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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445703/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-laser-scanning-in-vivo-confocal-microscopy-for-filamentous-fungal-keratitis-role-of-observer-experience
#1
Ahmad Kheirkhah, Zeba A Syed, Vannarut Satitpitakul, Sunali Goyal, Rodrigo Müller, Elmer Y Tu, Reza Dana
PURPOSE: To determine sensitivity and specificity of laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (LS-IVCM) for detection of filamentous fungi in patients with microbial keratitis and to evaluate the effect of observer's imaging experience on these parameters. DESIGN: Retrospective, reliability study METHODS: This study included 21 patients with filamentous fungal keratitis and 24 patients with bacterial keratitis (as controls). The etiology of infection was confirmed based on the response to specific therapy regardless of culture results...
April 23, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445682/atrial-fibrillation-diagnostic-accuracy-of-coronary-ct-angiography-performed-with-a-whole-heart-230-%C3%A2%C2%B5m-spatial-resolution-ct-scanner
#2
Daniele Andreini, Gianluca Pontone, Saima Mushtaq, Edoardo Conte, Marco Perchinunno, Marco Guglielmo, Valentina Volpato, Andrea Annoni, Andrea Baggiano, Alberto Formenti, Maria Elisabetta Mancini, Virginia Beltrama, Valentina Ditali, Alessandro Campari, Cesare Fiorentini, Antonio L Bartorelli, Mauro Pepi
Purpose To assess image quality, interpretability, diagnostic accuracy, and radiation exposure of a computed tomography (CT) scanner with 16-cm coverage and 230-µm spatial resolution at coronary artery evaluation in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) by using invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as the reference method and to compare the results with those obtained in patients with sinus rhythm (SR). Materials and Methods Written informed consent and institutional ethics committee approval were obtained...
April 26, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445472/unsuspected-osteochondroma-like-outgrowths-in-the-cranial-base-of-hereditary-multiple-exostoses-patients-and-modeling-and-treatment-with-a-bmp-antagonist-in-mice
#3
Sayantani Sinha, Christina Mundy, Till Bechtold, Federica Sgariglia, Mazen M Ibrahim, Paul C Billings, Kristen Carroll, Eiki Koyama, Kevin B Jones, Maurizio Pacifici
Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME) is a rare pediatric disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding the heparan sulfate (HS)-synthesizing enzymes EXT1 or EXT2. HME is characterized by formation of cartilaginous outgrowths-called osteochondromas- next to the growth plates of many axial and appendicular skeletal elements. Surprisingly, it is not known whether such tumors also form in endochondral elements of the craniofacial skeleton. Here, we carried out a retrospective analysis of cervical spine MRI and CT scans from 50 consecutive HME patients that included cranial skeletal images...
April 26, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445308/clinical-value-of-radionuclide-shuntography-by-qualitative-methods-in-hydrocephalic-adult-patients-with-suspected-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-malfunction
#4
Szu-Ying Tsai, Shan-Ying Wang, Yu-Chien Shiau, Lin-Hsue Yang, Yen-Wen Wu
To determine the clinical value of radionuclide shuntography in the evaluation of adult hydrocephalic patients with suspected ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt malfunction. All adult patients who underwent Tc-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid shuntographic scans at Far Eastern Memorial Hospital between August 2005 and December 2015 were included. Shuntographic results were visually evaluated in a simple qualitative manner: prompt flow that reached the peritoneum on 30-minute early images and diffuse peritoneal tracer distribution on 2-hour delayed images were interpreted as nonobstructive shunt flow...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445276/correlation-between-prefrontal-striatal-pathway-impairment-and-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-leukoaraiosis
#5
Shuangkun Wang, Junliang Yuan, Xiaojuan Guo, Leilei Teng, Hua Jiang, Hua Gu, Wenli Hu, Tao Jiang
Our study aimed to investigate the changes of white matter microstructure of cortico-subcortical pathways using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to explore the relationship between abnormal parameters of DTI and cognitive function underlying in patients with leukoaraiosis (LA).A total of 42 patients with LA and 42 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited from Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University between January 2012 and December 2012. All the subjects underwent scans of conventional magnetic resonance imaging and DTI, and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery was utilized...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445192/one-year-clinical-outcomes-of-a-corneal-inlay-for-presbyopia
#6
Sandra M C Beer, Rodrigo Santos, Eliane M Nakano, Flavio Hirai, Enrico J Nitschke, Claudia Francesconi, Mauro Campos
PURPOSE: To report the results of a 1-year follow-up analysis of the safety and efficacy of the Flexivue Microlens corneal inlay. METHODS: The Flexivue Microlens corneal inlay was implanted in the nondominant eye of patients with emmetropic presbyopia (a spherical equivalent of -0.5 to 1.00 diopter) after the creation of a 300-μm deep stromal pocket, using a femtosecond laser. The patients were followed up according to a clinical protocol involving refraction, anterior segment imaging analysis (Oculyzer), and optical quality analysis (OPD-Scan)...
