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Blood stream infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429519/the-incidence-and-costs-of-bacteremia-due-to-lack-of-gentamicin-lock-solutions-for-dialysis-catheters
#1
Tze Liang Goh, Jason Wei, David Semple, John Collins
The use of antibiotic lock solutions as prophylaxis for catheter-associated blood stream infection (CRBSI) has been shown to be effective in previous randomized controlled trials. However, the cost-effectiveness of this approach had not been studied. In 2012, the routine gentamicin-heparin lock solution used in Auckland City Hospital was withdrawn from the market, leading to a change to heparin-only lock. This was then replaced with gentamicin-citrate lock in 2014. This situation allowed review of the CRBSI rate and financial impact of different catheter lock solutions...
June 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426649/the-importance-of-appropriate-initial-bacterial-colonization-of-the-intestine-in-newborn-child-and-adult-health
#2
REVIEW
W Allan Walker
The fetus does not reside in a sterile intrauterine environment and is exposed to commensal bacteria from the maternal gut/blood stream which crosses the placenta and enters the amniotic fluid. This intestinal exposure to colonizing bacteria continues at birth and during the first year of life and has a profound influence on lifelong health. Why is this important? Intestinal crosstalk with colonizing bacteria in the developing intestine affects the infant's adaptation to extrauterine life (immune homeostasis) and provides protection against disease expression (allergy, autoimmune disease, obesity, etc...
April 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425261/central-line-associated-blood-stream-infections-characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-over-a-5-5-year-period
#3
Aynur Atilla, Zahide Doğanay, Hale Kefeli Çelik, Mehmet Derya Demirağ, Sırrı S Kiliç
BACKGROUND/AIM: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and the infection rates vary in a wide range1397645907(high: 62.5%; low: 20%) in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the characteristics and the risk factors for mortality in patients with CLABSIs in intensive care units (ICUs) and provide the relevant data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The electronic medical records database and file records obtained through active surveillance by an infection control committee of a hospital were screened to identify patients with CLABSIs hospitalized from January 2008 through July 2013...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397475/evaluation-of-maldi-tof-ms-for-the-identification-of-yeast-isolates-causing-bloodstream-infection
#4
Ozge Turhan, Betil Ozhak-Baysan, Oscar Zaragoza Hernandez, Halil Er, Gozde Ongut, Dilara Ogunc, Dilek Colak, Manuel Cuenca-Estrella
BACKGROUND: Infections due to Candida species are major causes of morbidity and mortality in humans, causing a diverse spectrum of clinical disease ranging from superficial and mucosal infections to invasive disease. Several authors have demonstrated that mortality is closely linked to both timing of therapy and/or source control. The rapid identification of pathogenic species is helpful to start timely and effective antifungal therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system for the correct and rapid identification of yeast isolates causing bloodstream infection...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378151/-antibiotic-stewardship-and-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#5
S Weis, A Kimmig, S Hagel, M W Pletz
Rates of antibiotic resistance are increasing worldwide and impact on the treatment of patients with bacterial infections. A broad and uncritical application in inpatient and outpatient settings as well as in agriculture has been recognized as the main driving force. Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programs aim at countering this worrisome development using various direct interventions such as infectious disease counseling. Blood stream infections caused by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus are severe infections associated with high mortality rates...
April 4, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377234/potential-biomarkers-for-effective-screening-of-neonatal-sepsis-infections-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Nidhi Chauhan, Sukirti Tiwari, Utkarsh Jain
Neonatal sepsis, a clinical disorder developed by bacterial blood stream infections (BSI) in neonates, is one of the serious global public health problems that must be addressed. More than one million of the estimated global newborn deaths per year are occurred due to severe infections. The genesis of the infection is divided into early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) of the disease. The clinical complications of neonatal sepsis may be associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, ductus arteriosus and necrotizing enterocolitis...
April 1, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368268/candida-blood-stream-infection-in-neonates-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-teaching-hospital-of-central-india
#7
Sriparna Basu Alam, Rajesh Kumar Mahfuz, Ragini Tilak Munirul Islam, Ashok Kumar Mondal
OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiology of neonatal Candida blood stream infection. METHODS: Medical records of neonates with Candida blood stream infection over five years (September 2010 to August 2015) were reviewed. Clinical details, species distribution and antifungal susceptibility were noted. RESULTS: 114 neonates developed Candida blood stream infection. Commonly isolated Candida species were C. tropicalis, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis...
