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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782463/gut-microbiota-probiotics-and-sport-from-clinical-evidence-to-agonistic-performance
#1
Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Francesca Deidda, Teresa Graziano, Serena Allesina, Luca Mogna
Human beings harbor clusters of bacteria in different parts of the body, such as the surface or the deep layers of the skin, the mouth, the lungs, the intestine, the vagina, and all the surfaces exposed to the outer world. The majority of microbes resides in the gut, have a weighty influence on human physiology and nutrition and are vital for human life. There is growing evidence showing that the gut microbiota plays important roles in the maturation of the immune system and the protection against some infectious agents...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782446/minimally-invasive-proximal-interphalangeal-joint-arthrodesis-using-headless-screw-surgical-technique
#2
Elizabeth A Newman, Maria C Orbay, Fiesky A Nunez, Fiesky Nunez
Proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint arthritis causes debilitating hand pain and instability leading to significant functional impairment. Arthrodesis remains the gold standard for treatment of PIP arthritis. We present a minimally invasive PIP arthrodesis that provides rigid fixation with a headless compression screw. Seven patients who presented to the senior author with PIP joint arthritis underwent PIP arthrodesis by minimally invasive technique. A 1 cm transverse incision is made over the PIP joint, incising skin, central band, and articular capsule...
June 2018: Techniques in Hand & Upper Extremity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781992/muscle-imbalances-testing-and-training-functional-eccentric-hamstring-strength-in-athletic-populations
#3
Petr Stastny, Michal Lehnert, James J Tufano
Many hamstring injuries that occur during physical activity occur while the muscles are lengthening, during eccentric hamstring muscle actions. Opposite of these eccentric hamstring actions are concentric quadriceps actions, where the larger and likely stronger quadriceps straighten the knee. Therefore, to stabilize the lower limbs during movement, the hamstrings must eccentrically combat against the strong knee-straightening torque of the quadriceps. As such, eccentric hamstring strength expressed relative to concentric quadricep strength is commonly referred to as the "functional ratio" as most movements in sports require simultaneous concentric knee extension and eccentric knee flexion...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781832/gripping-and-anchoring-effects-on-the-mechanical-strengths-of-orthodontic-microimplants
#4
Chun-Ming Chen, Chun-Chan Ting, Huang-Chi Wang, Yu-Chuan Tseng
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical strengths in 5 different designs of orthodontic microimplants by analyzing their configuration of structure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty microimplants of 5 types (diameter 1.5 mm: type A, B, and C; diameter 1.3 mm: type D and E) were assessed. All microimplants were manually driven into the artificial bones at a 7-mm depth. The anchor area (AA), gripping area (GA), insertion torque (IT), Periotest value (PTV), and pullout strength (PS) were measured...
May 16, 2018: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781224/influence-of-different-drilling-preparation-on-cortical-bone-a-biomechanical-histological-and-micro-ct-study-on-sheep
#5
Michele Stocchero, Marco Toia, Yohei Jinno, Francesca Cecchinato, Jonas P Becktor, Yoshihito Naito, Anders Halldin, Ryo Jimbo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of cortical bone remodeling between two different drilling protocols by means of histomorphometric, µ-CT, and biomechanical analyses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 48 implants were inserted into the mandible of six sheep following two drilling protocols: Group A (Test, n = 24), undersized preparation; Group B (Control, n = 24), non-undersized preparation. The animals were euthanatized to obtain 5 and 10 weeks of implantation time...
May 20, 2018: Clinical Oral Implants Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778656/laxity-and-contact-forces-of-total-knee-designed-for-anatomic-motion-a-cadaveric-study
#6
Gaia Salvadore, Patrick A Meere, Matthias A Verstraete, Jan Victor, Peter S Walker
BACKGROUND: Total knee designs that attempt to reproduce more physiological knee kinematics are gaining attention given their possible improvement in functional outcomes. This study examined if a total knee designed for anatomic motion, where the soft tissue balancing was intended to replicate anatomical tibiofemoral contact forces, can more closely reproduce the laxity of the native knee. METHODS: In an ex-vivo setting, the laxity envelope of the knees from nine lower extremity specimens was measured using a rig that reproduced surgical conditions...
May 16, 2018: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777475/effects-of-resistance-training-detraining-and-retraining-on-strength-and-functional-capacity-in-elderly
#7
Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Bruno Monteiro Moura, Lucas Bet da Rosa Orssatto, Ewertton de Souza Bezerra, Eduardo Lusa Cadore, Fernando Diefenthaeler
BACKGROUND: The interruption of training (detraining) results in loss of the gains acquired. Partial retention could occur after detraining, and variation in training stimuli may optimize retraining adaptations. AIM: To evaluate the effect of a resistance-retraining program on strength and functional capacity performance after a detraining period. METHODS: Ten elderly men and women (63-68 years) completed 12 weeks of training, 16 weeks of detraining, and 8 weeks of retraining...
