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thioesterase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644971/simultaneous-silencing-of-ghfad2-1-and-ghfatb-enhances-the-quality-of-cottonseed-oil-with-high-oleic-acid
#1
Feng Liu, Yan-Peng Zhao, Hua-Guo Zhu, Qian-Hao Zhu, Jie Sun
Cottonseed oil has become an important source of edible oil due to its significant cost advantage. However, there is a growing concern over its fatty acid composition and nutritional value. In Gossypium hirsutum, GhFAD2-1 and GhFATB encoding the microsomal oleate desaturase and palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase, respectively, play critical roles in regulating the proportions of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cottonseed lipids. In this study, RNAi technology was used to simultaneously inhibit the expression levels of GhFAD2-1 and GhFATB to improve the quality of cottonseed oil by increasing oleic acid content...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638070/thioesterase-ybgc-affects-motility-by-modulating-c-di-gmp-levels-in-shewanella-oneidensis
#2
Tong Gao, Qiu Meng, Haichun Gao
Because of ubiquity of thioesters, thioesterases play a critical role in metabolism, membrane biosynthesis, signal transduction, and gene regulation. In many bacteria, YbgC is such an enzyme, whose coding gene mostly resides in the tol-pal cluster. Although all other proteins encoded in the tol-pal cluster are clearly involved in maintaining cell envelope integrity and cell division, little is known about the physiological role of YbgC. In this study, we identify in Shewanella oneidensis, a γ-proteobacterium used as a research model for environmental microbes, YbgC as a motility regulator...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634299/biosynthesis-of-isonitrile-lipopeptides-by-conserved-nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase-gene-clusters-in-actinobacteria
#3
Nicholas C Harris, Michio Sato, Nicolaus A Herman, Frederick Twigg, Wenlong Cai, Joyce Liu, Xuejun Zhu, Jordan Downey, Ryan Khalaf, Joelle Martin, Hiroyuki Koshino, Wenjun Zhang
A putative lipopeptide biosynthetic gene cluster is conserved in many species of Actinobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. marinum, but the specific function of the encoding proteins has been elusive. Using both in vivo heterologous reconstitution and in vitro biochemical analyses, we have revealed that the five encoding biosynthetic enzymes are capable of synthesizing a family of isonitrile lipopeptides (INLPs) through a thio-template mechanism. The biosynthesis features the generation of isonitrile from a single precursor Gly promoted by a thioesterase and a nonheme iron(II)-dependent oxidase homolog and the acylation of both amino groups of Lys by the same isonitrile acyl chain facilitated by a single condensation domain of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607105/acyl-coa-thioesterase-1-acot1-regulates-ppar%C3%A3-to-couple-fatty-acid-flux-with-oxidative-capacity-during-fasting
#4
Mallory P Franklin, Aishwarya Sathyanarayan, Douglas G Mashek
Hepatic acyl-CoA thioesterase 1 (ACOT1) catalyzes the conversion of acyl-CoAs to fatty acids (FAs) and Coenzyme A. We sought to determine the role of ACOT1 in hepatic lipid metabolism in C57Bl/6J male mice one week following adenovirus-mediated Acot1 knockdown. Acot1 knockdown reduced liver triglyceride (TG) due to enhanced TG hydrolysis and subsequent FA oxidation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that Acot1 knockdown led to greater TG turnover and FA oxidation, suggesting that ACOT1 is important for controlling the rate of FA oxidation...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599448/overexpression-of-the-androgen-receptor-in-human-hepatoma-cells-and-its-effect-on-fatty-acid-metabolism
#5
Tatsuo Kanda, Xia Jiang, Masato Nakamura, Yuki Haga, Reina Sasaki, Shuang Wu, Shingo Nakamoto, Fumio Imazeki, Osamu Yokosuka
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a predominantly male disease in which the androgen receptor (AR) serves an important pathogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Fatty acid metabolism also contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis and is associated with the prognosis of cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the AR on fatty acid metabolism-associated gene expression in human hepatoma cell lines. AR-expression plasmids or control plasmids were transiently transfected into the human HCC cell lines Huh7 and HepG2...
