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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453444/positive-regulation-of-raphe-serotonin-neurons-by-serotonin-2b-receptors
#1
Arnauld Belmer, Emily Quentin, Silvina L Diaz, Bruno P Guiard, Sebastian P Fernandez, Stéphane Doly, Sophie M Banas, Pothitos M Pitychoutis, Imane Moutkine, Aude Muzerelle, Anna Tchenio, Anne Roumier, Manuel Mameli, Luc Maroteaux
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in many psychiatric diseases. In humans, a lack of 5-HT 2B receptors is associated with serotonin-dependent phenotypes, including impulsivity and suicidality. A lack of 5-HT 2B receptors in mice eliminates the effects of molecules that directly target serotonergic neurons including amphetamine derivative serotonin releasers, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that 5-HT 2B receptors directly and positively regulate raphe serotonin neuron activity...
February 5, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447427/vestibulo-ocular-reflex-gain-values-in-the-suppression-head-impulse-test-of-healthy-subjects
#2
Jorge Rey-Martinez, Izaskun Thomas-Arrizabalaga, Juan Manuel Espinosa-Sanchez, Angel Batuecas-Caletrio, Gabriel Trinidad-Ruiz, Eusebi Matiño-Soler, Nicolas Perez-Fernandez
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there are differences in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain for suppression head impulse (SHIMP) and head impulse (HIMP) video head impulse test paradigms, and if so, what are their causes. METHODS: Prospective multicenter observational double-blind nonrandomized clinical study was performed by collecting 80 healthy subjects from four reference hospitals. SHIMP data was postprocessed to eliminate impulses in which early SHIMP saccades were detected...
February 15, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402608/instrumental-head-impulse-test-changes-after-intratympanic-gentamicin-for-unilateral-definite-m%C3%A3-ni%C3%A3-re-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Pedro Santos Marques, Claudia Camila Dias, Nicolas Perez-Fernandez, Jorge Spratley
OBJECTIVE: To estimate how much could intratympanic gentamicin (ITG) interfere with the vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) parameters on instrumental head impulse test (HIT), either with scleral search coil or video head impulse test and, eventually, foresee the control of vertigo crisis in unilateral intractable Ménière's disease (MD). METHODS: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane search engines. The search terms used were "vestibular ocular reflex", "head impulse test", "gentamicin," and "Meniere's disease"...
February 2, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401064/higher-asymmetry-ratio-and-refixation-saccades-in-individuals-with-motion-sickness
#4
Anuj Kumar Neupane, Krithika Gururaj, Sujeet Kumar Sinha
BACKGROUND: Motion sickness is a complex autonomic phenomenon caused by the intersensory conflict among the balancing systems, resulting in a mismatch of signals between static physical conditions of the susceptible individual exposed to dynamic environment. PURPOSE: The present study was done to assess the sacculocollic reflex pathway and six semicircular canals in individuals susceptible to motion sickness. RESEARCH DESIGN: Standard group comparison was used...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400687/vergence-increases-the-gain-of-the-human-angular-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-during-peripheral-hyposensitivity-elicited-by-cold-thermal-irrigation
#5
László T Tamás, Yunxia W Lundberg, Béla Büki
BACKGROUND: When viewing a far target, the gain of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is around 1.0, but when viewing a near target there is an increased response. It has been shown that while this convergence-mediated modulation is unaffected by canal plugging and clinically practical transmastoid galvanic stimulation, it is eliminated by a partial peripheral gentamicin lesion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine if convergence increases the gain during peripheral hyposensitivity elicited by cold thermal irrigation...
2018: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393677/effects-of-repetitive-subconcussive-head-trauma-on-the-neuropsychological-test-performance-of-high-school-athletes-a-comparison-of-high-moderate-and-low-contact-sports
#6
William T Tsushima, Hyeong Jun Ahn, Andrea M Siu, Kara Yoshinaga, So Yung Choi, Nathan M Murata
The aim of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test results of non-concussed high school athletes playing at three different levels of contact sports. Based on the concussion risk data of 12 different sports, a High Contact group (n=2819; wrestling/martial arts, cheerleading, track and field, football), a Moderate Contact group (n=2323; softball, basketball, soccer), and a Low Contact group (n=1580; baseball, volleyball, water polo, tennis, cross-country) were formed and compared in terms of their scores on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT)...
February 2, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362817/-superior-canal-dehiscence-syndrome-diagnosis-with-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-and-fremitus-nystagmus-german-version
#7
R Gürkov, C Jerin, W Flatz, R Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is a relatively rare neurotological disorder that is characterized by a heterogeneous clinical picture. Recently, vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) measurementwas established for the diagnosis of SCDS. In the present study, a case series of patients with SCDS were analyzed, with a focus on VEMP. METHODS: Four patients with SCDS were prospectively examined with ocular VEMP (oVEMP) and cervical VEMP (cVEMP)...
