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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793912/re-evaluation-of-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome-from-a-developmental-and-morphological-perspective
#1
A Crucean, A Alqahtani, D J Barron, W J Brawn, R V Richardson, J O'Sullivan, R H Anderson, D J Henderson, B Chaudhry
BACKGROUND: Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) covers a spectrum of rare congenital anomalies characterised by a non-apex forming left ventricle and stenosis/atresia of the mitral and aortic valves. Despite many studies, the causes of HLHS remain unclear and there are conflicting views regarding the role of flow, valvar or myocardial abnormalities in its pathogenesis, all of which were proposed prior to the description of the second heart field. Our aim was to re-evaluate the patterns of malformation in HLHS in relation to recognised cardiac progenitor populations, with a view to providing aetiologically useful sub-groupings for genomic studies...
August 10, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754980/regulation-of-sema3c-and-the-interaction-between-cardiac-neural-crest-and-second-heart-field-during-outflow-tract-development
#2
Kazuki Kodo, Shinsuke Shibata, Sachiko Miyagawa-Tomita, Sang-Ging Ong, Hiroshi Takahashi, Tsutomu Kume, Hideyuki Okano, Rumiko Matsuoka, Hiroyuki Yamagishi
The cardiac neural crest cells (cNCCs) and the second heart field (SHF) play key roles in development of the cardiac outflow tract (OFT) for establishment of completely separated pulmonary and systemic circulations in vertebrates. A neurovascular guiding factor, Semaphorin 3c (Sema3c), is required for the development of the OFT, however, its regulation of the interaction between cNCCs and SHF remains to be determined. Here, we show that a Sema3c is a candidate that mediates interaction between cNCCs and the SHF during development of the OFT...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730886/is-the-10-m-incremental-shuttle-walk-test-a-useful-test-of-exercise-capacity-for-patients-referred-to-cardiac-rehabilitation
#3
Lisa C Hanson, Helen McBurney, Nicholas F Taylor
BACKGROUND: Field exercise tests are a feasible alternative to the symptom-limited exercise test for measuring exercise capacity in patients attending cardiac rehabilitation. AIMS: To evaluate the criterion validity of the 10 m incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) as a useful tool for measurement of exercise capacity for patients eligible for cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: Fifteen patients eligible for cardiac rehabilitation completed a treadmill symptom-limited exercise test and two ISWTs with the order of testing randomised...
July 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668371/the-versatility-of-heart-cutting-and-comprehensive-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography-in-monoclonal-antibody-clone-selection
#4
Koen Sandra, Mieke Steenbeke, Isabel Vandenheede, Gerd Vanhoenacker, Pat Sandra
In recent years, two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has seen an enormous evolution and one of the fields where it is being widely adopted is in the analysis of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We here further add to the many flavours of this powerful technology. Workflows based on heart-cutting (LC-LC) and comprehensive (LC×LC) 2D-LC are described that allow to guide the clone selection process in mAb and biosimilar development. Combining Protein A affinity chromatography in the first dimension with size exclusion (SEC), cation exchange (CEX) or reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (RPLC-MS) in the second dimension simultaneously allows to assess mAb titer and critical structural aspects such as aggregation, fragmentation, charge heterogeneity, molecular weight (MW), amino acid sequence and glycosylation...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663257/smooth-muscle-cells-derived-from-second-heart-field-and-cardiac-neural-crest-reside-in-spatially-distinct-domains-in-the-media-of-the-ascending-aorta
#5
Hisashi Sawada, Debra L Rateri, Jessica J Moorleghen, Mark W Majesky, Alan Daugherty
OBJECTIVE: Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of the proximal thoracic aorta are embryonically derived from the second heart field (SHF) and cardiac neural crest (CNC). However, distributions of these embryonic origins are not fully defined. The regional distribution of SMCs of different origins is speculated to cause region-specific aortopathies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the distribution of SMCs of SHF and CNC origins in the proximal thoracic aorta. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Mice with repressed LacZ in the ROSA26 locus were bred to those expressing Cre controlled by either the Wnt1 or Mef2c (myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c) promoter to trace CNC- and SHF-derived SMCs, respectively...
