage tracing analyses showing Isl1(+)/VEGFR2(+) cardiac progenitors in the second heart field give rise to both endocardium and myocardium suggest VEGF plays a role in this fate decision, conceivably promoting an endocardial fate. Isl1(+) multipotent progenitors and lineage-committed descendants thereof were visualized and quantified within their transition zone in the outflow tract...
October 26, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791486/perception-or-reality-can-thermal-perceptions-inform-management-of-firefighters-in-the-heat
#8
Anthony Walker, Ben Rattray, Matt Brearley
Accurately assessing the physiological status of firefighters during work in the heat is critical to ensuring their safety. Evaluating core temperatures (Tc) in the field is problematic due to cost and limitations in technology and accuracy. As such, fire services rely on individual perceptions of wellbeing. The present study aimed to establish whether perceptual responses measured using the perceptual strain index (PeSI), calculated from rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation (TS), could reliably predict the physiological strain (PSI) encountered by experienced firefighters working in a hot environment...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764523/benzodiazepines-for-the-relief-of-breathlessness-in-advanced-malignant-and-non-malignant-diseases-in-adults
#9
REVIEW
Steffen T Simon, Irene J Higginson, Sara Booth, Richard Harding, Vera Weingärtner, Claudia Bausewein
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 1, 2010, on 'Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults'. Breathlessness is one of the most common symptoms experienced in the advanced stages of malignant and non-malignant disease. Benzodiazepines are widely used for the relief of breathlessness in advanced diseases and are regularly recommended in the literature. At the time of the previously published Cochrane review, there was no evidence for a beneficial effect of benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in people with advanced cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
October 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760729/a-portable-infrared-photoplethysmograph-heartbeat-of-mytilus-galloprovincialis-analyzed-by-mri-and-application-to-bathymodiolus-septemdierum
#10
Eriko Seo, Toshiyuki Sazi, Morio Togawa, Osamu Nagata, Masataka Murakami, Shigeaki Kojima, Yoshiteru Seo
Infrared photoplethysmogram (IR-PPG) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) of the Mytilus galloprovincialis heart were obtained simultaneously. Heart rate was varied by changing temperature, aerial exposure and hypoxia. Higher heart rates (35-20 beat min(-1)) were usually observed at 20°C under the aerobic condition, and typical IR-PPG represented a single peak (peak v). The upward and downward slopes of the peak v corresponded to the filling and contracting of the ventricle, respectively. A double-peak IR-PPG was observed in a wide range of heart rates (5 to 35 beats min(-1)) under various conditions...
November 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754813/zrf1-controls-mesoderm-lineage-genes-and-cardiomyocyte-differentiation
#11
Aysegül Kaymak, Holger Richly
In the present study we addressed the function of the transcriptional activator Zrf1 in the generation of the three germ layers during in vitro development. Currently, Zrf1 is rather regarded as a factor that drives the expression of neuronal genes. Here, we have employed mouse embryonic stem cells and P19 cells to understand the role of Zrf1 in the generation of mesoderm-derived tissues like adipocytes, cartilage and heart. Our data shows that Zrf1 is essential for the transcriptional activation of genes that give rise to mesoderm and in particular heart development...
October 18, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736098/culture-and-biology-interplay-an-introduction
#12
José M Causadias, Eva H Telzer, Richard M Lee
Objective: Culture and biology have evolved together, influence each other, and concurrently shape behavior, affect, cognition, and development. This special section highlights 2 major domains of the interplay between culture and biology. Method: The first domain is neurobiology of cultural experiences-how cultural, ethnic, and racial experiences influence limbic systems and neuroendocrine functioning-and the second domain is cultural neuroscience-the connections between cultural processes and brain functioning...
August 15, 2016: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723731/imaging-the-motion-of-electrons-across-semiconductor-heterojunctions
#13
Michael K L Man, Athanasios Margiolakis, Skylar Deckoff-Jones, Takaaki Harada, E Laine Wong, M Bala Murali Krishna, Julien Madéo, Andrew Winchester, Sidong Lei, Robert Vajtai, Pulickel M Ajayan, Keshav M Dani
Technological progress since the late twentieth century has centred on semiconductor devices, such as transistors, diodes and solar cells. At the heart of these devices is the internal motion of electrons through semiconductor materials due to applied electric fields or by the excitation of photocarriers. Imaging the motion of these electrons would provide unprecedented insight into this important phenomenon, but requires high spatial and temporal resolution. Current studies of electron dynamics in semiconductors are generally limited by the spatial resolution of optical probes, or by the temporal resolution of electronic probes...
