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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317865/complete-genome-sequencing-and-antibiotics-biosynthesis-pathways-analysis-of-streptomyces-lydicus-103
#1
Nan Jia, Ming-Zhu Ding, Hao Luo, Feng Gao, Ying-Jin Yuan
More and more new natural products have been found in Streptomyces species, which become the significant resource for antibiotics production. Among them, Streptomyces lydicus has been known as its ability of streptolydigin biosynthesis. Herein, we present the genome analysis of S. lydicus based on the complete genome sequencing. The circular chromosome of S. lydicus 103 comprises 8,201,357 base pairs with average GC content 72.22%. With the aid of KEGG analysis, we found that S. lydicus 103 can transfer propanoate to succinate, glutamine or glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate, CO2 and L-glutamate to ammonia, which are conducive to the the supply of amino acids...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315769/the-regulation-of-lipid-metabolism-by-a-hypothetical-p-loop-ntpase-and-its-impact-on-fecundity-of-the-brown-planthopper
#2
Rui Pang, Jieqi Qiu, Tengchao Li, Pan Yang, Lei Yue, Yixin Pan, Wenqing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Insect fecundity can be regulated by multiple genes in several important signaling pathways which form an extremely complicated regulatory network. However, there are still many genes that have significant impact on insect fecundity but their action mode are still unknown. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunofluorescence and western blot were used to study the expression profile of Nl23867 in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens...
March 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301719/a-reconfigured-kennedy-pathway-which-promotes-efficient-accumulation-of-medium-chain-fatty-acids-in-leaf-oils
#3
Kyle B Reynolds, Matthew C Taylor, Darren P Cullerne, Christopher L Blanchard, Craig C Wood, Surinder P Singh, James R Petrie
Medium chain fatty acids (MCFA, C6-14 fatty acids) are an ideal feedstock for biodiesel and broader oleochemicals. In recent decades, several studies have used transgenic engineering to produce MCFA in seeds oils, though these modifications result in unbalance membrane lipid profiles that impair oil yields and agronomic performance. Given the ability to engineer non-seed organs to produce oils, we have previously demonstrated that MCFA profiles can be produced in leaves, but this also results in unbalanced membrane lipid profiles and undesirable chlorosis and cell death...
March 16, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279815/expression-of-the-heterologous-dunaliella-tertiolecta-fatty-acyl-acp-thioesterase-leads-to-increased-lipid-production-in-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#4
Kenneth Wei Min Tan, Yuan Kun Lee
Biofuel production from genetically-engineered microalgae is currently among the most widely studied strategies in generating renewable energy. However, microalgae currently suffer from low oil yields which limit the commercial feasibility of industrial-scale production. A major bottleneck in cost-efficient biofuel production from microalgae is the dilemma between biomass productivity and lipid accumulation. When grown under stressful culture conditions such as nitrogen depletion, microalgae accumulate large amounts of neutral lipids, but it comes at the expense of growth which negatively impacts overall lipid productivity...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279714/untangling-the-transcription-regulatory-network-of-the-bacitracin-synthase-operon-in-bacillus-licheniformis-dw2
#5
Dong Wang, Qin Wang, Yimin Qiu, Christopher T Nomura, Junhui Li, Shouwen Chen
The bacitracin synthetase gene cluster in Bacillus licheniformis DW2 is composed of the bacABC operon encoding a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and bacT encoding a thioesterase. Although the bacitracin gene cluster has been well studied, little is known about how this gene cluster is regulated. This study provides insight into how the transcription factors Spo0A and AbrB regulate bacitracin biosynthesis. Deletion of spo0A resulted in drastically reduced expression of bacA and bacT, and subsequently bacitracin production...