May 17, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776815/strength-recovery-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-with-quadriceps-tendon-versus-hamstring-tendon-autografts-in-soccer-players-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Jose Luis Martin-Alguacil, Manuel Arroyo-Morales, Jose Luis Martín-Gomez, Isidro Manuel Monje-Cabrera, Juan F Abellán-Guillén, Francisco Esparza-Ros, Mario Lozano Lozano, Irene Cantarero-Villanueva
BACKGROUND: The comparison between HT and QT grafts in strength recovery and function after an ACLR is scarce in the literature. METHODS: A total of 56 participants were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial and placed into two groups: HT or QT. The hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q) ratio was the primary end-point measured with a Genu-3 dynamometer. Peak torque, functional assessment (Lysholm knee scoring scale and Cincinnati Knee Rating System), and anteroposterior laxity (KT-2000™ arthrometer) were also assessed...
May 15, 2018: Knee
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776601/echo-intensity-versus-muscle-function-correlations-in-older-adults-are-influenced-by-subcutaneous-fat-thickness
#9
Matt S Stock, Morgan Whitson, Adam M Burton, Nicole T Dawson, Eric J Sobolewski, Brennan J Thompson
Recently, an equation that allows investigators to correct echo intensity for subcutaneous fat was developed. We evaluated correlations between uncorrected and corrected echo intensity versus measures of lower-extremity function. Twenty-three older adults (11 men, 12 women; mean age = 72 y) participated. B-Mode ultrasonography was used to quantify rectus femoris echo intensity and subcutaneous fat thickness. Knee extensor isometric peak torque and rate of torque development at 200 ms (RTD200) were determined (joint angle = 90°)...
May 15, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776113/torque-scaling-in-small-gap-taylor-couette-flow-with-smooth-or-grooved-wall
#10
Bihai Zhu, Zengqi Ji, Zhengkun Lou, Pengcheng Qian
The torque in the Taylor-Couette flow for radius ratios η≥0.97, with smooth or grooved wall static outer cylinders, is studied experimentally, with the Reynolds number of the inner cylinder reaching up to Re_{i}=2×10^{5}, corresponding to the Taylor number up to Ta=5×10^{10}. The grooves are perpendicular to the mean flow, and similar to the structure of a submersible motor stator. It is found that the dimensionless torque G, at a given Re_{i} and η, is significantly greater for grooved cases than smooth cases...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776061/local-lubrication-model-for-spherical-particles-within-incompressible-navier-stokes-flows
#11
B Lambert, L Weynans, M Bergmann
The lubrication forces are short-range hydrodynamic interactions essential to describe suspension of the particles. Usually, they are underestimated in direct numerical simulations of particle-laden flows. In this paper, we propose a lubrication model for a coupled volume penalization method and discrete element method solver that estimates the unresolved hydrodynamic forces and torques in an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow. Corrections are made locally on the surface of the interacting particles without any assumption on the global particle shape...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776044/magnetic-susceptibility-nanorheology-and-magnetoviscosity-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-in-viscoelastic-environments
#12
Patrick Ilg, Apostolos E A S Evangelopoulos
While magnetic nanoparticles suspended in Newtonian solvents (ferrofluids) have been intensively studied in recent years, the effects of viscoelasticity of the surrounding medium on the nanoparticle dynamics are much less understood. Here we investigate a mesoscopic model for the orientational dynamics of isolated magnetic nanoparticles subject to external fields, viscous and viscoelastic friction, as well as the corresponding random torques. We solve the model analytically in the overdamped limit for weak viscoelasticity...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775985/sensorimotor-exercises-and-enhanced-trunk-function-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Steffen Mueller, Tilman Engel, Juliane Mueller, Josefine Stoll, Heiner Baur, Frank Mayer
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 6-week sensorimotor or resistance training on maximum trunk strength and response to sudden, high-intensity loading in athletes.Forty-three healthy, well-trained participants were randomized into sensorimotor (SMT; n=11), resistance training (RT; n=16) and control groups (CG; n=16). Treatment groups received either sensorimotor training (SMT) or resistance training (RT) for 6 weeks, 3 times a week. At baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention, participants' maximum isokinetic strength in trunk rotation and extension was tested (concentric/eccentric 30°/s)...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775910/hip-and-patellofemoral-joint-loading-during-gait-are-increased-in-children-with-idiopathic-torsional-deformities
#14
Elyse Passmore, H Kerr Graham, Marcus G Pandy, Morgan Sangeux
BACKGROUND: Torsional deformities of the femur and tibia are associated with gait impairments and joint pain. Several studies have investigated these gait deviations in children with cerebral palsy. However, relatively little is known about gait deviations in children with idiopathic torsion and debate ensues about the management of these patients. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the effects of idiopathic increased femoral neck anteversion and external tibial torsion on lower-limb kinematics, kinetics and joint loading during gait in children and adolescents...