June 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587908/elevating-4-hydroxycoumarin-production-through-alleviating-thioesterase-mediated-salicoyl-coa-degradation
#6
Xiaolin Shen, Monika Mahajani, Jia Wang, Yaping Yang, Qipeng Yuan, Yajun Yan, Yuheng Lin
Acyl-CoAs are essential intermediates in the biosynthetic pathways of a number of industrially and pharmaceutically important molecules. When these pathways are reconstituted in a heterologous microbial host for metabolic engineering purposes, the acyl-CoAs may be subject to undesirable hydrolysis by the host's native thioesterases, resulting in a waste of cellular energy and decreased intermediate availability, thus impairing bioconversion efficiency. 4-hydroxycoumarin (4HC) is a direct synthetic precursor to the commonly used oral anticoagulants (e...
June 3, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558229/the-catalytic-dyad-in-the-sgnh-hydrolase-superfamily-in-depth-insight-into-structural-parameters-tuning-catalytic-process-of-extracellular-lipase-from-streptomyces-rimosus
#7
Ivana Lescic Asler, Zoran Stefanic, Aleksandra Maršavelski, Robert Vianello, Biserka Kojic-Prodic
SrLip is an extracellular enzyme from Streptomyces rimosus (Q93MW7) exhibiting lipase, phospholipase, esterase, thioesterase and tweenase activities. The structure of SrLip is one of a very few lipases, among the 3D-structures of the SGNH superfamily of hydrolases, structurally characterized by synchrotron diffraction data at 1.75 Å resolution (PDB: 5MAL). Its crystal structure was determined by molecular replacement using homology model based on the crystal structure of phospholipase A1 from Streptomyces albidoflavus (PDB: 4HYQ)...
May 30, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550989/biosynthesis-of-medium-chain-length-alkanes-for-bio-aviation-fuel-by-metabolic-engineered-escherichia-coli
#8
Meng Wang, Kaili Nie, Hao Cao, Haijun Xu, Yunming Fang, Tianwei Tan, Jan Baeyens, Luo Liu
The aim of this work was to study the synthesis of medium-chain length alkanes (MCLA), as bio-aviation product. To control the chain length of alkanes and increase the production of MCLA, Escherichia coli cells were engineered by incorporating (i) a chain length specific thioesterase from Umbellularia californica (UC), (ii) a plant origin acyl carrier protein (ACP) gene and (iii) the whole fatty acid synthesis system (FASs) from Jatropha curcas (JC). The genetic combination was designed to control the product spectrum towards optimum MCLA...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522606/structural-analysis-of-the-dual-function-thioesterase-sav606-unravels-the-mechanism-of-michael-addition-of-glycine-to-an-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-unsaturated-thioester
#9
Taichi Chisuga, Akimasa Miyanaga, Fumitaka Kudo, Tadashi Eguchi
Thioesterases catalyze hydrolysis of acyl thioesters to release carboxylic acid or macrocyclization to produce the corresponding macrocycle in the biosynthesis of fatty acids, polyketides, or nonribosomal peptides. Recently, we reported that the thioesterase CmiS1 from Streptomyces sp. MJ635-86F5 catalyzes the Michael addition of glycine to an α,β-unsaturated fatty acyl thioester followed by thioester hydrolysis in the biosynthesis of the macrolactam antibiotic cremimycin. However, the molecular mechanisms of CmiS1-catalyzed reactions are unclear...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518146/acyl-coa-thioesterase-7-is-involved-in-cell-cycle-progression-via-regulation-of-pkc%C3%AE-p53-p21-signaling-pathway
#10
Seung Hee Jung, Hyung Chul Lee, Hyun Jung Hwang, Hyun A Park, Young-Ah Moon, Bong Cho Kim, Hyeong Min Lee, Kwang Pyo Kim, Yong-Nyun Kim, Byung Lan Lee, Jae Cheol Lee, Young-Gyu Ko, Heon Joo Park, Jae-Seon Lee
Acyl-CoA thioesterase 7 (ACOT7) is a major isoform of the ACOT family that catalyzes hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids and CoA-SH. However, canonical and non-canonical functions of ACOT7 remain to be discovered. In this study, for the first time, ACOT7 was shown to be responsive to genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR) and the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin in time- and dose-dependent manners. ACOT7 knockdown induced cytostasis via activation of the p53-p21 signaling pathway without a DNA damage response...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504677/%C3%AE-lactone-formation-during-product-release-from-a-nonribosomal-peptide-synthetase
#11
Jason E Schaffer, Margaret R Reck, Neha K Prasad, Timothy A Wencewicz
Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are multidomain modular biosynthetic assembly lines that polymerize amino acids into a myriad of biologically active nonribosomal peptides (NRPs). NRPS thioesterase (TE) domains employ diverse release strategies for off-loading thioester-tethered polymeric peptides from termination modules typically via hydrolysis, aminolysis, or cyclization to provide mature antibiotics as carboxylic acids/esters, amides, and lactams/lactones, respectively. Here we report the enzyme-catalyzed formation of a highly strained β-lactone ring during TE-mediated cyclization of a β-hydroxythioester to release the antibiotic obafluorin (Obi) from an NRPS assembly line...