March 6, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276654/a-family-13-thioesterase-isolated-from-an-activated-sludge-metagenome-insights-into-aromatic-compounds-metabolism
#6
Ayixon Sánchez-Reyez, Ramón Alberto Batista-García, Gilberto Valdés-García, Ernesto Ortiz, Lucía Perezgasga, Andrés Zárate-Romero, Nina Pastor, Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol
Activated sludge is produced during the treatment of sewage and industrial wastewaters. Its diverse chemical composition allows growth of a large collection of microbial phylotypes with very different physiologic and metabolic profiles. Thus, activated sludge is considered as an excellent environment to discover novel enzymes through functional metagenomics, especially activities related with degradation of environmental pollutants. Metagenomic DNA was isolated and purified from an activated sludge sample. Metagenomic libraries were subsequently constructed in Escherichia coli...
March 9, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266544/misrouting-of-v-atpase-subunit-v0a1-dysregulates-lysosomal-acidification-in-a-neurodegenerative-lysosomal-storage-disease-model
#7
Maria B Bagh, Shiyong Peng, Goutam Chandra, Zhongjian Zhang, Satya P Singh, Nagarajan Pattabiraman, Aiyi Liu, Anil B Mukherjee
Defective lysosomal acidification contributes to virtually all lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) and to common neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Despite its fundamental importance, the mechanism(s) underlying this defect remains unclear. The v-ATPase, a multisubunit protein complex composed of cytosolic V1-sector and lysosomal membrane-anchored V0-sector, regulates lysosomal acidification. Mutations in the CLN1 gene, encoding PPT1, cause a devastating neurodegenerative LSD, INCL...
March 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249157/non-enzymatic-n-acetylation-of-lysine-residues-by-acetylcoa-often-occurs-via-a-proximal-s-acetylated-thiol-intermediate-sensitive-to-glyoxalase-ii
#8
Andrew M James, Kurt Hoogewijs, Angela Logan, Andrew R Hall, Shujing Ding, Ian M Fearnley, Michael P Murphy
Acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA), a key intermediate in mitochondrial metabolism, N-acetylates lysine residues, disrupting and, in some cases, regulating protein function. The mitochondrial lysine deacetylase Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) reverses this modification with benefits reported in diabetes, obesity, and aging. We show that non-enzymatic lysine N-acetylation by AcCoA is greatly enhanced by initial acetylation of a cysteine residue, followed by SN-transfer of the acetyl moiety to a nearby lysine on mitochondrial proteins and synthetic peptides...
February 28, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239372/identification-by-genome-mining-of-a-type-i-polyketide-gene-cluster-from-streptomyces-argillaceus-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-pyridine-and-piperidine-alkaloids-argimycins-p
#9
Suhui Ye, Brian Molloy, Alfredo F Braña, Daniel Zabala, Carlos Olano, Jesús Cortés, Francisco Morís, José A Salas, Carmen Méndez
Genome mining of the mithramycin producer Streptomyces argillaceus ATCC 12956 revealed 31 gene clusters for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and allowed to predict the encoded products for 11 of these clusters. Cluster 18 (renamed cluster arp) corresponded to a type I polyketide gene cluster related to the previously described coelimycin P1 and streptazone gene clusters. The arp cluster consists of fourteen genes, including genes coding for putative regulatory proteins (a SARP-like transcriptional activator and a TetR-like transcriptional repressor), genes coding for structural proteins (three PKSs, one aminotransferase, two dehydrogenases, two cyclases, one imine reductase, a type II thioesterase, and a flavin reductase), and one gene coding for a hypothetical protein...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236510/a-strategy-for-dual-inhibition-of-the-proteasome-and-fatty-acid-synthase-with-belactosin-c-orlistat-hybrids
#10
Mingzhao Zhu, Wayne D Harshbarger, Omar Robles, Joanna Krysiak, Kenneth G Hull, Sung Wook Cho, Robyn D Richardson, Yanyan Yang, Andres Garcia, Lindsey Spiegelman, Bianca Ramirez, Christopher T Wilson, Ju Anne Yau, James T Moore, Caitlen B Walker, James C Sacchettini, Wenshe R Liu, Stephan A Sieber, Jeffrey W Smith, Daniel Romo
The proteasome, a validated cellular target for cancer, is central for maintaining cellular homeostasis, while fatty acid synthase (FAS), a novel target for numerous cancers, is responsible for palmitic acid biosynthesis. Perturbation of either enzymatic machine results in decreased proliferation and ultimately cellular apoptosis. Based on structural similarities, we hypothesized that hybrid molecules of belactosin C, a known proteasome inhibitor, and orlistat, a known inhibitor of the thioesterase domain of FAS, could inhibit both enzymes...