March 29, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366610/increased-risk-of-death-with-recurrent-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bacteremia
#8
K L McCarthy, D L Paterson
This study aimed to characterize recurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa blood stream infection (BSI). Positive blood cultures for P. aeruginosa were identified over a 3-year period from seven tertiary care hospitals. Patients with recurrent BSI were identified. Extensive epidemiological, clinical and outcome data were obtained. BSI recurrence was found to be uncommon with 9% of patients having a first relapse of BSI. Fourteen percent of these patients went on to have a second relapse of BSI. Significant variables associated with recurrence were the presence of a hematological malignancy or receiving recent corticosteroid therapy...
March 7, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365900/invasive-listeriosis-in-a-patient-with-several-episodes-of-antibiotic-associated-colitis-presumably-due-to-clostridium-difficile
#9
Novella Carannante, Pasquale Pagliano, Marco Rossi, Vittorio Attanasio, Carolina Rescigno, Laura Corte, Carlo Tascini, Gianluigi Cardinali
A 62-year-old man developed a blood stream infection and meningitis due to Listeria monocytogenes, 20 days after an episode of pseudo-membranous colitis. The patient, hospitalized for the first time for transurethral prostatectomy, was readmitted 20 days later with watery diarrhea. Pseudo-membranous colitis was diagnosed and treated successfully, without testing for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). After 15 more days, the patient developed again diarrhea, fever and confusion. Hospitalized again, blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures resulted positive for L...
April 1, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356667/hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-secondary-to-hemodialysis-catheter-related-blood-stream-infection
#10
U Anandh, S Johari, B Vaswani
A 57-year-old man on dialysis presented with fever due to Pseudomonas septicemia. Workup revealed very high triglycerides and serum ferritin levels. A bone marrow examination showed hemophagocytosis. A diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) was made and steroids were started. He was put on automated peritoneal dialysis. Patients' condition continued to deteriorate and he succumbed to his illness. This case illustrates the development of HLH secondary to infections which are increasingly being recognized in the literature...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339675/high-reported-rates-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-indian-neonatal-and-pediatric-blood-stream-infections
#11
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Anita Shet, Vijay Yewale, Mike Sharland
Background.: There is real shortage of national data on antimicrobial resistance rates in Indian neonates and children. A descriptive review was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in isolates of blood stream infection among hospitalized children in India. Methods.: Published and gray literature on antibiotic resistance in children was searched using "Google Scholar", "Scopus", and "PubMed" databases between January 2000 and July 2015...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332765/combating-blood-stream-infections-during-induction-chemotherapy-in-children-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-single-center-results-in-india
#12
Divya Subburaj, Ramya Uppuluri, Dhaarani Jayaraman, Venkateshwaran Vellaichamyswaminathan, Sathishkumar Kandath, Revathi Raj
Optimal management of infectious complication is the biggest challenge in children receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We have analyzed the data of children undergoing AML induction chemotherapy at our center from 2002 to 2016 and found that Gram-negative infections are more predominant when compared to the published literature. There also has been a surge in multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections over the last 4 years, which has increased the need for supportive care and escalated the cost of care...
March 23, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330584/central-line-associated-sepsis-in-children-receiving-parenteral-nutrition-in-oman
#13
Tawfiq T Al Lawati, Adawaiya Al Jamie, Nasra Al Mufarraji
Parenteral Nutrition (PN) is used when gut fails to provide complete nutrition. Central line Associate Blood Stream Infection (CLABSI) a major complication of this therapy. The objective of the study was to report the incidence of CLABSI and associated mortality in children receiving PN in the Royal Hospital and study the indication and duration of PN use. All children from the age of 0-48 months who received TPN outside NICU from the period between 1/1/2011 till 31/12/2014 were included. Data were retrieved from the hospital electronic data base...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330498/identification-of-cattle-buffaloes-and-rodents-as-reservoir-animals-of-leptospira-in-the-district-of-gampaha-sri-lanka
#14
D T H Denipitiya, N V Chandrasekharan, W Abeyewickreme, R A Hartskeerl, M D Hapugoda
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an important emerging infectious disease in Sri Lanka. Rats are the most important reservoir of Leptospira but domestic and wild mammals may also act as important maintenance or accidental hosts. In Sri Lanka, knowledge of reservoir animals of leptospires is poor. The objective of this study was to identify potential reservoir animals of Leptospira in the District of Gampaha, Sri Lanka. FINDINGS: Blood and kidney samples were collected from 38 rodents and mid-stream urine samples were randomly collected from 45 cattle and five buffaloes in the District of Gampaha...