April 25, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445128/3-dimensional-micropillar-drug-screening-identifies-fgfr2-iiic-overexpression-as-a-potential-target-in-metastatic-giant-cell-tumor
#7
Seung Tae Kim, Jusun Kim, Sumin Shin, Sun Young Kim, Dongwoo Lee, Bosung Ku, Yong Sung Shin, Jhingook Kim, Jeeyun Lee
We established two patient derived tumor cells (PDCs) from right and left pulmonary metastatic lesions respectively of a patient with giant cell tumor. At that time, patient-derived tumor cells from right and left surgical specimens were collected and cultured. High-throughput screening (HTS) for 24 drugs was conducted with a micropillar/microwell chip platform using giant cell tumor PDCs. Using 6 doses per drug in 6 replicates for giant cell tumor PDCs, the dose response curves and corresponding IC50 values were calculated from the scanned images using the S+ Chip Analyzer...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445076/image-based-phenotypic-screening-with-human-primary-t-cells-using-one-dimensional-imaging-cytometry-with-self-tuning-statistical-gating-algorithms
#8
Steve S Wang, Daniel J Ehrlich
The parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) is an imaging flow cytometer that operates on statistical analysis of low-pixel-count, one-dimensional (1D) line scans. It is highly efficient in data collection and operates on suspension cells. In this article, we present a supervised automated pipeline for the PMC that minimizes operator intervention by incorporating multivariate logistic regression for data scoring. We test the self-tuning statistical algorithms in a human primary T-cell activation assay in flow using nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) translocation as a readout and readily achieve an average Z' of 0...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444968/carcinoembryonic-antigen-directed-pet-cect-scanning-for-post-operative-surveillance-of-colorectal-cancer
#9
Karthik Chandra Vallam, Guruchannabasavaiah B, Archi Agrawal, Venkatesh Rangarajan, Vikas Ostwal, Reena Engineer, Avanish Saklani
AIM: During the follow-up of surgically resected colorectal cancer (CRC), positron emission tomography-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (PET-CECT) is indicated for asymptomatic elevation of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) > 5 ng/ml and no obvious site of recurrence on clinical examination and basic imaging. As an institutional policy, PET-CECT scan was performed at our institute whenever (1) CEA levels rose above 5 ng/ml and (2) CEA values were doubled (even if CEA level was <5 ng/ml)...
April 26, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444805/2d-multi-spectral-imaging-for-fast-mri-near-metal
#10
Brian A Hargreaves, Valentina Taviani, Daniel V Litwiller, Daehyun Yoon
PURPOSE: To develop a fast 2D method for MRI near metal with reduced B0 in-plane and through-slice artifacts. METHODS: Multi-spectral imaging (MSI) approaches reduce artifacts in MR images near metal, but require 3D imaging of multiple excited volumes regardless of imaging geometry or artifact severity. The proposed 2D MSI method rapidly excites a limited slice and spectral region using gradient reversal between excitation and refocusing pulses, then uses standard 2D imaging, with the process repeating to cover multiple spectral offsets that are combined as in other MSI techniques...
April 25, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444799/pixel-wise-estimation-of-noise-statistics-on-iterative-ct-reconstruction-from-a-single-scan
#11
Tonghe Wang, Lei Zhu
PURPOSE: As iterative CT reconstruction continues to advance, the spatial distribution of noise standard deviation (STD) and accurate noise power spectrum (NPS) on the reconstructed CT images become important for method evaluation as well as optimization of algorithm parameters. Using a single CT scan, we propose a practical method for pixel-wise calculation of noise statistics on an iteratively reconstructed CT image, which enables accurate calculation of noise STD for each pixel and NPS...
April 26, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444772/multi-atlas-approach-with-local-registration-goodness-weighting-for-mri-based-electron-density-mapping-of-head-and-neck-anatomy
#12
Reza Farjam, Neelam Tyagi, Harini Veeraraghavan, Aditya Apte, Kristen Zakian, Margie A Hunt, Joseph O Deasy
PURPOSE: The growing use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a substitute for computed tomography-based treatment planning requires the development of effective algorithms to generate electron density maps for treatment planning and patient setup verification. The purpose of this work was to develop a method to synthesize computerized tomography (CT) for MR-only radiotherapy of head and neck cancer patients. METHODS: The algorithm is based on registration of multiple patient datasets containing both MRI and CT images (a "multi-atlas" algorithm)...
April 26, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444761/photon-counting-ct-for-simultaneous-imaging-of-multiple-contrast-agents-in-the-abdomen-an-in-vivo-study
#13
Rolf Symons, Bernhard Krauss, Pooyan Sahbaee, Tyler E Cork, Manu N Lakshmanan, David A Bluemke, Amir Pourmorteza
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility of spectral imaging using photon-counting detector (PCD) x-ray computed tomography (CT) for simultaneous material decomposition of 3 contrast agents in vivo in a large animal model. METHODS: This Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee-approved study used a canine model. Bismuth subsalicylate was administered orally 24-72 hours before imaging. PCD CT was performed during intravenous administration of 40-60 ml gadoterate meglumine; 3...