January 19, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228066/dynamic-protein-s-palmitoylation-mediates-parasite-life-cycle-progression-and-diverse-mechanisms-of-virulence
#11
Robert W B Brown, Aabha I Sharma, David M Engman
Eukaryotic parasites possess complex life cycles and utilize an assortment of molecular mechanisms to overcome physical barriers, suppress and/or bypass the host immune response, including invading host cells where they can replicate in a protected intracellular niche. Protein S-palmitoylation is a dynamic post-translational modification in which the fatty acid palmitate is covalently linked to cysteine residues on proteins by the enzyme palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT) and can be removed by lysosomal palmitoyl-protein thioesterase (PPT) or cytosolic acyl-protein thioesterase (APT)...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213849/widespread-expression-of-a-membrane-tethered-version-of-the-soluble-lysosomal-enzyme-palmitoyl-protein-thioesterase-1
#12
Charles Shyng, Shannon L Macauley, Joshua T Dearborn, Mark S Sands
"Cross-correction," the transfer of soluble lysosomal enzymes between neighboring cells, forms the foundation for therapeutics of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). However, "cross-correction" poses a significant barrier to studying the role of specific cell types in LSD pathogenesis. By expressing the native enzyme in only one cell type, neighboring cell types are invariably corrected. In this study, we present a strategy to limit "cross-correction" of palmitoyl-protein thioesterase-1(PPT1), a lysosomal hydrolase deficient in Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (INCL, Infantile Batten disease) to the lysosomal membrane via the C-terminus of lysosomal associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1)...
February 18, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212406/accumulation-of-medium-chain-saturated-fatty-acyl-moieties-in-seed-oils-of-transgenic-camelina-sativa
#13
Zhaohui Hu, Qian Wu, Jyoti Dalal, Naresh Vasani, Harry O Lopez, Heike W Sederoff, Rongda Qu
With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs) consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197315/affinity-based-selectivity-profiling-of-an-in-class-selective-competitive-inhibitor-of-acyl-protein-thioesterase-2
#14
Sang Joon Won, Joseph D Eschweiler, Jaimeen D Majmudar, Fei San Chong, Sin Ye Hwang, Brandon T Ruotolo, Brent R Martin
Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) has revolutionized the discovery and optimization of active-site ligands across distinct enzyme families, providing a robust platform for in-class selectivity profiling. Nonetheless, this approach is less straightforward for profiling reversible inhibitors and does not access proteins outside the ABPP probe's target profile. While the active-site competitive acyl protein thioesterase 2 inhibitor ML349 (Ki = 120 nM) is highly selective within the serine hydrolase enzyme family, it could still interact with other cellular targets...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194404/a-note-on-fatty-acids-profile-of-meat-from-broiler-chickens-supplemented-with-inorganic-or-organic-selenium
#15
Marta Del Puerto, M Cristina Cabrera, Ali Saadoun
This investigation evaluated, in broiler chickens Pectoralis and Gastrocnemius muscles, the effect of the dietary supplementation with sodium selenite (0.3 ppm) versus selenomethionine (0.3 ppm), on the fatty acids composition, lipids indices, and enzymes indexes for desaturase, elongase, and thioesterase. The selenium reduced, in both muscles, the content of atherogenic fatty acids, C14:0 and C16:0, while it increased the C18:1 level. On the other hand, selenium increased, in both muscles, the content of C18:3n3 and EPA, but not DPA and DHA...