June 29, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657804/physiological-profile-of-an-uphill-time-trial-in-elite-cyclists
#6
Ana B Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A Castro, Francisco J Calderón, Pedro J Benito
PURPOSE: While a number of studies have researched road cycling performance, few studies have attempted to investigate the physiological response in field conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the physiological and performance profile of an uphill time-trial frequently used in cycling competitions. METHODS: Fourteen elite road cyclists (mean±SD: age 25±6 years, height 174±4.2 cm, body mass 64.4±6.1 kg and fat mass 7.48±2.82%) performed a graded exercise test until exhaustion to determine maximal parameters...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639443/relationship-between-the-handball-specific-complex-test-nonspecific-field-tests-and-the-match-performance-score-in-elite-professional-handball-players
#7
Souhail Hermassi, Mohamed S Chelly, Rainer Wollny, Birgit Hoffmeyer, Georg Fieseler, Stephan Schulze, Lars Irlenbusch, Karl-Stefan Delank, Roy J Shephard, Thomas Bartels, René Schwesig
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the validity of the handball-specific complex-test (HBCT) and two nonspecific field tests in professional elite handball athletes, using the match performance score (MPS) as the gold standard of performance. METHODS: Thirteen elite male handball players (age: 27.4 ± 4.8 years; premier German league) performed the HBCT, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo-IR1-test) and a repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSA) test at the beginning of pre-season training...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628036/arcuate-neuropeptide-y-inhibits-sympathetic-nerve-activity-via-multiple-neuropathways
#8
Zhigang Shi, Christopher J Madden, Virginia L Brooks
Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH)...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620608/a-path-to-implement-precision-child-health-cardiovascular-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Marlin Touma, Brian Reemtsen, Nancy Halnon, Juan Alejos, J Paul Finn, Stanley F Nelson, Yibin Wang
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) affect approximately 1% of live births and are a major source of childhood morbidity and mortality even in countries with advanced healthcare systems. Along with phenotypic heterogeneity, the underlying etiology of CHDs is multifactorial, involving genetic, epigenetic, and/or environmental contributors. Clear dissection of the underlying mechanism is a powerful step to establish individualized therapies. However, the majority of CHDs are yet to be clearly diagnosed for the underlying genetic and environmental factors, and even less with effective therapies...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620054/an-assessment-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-the-electrohypersensitive-population-a-heart-rate-variability-and-skin-conductance-study
#10
Soafara Andrianome, Jonathan Gobert, Laurent Hugueville, Erwan Stéphan-Blanchard, Frederic Telliez, Brahim Selmaoui
The aim of the study was twofold: first, to compare the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) between the population self-declared as electrohypersensitive (EHS) and their matched control individuals without intended exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The second objective was to determine whether acute exposure to different radiofrequency signals modifies ANS activity in EHS. For that purpose, two different experiments were undertaken, in which ANS activity was assessed through heart rate variability (HRV) and skin conductance (SC)...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587865/impact-of-vat-resistance-in-melon-on-viral-epidemics-and-genetic-structure-of-virus-populations
#11
Schoeny Alexandra, Desbiez Cécile, Millot Pauline, Wipf-Scheibel Catherine, Nozeran Karine, Gognalons Patrick, Lecoq Hervé, Boissot Nathalie
Cultivar choice is at the heart of cropping systems and resistant cultivars should be at the heart of disease management strategies whenever available. They are the easiest, most efficient and environmentally friendly way of combating viral diseases at the farm level. Among the melon genetic resources, Vat is a unique gene conferring resistance to both the melon aphid Aphis gossypii and the viruses it carries. The 'virus side' of this pleiotropic phenotype is seldom regarded as an asset for virus control. Indeed, the effect of Vat on virus epidemics in the field is expected to vary according to the composition of aphid populations in the environment and long-term studies are needed to draw a correct trend...
June 3, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584083/gene-regulatory-networks-and-cell-lineages-that-underlie-the-formation-of-skeletal-muscle
#12
Margaret Buckingham
Skeletal muscle in vertebrates is formed by two major routes, as illustrated by the mouse embryo. Somites give rise to myogenic progenitors that form all of the muscles of the trunk and limbs. The behavior of these cells and their entry into the myogenic program is controlled by gene regulatory networks, where paired box gene 3 (Pax3) plays a predominant role. Head and some neck muscles do not derive from somites, but mainly form from mesoderm in the pharyngeal region. Entry into the myogenic program also depends on the myogenic determination factor (MyoD) family of genes, but Pax3 is not expressed in these myogenic progenitors, where different gene regulatory networks function, with T-box factor 1 (Tbx1) and paired-like homeodomain factor 2 (Pitx2) as key upstream genes...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512434/evaluation-of-a-rapid-anisotropic-model-for-ecg-simulation
#13
Simone Pezzuto, Peter Kal'avský, Mark Potse, Frits W Prinzen, Angelo Auricchio, Rolf Krause
State-of-the-art cardiac electrophysiology models that are able to deliver physiologically motivated activation maps and electrocardiograms (ECGs) can only be solved on high-performance computing architectures. This makes it nearly impossible to adopt such models in clinical practice. ECG imaging tools typically rely on simplified models, but these neglect the anisotropic electric conductivity of the tissue in the forward problem. Moreover, their results are often confined to the heart-torso interface. We propose a forward model that fully accounts for the anisotropic tissue conductivity and produces the standard 12-lead ECG in a few seconds...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504233/serbia-coronary-and-structural-heart-interventions-from-2010-to-2015
#14
Sinisa Stojkovic, Dejan Milasinovic, Nenad Bozinovic, Aleksandar Davidovic, Dragan Debeljacki, Nemanja Djenic, Sasa Hinic, Nikola Jagic, Olivera Micic, Vladimir Mitov, Aleksandar N Neskovic, Milan Nikolic, Dragan Sagic, Goran Stankovic
Serbia's interventional community has been facing the multifaceted challenge of an ageing population with cardiovascular diseases as the primary cause of death nationwide, coronary artery disease (CAD) being the most prevalent subset. The following two fields of activity have marked the trajectory of progress in the field of interventional cardiology in Serbia: first, the expansion of the infrastructure, mainly through the opening of new catheterisation laboratories across all of the country's administrative regions, which has resulted in better accessibility to coronary interventions for the general population; second, the creation of national platforms for continuous education, training and the promotion of clinical research in interventional cardiology, with close programmatic links to European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI)-based educational initiatives, including the curriculum for interventional cardiology...
