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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786947/does-general-experience-affect-self-assessment
#1
Parisa Rezaiefar, Kelly Forse, Joseph K Burns, Sharon Johnston, Elizabeth Muggah, Claire Kendall, Douglas Archibald
BACKGROUND: The assessment of clinical competence is critical in medical education. Understanding the effect of general experience on a physician's self-assessment would help design more effective curricula and evaluations of procedural skills in postgraduate training and continuing professional development (CPD). In this observational study, we assessed the effect of general experience on the correlation between confidence and competence amongst experienced clinicians (ECs) and postgraduate trainees (PGTs) when learning an office-based procedure in pessary care...
May 22, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786898/adults-with-comorbid-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-alcohol-use-disorder-and-opioid-use-disorder-the-effectiveness-of-modified-prolonged-exposure
#2
Kelly R Peck, Julie A Schumacher, Paul R Stasiewicz, Scott F Coffey
Opioid use disorders (OUDs) are a growing problem in the United States. When OUDs co-occur with problematic drinking and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), negative drug-related mental and physical health outcomes may be exacerbated. Thus, it is important to establish whether PTSD treatments with established efficacy for dually diagnosed individuals also demonstrate efficacy in individuals who engage in problematic drinking and concurrent opioid misuse. Adults who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD and alcohol dependence were recruited from a substance use treatment facility and were randomly assigned to receive either modified prolonged exposure (mPE) therapy for PTSD or a non-trauma-focused comparison treatment...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786892/association-between-initial-age-of-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-and-cognitive-control-preliminary-evidence
#3
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786817/targeted-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-training-focused-on-the-family-members-of-high-risk-patients-at-a-regional-medical-center-a-comparison-between-family-members-of-high-risk-and-no-risk-patients
#4
Kap Su Han, Ji Sung Lee, Su Jin Kim, Sung Woo Lee
BACKGROUND: We developed a hospital-based cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training model focused on the target population (family members of patients with potential risks for cardiac arrest) and compared the outcome of CPR training between target and non-target populations for validity. METHODS: Family members of patients in training were divided into three groups on the basis of patients' diseases, as follows: 1) the cardio-specific (CS) risk group, including family members of patients with cardiac disease at risk of cardiac arrest; 2) the cardiovascular (CV) risk group, including family members of patients with risk factors for cardiovascular disease; and 3) the no-risk group...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786796/techniques-for-evaluation-of-ar-transcriptional-output-and-recruitment-to-dna
#5
Manqi Zhang, William C Krause, Irina U Agoulnik
Steroid receptors are ligand activated transcription factors whose promoter specificity is regulated by a broad set of coregulators and pioneer factors. Corepressors and coactivators determine receptors' recruitment to specific regulatory elements and ultimately their transcriptional output. Using androgen receptor (AR) and NCOR1 corepressor as examples, this chapter describes experimental approaches to evaluate recruitment of steroid receptors and their coregulators to DNA and to determine coregulator contribution to the transcriptional output of the receptor...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786695/the-asthma-mobile-health-study-smartphone-data-collected-using-researchkit
#6
Yu-Feng Yvonne Chan, Brian M Bot, Micol Zweig, Nicole Tignor, Weiping Ma, Christine Suver, Rafhael Cedeno, Erick R Scott, Steven Gregory Hershman, Eric E Schadt, Pei Wang
Widespread adoption of smart mobile platforms coupled with a growing ecosystem of sensors including passive location tracking and the ability to leverage external data sources create an opportunity to generate an unprecedented depth of data on individuals. Mobile health technologies could be utilized for chronic disease management as well as research to advance our understanding of common diseases, such as asthma. We conducted a prospective observational asthma study to assess the feasibility of this type of approach, clinical characteristics of cohorts recruited via a mobile platform, the validity of data collected, user retention patterns, and user data sharing preferences...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786490/gallium-68-psma-11-pet-mr-imaging-in-patients-with-intermediate-or-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#7
Sonya Youngju Park, Claudia Zacharias, Caitlyn Harrison, Richard E Fan, Christian Kunder, Negin Hatami, Frederik Giesel, Pejman Ghanouni, Bruce Daniel, Andreas M Loening, Geoffrey A Sonn, Andrei Iagaru
Purpose To report the results of dual-time-point gallium 68 (68 Ga) prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-11 positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance (MR) imaging prior to prostatectomy in patients with intermediate- or high-risk cancer. Materials and Methods Thirty-three men who underwent conventional imaging as clinically indicated and who were scheduled for radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection were recruited for this study. A mean dose of 4.1 mCi ± 0.7 (151.7 MBq ± 25...
