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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730920/validity-of-a-device-designed-to-measure-braking-power-in-bicycle-disc-brakes
#1
Matthew C Miller, Philip W Fink, Paul William Macdermid, Blake G Perry, Stephen R Stannard
Real-world cycling performance depends not only on exercise capacities, but also on efficiently traversing the bicycle through the terrain. The aim of this study was to determine if it was possible to quantify the braking done by a cyclist in the field. One cyclist performed 408 braking trials (348 on a flat road; 60 on a flat dirt path) over 5 days on a bicycle fitted with brake torque and angular velocity sensors to measure brake power. Based on Newtonian physics, the sum of brake work, aerodynamic drag and rolling resistance was compared with the change in kinetic energy in each braking event...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729790/new-dental-implant-selection-criterion-based-on-implant-design
#2
Mohamed I El-Anwar, Mohamed M El-Zawahry, Eman M Ibraheem, Mohammad Zakaria Nassani, Hisham ElGabry
OBJECTIVE: A comparative study between threaded and plain dental implant designs was performed to find out a new criterion for dental implant selection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several dental implant designs with a systematic increase in diameter and length were positioned in a cylindrical-shaped bone section and analyzed using finite element method. Four loading types were tested on different dental implant designs; tension of 50 N, compression of 100 N, bending of 20 N, and torque of 2 Nm, to derive design curves...
April 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728959/mechanisms-contributing-to-gait-speed-and-metabolic-cost-in-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy
#3
Tatiana Pessoa Silva Pinto, Sérgio Teixeira Fonseca, Rejane Vale Gonçalves, Thales Rezende Souza, Daniela Virgínia Vaz, Paula Lanna Pereira Silva, Marisa Cotta Mancini
BACKGROUND: Gait speed and metabolic cost are indicators of functional capacity in children with cerebral palsy. Uncovering their mechanisms helps guide therapeutic actions. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contributions of energy-generating and energy-conserving mechanisms to gait speed and metabolic cost of children with unilateral cerebral palsy. METHODS: Data on eccentric and concentric muscle work, co-contraction, elastic torque and vertical stiffness of the affected-limb, forcing torque of the non-affected limb, gait speed and metabolic cost were collected from 14 children with unilateral cerebral palsy, aged 6-12 years...
July 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727641/decreased-average-power-of-the-hip-external-muscles-as-a-predictive-parameter-for-lower-extremity-injury-in-women-a-prospective-study
#4
Ruth Verrelst, Damien Van Tiggelen, Roel De Ridder, Erik Witvrouw
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively identify hip strength associated risk factors contributing to the development of lower extremity (LE) injury. DESIGN: Data were prospectively collected on healthy female physical education students. SETTING: This study was conducted in the institution of the University of Ghent. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-nine female physical education students aged 19.53 ± 1.07 years. ASSESSMENT OF RISK FACTORS: Testing included isokinetic hip strength measurements of abductors, adductors, internal rotators, and external rotators (ERs)...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726688/energy-efficient-and-fast-reversal-of-a-fixed-skyrmion-2-terminal-memory-with-spin-current-assisted-by-voltage-controlled-magnetic-anisotropy
#5
Dhritiman Bhattacharya, Md Mamun Al Rashid, Jayasimha Atulasimha
Recent work [1,2] suggests that ferromagnetic reversal with spin transfer torque (STT) requires more current in a system in the presence of DMI than switching a typical ferromagnet of the same dimensions and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). However, DMI promotes stabilization of skyrmions and we report that when the perpendicular anisotropy is modulated (reduced) for both the skyrmion and ferromagnet, it takes much smaller current to reverse the fixed skyrmion than to reverse the ferromagnet in the same time, or the skyrmion reverses much faster than the ferromagnet at similar levels of current...
July 20, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725924/effect-of-training-status-on-beta-range-corticomuscular-coherence-in-agonist-vs-antagonist-muscles-during-isometric-knee-contractions
#6
Fabien Dal Maso, Marieke Longcamp, Sylvain Cremoux, David Amarantini
Antagonist muscle co-activation is thought to be partially regulated by cortical influences, but direct motor cortex involvement is not fully understood. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) measures direct functional coupling of the motor cortex and muscles. As antagonist co-activation differs according to training status, comparison of CMC in agonist and antagonist muscles and in strength-trained and endurance-trained individuals may provide in-depth knowledge of cortical implication in antagonist muscle co-activation...
