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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346898/modelling-of-escherichia-coli-concentrations-in-bathing-water-at-microtidal-coasts
#1
A Palazón, I López, L Aragonés, Y Villacampa, F J Navarro-González
Monitoring of the quality of bathing water in line with the European Commission bathing water directive (Directive 2006/7/EC) is a significant economic expense for those countries with great lengths of coastline. In this study a numerical model based on finite elements is generated whose objective is partially substituting the microbiological analysis of the quality of coastal bathing waters. According to a study of the concentration of Escherichia coli in 299 Spanish Mediterranean beaches, it was established that the most important variables that influence the concentration are: monthly sunshine hours, mean monthly precipitation, number of goat cattle heads, population density, presence of Posidonia oceanica, UV, urbanization level, type of sediment, wastewater treatment ratio, salinity, distance to the nearest discharge, and wave height perpendicular to the coast...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346136/environment-determines-evolutionary-trajectory-in-a-constrained-phenotypic-space
#2
David T Fraebel, Harry Mickalide, Diane Schnitkey, Jason Merritt, Thomas E Kuhlman, Seppe Kuehn
Constraints on phenotypic variation limit the capacity of organisms to adapt to the multiple selection pressures encountered in natural environments. To better understand evolutionary dynamics in this context, we select Escherichia coli for faster migration through a porous environment, a process which depends on both motility and growth. We find that a trade-off between swimming speed and growth rate constrains the evolution of faster migration. Evolving faster migration in rich medium results in slow growth and fast swimming, while evolution in minimal medium results in fast growth and slow swimming...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345957/xyloglucan-hibiscus-and-propolis-for-the-prevention-of-urinary-tract-infections-results-of-in-vitro-studies
#3
Benito Fraile, Javier Alcover, Mar Royuela, David Rodríguez, Concepción Chaves, Ricardo Palacios, Núria Piqué
AIM: To assess the properties of a medical device containing xyloglucan, propolis and hibiscus to create a bioprotective barrier to avoid the contact of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains on cell walls in models of intestinal (CacoGoblet) and uroepithelial (RWPE-1) cells (derived from normal human prostate epithelium). MATERIALS & METHODS: Two uropathogenic E. coli strains (expressing type 1 fimbriae and P fimbriae) were used to assess, by electronic microscopy and ELISA, the barrier properties of the medical device...
March 27, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345644/vitamin-d-both-facilitates-and-attenuates-the-cellular-response-to-lipopolysaccharide
#4
Ling Chen, Mathew Suji Eapen, Graeme R Zosky
Vitamin D has a range of non-skeletal health effects and has been implicated in the response to respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin D on the response of epithelial cells, neutrophils and macrophages to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. BEAS-2B cells (airway epithelial cell line) and primary neutrophils and macrophages isolated from blood samples were cultured and exposed to LPS with and without vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). The production of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α of all cells and the phagocytic capacity of neutrophils and macrophages to E...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345602/a-primary-human-macrophage-enteroid-co-culture-model-to-investigate-mucosal-gut-physiology-and-host-pathogen-interactions
#5
Gaelle Noel, Nicholas W Baetz, Janet F Staab, Mark Donowitz, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Marcela F Pasetti, Nicholas C Zachos
Integration of the intestinal epithelium and the mucosal immune system is critical for gut homeostasis. The intestinal epithelium is a functional barrier that secludes luminal content, senses changes in the gut microenvironment, and releases immune regulators that signal underlying immune cells. However, interactions between epithelial and innate immune cells to maintain barrier integrity and prevent infection are complex and poorly understood. We developed and characterized a primary human macrophage-enteroid co-culture model for in-depth studies of epithelial and macrophage interactions...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345591/activation-of-the-mechanosensitive-ion-channel-mscl-by-mechanical-stimulation-of-supported-droplet-hydrogel-bilayers
#6
Kadla R Rosholm, Matthew A B Baker, Pietro Ridone, Yoshitaka Nakayama, Paul R Rohde, Luis G Cuello, Lawrence K Lee, Boris Martinac
The droplet on hydrogel bilayer (DHB) is a novel platform for investigating the function of ion channels. Advantages of this setup include tight control of all bilayer components, which is compelling for the investigation of mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels, since they are highly sensitive to their lipid environment. However, the activation of MS ion channels in planar supported lipid bilayers, such as the DHB, has not yet been established. Here we present the activation of the large conductance MS channel of E...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345529/diversity-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-rods
#7
Patrycja Zalas-Więcek, Tomasz Bogiel, Krzysztof Wiśniewski, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli strains isolated from patients hospitalized in the University Hospital in Bydgoszcz (Poland). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 33 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli strains isolated from 31 patients. The chromosomal DNA was extracted from the strains and separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345351/shape-memory-characteristics-of-o157-antigenic-cavities-generated-on-nanocomposites-consisting-of-copolymer-encapsulated-gold-nanoparticles
#8
Takamasa Kinoshita, Dung Quang Nguyen, Dung Quynh Le, Kengo Ishiki, Hiroshi Shiigi, Tsutomu Nagaoka
Nanometer-sized composite particles, which consisted of gold nanoparticles encapsulated by an N-isopropylacrylamide copolymer, were successfully synthesized using a one-step process. Shape complementary cavities of the O157-antigen were formed on the composite utilizing temperature-dependent affinity changes of the copolymer. The composite bound to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 at 298 K and enhanced light-scattering intensity of the cell due to the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles...
