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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231626/default-mode-network-deactivation-to-smoking-cue-relative-to-food-cue-predicts-treatment-outcome-in-nicotine-use-disorder
#1
Claire E Wilcox, Eric D Claus, Vince D Calhoun, Srinivas Rachakonda, Rae A Littlewood, Jessica Mickey, Pamela B Arenella, Natalie Goodreau, Kent E Hutchison
Identifying predictors of treatment outcome for nicotine use disorders (NUDs) may help improve efficacy of established treatments, like varenicline. Brain reactivity to drug stimuli predicts relapse risk in nicotine and other substance use disorders in some studies. Activity in the default mode network (DMN) is affected by drug cues and other palatable cues, but its clinical significance is unclear. In this study, 143 individuals with NUD (male n = 91, ages 18-55 years) received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during a visual cue task during which they were presented with a series of smoking-related or food-related video clips prior to randomization to treatment with varenicline (n = 80) or placebo...
February 23, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231370/significance-of-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-olfactory-disorder
#2
Teemu Harju, Markus Rautiainen, Ilkka Kivekäs
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to examine olfactory disorders among the patients in the Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic of Tampere University Hospital, Finland, from 2001 to 2011, and to evaluate the necessity of imaging in the examination of patients with olfactory disorders. Charts of 143 consecutive patients with a primary olfactory disorder were examined, and 69 patients who had undergone the necessary testing were included in the study. The most common causes of olfactory disorder were upper respiratory infection (23%), chronic rhinosinusitis (19%), head trauma (17%), and allergic or nonallergic rhinitis (6%)...
February 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231320/improved-image-quality-and-diagnostic-potential-using-ultra-high-resolution-computed-tomography-of-the-lung-with-small-scan-fov-a-prospective-study
#3
Huiyuan Zhu, Lian Zhang, Yali Wang, Preeti Hamal, Xiaofang You, Haixia Mao, Fei Li, Xiwen Sun
The aim of this study was to assess whether CT imaging using an ultra-high-resolution CT (UHRCT) scan with a small scan field of view (FOV) provides higher image quality and helps to reduce the follow-up period compared with a conventional high-resolution CT (CHRCT) scan. We identified patients with at least one pulmonary nodule at our hospital from July 2015 to November 2015. CHRCT and UHRCT scans were conducted in all enrolled patients. Three experienced radiologists evaluated the image quality using a 5-point score and made diagnoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230594/alveolar-molding-effect-in-infants-with-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-comparison-of-two-and-three-dimensional-measurements
#4
Won Hee Lim, Eun Woo Park, Hwa Sung Chae, Soon Man Kwon, Hoi-In Jung, Seung-Hak Baek
The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) measurements for the alveolar molding effect in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate. The sample consisted of 23 unilateral cleft lip and palate infants treated with nasoalveolar molding (NAM) appliance. Dental models were fabricated at initial visit (T0; mean age, 23.5 days after birth) and after alveolar molding therapy (T1; mean duration, 83 days). For 3D measurement, virtual models were constructed using a laser scanner and 3D software...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230567/magnetic-resonance-imaging-features-of-solitary-hypothalamitis
#5
Hua Zhang, Jing Wang, Yue Wu, Ying Tang, Ran Tao, Hongying Ye, Zhenwei Yao
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to characterize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of solitary hypothalamitis and evaluate their clinical value in diagnosis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging scans, including T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, of 8 biopsy-proven hypothalamitis lesions were retrospectively analyzed along with MRI features including size, shape, signal intensity, enhancement pattern, correlation with adjacent tissues, and changes in infundibular stalk and sella turcica...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230536/p-channel-thin-film-transistors-using-reduced-graphene-oxide
#6
Somnath Chakraborty, A N Resmi, Renuka Pothuraju, K B Jinesh
Chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) samples with various degree of reduction were prepared using hydrazine hydrate as the reducing agent. Scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) imaging shows that rGO contains rows of randomly distributed patches of epoxy groups. The local density of states (LDOS) of the rGO samples were mapped with scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS), which shows that the bandgap in rGO originates from the epoxide regions itself. The Fermi level of the epoxide regions is shifted towards the valence band, making rGO locally p-type and a ranges of bandgaps from 0-2...
February 23, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230351/fabrication-and-demonstration-of-mercury-disc-well-probes-for-stripping-based-cyclic-voltammetry-scanning-electrochemical-microscopy
#7
Zachary J Barton, Joaquín Rodríguez-López
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is a rising technique for the study of energy storage materials. Hg-based probes allow the extension of SECM investigations to ionic processes, but the risk of irreversible Hg amalgam saturation limits their operation to rapid timescales and dilute analyte solutions. Here, we report a novel fabrication protocol for Hg disc-well ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs), which retain access to stripping information but are less susceptible to amalgam saturation than traditional Hg sphere-caps or thin-films...