July 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725107/retrospective-study-of-the-relationship-of-torque-teno-sus-virus-1a-and-torque-teno-sus-virus-1b-with-porcine-circovirus-associated-disease
#7
Alejandro Vargas-Ruiz, Hugo Ramírez-Álvarez, José I Sánchez-Betancourt, Víctor Quintero-Ramírez, Ignacio C Rangel-Rodríguez, Joel A Vázquez-Perez, Lucia A García-Camacho
Genus Iotatorquevirus consists of 2 species, Torque teno sus virus 1a and Torque teno sus virus 1b, which are ubiquitous in swine populations, and are widely reported in association with porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD). To evaluate the relationship with PCVAD, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples were used to detect both Iotatorquevirus species by nested PCR and sequencing. Sixty-eight PCVAD cases were selected as well as 32 porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) non-affected cases. Overall, 33 of the 100 cases were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1a and 8 of 100 were positive for Torque teno sus virus 1b...
July 2017: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721998/in-vitro-effect-of-chlorhexidine-gel-on-torque-and-detorque-values-of-implant-abutment-screw
#8
Hamid Neshandar Asli, Bardia Vadiati Saberi, Arezoo Sadat Fatemi
PURPOSE: Use of chlorhexidine (CHX) gel to eliminate the malodor of implant cavity may decrease the friction coefficient and effective preload and result in abutment screw loosening. This study aimed to assess the effect of CHX gel on the preload, torque, and detorque values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on three groups of five implants. Group A (G1) was the control group and no material was applied to the implant cavity...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720871/localization-of-damage-in-the-human-leg-muscles-induced-by-downhill-running
#9
Sumiaki Maeo, Yukino Ando, Hiroaki Kanehisa, Yasuo Kawakami
We investigated localization of damage within the knee extensors (KEs) and plantar flexors (PFs) induced by downhill running (DR) by using transverse relaxation time (T2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fourteen young adults performed 45-min DR (-15% slope) at their maximal tolerable velocity. At pre- and 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise, T2-MRI was scanned and T2 values for each muscle composing KEs and PFs at proximal, middle, and distal sites were calculated. Maximal isometric torque and rate of torque development (RTD: 0-30, 0-50, 0-100, 0-200 ms) were also measured...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720481/knee-extension-and-flexion-strength-asymmetry-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-subjects-a-cross-sectional-study
#10
Vitor H F Oliveira, Susana L Wiechmann, Argéria M S Narciso, Rafael Deminice
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive subjects present impairment in muscle function, neural activation, balance, and gait. In other populations, all of these factors have been associated with muscle strength asymmetry. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence of muscle strength asymmetry between dominant and non-dominant lower limbs and to determine the hamstrings-to-quadriceps strength ratio in Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive subjects. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 48 subjects were included (22 men and 26 women; mean age 44...
July 3, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719995/biomechanics-of-the-proximal-radius-following-drilling-of-the-bicipital-tuberosity-to-mimic-cortical-button-distal-biceps-repair-technique
#11
Nikhil R Oak, John R Lien, Alexander Brunfeldt, Jeffrey N Lawton
BACKGROUND: A fracture through the proximal radius is a theoretical concern after cortical button distal biceps fixation in an active patient. The permanent, nonossified cortical defect and medullary tunnel is at risk during a fall eliciting rotational and compressive forces. We hypothesized that during simulated torsion and compression, in comparison with unaltered specimens, the cortical button distal biceps repair model would have decreased torsional and compressive strength and would fracture in the vicinity of the bicipital tuberosity bone tunnel...
March 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718315/ulnar-styloid-base-fractures-cause-distal-radioulnar-joint-instability-in-a-cadaveric-model
#12
Tyler S Pidgeon, Joseph J Crisco, Gregory R Waryasz, Douglas C Moore, Manuel F DaSilva
BACKGROUND: The deep portion of the distal radioulnar ligaments (DRUL) inserts on the ulnar fovea and is the most important stabilizer of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). Ulnar styloid base fractures that include the ulnar fovea may cause DRUJ instability. METHODS: DRUJ stability in pronosupination was evaluated in 12 fresh-frozen upper extremities (4 female) aged 52 to 68 years (mean: 58.8 years) using a custom fixture, which allowed free rotation of the radius around the fixed ulna...