March 23, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324245/comparison-of-dna-microarray-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-and-real-time-pcr-with-dna-sequencing-for-identification-of-fusarium-spp-obtained-from-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#15
Marcela de Souza, Tetsuhiro Matsuzawa, Kanae Sakai, Yasunori Muraosa, Luzia Lyra, Ariane Fidelis Busso-Lopes, Anna Sara Shafferman Levin, Angélica Zaninelli Schreiber, Yuzuru Mikami, Tohoru Gonoi, Katsuhiko Kamei, Maria Luiza Moretti, Plínio Trabasso
The performance of three molecular biology techniques, i.e., DNA microarray, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and real-time PCR were compared with DNA sequencing for properly identification of 20 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from blood stream as etiologic agent of invasive infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. DNA microarray, LAMP and real-time PCR identified 16 (80%) out of 20 samples as Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) and four (20%) as Fusarium spp. The agreement among the techniques was 100%...
March 21, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321802/sepsis-risk-factors-in-infants-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#16
Michaël Levy, Nolwenn Le Sache, Mostafa Mokhtari, Guy Fagherazzi, Gaelle Cuzon, Benjamin Bueno, Virginie Fouquet, Alexandra Benachi, Sergio Eleni Dit Trolli, Pierre Tissieres
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a rare congenital anomaly and remains among the most challenging ICU-managed disease. Beside severe pulmonary hypertension, lung hypoplasia and major abdominal surgery, infective complications remain major determinants of outcome. However, the specific incidence of sepsis as well as associated risk factors is unknown. METHODS: This prospective, 4-year observational study took place in the pediatric intensive care and neonatal medicine department of the Paris South University Hospitals (Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France), CDH national referral center and involved 62 neonates with CDH...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297055/any-use-for-alternative-lock-solutions-in-the-prevention-of-catheter-related-blood-stream-infections
#17
Laura Labriola, Jean-Michel Pochet
The prevention of catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI) in hemodialysis (HD) patients remains a challenge because of high morbidity and mortality associated to CRBSI. Alternative locking solutions (ALS) containing an antithrombotic substance with additional antimicrobial or antibiofilm properties (citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA], 70% ethanol, thrombolytics) with or without the addition of molecules with specific antimicrobial activity (antibiotics, taurolidine, paraben-methylene-blue) has been proposed with the aim to prevent or eradicate intraluminal biofilm colonization and subsequent CRBSI...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283785/a-quality-improvement-initiative-to-reduce-central-line-infection-in-neonates-using-checklists
#18
Jacqueline E Taylor, Susan J McDonald, Arul Earnest, Jim Buttery, Bree Fusinato, Samantha Hovenden, Andrea Wallace, Kenneth Tan
Central line associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) are the most common complication of central catheters in neonates. These infections increase length of hospital stay, hospital costs and impact on mortality and morbidities. We performed a quasi-experimental study, over 24 months, utilising a pre-post design to determine the impact checklists had on central line infections. We introduced checklists for insertion, daily maintenance and procedural access based on the existing clinical guideline. Infections and compliance were monitored and reported back to the unit each month...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279965/lower-levels-of-vitamin-a-are-associated-with-increased-gastrointestinal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-children
#19
Dana T Lounder, Pooja Khandelwal, Christopher Dandoy, Sonata Jodele, Michael Grimley, Gregory Wallace, Adam Lane, Cynthia Taggart, Ashley Teusink-Cross, Kelly Lake, Stella M Davies
Vitamin A promotes development of mucosal tolerance and enhances differentiation of regulatory T cells. Vitamin A deficiency impairs epithelial integrity, increasing intestinal permeability. We hypothesized that higher vitamin A levels would reduce risk of graft versus host disease through reduced intestinal permeability, reduced mucosal injury, and reduced lymphocyte homing to the gut. We tested this hypothesis in a cohort study of 114 consecutive patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant. Free vitamin A levels were measured in plasma at day 30 post-transplant...
March 9, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273989/healthcare-associated-infections-in-a-resource-limited-setting
#20
Chanaveerappa Bammigatti, Saikumar Doradla, Harish Narasimha Belgode, Harichandra Kumar, Rathinam Palamalai Swaminathan
INTRODUCTION: Health Care associated Infections (HAI) are the most common complications affecting the hospitalized patients. HAI are more common in developing and under developed countries. However, there are no systematic surveillance programs in these countries. AIM: To find out the burden, predisposing factors and multidrug resistant organisms causing HAI in a resource limited setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational study was done at Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER)...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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