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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922313/lateral-perturbation-induced-stepping-strategies-and-predictors-in-persons-poststroke
#1
Vicki L Gray, Chieh-Ling Yang, Sandy McCombe Waller, Mark W Rogers
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Falls commonly occur as weight is transferred laterally, and impaired reactive stepping responses are associated with falls after stroke. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in and the determinants of mediolateral (M-L) protective stepping strategies when pulled off balance toward the paretic and nonparetic sides. METHODS: Eighteen individuals more than 6 months poststroke were pulled in the M-L direction by a lateral waist-pull perturbation system...
October 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922213/elastic-resistance-effectiveness-on-increasing-strength-of-shoulders-and-hips
#2
Kelsey J Picha, Muataz R Almaddah, Jordan Barker, Tavis Ciochetty, W Scott Black, Tim L Uhl
Elastic resistance is a common training method used to gain strength. Currently, progression with elastic resistance is based on the perceived exertion of the exercise or completion of targeted repetitions; exact resistance is typically unknown. This study's objective is to determine if knowledge of load during elastic resistance exercise will increase strength gains during exercises. Participants were randomized into two strength training groups, elastic resistance only and elastic resistance using a load cell (LC) that displays force during exercise...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919442/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-the-c-terminal-region-of-flig-an-essential-motor-component-of-vibrio-na-driven-flagella
#3
Yohei Miyanoiri, Atsushi Hijikata, Yuuki Nishino, Mizuki Gohara, Yasuhiro Onoue, Seiji Kojima, Chojiro Kojima, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Masatsune Kainosho, Michio Homma
The flagellar motor protein complex consists of rotor and stator proteins. Their interaction generates torque of flagellum, which rotates bidirectionally, clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise. FliG, one of the rotor proteins, consists of three domains: N-terminal (FliGN), middle (FliGM), and C-terminal (FliGC). We have identified point mutations in FliGC from Vibrio alginolyticus, which affect the flagellar motility. To understand the molecular mechanisms, we explored the structural and dynamic properties of FliGC from both wild-type and motility-defective mutants...
September 6, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919168/contribution-of-interaction-torques-during-dart-throwing-differences-between-novices-and-experts
#4
Nasser Rezzoug, Clint Hansen, Philippe Gorce, Brice Isableu
We examined if experts and novices show different utilization of the torque components impulses during dart throwing. Participants threw darts continuously at a dartboard aiming for the centre (target bull's eye). The upper-limb joint torque impulses were obtained through inverse dynamics with anthropometric and motion capture data as input. Depending on the joint degree of freedom (DOF) and movement phase (acceleration and follow-through), three main strategies of net torque (NET) impulse generation through joint muscle (MUS) and interaction (INT) torque impulses were highlighted...
September 14, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918423/non-discriminant-relationships-between-leg-muscle-strength-mass-and-gait-performance-in-healthy-young-and-old-adults
#5
Thomas Muehlbauer, Urs Granacher, Ron Borde, Tibor Hortobágyi
BACKGROUND: Gait speed declines with increasing age, but it is unclear if gait speed preferentially correlates with leg muscle strength or mass. OBJECTIVE: We determined the relationship between gait speed and (1) leg muscle strength measured at 3 lower extremity joints and (2) leg lean tissue mass (LTM) in healthy young (age: 25 years, n = 20) and old (age: 70 years, n = 20) adults. METHODS: Subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic hip, knee, and ankle extension torque, leg LTM by bioimpedance, and gait performance (i...