May 16, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786453/cross-cultural-adaptation-and-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-singapore-version-of-the-chedoke-arm-and-hand-activity
#8
Silvana X Choo, Jackie Bosch, Julie Richardson, Paul Stratford, Jocelyn E Harris
PURPOSE: To develop a Singapore version of the Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) and to estimate the construct validity and inter-rater reliability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Objectively Assessed Outcome measure procedure was used to systematically adapt the CAHAI. We recruited 56 adults admitted to an inpatient stroke facility to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Singapore version of the CAHAI...
May 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786448/serum-rbp4-positively-correlates-with-triglyceride-level-but-not-with-bmi-fat-mass-and-insulin-resistance-in-healthy-obese-and-non-obese-individuals
#9
Emilia Korek, Magdalena Gibas-Dorna, Zuzanna Chęcińska-Maciejewska, Hanna Krauss, Małgorzata Łagiedo-Żelazowska, Barbara Kołodziejczak, Paweł Bogdański
PURPOSE: Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) has recently been identified as an adipokine possibly involved in the development of impaired glucose metabolism. We aimed to test serum RBP4 in healthy non-obese individuals and in patients with well-characterized phenotype: obesity without confounding effects of diabetes, metabolic syndrome or dyslipidemia. Additionally, we examined whether serum RBP4 is associated with anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance and blood lipid parameters...
May 22, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786081/distinct-learning-induced-changes-in-stimulus-selectivity-and-interactions-of-gabaergic-interneuron-classes-in-visual-cortex
#10
Adil G Khan, Jasper Poort, Angus Chadwick, Antonin Blot, Maneesh Sahani, Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel, Sonja B Hofer
How learning enhances neural representations for behaviorally relevant stimuli via activity changes of cortical cell types remains unclear. We simultaneously imaged responses of pyramidal cells (PYR) along with parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibitory interneurons in primary visual cortex while mice learned to discriminate visual patterns. Learning increased selectivity for task-relevant stimuli of PYR, PV and SOM subsets but not VIP cells. Strikingly, PV neurons became as selective as PYR cells, and their functional interactions reorganized, leading to the emergence of stimulus-selective PYR-PV ensembles...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786072/mptp-driven-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-microglia-plays-a-central-role-in-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration
#11
Eunju Lee, Inhwa Hwang, Sangjun Park, Sujeong Hong, Boreum Hwang, Yoeseph Cho, Junghyun Son, Je-Wook Yu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the reduction of dopamine levels in the striatum. Although details of the molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuronal death in PD remain unclear, neuroinflammation is also considered a potent mediator in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. In the present study, we present evidences that microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is critical for dopaminergic neuronal loss and the subsequent motor deficits in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786069/ve-cadherin-promotes-vasculogenic-mimicry-by-modulating-kaiso-dependent-gene-expression
#12
Daniel Delgado-Bellido, Mónica Fernández-Cortés, María Isabel Rodríguez, Santiago Serrano-Sáenz, Arkaitz Carracedo, Angel Garcia-Diaz, F Javier Oliver
Aberrant extra-vascular expression of VE-cadherin (VEC) has been observed in metastasis associated with vasculogenic mimicry (VM); however, the ultimate reason why non-endothelial VEC favors the acquisition of this phenotype is not established. In this study, we show that human malignant melanoma cells have a constitutively high expression of phoshoVEC (pVEC) at Y658; pVEC is a target of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and forms a complex with p120-catenin and the transcriptional repressor kaiso in the nucleus...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786066/repeated-social-defeat-induced-neuroinflammation-anxiety-like-behavior-and-resistance-to-fear-extinction-were-attenuated-by-the-cannabinoid-receptor-agonist-win55-212-2
#13
Sabrina Francesca Lisboa, Anzela Niraula, Leonardo Barbosa Resstel, Francisco Silveira Guimaraes, Jonathan P Godbout, John F Sheridan
Psychosocial stress contributes to the development of psychiatric disorders. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine stressor that causes a release of inflammatory monocytes into circulation. Moreover, RSD-induced anxiety-like behavior is dependent on the recruitment of these monocytes to the brain. Activation of the endocannabinoid (ECB) system may modulate both neuroendocrine and inflammatory responses mediated by stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that a cannabinoid receptor agonist would attenuate RSD-induced inflammation, anxiety, and stress sensitization...
April 17, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786048/cardiac-hypertrophy-is-positively-regulated-by-microrna-24-in-ratsmicrorna-24
#14
Juan Gao, Min Zhu, Rui-Feng Liu, Jian-Shu Zhang, Ming Xu
Background: MicroRNA-24 (miR-24) plays an important role in heart failure by reducing the efficiency of myocardial excitation-contraction coupling. Prolonged cardiac hypertrophy may lead to heart failure, but little is known about the role of miR-24 in cardiac hypertrophy. This study aimed to preliminarily investigate the function of miR-24 and its mechanisms in cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats with a body weight of 50 ± 5 g were recruited and randomly divided into two groups: a transverse aortic constriction (TAC) group and a sham surgery group...