July 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475114/melatonin-and-vitamin-d-interfere-with-the-adipogenic-fate-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells
#12
Valentina Basoli, Sara Santaniello, Sara Cruciani, Giorgio Carlo Ginesu, Maria Laura Cossu, Alessandro Palmerio Delitala, Pier Andrea Serra, Carlo Ventura, Margherita Maioli
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) represent one of the cellular populations resident in adipose tissue. They can be recruited under certain stimuli and committed to become preadipocytes, and then mature adipocytes. Controlling stem cell differentiation towards the adipogenic phenotype could have a great impact on future drug development aimed at counteracting fat depots. Stem cell commitment can be influenced by different molecules, such as melatonin, which we have previously shown to be an osteogenic inducer...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465060/biosynthesis-of-the-fatty-acid-isopropyl-esters-by-engineered-escherichia-coli
#13
Hong Pan, Lihua Zhang, Xun Li, Daoyi Guo
The fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid ethyl esters are known as biodiesels which are considered to be renewable, nontoxic and biodegradable biofuels. However, the conventional biodiesels show a high crystallization temperature which is one of the most critical obstacles against the widespread biodiesel usage. The high crystallization temperature of biodiesel can be reduced by replacing the methyl or ethyl ester with an isopropyl moiety. Here we report on a strategy to establish biosynthesis of the fatty acid isopropyl esters(FAIPEs) from the simple substrate glucose in Escherichia coli with heterologous coexpression of atoB encoded acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and atoAD encode acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from E...
July 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454735/biosynthesis-inspired-deracemizative-production-of-d-luciferin-by-combining-luciferase-and-thioesterase
#14
Juri Maeda, Dai-Ichiro Kato, Masatoshi Okuda, Masahiro Takeo, Seiji Negoro, Kazunari Arima, Yuji Ito, Kazuki Niwa
Due to the strict enantioselectivity of firefly luciferase, only d-luciferin can be used as a substrate for bioluminescence reactions. Unfortunately, luciferin racemizes easily and accumulation of nonluminous l-luciferin has negative influences on the light emitting reaction. Thus, maintaining the enantiopurity of luciferin in the reaction mixture is one of the most important demands in bioluminescence applications using firefly luciferase. In fireflies, however, l-luciferin is the biosynthetic precursor of d-luciferin, which is produced from the L-form undergoing deracemization...
August 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416579/inflammatory-stimuli-induce-acyl-coa-thioesterase-7-and-remodeling-of-phospholipids-containing-unsaturated-long-%C3%A2-c20-acyl-chains-in-macrophages
#15
Valerie Z Wall, Shelley Barnhart, Farah Kramer, Jenny E Kanter, Anuradha Vivekanandan-Giri, Subramaniam Pennathur, Chiara Bolego, Jessica M Ellis, Miguel A Gijón, Michael J Wolfgang, Karin E Bornfeldt
Acyl-CoA thioesterase 7 (ACOT7) is an intracellular enzyme that converts acyl-CoAs to FFAs. ACOT7 is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS); thus, we investigated downstream effects of LPS-induced induction of ACOT7 and its role in inflammatory settings in myeloid cells. Enzymatic thioesterase activity assays in WT and ACOT7-deficient macrophage lysates indicated that endogenous ACOT7 contributes a significant fraction of total acyl-CoA thioesterase activity toward C20:4-, C20:5-, and C22:6-CoA, but contributes little activity toward shorter acyl-CoA species...