September 16, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916827/role-of-rkky-torque-on-domain-wall-motion-in-synthetic-antiferromagnetic-nanowires-with-opposite-spin-hall-angles
#6
S Krishnia, P Sethi, W L Gan, F N Kholid, I Purnama, M Ramu, T S Herng, J Ding, W S Lew
We experimentally show the effect of enhanced spin-orbit and RKKY induced torques on the current-induced motion of a pair of domain walls (DWs), which are coupled antiferromagnetically in synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) nanowires. The torque from the spin Hall effect (SHE) rotates the Néel DWs pair into the transverse direction, which is due to the fact that heavy metals of opposite spin Hall angles are deposited at the top and the bottom ferromagnetic interfaces. The rotation of both DWs in non-collinear fashion largely perturbs the antiferromagnetic coupling, which in turn stimulates an enhanced interlayer RKKY exchange torque that improved the DW velocity...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915821/assessment-of-the-underlying-systems-involved-in-standing-balance-the-additional-value-of-electromyography-in-system-identification-and-parameter-estimation
#7
J H Pasma, J van Kordelaar, D de Kam, V Weerdesteyn, A C Schouten, H van der Kooij
BACKGROUND: Closed loop system identification (CLSIT) is a method to disentangle the contribution of underlying systems in standing balance. We investigated whether taking into account lower leg muscle activation in CLSIT could improve the reliability and accuracy of estimated parameters identifying the underlying systems. METHODS: Standing balance behaviour of 20 healthy young participants was measured using continuous rotations of the support surface (SS). The dynamic balance behaviour obtained with CLSIT was expressed by sensitivity functions of the ankle torque, body sway and muscle activation of the lower legs to the SS rotation...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914397/influence-of-acid-treatment-on-surface-properties-and-in-vivo-performance-of-ti6al4v-alloy-for-biomedical-applications
#8
Daniel J Fernandes, Ruy G Marques, Carlos N Elias
The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of acid treatment on the surface properties and in vivo performance of titanium grade 5 (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Mini-implants with surface treatment were inserted into New Zealand rabbit tibia for 1, 4 and 8 weeks. SEM analysis showed intercommunicated micropores in acid treated samples. AFM showed micron and sub-micron roughness. The thickness of the titanium oxide layer increased with surface treatment, with a significant reduction of Al and V concentration...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912700/action-direction-of-muscle-synergies-in-voluntary-multi-directional-postural-control
#9
Akari Kubo, Shota Hagio, Benio Kibushi, Toshio Moritani, Motoki Kouzaki
A muscle synergy is a coordinative structure of muscles that has been proposed as a strategy to reduce the number of variables that the central nervous system (CNS) has to address in motor tasks. In this article, the mechanical contribution of muscle synergies and coordinative structures of muscles in voluntary multi-directional postural control were investigated. The task for healthy, young subjects was to shift and align their center of pressure (COP) to targets dispersed in 12 different directions in the horizontal plane by leaning their bodies for 10 s...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912476/enstrophy-transport-conditional-on-local-flow-topologies-in-different-regimes-of-premixed-turbulent-combustion
#10
Vassilios Papapostolou, Daniel H Wacks, Nilanjan Chakraborty, Markus Klein, Hong G Im
Enstrophy is an intrinsic feature of turbulent flows, and its transport properties are essential for the understanding of premixed flame-turbulence interaction. The interrelation between the enstrophy transport and flow topologies, which can be assigned to eight categories based on the three invariants of the velocity-gradient tensor, has been analysed here. The enstrophy transport conditional on flow topologies in turbulent premixed flames has been analysed using a Direct Numerical Simulation database representing the corrugated flamelets (CF), thin reaction zones (TRZ) and broken reaction zones (BRZ) combustion regimes...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912360/influence-of-past-injurious-exercise-on-fiber-type-specific-acute-anabolic-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-skeletal-muscle
#11
Ryo Takagi, Riki Ogasawara, Junya Takegaki, Arata Tsutaki, Koichi Nakazato, Naokata Ishii
We investigated influence of past injurious exercise on anabolic response of skeletal muscle fibers to resistance exercise (RE). Wistar rats were divided into exercise (E) and exercise after injury (I-E) groups. At age 10 wk, the right gastrocnemius muscle in each rat in the I-E group was subjected to strenuous eccentric contractions. Subsequently, RE was imposed on the same muscle of each rat at 14 wk of age in both groups. Peak joint torque and total force generation per body mass during RE were similar between the groups...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911978/effect-of-12-month-resistance-and-endurance-training-on-quality-quantity-and-function-of-skeletal-muscle-in-older-adults-requiring-long-term-care
#12
Akito Yoshiko, Takashi Kaji, Hiroki Sugiyama, Teruhiko Koike, Yoshiharu Oshida, Hiroshi Akima
Older adults requiring long-term care will experience age-associated deterioration of the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle if no interventions are performed. Long-term training is considered a typical intervention method and is effective for improvement of both muscle quantity and physical function. However, how such training affects muscle quality [i.e., fat-to-muscle ratio as determined by echo intensity (EI)] in older adults requiring long-term care remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 12-month physical training intervention on the quality and quantity of skeletal muscle, physical function, and blood chemistry in older adults requiring long-term care...
September 11, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910200/comparison-of-two-%C3%AE-alanine-dosing-protocols-on-muscle-carnosine-elevations
#13
David D Church, Jay R Hoffman, Alyssa N Varanoske, Ran Wang, Kayla M Baker, Michael B La Monica, Kyle S Beyer, Sarah J Dodd, Leonardo P Oliveira, Roger C Harris, David H Fukuda, Jeffrey R Stout
OBJECTIVE: β-alanine (BA) is a nonproteogenic amino acid that combines with histidine to form carnosine. The amount taken orally in individual doses, however, is limited due to symptoms of paresthesia that are associated with higher doses. The use of a sustained-release formulation has been reported to reduce the symptoms of paresthesia, suggesting that a greater daily dose may be possible. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether increasing the daily dose of BA can result in a similar increase in muscle carnosine in a reduced time...