January 23, 2018: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357475/location-and-phase-effects-for-ocular-and-cervical-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-vemps-evoked-by-bone-conducted-stimuli-to-midline-skull-sites
#8
Sendhil Govender, James Gordon Colebatch
Our object was to investigate the effect of location and phase on the properties of oVEMPs and cVEMPs evoked by two bone conducted (BC) stimuli - 500 Hz and an impulsive stimulus - for midline skull sites, from Nz to Iz, in normal volunteers. Compressive and rarefactive onset phases were used and the induced linear and rotational accelerations measured. We confirmed our previous finding of marked changes in the polarity of oVEMPs with location. For cVEMPs using the 500 Hz stimulus there were few changes with location or phase but the impulsive stimulus showed clear phase-related changes at several locations, with the shortest latencies occurring with compressive stimuli at AFz and Fz and the largest amplitudes at Iz...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330961/clinical-value-of-4-hour-delayed-gadolinium-enhanced-3d-flair-mr-images-in-acute-vestibular-neuritis
#9
Hayoung Byun, Jae Ho Chung, Seung Hwan Lee, Chul Won Park, Dong Woo Park, Tae Yoon Kim
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of 4-hour delayed-enhanced 3.0 Tesla three-dimensional (3D) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in acute vestibular neuritis. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational study. METHODS: Twenty-nine vestibular neuritis patients were enrolled between January 2017 and June 2017. Vestibular function tests, comprising the caloric and video head impulse tests and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential measurements, were performed...
January 13, 2018: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330601/assessment-of-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-and-video-head-impulse-test-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-with-or-without-polyneuropathy
#10
Mehmet Kalkan, Ali Bayram, Ferhat Gökay, Hasan Selçuk Cura, Cemil Mutlu
This study aimed to compare cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP), ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) and video head impulse test (vHIT) results between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and healthy controls to determine vestibular end-organ pathologies. The participants in the present study consisted of three groups: the type 2 DM group (n = 33 patients), the DPN group (n = 33 patients), and the age- and sex-matched control group (n = 35)...
January 13, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327737/uphill-downhill-nystagmus
#11
M Gufoni
Differential diagnosis between peripheral and central spontaneous nystagmus can be difficult to classify (as peripheral or central) even on the basis of criteria recommended in the recent literature. The aim of this paper is to use the combination of spontaneous nystagmus and ocular tilt reaction to determine the site of origin of the disease that causes nystagmus. We propose to classify the nystagmus in: 1) "Uphill" nystagmus in which the nystagmus takes on an inclined plane and the direction of the fast phase is towards the hypertropic eye (this type of nystagmus is likely peripheral); 2) "Downhill" nystagmus when the nystagmus beats toward the hypotropic eye (this type of nystagmus is likely central); 3) "Flat" nystagmus when the plane on which nystagmus beats is perfectly horizontal: in this case, we cannot say anything about the site of lesion (it was only detected in 15% of cases)...
December 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327550/-study-on-the-correlative-factors-of-the-pain-under-the-second-metatarsal-in-patients-with-hallux-valgus
#12
Jian-Gang Zuo, Hai-Wei Hu, Zhi-Cheng Sang, Jian-Min Wen, Wei-Dong Sun, Yong-Sheng Sun, Ting Cheng
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between the hallux valgus angle and arch X-ray parameters change, plantar pressure by measuring the X-ray indexes and foot-pressure indexes in patients with hallux valgus, as well as to study the main cause factors for the pain under the second metatarsal head. METHODS: A retrospective study of 254 patients(477 feet) treated in Wangjing Hospital from January 2012 to June 2013 was performed. The pain under the second metatarsal head and age distribution were recorded...
January 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319559/hints-in-the-acute-vestibular-syndrome-pearls-and-pitfalls
#13
Nathan H Kung, Gregory P Van Stavern, Daniel R Gold
The acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) is characterized by the rapid onset of vertigo, nausea/vomiting, nystagmus, unsteady gait, and head motion intolerance lasting more than 24 hours. We present 4 patients with AVS to illustrate the pearls and pitfalls of the Head Impulse, Nystagmus, Test of Skew (HINTS) examination.