January 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718217/a-3d-musculoskeletal-model-of-the-western-lowland-gorilla-hind-limb-moment-arms-and-torque-of-the-hip-knee-and-ankle
#13
Colleen Goh, Mary L Blanchard, Robin H Crompton, Michael M Gunther, Sophie Macaulay, Karl T Bates
Three-dimensional musculoskeletal models have become increasingly common for investigating muscle moment arms in studies of vertebrate locomotion. In this study we present the first musculoskeletal model of a western lowland gorilla hind limb. Moment arms of individual muscles around the hip, knee and ankle were compared with previously published data derived from the experimental tendon travel method. Considerable differences were found which we attribute to the different methodologies in this specific case...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717794/the-influence-of-maxillary-incisor-torque-on-the-esthetic-perception-%C3%A2-of-the-smile
#14
Javier Giron de Velasco, Pablo de la Cuadra, Gorka Urizar
PURPOSE: An esthetically pleasing smile is one of our patients' main goals. However, it is not always clear that the esthetic perceptions of patients and clinicians are the same. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and quantify the discrepancies in the esthetic perception of maxillary incisor torque among professionals, and between professionals and the general public. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A photograph of a 30-year-old woman was digitally manipulated to obtain nine smile images and nine full-profile images with various maxillary incisor torques, while maintaining the overjet...
2017: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717347/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acids-rich-fish-oil-supplementation-on-motor-nerve-function-after-eccentric-contractions
#15
Eisuke Ochi, Yosuke Tsuchiya, Kenichi Yanagimoto
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of supplementation with fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the M-wave latency of biceps brachii and muscle damage after a single session of maximal elbow flexor eccentric contractions (ECC). METHODS: Twenty-one men were completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-design study. The subjects were randomly assigned to the fish oil group (n = 10) or control group (n = 11)...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717192/torque-but-not-flil-regulates-mechanosensitive-flagellar-motor-function
#16
Ravi Chawla, Katie M Ford, Pushkar P Lele
The stator-complex in the bacterial flagellar motor is responsible for surface-sensing. It remodels in response to perturbations in viscous loads, recruiting additional stator-units as the load increases. Here, we tested a hypothesis that the amount of torque generated by each stator-unit modulates its association with the rotor. To do this, we measured stator-binding to the rotor in mutants in which motors reportedly develop lower torque compared to wildtype motors. First, we employed a strain lacking fliL...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716692/the-fatigue-of-a-full-body-resistance-exercise-session-in-trained-men
#17
Paul W M Marshall, Rebecca Cross, Michael Haynes
OBJECTIVES: We examined the fatigue and recovery for 48h following a full-body resistance exercise session in trained men. DESIGN: Experimental cross-sectional study. METHODS: Eight resistance trained men volunteered to participate (mean±SD; age 27.0±6.0 years, height 1.79±0.05m, weight 81.8±6.8kg, training experience 7.8±5.0 years). Fatigue and pain was measured before, after, 1h post, 24h and 48h post the full-body resistance exercise session, which was based on in-season models used in contact team sports (e...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715304/influence-of-stretching-velocity-on-musculotendinous-stiffness-of-the-hamstrings-during-passive-straight-leg-raise-assessments
#18
Ty B Palmer, Nathaniel D M Jenkins, Brennan J Thompson, Joel T Cramer
BACKGROUND: Recently, passive musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) has been assessed manually in the field; however, when conducting these types of assessments, the stretching velocity must be controlled to avoid eliciting the stretch reflex, which can be observed by increased electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the stretched muscles and greater resistive torque (indicating the assessment is no longer passive). OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of slow, medium, and fast stretching velocities during manually-applied passive straight-leg raise (SLR) assessments on hamstrings MTS and EMG amplitude characteristics...
August 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714826/effects-of-peroneal-muscles-fatigue-on-dynamic-stability-following-lateral-hop-landing-time-to-stabilization-vs-dynamic-postural-stability-index
#19
Kazem Malmir, Gholam Reza Olyaei, Saeed Talebian, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi, Majid Ashraf Ganguie
CONTEXT: Dynamic stability is a necessary requirement in many sports competitions. Muscle fatigue, which can impair stability, may be occurred in many sports competitions in which lateral movements and landing repeated frequently. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of peroneal muscles fatigue on dynamic stability following lateral hop landing through measuring time to stabilization (TTS) and dynamic postural stability index (DPSI). DESIGN: Quasi-experimental...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714825/quadriceps-and-patient-reported-function-in-acl-reconstructed-patients-a-principal-component-analysis
#20
Grant E Norte, Jay N Hertel, Susan A Saliba, David R Diduch, Joseph M Hart
CONTEXT: Assessment of physical function for individuals after ACL reconstruction (ACL-R) is complex and warrants the use of diverse evaluation strategies. To maximize the efficiency of assessment, there is a need to identify tests that provide the most meaningful information about this population. OBJECTIVE: To investigate underlying constructs of quadriceps muscle function that uniquely describe aspects of performance in patients after ACL-R, and establish clinical thresholds for measures able to classify patients with and without ACL-R...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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