September 14, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906503/release-of-irretrievable-abutment-healing-caps-using-cooling-proof-of-concept-and-clinical-recommendations
#14
Kifah Blal, Ori Rimon, Nardy Casap
PURPOSE: To study the relation between irretrievable abutment healing caps (AHCs), temperature, and the torque required to remove the AHCs from implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty implants, 13 mm long and 4.2 mm in diameter, were inserted into four acrylic boxes and covered with acrylic resin. An AHC was screwed into each implant, using a 30 N/cm torque. The acrylic blocks were placed in a 37°C water bath, and subsequently, a block was removed from the bath, the AHCs were cooled, and the torque needed to release each AHC from the implant was measured using a torque wrench...
September 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906500/fracture-of-reduced-diameter-zirconia-dental-implants-following-repeated-insertion
#15
Matthias Karl, Stefan Scherg, Tanja Grobecker-Karl
PURPOSE: Achievement of high insertion torque values indicating good primary stability is a goal during dental implant placement. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether or not two-piece implants made from zirconia ceramic may be damaged as a result of torque application. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 10 two-piece zirconia implants were repeatedly inserted into polyurethane foam material with increasing density and decreasing osteotomy size. The insertion torque applied was measured, and implants were checked for fractures by applying the fluorescent penetrant method...
September 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906107/concepts-and-methods-of-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy-applied-to-biomembranes
#16
Trivikram R Molugu, Soohyun Lee, Michael F Brown
Concepts of solid-state NMR spectroscopy and applications to fluid membranes are reviewed in this paper. Membrane lipids with (2)H-labeled acyl chains or polar head groups are studied using (2)H NMR to yield knowledge of their atomistic structures in relation to equilibrium properties. This review demonstrates the principles and applications of solid-state NMR by unifying dipolar and quadrupolar interactions and highlights the unique features offered by solid-state (2)H NMR with experimental illustrations. For randomly oriented multilamellar lipids or aligned membranes, solid-state (2)H NMR enables direct measurement of residual quadrupolar couplings (RQCs) due to individual C-(2)H-labeled segments...
September 14, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905196/mechanical-evaluation-of-cerebral-aneurysm-clip-scissoring-phenomenon-comparison-of-titanium-alloy-and-cobalt-alloy
#17
Keiji Tsutsumi, Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi, Kazuhiro Hongo
Cerebral aneurysm clip blades crossing during surgery is well known as scissoring. Scissoring might cause rupture of the aneurysm due to laceration of its neck. Although aneurysm clip scissoring is well known, there have been few reports describing the details of this phenomenon. Quasi-scissoring phenomenon was introduced mechanically by rotating the clip head attached to a silicone sheet. The anti-scissoring torque during the twist of the blades was measured by changing the depth and the opening width. The closing force was also evaluated...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904638/functional-outcomes-following-non-operative-versus-operative-treatment-of-clavicle-fractures-in-adolescents
#18
M M Herzog, R C Whitesell, L M Mac, M L Jackson, B A Culotta, J R Axelrod, M T Busch, S C Willimon
PURPOSE: Superiority of non-operative versus operative treatment of clavicle shaft fractures remains unclear. We aimed to assess shoulder function in adolescents following shortened clavicle fracture and compare operative versus non-operative treatment. METHODS: Patients aged 12 to 18 years at the time of fracture and minimum 1.5 years post injury were identified for this institutional review board (IRB)-approved study. For this retrospective cohort study, patients were frequency-matched for age, gender, shortening of the clavicle fracture and activity level...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902600/contact-analysis-of-horizontal-cleavage-tear-treatment
#19
Carlos Uquillas, Sally Arno, Austin Ramme, Cheongeun Oh, Peter Walker, Robert Meislin
Horizontal cleavage tears (HCT) commonly occur in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus due to aging and degeneration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surgical treatment of HCTs and their effect on dynamic tibiofemoral contact mechanics. The tibiofemoral contact mechanics of 10 cadaver knees were investigated using a custom dynamic loading apparatus, pressure sensor, and motion sensing camera. Three loading conditions were analyzed: 500 N compressive load, 500 N compressive load with 100 N posterior shear, and 500 N compressive load with 2...
May 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901292/control-of-gliding-in-a-flying-snake-inspired-n-chain-model
#20
Farid Jafari, Sevak Tahmasian, Shane Ross, Jake Socha
Flying snakes of genus Chrysopelea possess a highly dynamic gliding behavior, which is dominated by an undulation in the form of lateral waves sent posteriorly down the body. The resulting high-amplitude periodic variations in the distribution of mass and aerodynamic forces have been hypothesized to contribute to the stability of the snake's gliding trajectory. However, a previous two-dimensional analysis in the longitudinal plane failed to reveal a significant effect of undulation on the stability in the pitch direction...
September 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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