2017: International journal of food science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179458/individual-s-acylated-cysteines-differentially-contribute-to-h-ras-endomembrane-trafficking-and-acylation-deacylation-cycles
#16
Maria P Pedro, Aldo A Vilcaes, Guillermo A Gomez, Jose L Daniotti
S-acylation/deacylation cycles and vesicular transport are critical for an adequate subcellular distribution of S-acylated Ras proteins. H-Ras is dually acylated on cysteines 181 and 184, but it is unknown how these residues individually contribute to H-Ras trafficking. In this study, we characterized the acylation and deacylation rates and membrane trafficking of mono-acylated H-Ras mutants to analyze their contributions to H-Ras plasma membrane and endomembrane distribution. We demonstrated that dually acylated H-Ras interacts with acyl-protein thioesterases (APT) 1 and 2 at the plasma membrane...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160314/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-atf1p-is-an-alcohol-acetyltransferase-and-a-thioesterase-in-vitro
#17
Bethany Nancolas, Ian D Bull, Richard Stenner, Virginie Dufour, Paul Curnow
The alcohol-O-acyltransferases are bisubstrate enzymes that catalyse the transfer of acyl chains from an acyl-CoA donor to an acceptor alcohol. In the industrial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae this reaction produces acyl esters that are an important influence on the flavor of fermented beverages and foods. There is also a growing interest in using acyltransferases to produce bulk quantities of acyl esters in engineered microbial cell factories. However, the structure and function of the alcohol-O-acyltransferases remain only partly understood...
February 3, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156101/mycobacteria-encode-active-and-inactive-classes-of-tesb-fatty-acyl-coa-thioesterases-revealed-through-structural-and-functional-analysis
#18
Crystall M D Swarbrick, Glennon V Bythrow, David Aragao, Gabrielle A Germain, Luis E N Quadri, Jade K Forwood
Mycobacteria contain a large number of highly divergent species and exhibit unusual lipid metabolism profiles, believed to play important roles in immune invasion. Thioesterases modulate lipid metabolism through the hydrolysis of activated fatty-acyl CoAs; multiple copies are present in mycobacteria, yet many remain uncharacterized. Here, we undertake a comprehensive structural and functional analysis of a TesB thioesterase from Mycobacterium avium (MaTesB). Structural superposition with other TesB thioesterases reveals that the Asp active site residue, highly conserved across a wide range of TesB thioesterases, is mutated to Ala...
March 14, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131860/biosynthesis-of-enantiopure-s-3-hydroxybutyrate-from-glucose-through-the-inverted-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-pathway-by-metabolically-engineered-escherichia-coli
#19
Andrey Yu Gulevich, Alexandra Yu Skorokhodova, Alexey V Sukhozhenko, Vladimir G Debabov
Enantiomers of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HB) can be used as the chiral precursors for the production of various optically active fine chemicals, including drugs, perfumes, and pheromones. In this study, Escherichia coli was engineered to produce (S)-3-HB from glucose through the inverted reactions of the native aerobic fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. Expression of only specific genes encoding enzymes responsible for the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA, reduction of acetoacetyl-CoA to 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA and subsequent hydrolysis of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to 3-HB was directly upregulated in an engineered strain...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119518/molecular-beacons-to-identify-gifted-microbes-for-genome-mining
#20
Richard H Baltz
Microbial genome mining is a promising technology that is revitalizing natural product discovery. It is now well documented that many bacteria with large genomes, particularly actinomycetes, encode many more secondary metabolites (SMs) than was previously known from their expressed secondary metabolomes. There are effective bioinformatics tools for counting the numbers and nature of SMs, and determining the total coding capacity from finished microbial genomes. However, these methods do not translate well to draft genomes, particularly for large SM gene clusters that contain nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or type I polyketide synthase (PKS-I) mega-genes which are prone to fragmentation and misassembly...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Antibiotics
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