February 23, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230204/high-resolution-imaging-of-living-mammalian-cells-bound-by-nanobeads-connected-antibodies-in-a-medium-using-scanning-electron-assisted-dielectric-microscopy
#8
Tomoko Okada, Toshihiko Ogura
Nanometre-scale-resolution imaging technologies for liquid-phase specimens are indispensable tools in various scientific fields. In biology, observing untreated living cells in a medium is essential for analysing cellular functions. However, nanoparticles that bind living cells in a medium are hard to detect directly using traditional optical or electron microscopy. Therefore, we previously developed a novel scanning electron-assisted dielectric microscope (SE-ADM) capable of nanoscale observations. This method enables observation of intact cells in aqueous conditions...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229931/modulation-of-the-sensorimotor-system-by-sustained-manual-pressure-stimulation
#9
Pavel Hok, Jaroslav Opavský, Miroslav Kutín, Zbyněk Tüdös, Petr Kaňovský, Petr Hluštík
In Vojta physiotherapy, also known as reflex locomotion therapy, prolonged peripheral pressure stimulation induces complex generalized involuntary motor responses and modifies subsequent behavior, but its neurobiological basis remains unknown. We hypothesized that the stimulation would induce sensorimotor activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during sequential finger opposition. Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 24.2) underwent two randomized fMRI sessions involving manual pressure stimulation applied either at the right lateral heel according to Vojta, or at the right lateral ankle (control site)...
February 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229910/optimized-energy-of-spectral-ct-for-infarct-imaging-experimental-validation-with-human-validation
#10
Veit Sandfort, Srikanth Palanisamy, Rolf Symons, Amir Pourmorteza, Mark A Ahlman, Kelly Rice, Tom Thomas, Cynthia Davies-Venn, Bernhard Krauss, Alan Kwan, Ankur Pandey, Stefan L Zimmerman, David A Bluemke
OBJECTIVES: Late contrast enhancement visualizes myocardial infarction, but the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) is low using conventional CT. The aim of this study was to determine if spectral CT can improve imaging of myocardial infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A canine model of myocardial infarction was produced in 8 animals (90-min occlusion, reperfusion). Later, imaging was performed after contrast injection using CT at 90 kVp/150 kVpSn. The following reconstructions were evaluated: Single energy 90 kVp, mixed, iodine map, multiple monoenergetic conventional and monoenergetic noise optimized reconstructions...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229318/contribution-of-computed-tomographic-imaging-to-the-management-of-acute-abdominal-pain-after-gastric-bypass-correlation-between-radiological-and-surgical-findings
#11
Pascale Karila-Cohen, Francesco Cuccioli, Pasquale Tammaro, Anne-Laure Pelletier, Daniel Gero, Jean-Pierre Marmuse, Jean-Pierre Laissy, Konstantinos Arapis
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of first interpretations of computed tomographic (CT) images and blind interpretation using predefined CT signs in patients with previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) and acute abdominal pain. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with RYGBP who underwent surgical exploration from January 2009 to December 2014 for acute abdominal pain in our university institution, excluding patients without CT scan and comparing initial CT imaging interpretation with surgical findings...
February 22, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229315/the-utility-of-diagnostic-laparoscopy-in-post-bariatric-surgery-patients-with-chronic-abdominal-pain-of-unknown-etiology
#12
Mohammad Alsulaimy, Suriya Punchai, Fouzeyah A Ali, Matthew Kroh, Philip R Schauer, Stacy A Brethauer, Ali Aminian
PURPOSE: Chronic abdominal pain after bariatric surgery is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of laparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in post-bariatric surgery patients with chronic abdominal pain who had negative imaging and endoscopic studies. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on post-bariatric surgery patients who underwent laparoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of chronic abdominal pain at a single academic center...