June 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785970/phenotypic-and-molecular-characteristics-of-androgen-insensitivity-syndrome-patients
#15
Shi-Min Yuan, Ya-Nan Zhang, Juan Du, Wen Li, Chao-Feng Tu, Lan-Lan Meng, Ge Lin, Guang-Xiu Lu, Yue-Qiu Tan
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), an X-linked recessive genetic disorder of sex development, is caused by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, and is characterized by partial or complete inability of specific tissues to respond to androgens in individuals with the 46,XY karyotype. This study aimed to investigate AR gene mutations and to characterize genotype-phenotype correlations. Ten patients from unrelated families, aged 2-31 years, were recruited in the study. Based on karyotype, altered hormone profile, and clinical manifestations, nine patients were preliminarily diagnosed with complete AIS and one with partial AIS...
May 18, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785964/mechanism-of-selective-recruitment-of-rna-polymerases-ii-and-iii-to-snrna-gene-promoters
#16
Oleksandr Dergai, Pascal Cousin, Jerome Gouge, Karishma Satia, Viviane Praz, Tracy Kuhlman, Philippe Lhôte, Alessandro Vannini, Nouria Hernandez
RNA polymerase II (Pol II) small nuclear RNA (snRNA) promoters and type 3 Pol III promoters have highly similar structures; both contain an interchangeable enhancer and "proximal sequence element" (PSE), which recruits the SNAP complex (SNAPc). The main distinguishing feature is the presence, in the type 3 promoters only, of a TATA box, which determines Pol III specificity. To understand the mechanism by which the absence or presence of a TATA box results in specific Pol recruitment, we examined how SNAPc and general transcription factors required for Pol II or Pol III transcription of SNAPc-dependent genes (i...
May 21, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785957/associations-of-egg-consumption-with-cardiovascular-disease-in-a-cohort-study-of-0-5-million-chinese-adults
#17
Chenxi Qin, Jun Lv, Yu Guo, Zheng Bian, Jiahui Si, Ling Yang, Yiping Chen, Yonglin Zhou, Hao Zhang, Jianjun Liu, Junshi Chen, Zhengming Chen, Canqing Yu, Liming Li
OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between egg consumption and cardiovascular disease (CVD), ischaemic heart disease (IHD), major coronary events (MCE), haemorrhagic stroke as well as ischaemic stroke. METHODS: During 2004-2008, over 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years were recruited from 10 diverse survey sites in China. Participants were asked about the frequency of egg consumption and were followed up via linkages to multiple registries and active investigation...
May 21, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785935/the-impact-of-dysphonic-voices-on-children-s-comprehension-of-spoken-language
#18
Johnny C-H Chui, Estella P-M Ma
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of teachers' dysphonic voices on children's listening comprehension. METHODS: One hundred thirty-four grade three and four students were recruited from local primary schools in Hong Kong. They were required to listen to six passages, three in Cantonese and three in English, which were either read in normal, mildly dysphonic, or severely dysphonic voices. The students were required to complete six multiple-choice comprehension questions upon listening to each passage...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785926/intramedullary-nail-fixation-versus-locking-plate-fixation-for-adults-with-a-fracture-of-the-distal-tibia-the-uk-fixdt-rct
#19
Matthew L Costa, Juul Achten, Susie Hennings, Nafisa Boota, James Griffin, Stavros Petrou, Mandy Maredza, Melina Dritsaki, Thomas Wood, James Masters, Ian Pallister, Sarah E Lamb, Nick R Parsons
BACKGROUND: The best treatment for fractures of the distal tibia remains controversial. Most of these fractures require surgical fixation, but the outcomes are unpredictable and complications are common. OBJECTIVES: To assess disability, quality of life, complications and resource use in patients treated with intramedullary (IM) nail fixation versus locking plate fixation in the 12 months following a fracture of the distal tibia. DESIGN: This was a multicentre randomised trial...
May 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785763/is-bdnf-val66met-polymorphism-associated-with-psychotic-experiences-and-psychotic-disorder-outcome-evidence-from-a-6-years-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Umut Kirli, Tolga Binbay, Marjan Drukker, Hayriye Elbi, Bülent Kayahan, Duygu Keskin Gökçelli, Ferda Özkınay, Hüseyin Onay, Köksal Alptekin, Jim van Os
There is little research on genetic risk for the extended psychosis phenotype ranging from psychotic experiences (PEs) to psychotic disorders (PDs). In this general population-based prospective cohort study, the longitudinal associations between BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism and the different levels of the extended psychosis phenotype were investigated. Addresses were contacted in a multistage clustered probability sampling frame covering 11 districts and 302 neighborhoods at baseline (n = 4011). A nested case-control study (n = 366) recruited individuals with PEs and PDs as well as individuals with no psychotic symptoms...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
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