October 10, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696641/a-social-technological-epistemology-of-clinical-decision-making-as-mediated-by-imaging
#14
Sophie van Baalen, Annamaria Carusi, Ian Sabroe, David G Kiely
In recent years there has been growing attention to the epistemology of clinical decision-making, but most studies have taken the individual physicians as the central object of analysis. In this paper we argue that knowing in current medical practice has an inherently social character and that imaging plays a mediating role in these practices. We have analyzed clinical decision-making within a medical expert team involved in diagnosis and treatment of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH), a rare disease requiring multidisciplinary team involvement in diagnosis and management...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650248/microstructural-characterization-of-myocardial-infarction-with-optical-coherence-tractography-and-two-photon-microscopy
#15
Craig J Goergen, Howard H Chen, Sava Sakadžić, Vivek J Srinivasan, David E Sosnovik
Myocardial infarction leads to complex changes in the fiber architecture of the heart. Here, we present a novel optical approach to characterize these changes in intact hearts in three dimensions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to derive a depth-resolved field of orientation on which tractography was performed. Tractography of healthy myocardium revealed a smooth linear transition in fiber inclination or helix angle from the epicardium to endocardium. Conversely, in infarcted hearts, no coherent microstructure could be identified in the infarct with OCT Additional characterization of the infarct was performed by the measurement of light attenuation and with two-photon microscopy...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27628014/defining-the-risk-and-associated-morbidity-and-mortality-of-severe-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-among-preterm-infants-without-chronic-lung-disease-or-congenital-heart-disease
#16
Josep Figueras-Aloy, Paolo Manzoni, Bosco Paes, Eric A F Simões, Louis Bont, Paul A Checchia, Brigitte Fauroux, Xavier Carbonell-Estrany
INTRODUCTION: The REGAL (RSV Evidence-a Geographical Archive of the Literature) series provide a comprehensive review of the published evidence in the field of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in Western countries over the last 20 years. This second publication covers the risk and burden of RSV infection in preterm infants born at <37 weeks' gestational age (wGA) without chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken for articles published between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2015...
September 14, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559956/small-arc-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-a-new-approach-that-is-superior-to-fixed-field-imrt-in-optimizing-dosimetric-and-treatment-relevant-parameters-for-patients-undergoing-whole-breast-irradiation-following-breast-conserving-surgery
#17
Jing Yu, Tao Hu, Yeshan Chen
Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is considered to deliver a better dose distribution and to shorten treatment time. There is a lack of research regarding breast irradiation after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) using VMAT with prone positioning. We developed a new small-arc VMAT methodology and compared it to conventional (fixed-field) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the dosimetric and treatment relevant parameters for breast cancer patients in the prone position.Ten early-stage breast cancer patients were included in this exploratory study...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543787/assessing-the-impact-of-fine-particulate-matter-pm2-5-on-respiratory-cardiovascular-chronic-diseases-in-the-new-york-city-metropolitan-area-using-hierarchical-bayesian-model-estimates
#18
Stephanie A Weber, Tabassum Z Insaf, Eric S Hall, Thomas O Talbot, Amy K Huff
An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements and generate realistic and representative concentration fields for use in epidemiological studies of human exposure to ambient air particulate concentrations. The general approach for research designed to analyze health impacts of exposure to PM2.5 is to use concentration data from the nearest ground-based air quality monitor(s), which typically have missing data on the temporal and spatial scales due to filter sampling schedules and monitor placement, respectively...
August 17, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487900/technical-note-evaluation-of-a-160-mm-256-row-ct-scanner-for-whole-heart-quantitative-myocardial-perfusion-imaging
#19
Aaron So, Yasuhiro Imai, Brian Nett, John Jackson, Liz Nett, Jiang Hsieh, Gerald Wisenberg, Patrick Teefy, Andrew Yadegari, Ali Islam, Ting-Yim Lee
PURPOSE: The authors investigated the performance of a recently introduced 160-mm/256-row CT system for low dose quantitative myocardial perfusion (MP) imaging of the whole heart. This platform is equipped with a gantry capable of rotating at 280 ms per full cycle, a second generation of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR-V) to correct for image noise arising from low tube voltage potential/tube current dynamic scanning, and image reconstruction algorithms to tackle beam-hardening, cone-beam, and partial-scan effects...
August 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460855/biodistribution-and-clearance-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-quantitative-three-dimensional-cryo-imaging-after-intravenous-infusion-in-a-rat-lung-injury-model
#20
Eric G Schmuck, Jill M Koch, John M Centanni, Timothy A Hacker, Rudolf K Braun, Marlowe Eldridge, Derek J Hei, Peiman Hematti, Amish N Raval
: : Cell tracking is a critical component of the safety and efficacy evaluation of therapeutic cell products. To date, cell-tracking modalities have been hampered by poor resolution, low sensitivity, and inability to track cells beyond the shortterm. Three-dimensional (3D) cryo-imaging coregisters fluorescent and bright-field microcopy images and allows for single-cell quantification within a 3D organ volume. We hypothesized that 3D cryo-imaging could be used to measure cell biodistribution and clearance after intravenous infusion in a rat lung injury model compared with normal rats...
July 26, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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