February 22, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229191/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-versus-bone-marrow-biopsy-in-pediatric-hodgkin-s-lymphoma-a-quantitative-assessment-of-marrow-uptake-and-novel-insights-into-clinical-implications-of-marrow-involvement
#13
Aamna Hassan, Maimoona Siddique, Humayun Bashir, Saima Riaz, Rabia Wali, Asma Mahreen, M Khalid Nawaz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether positron emission tomography/computed tomography using fluorine-18 fluoro-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG PET-CT) predicts bone marrow involvement (BMI) in pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma (pHL) with sufficient accuracy to supplant routine staging bone marrow biopsy (BMB), and to assess the clinical importance of marrow disease by comparing the prognosis of stage IV HL with BMI versus that without BMI. METHODS: Data were retrospectively analyzed for all cases of pHL between July 2010 and June 2015 referred for staging (18)F-FDG PET-CT scan and BMB...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229056/experimental-visualization-of-labyrinthine-structure-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#14
Saleh Mohebbi, Marjan Mirsalehi, Lüder-Alexander Kahrs, Tobias Ortmaier, Thomas Lenarz, Omid Majdani
INTRODUCTION: Visualization of inner ear structures is a valuable strategy for researchers and clinicians working on hearing pathologies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging technology which may be used for the visualization of tissues. In this experimental study we aimed to evaluate inner ear anatomy in well-prepared human labyrinthine bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three fresh human explanted temporal bones were trimmed, chemically decalcified with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and mechanically drilled under visual control using OCT in order to reveal the remaining bone shell...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229041/hemispheric-asymmetry-in-myelin-after-stroke-is-related-to-motor-impairment-and-function
#15
Bimal Lakhani, Kathryn S Hayward, Lara A Boyd
The relationships between impairment, function, arm use and underlying brain structure following stroke remain unclear. Although diffusion weighted imaging is useful in broadly assessing white matter structure, it has limited utility in identifying specific underlying neurobiological components, such as myelin. The purpose of the present study was to explore relationships between myelination and impairment, function and activity in individuals with chronic stroke. Assessments of paretic upper-extremity impairment and function were administered, and 72-hour accelerometer based activity monitoring was conducted on 19 individuals with chronic stroke...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228905/calciphylaxis-on-bone-scan-correlation-between-molecular-and-cross-sectional-findings
#16
Malak Itani, Manuela Matesan, Sanaz Behnia, Saeed Elojeimy
Calciphylaxis is a rare devastating medical condition commonly associated with end-stage renal disease and characterized by extensive microvascular calcifications. We describe a case of calciphylaxis presenting on Tc-99m MDP bone scan imaging with asymmetric radiotracer uptake within the lower extremities corresponding to extensive soft tissue calcifications on Computed tomography. Familiarity with the classic clinical presentation and imaging features of this rare entity may help its early identification and treatment...
March 2017: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228820/temperature-elevation-measured-in-a-tissue-mimicking-phantom-for-transvaginal-ultrasound-at-clinical-settings
#17
Piero Miloro, Eleanor Martin, Adam Shaw
INTRODUCTION: This paper reports the results of an audit to assess the possible thermal hazard associated with the clinical use of ultrasound scanners in UK Hospitals for transvaginal ultrasound imaging. METHODS: An anatomically relevant phantom composed of a block of agar-based tissue mimicking material with embedded thermal sensors was developed. Seventeen hospitals around the UK were visited and a total of 64 configurations were tested. A representative typical scanning protocol was adopted, which primarily used B-mode with 30 s periods of colour-flow and pulsed Doppler modes for both gynaecology and obstetrics pre-sets...
February 2017: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228174/fast-atomic-scale-elemental-mapping-of-crystalline-materials-by-stem-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectroscopy-achieved-with-thin-specimens
#18
Ping Lu, Renliang Yuan, Jian Min Zuo
Elemental mapping at the atomic-scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) provides a powerful real-space approach to chemical characterization of crystal structures. However, applications of this powerful technique have been limited by inefficient X-ray emission and collection, which require long acquisition times. Recently, using a lattice-vector translation method, we have shown that rapid atomic-scale elemental mapping using STEM-EDS can be achieved...
February 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228165/determining-optimal-fluorescent-agent-concentrations-in-dental-adhesive-resins-for-imaging-the-tooth-restoration-interface
#19
Odair Bim Júnior, Marco A Cebim, Maria T Atta, Camila M Machado, Luciana F Francisconi-Dos-Rios, Linda Wang
Fluorescent dyes like Rhodamine B (RB) have been used to identify the spatial distribution of adhesive restorative materials in the tooth/restoration interface. Potential effects of the addition of RB to dental adhesives were addressed in the past, but no further information is available on how to determine suitable concentrations of RB in these bonding agents for imaging in the confocal laser scanning microscope. This study provides systematical strategies for adding RB to viscous dental adhesive resins, focusing on the determination of the lowest range of dye concentrations necessary to achieve an acceptable image of the dentin/adhesive interface...
February 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227988/liver-segmentation-using-location-and-intensity-probabilistic-atlases
#20
Negar Farzaneh, Shadrokh Samavi, S M Reza Soroushmehr, Hirenkumar Patel, Samuel Habbo-Gavin, David Paul Fessell, Kevin R Ward, Kayvan Najarian, Negar Farzaneh, Shadrokh Samavi, S M Reza Soroushmehr, Hirenkumar Patel, Samuel Habbo-Gavin, David Paul Fessell, Kevin R Ward, Kayvan Najarian, Kevin R Ward, S M Reza Soroushmehr, Hirenkumar Patel, Shadrokh Samavi, Samuel Habbo-Gavin, Kayvan Najarian, David Paul Fessell, Negar Farzaneh
In a variety of injuries and illnesses, internal organs in the abdominal and pelvic regions, in particular liver, may be compromised. In the current practice, CT scans of liver are visually inspected to investigate the integrity of the organ. However, the size and complexity of the CT images limits the reliability of visual inspection to accurately assess the health of liver. Computer-aided image analysis can create fast and quantitative assessment of liver from the CT, in particular in the environments where access to skilled radiologists may be limited...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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