June 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385694/phosphatidylcholine-transfer-protein-stard2-promotes-microvesicular-steatosis-and-liver-injury-in-murine-experimental-steatohepatitis
#16
Hayley Tenielle Nicholls, Jason L Hornick, David E Cohen
Mice fed a methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet develop steatohepatitis that recapitulates key features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in humans. Phosphatidylcholine is the most abundant phospholipid in the surfactant monolayer that coats and stabilizes lipid droplets within cells, and choline is required for its major biosynthetic pathway. Phosphatidylcholine-transfer protein (PC-TP), which exchanges phosphatidylcholine among membranes, is enriched in hepatocytes. PC-TP also regulates fatty acid metabolism through interactions with thioesterase superfamily member 2...
April 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385385/deactivating-fatty-acids-acyl-coa-thioesterase-mediated-control-of-lipid-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
Veronika Tillander, Stefan E H Alexson, David E Cohen
The cellular uptake of free fatty acids (FFA) is followed by esterification to coenzyme A (CoA), generating fatty acyl-CoAs that are substrates for oxidation or incorporation into complex lipids. Acyl-CoA thioesterases (ACOTs) constitute a family of enzymes that hydrolyze fatty acyl-CoAs to form FFA and CoA. Although biochemically and biophysically well characterized, the metabolic functions of these enzymes remain incompletely understood. Existing evidence suggests regulatory roles in controlling rates of peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acyl-CoA oxidation, as well as in the subcellular trafficking of fatty acids...
July 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380681/arbuscular-mycorrhiza-specific-enzymes-fatm-and-ram2-fine-tune-lipid-biosynthesis-to-promote-development-of-arbuscular-mycorrhiza
#18
Armando Bravo, Mathias Brands, Vera Wewer, Peter Dörmann, Maria J Harrison
During arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS), considerable amounts of lipids are generated, modified and moved within the cell to accommodate the fungus in the root, and it has also been suggested that lipids are delivered to the fungus. To determine the mechanisms by which root cells redirect lipid biosynthesis during AMS we analyzed the roles of two lipid biosynthetic enzymes (FatM and RAM2) and an ABC transporter (STR) that are required for symbiosis and conserved uniquely in plants that engage in AMS. Complementation analyses indicated that the biochemical function of FatM overlaps with that of other Fat thioesterases, in particular FatB...
June 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335611/evaluation-of-thioesterases-from-acinetobacter-baylyi-for-production-of-free-fatty-acids
#19
Rahul Ukey, William E Holmes, Rakesh Bajpai, Andrei Y Chistoserdov
Acinetobacter baylyi is one of few Gram-negative bacteria capable of accumulating storage lipids in the form of triacylglycerides and wax esters, which makes it an attractive candidate for production of lipophilic products, including biofuel precursors. Thioesterases play a significant dual role in the triacylglyceride and wax ester biosynthesis by either providing or removing acyl-CoA from this pathway. Therefore, 4 different thioesterase genes were cloned from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 and expressed in Escherichia coli to investigate their contribution to free fatty acids (FFAs) accumulation...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334871/proteomics-insights-into-infantile-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-cln1-point-to-the-involvement-of-cilia-pathology-in-the-disease
#20
Michal Segal-Salto, Karin Hansson, Tamar Sapir, Anna Kaplan, Talia Levy, Michaela Schweizer, Michael Frotscher, Peter James, Orly Reiner
Mutations in the depalmitoylation enzyme, palmitoyl protein thioesterase (PPT1), result in the early onset neurodegenerative disease known as Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis. Here, we provide proteomic evidence suggesting that PPT1 deficiency could be considered as a ciliopathy. Analysis of membrane proteins from brain enriched for acylated proteins from neonate Ppt1 knock out and control mice revealed a list of 88 proteins with differential expression levels. Amongst them, we identified Rab3IP, which regulates ciliogenesis in concert with Rab8 and Rab11...
May 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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