May 9, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774991/aggregate-mesenchymal-stem-cell-delivery-ameliorates-the-regenerative-niche-for-muscle-repair
#15
Marissa A Ruehle, Hazel Y Stevens, Aaron M Beedle, Robert E Guldberg, Jarrod A Call
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe muscle wasting disease due to the absence of the dystrophin protein from the muscle cell membrane which renders the muscle susceptible to continuous damage. In DMD patients, muscle weakness, together with cycles of degeneration/regeneration and replacement with non-contractile tissue, limit mobility and lifespan. Since the loss of dystrophin result in loss of polarity and a reduction in the number of self-renewing satellite cells, it is postulated that these patients could achieve an improved quality of life if delivered cells could restore satellite cell function...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774888/corrigendum-applying-torque-to-the-escherichia-coli-flagellar-motor-using-magnetic-tweezers
#16
Maarten M van Oene, Laura E Dickinson, Bronwen Cross, Francesco Pedaci, Jan Lipfert, Nynke H Dekker
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep43285.
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772411/regulation-of-hip-joint-kinetics-for-increasing-angular-momentum-during-the-initiation-of-a-pirouette-en-dehors-in-classical-ballet
#17
Akiko Imura, Yoichi Iino
This study examined how dancers regulate the hip joint kinetics to coordinate the upper and lower body angular momenta with the increased rotation of pirouette en dehors (pirouette) during the preparation. During the preparation of the pirouette, the upper body rotates greatly about the vertical axis; however, the lower extremity remains relatively stationary. Therefore, there must be specific control at the hip to coordinate the upper and lower body angular momenta in turns of increased rotation. Kinematics and kinetics of single to quadruple pirouettes performed by eight ballet dancers were analysed using a motion capture system and force plates...
May 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772348/biosafety-stability-and-osteogenic-activity-of-novel-implants-made-of-zr-70-ni-16-cu-6-al-8-bulk-metallic-glass-for-biomedical-application
#18
Hiroto Ida, Masahiro Seiryu, Nobuo Takeshita, Masanari Iwasaki, Yoshihiko Yokoyama, Yusuke Tsutsumi, Etsuko Ikeda, Satoshi Sasaki, Shunro Miyashita, Shutaro Sasaki, Tomohiro Fukunaga, Toru Deguchi, Teruko Takano-Yamamoto
Superior mechanical and chemical properties of Zr70 Ni16 Cu6 Al8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) demonstrate its promise as a novel biomaterial for fabrication of implants. The aim of the present study was to validate mechanical, chemical, and biological properties of Zr70 Ni16 Cu6 Al8 BMG through comparison with titanium (Ti). Our data indicated higher tensile strength, lower Young's modulus, and reduced metal ion release of Zr70 Ni16 Cu6 Al8 BMG compared with Ti. Biosafety of bone marrow mesenchymal cells on Zr70 Ni16 Cu6 Al8 BMG was comparable to that of Ti...
May 14, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772095/effect-of-specific-exercise-strategy-on-strength-and-proprioception-in-volleyball-players-with-infraspinatus-muscle-atrophy
#19
José Inácio Salles, Victor Rodrigues Amaral Cossich, João Matheus Guimarães, Geraldo Motta Filho, Dylan Morrissey
Infraspinatus muscle atrophy is common in professional volleyball players, but it is unclear whether commonly observed strength and proprioception deficits can be reversed with training. Fifty-four participants were recruited into an infraspinatus atrophy group (IAG, n = 18) and a non-atrophy group (NAG, n=18) of elite volleyballers plus a healthy non-athletic control group (CG, n = 18). IAG were trained with a progressive, specific shoulder external rotator strengthening routine for 32 sessions over 8 weeks...
May 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772031/stresses-in-implant-supported-fixed-complete-dentures-with-different-screw-tightening-sequences-and-torque-application-modes
#20
Leonardo H Barcellos, Marina Lobato Palmeiro, Marcos M Naconecy, Tomás Geremia, André Cervieri, Rosemary S Shinkai
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of different screw-tightening sequences and torque applications on stresses in implant-supported fixed complete dentures supported by five abutments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Strain gauges fixed to the abutments were used to test the sequences 2-4-3-1-5; 1-2-3-4-5; 3-2-4-1-5; and 2-5-4-1-3 with direct 10-Ncm torque or progressive torque (5 + 10 Ncm). Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and standardized effect size. RESULTS: No effects of tightening sequence or torque application were found except for the sequence 3-2-4-1-5 and some small to moderate effect sizes...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Prosthodontics
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