March 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345274/global-model-fitting-to-compare-survival-curves-for-fecal-indicator-bacteria-and-ruminant-associated-genetic-markers
#9
Lauren E Brooks, Katharine G Field
AIMS: To compare decay profiles of ruminant and cattle associated molecular markers for fecal contamination and Escherichia coli, facilitating their correct application in water quality studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated decay profiles for cultivable E. coli, a general Bacteroidales genetic marker (GenBac3), ruminant markers (CF128, Rum2Bac), and cattle markers (CowM2, CowM3) using feces-seeded mesocosms, and selected best fitting models for each decay profile...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345250/the-application-of-constitutively-solvent-tolerant-p-taiwanensis-vlb120%C3%AE-c%C3%AE-ttgv-for-stereospecific-epoxidation-of-toxic-styrene-alleviates-carrier-solvent-use
#10
Jan Volmer, Andreas Schmid, Bruno Bühler
For whole-cell biotransformations involving toxic organic compounds, two-liquid phase setups are typically applied employing an apolar extractive phase. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (BEHP) has proven to be an ideal solvent for stereospecific styrene epoxidation with recombinant E. coli, providing excellent extractive properties and a high biocompatibility. In eco-efficiency evaluations, BEHP, however, has been identified as a critical factor regarding costs and environmental impact. In this study, the constitutive solvent tolerance of P...
March 27, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345184/spatial-molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-and-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-blandm-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-from-farmed-piglets-of-india
#11
B S Pruthvishree, O R Vinodh Kumar, D K Sinha, Y P S Malik, Z Dubal, P A Desingu, M Shivakumar, Narayanan Krishnaswamy, B R Singh
AIM: A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten government organized pig farms between 2014 and 2016 representing seven states of India to understand the epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli isolates. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 673 fecal samples both from non- diarhhoeic (n=501) and diarrhoeic (n=172) piglets were processed for isolation of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Wherein, 112 confirmed E. coli isolates were further subjected for genotypic confirmation of carbapenem resistance and virulence factors...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344773/escherichia-coli-st131-a-multidrug-resistant-clone-primed-for-global-domination
#12
REVIEW
Johann D D Pitout, Rebekah DeVinney
A single extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) clone, named sequence type (ST) 131, is responsible for millions of global antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections annually. Population genetics indicate that ST131 consists of different clades (i.e. A, B, and C); however, clade C is the most dominant globally. A ST131 subclade, named C1-M27, is emerging in Japan and has been responsible for the recent increase in AMR ExPEC in that country. The sequential acquisition of several virulence and AMR genes associated with mobile genetic elements during the 1960s to 1980s primed clade C (and its subclades C1 and C2) for success in the 1990s to 2000s...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344769/application-of-antibodies-to-recombinant-heat-shock-protein-70-in-immunohistochemical-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-in-tissues-of-naturally-infected-cattle
#13
Julius Boniface Okuni, David Patrick Kateete, Moses Okee, Anna Nanteza, Moses Joloba, Lonzy Ojok
BACKGROUND: Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection is key to the control of Johne's disease. Immunohistochemistry is one of the methods of detection of MAP infection in tissues. However, unavailability of commercial antibodies that can detect the organism is a limiting factor for the use of immunohistochemistry. This study was aimed at developing an immunohistochemistry method to diagnose MAP in infected tissues using antibodies against MAP recombinant heat shock protein 70kd...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344399/extraction-of-chitosan-and-its-oligomers-from-shrimp-shell-waste-their-characterization-and-antimicrobial-effect
#14
Tarun Kumar Varun, Swaraj Senani, Natasha Jayapal, Jayaram Chikkerur, Sohini Roy, Vijay Bhasker Tekulapally, Mayank Gautam, Narender Kumar
AIM: The present study was performed to utilize the shrimp shell waste for chitin and chitosan production, characterization by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique and to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of chitosan oligomers produced by depolymerization of chitosan by nitrous acid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chitosan was extracted from the shrimp shell waste by the chemical method and characterized by FT-IR. Chitooligomers were produced by depolymerising chitosan using nitrous acid, and the chitooligomers were tested for antimicrobial effect against four gut pathogenic organisms, i...