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315187/intra-and-interexaminer-variability-of-two-separate-video-head-impulse-test-systems-assessing-all-six-semicircular-canals
#14
Emil Riis Abrahamsen, Ann-Eva Christensen, Dan Dupont Hougaard
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intra- and interexaminer variability of the video Head Impulse Test (v-HIT) when assessing all six semicircular canals (SCCs) of two separate v-HIT systems. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark. PATIENTS: One hundred twenty healthy subjects. INTERVENTION: Four separate tests of all six SCCs with either system A or system B...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305208/vestibulo-cochlear-function-in-inflammatory-neuropathies
#15
Marisa Blanquet, Jens A Petersen, Antonella Palla, Dorothe Veraguth, Konrad P Weber, Dominik Straumann, Alexander A Tarnutzer, Hans H Jung
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify peripheral-vestibular deficits that may contribute to imbalanced stance/gait in patients with inflammatory neuropathies. METHODS: Twenty-one patients (58 ± 15 y [mean age ± 1SD]; chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy = 10, Guillain-Barré Syndrome = 5, Anti-MAG peripheral neuropathy = 2, multifocal-motor-neuropathy = 4) were compared with 26 healthy controls. All subjects received video-head-impulse testing (vHIT), caloric irrigation and cervical/ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic-potentials (VEMPs)...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283913/vestibular-outcome-after-cochlear-implantation-is-not-related-to-surgical-technique-a-double-blinded-randomized-clinical-trial-of-round-window-approach-versus-cochleostomy
#16
Leise Elisabeth Hviid Korsager, Jesper Hvass Schmidt, Christian Faber, Jens Højberg Wanscher
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether the round window approach (RWA) leads to less vestibular dysfunction and dizziness than the standard cochleostomy approach (SCA) during cochlear implant (CI) surgery, as assessed using the video head impulse test (vHIT).Additionally, objective findings were compared with the subjective dizziness perceived by the patient. STUDY DESIGN: Double blinded, clinical randomized trial. SETTING: University Hospital. PATIENTS: Fifty-two ears from 46 patients were included...
December 27, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282699/dizziness-in-the-emergency-department-an-update-on-diagnosis
#17
Rainer Spiegel, Mark Kirsch, Christiane Rosin, Heiko Rust, Thomas Baumann, Raoul Sutter, Hergen Friedrich, Martina Göldlin, René Müri, Roger Kalla, Roland Bingisser, Georgios Mantokoudis
This review aims to assist emergency physicians in finding the underlying aetiology when a patient presents with dizziness to the emergency department. After reading this review, the emergency physician will be able to consider the most relevant differential diagnoses and have an idea about dangerous aetiologies that require immediate action. The emergency physician will also know what diagnostic steps need to be taken at what time, such as the three-component HINTS Test (Head Impulse, Nystagmus, and Test-of-Skew), which helps with distinguishing central from peripheral causes of the acute vestibular syndrome...
December 28, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279722/current-diagnostic-procedures-for-diagnosing-vertigo-and-dizziness
#18
REVIEW
Leif Erik Walther
Vertigo is a multisensory syndrome that otolaryngologists are confronted with every day. With regard to the complex functions of the sense of orientation, vertigo is considered today as a disorder of the sense of direction, a disturbed spatial perception of the body. Beside the frequent classical syndromes for which vertigo is the leading symptom (e.g. positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Menière's disease), vertigo may occur as main or accompanying symptom of a multitude of ENT-related diseases involving the inner ear...
2017: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274769/comparison-of-video-head-impulse-test-and-caloric-reflex-test-in-advanced-unilateral-definite-meni%C3%A3-re-s-disease
#19
F Rubin, F Simon, B Verillaud, P Herman, R Kania, C Hautefort
AIMS: There have been very few studies of the Video Head Impulse Test (VHIT) in patients with Menière's Disease (MD). Some reported 100% normal VHIT results, others not. These discrepancies may be due to differences in severity. The present study compared VHIT and caloric reflex test results in advanced unilateral definite MD. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective study included 37 consecutive patients, with a mean age of 56±12 years. Mean hearing loss was 59±18dB HL; 12 patients were subject to Tumarkin's otolithic crises...
December 20, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260355/vestibular-impairment-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy
#20
Gülden Akdal, Tural Tanrıverdizade, İhsan Şengün, Fikret Bademkıran, Koray Koçoğlu, Ayşe Nur Yüceyar, Özgül Ekmekçi, Hatice Karasoy, G Michael Halmágyi
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a common, treatable, autoimmune peripheral neuropathy considered to produce imbalance by weakness and proprioceptive impairment rather than vestibular impairment. We measured semicircular canal vestibular function in 21 CIDP patients (15M/6F) by the video head impulse test and postural stability with a battery comprising the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance, the Berg Balance Scale, the Dynamic Gait Index, the Fall Efficiency Scale, and the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Neurology
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