May 15, 2017: EuroIntervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497128/innovative-therapeutics-designer-natriuretic-peptides
#15
Laura M G Meems, John C Burnett
Endogenous natriuretic peptides serve as potent activators of particulate guanylyl cyclase receptors and the second messenger cGMP. Natriuretic peptides are essential in maintenance of volume homeostasis, and can be of myocardial, renal and endothelial origin. Advances in peptide engineering have permitted the ability to pursue highly innovative drug discovery strategies. This has resulted in designer natriuretic peptides that go beyond native peptides in efficacy, specificity, and resistance to enzymatic degradation...
December 2016: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496549/phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors-improve-clinical-outcomes-exercise-capacity-and-pulmonary-hemodynamics-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-a-meta-analysis
#16
Renato De Vecchis, Arturo Cesaro, Carmelina Ariano, Anna Giasi, Carmela Cioppa
BACKGROUND: Several studies have compared the use of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors sildenafil or udenafil with the placebo in patients suffering from pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left chronic heart failure (CHF), corresponding to group 2 (PH due to left heart disease) of the PH classification (according to 2015 ESC/ERS guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PH). The results of the use of PDE5 inhibitors in the PH due to left heart disease were inconsistent and heterogeneous...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491275/outflow-tract-septation-and-the-aortic-arch-system-in-reptiles-lessons-for-understanding-the-mammalian-heart
#17
Robert E Poelmann, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Marcel W M Biermans, Anne I Dolfing, Armand Jagessar, Sam van Hattum, Amanda Hoogenboom, Lambertus J Wisse, Rebecca Vicente-Steijn, Merijn A G de Bakker, Freek J Vonk, Tatsuya Hirasawa, Shigeru Kuratani, Michael K Richardson
BACKGROUND: Cardiac outflow tract patterning and cell contribution are studied using an evo-devo approach to reveal insight into the development of aorto-pulmonary septation. RESULTS: We studied embryonic stages of reptile hearts (lizard, turtle and crocodile) and compared these to avian and mammalian development. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to indicate where the essential cell components in the outflow tract and aortic sac were deployed, more specifically endocardial, neural crest and second heart field cells...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479953/effects-of-simulated-altitude-on-maximal-oxygen-uptake-and-inspiratory-fitness
#18
Nicole C Biggs, Benjamin S England, Nicole J Turcotte, Melissa R Cook, Alyne L Williams
Aerobic exercise at altitude has shown an increase in maximal oxygen uptake. Similar effects have been replicated by way of simulated altitude training, which have influenced various advances in the field of exercise science. Elevation Training Masks© (ETM) claim to stimulate cardiorespiratory fitness improvements similar to training at altitude, however, there is little research to support this claim. The purpose of this study was to research the effect that a hypoxia-inducing mask would have on cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function through the use of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) running program...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430109/acquisition-of-electrocardiogram-signals-during-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#19
Julien Oster, Gari D Clifford
The recording of the electrocardiogram (ECG) during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition is of great interest and importance. Firstly, MRI acquisition is a relatively slow process, which therefore complicates the imaging of moving organs. Cardiac MRI requires the development of strategies for acquiring high quality images, which is mainly achieved by synchronising the image acquisition with a specific time during the cardiac cycle. The ECG is used to monitor the heart's activity, and the detection of the largest and steepest peak in the cardiac cycle (the QRS complex) triggers the acquisition of slices of the k-space...
June 22, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388767/treatment-of-coronary-artery-disease-randomized-trials-on-myocardial-revascularization-and-complete-arterial-bypass-grafting
#20
Ardawan J Rastan
Friedrich Wilhelm Mohr from the very beginning of his career as a cardiac surgeon was involved in the refinements of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the Leipzig Heart Center, his spirit of early adapting to new technologies inspired the entire team and led to a matchless scientific atmosphere to find solutions to improve almost all fields of cardiac surgery, including CABG. In combination with a tremendous number of patients with indications for isolated coronary artery bypass Prof. Mohr as the surgical principle investigator and the Leipzig Heart Center were able to include patients in the Synergy between PCI [percutaneous coronary intervention] with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial, the first randomized trials comparing CABG and PCIs using the drug-eluting stents...
April 2017: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
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