February 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344161/cross-resistance-to-human-cationic-antimicrobial-peptides-and-to-polymyxins-mediated-by-the-plasmid-encoded-mcr-1
#15
Jan Dobias, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether acquired resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) group molecules, being normal components of the human immune system, may select co-resistance to antibiotic peptides such as polymyxins, considering they share the same mechanism of action. We aimed to evaluate strains producing the recently identified plasmid-encoded polymyxin resistance determinant MCR-1, which is a phosphoethanolamine transferase that modifies the lipopolysaccharide structure of Gram-negative bacteria...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344124/comparative-genomics-of-transport-proteins-in-probiotic-and-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-salmonella-enterica-strains
#16
Jimmy Do, Hassan Zafar, Milton H Saier
Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species that can be pathogenic, probiotic, commensal, or a harmless laboratory strain. Pathogenic strains of E. coli cause urinary tract infections, diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and pyelonephritis, while the two known probiotic E. coli strains combat inflammatory bowel disease and play a role in immunomodulation. Salmonella enterica, a close relative of E. coli, includes two important pathogenic serovars, Typhi and Typhimurium, causing typhoid fever and enterocolitis in humans, respectively, with the latter strain also causing a lethal typhoid fever-like disease in mice...
March 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344094/controlled-release-of-antibiotic-amoxicillin-drug-using-carboxymethyl-cellulose-cl-poly-itaconic-acid-co-lactic-acid-hydrogel
#17
S Sood, Vinod Kumar Gupta, Shilpi Agarwal, Kamal Dev, Deepak Pathania
In this paper, microwave assisted preparation of carboxymethyl cellulose-cl-poly(lactic acid-co-itaconic acid) (CMC-cl-P(LA-co-IA)) hydrogel was reported via facile graft copolymerization using N, N(1)-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) and potassium persulphate as cross linker and initiator. Different reaction parameters were optimized to achieve good yield. The formation of hydrogel was confirmed by characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo gravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy etc...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343996/optimization-of-overexpression-of-a-chaperone-protein-of-steroid-c25-dehydrogenase-for-biochemical-and-biophysical-characterization
#18
Ewa Niedzialkowska, Beata Mrugała, Agnieszka Rugor, Mateusz P Czub, Anna Skotnicka, Julien J H Cotelesage, Graham N George, Maciej Szaleniec, Wladek Minor, Krzysztof Lewiński
Molybdenum is an essential nutrient for plant, bacteria and animal metabolism. Molybdoenzymes are involved in nitrogen assimilation and oxidoreductive, detoxification and bioconversion reactions of environmental, industrial, and pharmaceutical interest. Molybdoenzymes contain a molybdenum cofactor (Moco) which is a pyranopterin heterocyclic compound that binds a molybdenum atom via a dithiolene group. Because Moco is a large and complex compound deeply buried within protein, molybdoenzymes are accompanied by their private chaperone protein responsible for the cofactor's insertion into the enzyme and the enzyme's maturation...
March 23, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343755/covalently-linked-kanamycin-ciprofloxacin-hybrid-antibiotics-as-a-tool-to-fight-bacterial-resistance
#19
Michal Shavit, Varvara Pokrovskaya, Valery Belakhov, Timor Baasov
To address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, a set of 12 hybrid compounds that covalently link fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin) and aminoglycoside (kanamycin A) antibiotics were synthesized, and their activity was determined against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including resistant strains. The hybrids were antagonistic relative to the ciprofloxacin, but were substantially more potent than the parent kanamycin against Gram-negative bacteria, and overcame most dominant resistance mechanisms to aminoglycosides...
March 16, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343745/feasibility-of-sulfate-calcined-eggshells-for-removing-pathogenic-bacteria-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-from-landfill-leachates
#20
Mao Ye, Mingming Sun, Xu Chen, Yanfang Feng, Jinzhong Wan, Kuan Liu, Da Tian, Manqiang Liu, Jun Wu, Arthur P Schwab, Xin Jiang
High abundance of human pathogen and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in landfill leachate has become an emerging threat against human health. Therefore, sulfate- and calcination-modified eggshells as green agricultural bioresource were applied to test the feasibility of removing pathogenic bacteria and ARGs from leachate. The highest removal of Escherichia coli (E. coil) and gentamycin resistant gene (gmrA) from artificial contaminated landfill leachate was achieved by the application of eggshell with combined treatment of sulfate and calcination...
March 23, 2017: Waste Management
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