April 26, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444503/comparative-evaluation-of-the-algorithms-for-parametric-mapping-of-the-novel-myocardial-pet-imaging-agent-18-f-fptp
#14
Ji Who Kim, Seongho Seo, Hyeon Sik Kim, Dong-Yeon Kim, Ho-Young Lee, Keon Wook Kang, Dong Soo Lee, Hee-Seung Bom, Jung-Joon Min, Jae Sung Lee
OBJECTIVE: ((18)F-fluoropentyl)triphenylphosphonium salt ((18)F-FPTP) is a new promising myocardial PET imaging tracer. It shows high accumulation in cardiomyocytes and rapid clearance from liver. We performed compartmental analysis of (18)F-FPTP PET images in rat and evaluated two linear analyses: linear least-squares (LLS) and a basis function method (BFM) for generating parametric images. The minimum dynamic scan duration for kinetic analysis was also investigated and computer simulation undertaken...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444369/three-dimensional-intracellular-structure-of-a-whole-rice-mesophyll-cell-observed-with-fib-sem
#15
Takao Oi, Sakiko Enomoto, Tomoyo Nakao, Shigeo Arai, Koji Yamane, Mitsutaka Taniguchi
Background and Aims: Ultrathin sections of rice leaf blades observed two-dimensionally using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) show that the chlorenchyma is composed of lobed mesophyll cells, with intricate cell boundaries, and lined with chloroplasts. The lobed cell shape and chloroplast positioning are believed to enhance the area available for the gas exchange surface for photosynthesis in rice leaves. However, a cell image revealing the three-dimensional (3-D) ultrastructure of rice mesophyll cells has not been visualized...
April 21, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444235/right-hemisphere-structural-adaptation-and-changing-language-skills-years-after-left-hemisphere-stroke
#16
Thomas M H Hope, Alex P Leff, Susan Prejawa, Rachel Bruce, Zula Haigh, Louise Lim, Sue Ramsden, Marion Oberhuber, Philipp Ludersdorfer, Jenny Crinion, Mohamed L Seghier, Cathy J Price
Stroke survivors with acquired language deficits are commonly thought to reach a 'plateau' within a year of stroke onset, after which their residual language skills will remain stable. Nevertheless, there have been reports of patients who appear to recover over years. Here, we analysed longitudinal change in 28 left-hemisphere stroke patients, each more than a year post-stroke when first assessed-testing each patient's spoken object naming skills and acquiring structural brain scans twice. Some of the patients appeared to improve over time while others declined; both directions of change were associated with, and predictable given, structural adaptation in the intact right hemisphere of the brain...
April 24, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444083/interictal-abnormal-fmri-activation-of-visual-areas-during-a-motor-task-cued-by-visual-stimuli-in-migraine
#17
Adriana Bastos Conforto, Khallil Taverna Chaim, Mario Fernando Prieto Peres, André Leite Gonçalves, Inara Laurindo Siqueira, Maria Angela Maramaldo Barreiros, Edson Amaro
Objective: To assess changes in blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity after light deprivation compared to regular light exposure in subjects with migraine in the interictal state and in controls. Methods: Ten subjects with migraine and ten controls participated in two sessions of functional magnetic resonance imaging. In each session, they performed a finger-tapping task with the right hand, cued by visual stimuli. They were scanned before and after 30 minutes of light deprivation or light exposure...
January 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443736/brain-resting-state-functional-connectivity-is-preserved-under-sevoflurane-anesthesia-in-patients-with-pervasive-developmental-disorders-a-pilot-study
#18
Lakshmikumar Venkat Raghavan, Suparna Bharadwaj, Vincent Wourms, Audrey Tan, Michael T Jurkiewicz, David J Mikulis, Adrian P Crawley
Background Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). However, some patients with PDD may not tolerate the imaging procedure while awake and they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with pervasive developmental disorders...
April 26, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443599/a-pott-s-puffy-tumor-associated-with-epidural-cutaneous-fistula-and-epidural-abscess-case-report
#19
Aleksandar Perić, Milanko Milojević, Dražen Ivetić
BACKGROUND: Pott's puffy tumor is characterized by a fluctuate swelling of the frontal region as a result of osteomyelitis of the frontal bone. This inflammatory lesion may propagate endocranially resulting in acute meningitis, epidural abscess, subdural empyema, cavernous sinus trombophlebitis, cerebritis, and frontal lobe abscess of the brain. CASE REPORT: We present an unusual case of a 33-year-old man suffering from the Pott's puffy tumor whose condition was further complicated by a draining epidural-cutaneous fistula and an epidural abscess...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443292/measurements-of-metastatic-renal-cell-tumours-as-determined-by-diffusion-weighted-imaging-or-computed-tomography-are-in-close-agreement-a-pilot-study
#20
J Farnebo, C Suzuki, R Vargas-Paris, P Sandström, L Blomqvist
BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides both functional and anatomical information regarding tumours but can also be used for tumour detection. Today, tumour treatment response in clinical trials is mainly assessed on Computed Tomography (CT) using established criteria. Despite availability of dedicated software, CT still requires significant manual work for selection and measurement in treatment response evaluation of solid tumours. PURPOSE: To compare the maximum diameter of tumour lesions on CT with the corresponding measurements on diffusion weighted images...
2017: European Journal of Radiology Open
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