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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817780/us-internists-awareness-and-use-of-overtreatment-guidelines-a-national-survey
#1
Kira L Ryskina, Eric S Holmboe, Elizabeth Bernabeo, Rachel M Werner, Judy A Shea, Judith A Long
OBJECTIVES: To assess physician views and perceived adoption of overtreatment guidelines and measure whether adoption of these guidelines influenced the recommendation of a targeted service. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey mailed from July 2014 to January 2015 to 902 internists who completed residency between 2003 and 2013, randomly selected from the American Medical Association Masterfile. METHODS: Poisson regression was used to model the rate of recommending a targeted service included in the guidelines, based on the level of guideline adoption...
July 2017: American Journal of Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816891/computed-tomography-use-plateaus-among-children-with-emergency-visits-for-abdominal-pain
#2
Jahan Fahimi, Aaron E Kornblith, Hemal Kanzaria, Andrew Herring, Ralph C Wang
OBJECTIVES: Abdominal pain is a common pediatric complaint to emergency departments (EDs), and clinicians often rely on imaging for diagnosis. Studies have demonstrated an increase in computed tomography (CT) in this population. Following emphasis on radiation reduction by researchers and organizations, this study evaluates recent national trends in CT use among pediatric patients presenting to EDs with abdominal pain. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of ED patients 18 years or younger with chief complaint of abdominal pain in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2008 to 2011...
August 14, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816821/adjacent-segment-disease-after-cervical-spine-fusion-evaluation-of-a-70-patient-long-term-follow-up
#3
Mohamed Alhashash, Mootaz Shousha, Heinrich Boehm
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of 70 patients undergoing surgical treatment for adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). OBJECTIVES: To analyze the risk factors for the development of ASD in patients who underwent ACDF. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ACDF has provided a high rate of clinical success for the cervical degenerative disc disease; nevertheless, adjacent segment degeneration has been reported as a complication at the adjacent level secondary to the rigid fixation...
August 14, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816703/an-electromechanical-patient-positioning-system-for-head-and-neck-radiotherapy
#4
Mark Ostyn, Thomas Dwyer, Matthew Miller, Paden King, Rachel Sacks, Ross Cruikshank, Melvin Rosario, Daniel Martinez, Siyong Kim, Woon-Hong Yeo
In cancer treatment with radiation, accurate patient setup is critical for proper dose delivery. Improper arrangement can lead to disease recurrence, permanent organ damage, or lack of disease control. While current immobilization equipment often helps for patient positioning, manual adjustment is required, involving iterative, time-consuming steps. Here, we present an electromechanical robotic system for improving patient setup in radiotherapy, specifically targeting head and neck cancer. This positioning system offers six degrees of freedom for a variety of applications in radiation oncology...
August 17, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815605/enhanced-edx-images-by-fusion-of-multimodal-sem-images-using-pansharpening-techniques
#5
G Franchi, J Angulo, M Moreaud, L Sorbier
The goal of this paper is to explore the potential interest of image fusion in the context of multimodal scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging. In particular, we aim at merging the backscattered electron images that usually have a high spatial resolution but do not provide enough discriminative information to physically classify the nature of the sample, with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) images that have discriminative information but a lower spatial resolution. The produced images are named enhanced EDX...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815603/registration-of-phase-contrast-images-in-propagation-based-x-ray-phase-tomography
#6
L Weber, A Hänsch, U Wolfram, A Pacureanu, P Cloetens, F Peyrin, S Rit, M Langer
X-ray phase tomography aims at reconstructing the 3D electron density distribution of an object. It offers enhanced sensitivity compared to attenuation-based X-ray absorption tomography. In propagation-based methods, phase contrast is achieved by letting the beam propagate after interaction with the object. The phase shift is then retrieved at each projection angle, and subsequently used in tomographic reconstruction to obtain the refractive index decrement distribution, which is proportional to the electron density...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814749/preparation-of-ch3nh3pbi3-thin-films-with-tens-of-micrometer-scale-at-high-temperature
#7
Hao Zhang, Mian Tao, Baizhi Gao, Wei Chen, Qi Li, Qingyu Xu, Shuai Dong
The fabrication of high-quality organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskite layers is the key prerequisite for the realization of high efficient photon energy harvest and electric energy conversion in their related solar cells. In this article, we report a novel fabrication technique of CH3NH3PbI3 layers based on high temperature chemical vapor reaction. CH3NH3PbI3 layers have been prepared by the reaction of PbI2 films which were deposited by pulsed laser deposition, with CH3NH3I vapor at various temperatures from 160 °C to 210 °C...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814181/full-mouth-intraoral-radiographic-survey-in-rabbits
#8
Adriana Regalado, Loïc Legendre
Dental pathologies are highly prevalent in pet rabbit populations, making oral radiography an essential tool in the evaluation of lagomorph dentitions. The unique anatomy of the rabbit's mouth limits the examination of the conscious animal to the rostral portion of it's mouth. In addition, the oral examination of an aradicular hypsodont tooth is restricted to the short coronal fraction of its crown. Erstwhile images obtained by the extraoral technique were once considered the most practical and informative tool in rabbit dentistry; however, limited visualization of the key structures of individual teeth became the major drawback of this technique...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813050/on-surface-synthesis-of-heptacene-and-its-interaction-with-a-metal-surface
#9
Malte Zugermeier, Manuel Gruber, Martin Schmid, Benedikt P Klein, Lukas Ruppenthal, Philipp Müller, Ralf Einholz, Wolfgang Hieringer, Richard Berndt, Holger F Bettinger, J Michael Gottfried
Heptacene was generated by surface-assisted didecarbonylation of an α-diketone precursor on a Ag(111) surface. Monitoring of the surface reaction and characterization of the adsorbed heptacene was performed with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The surface-assisted formation of heptacene occurs around 460 K. Both the heptacene and the precursor molecules are oriented along the high-symmetry directions of the (111) surface and their molecular π systems face towards the substrate...
August 16, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812878/nanomechanical-imaging-of-the-diffusion-of-fullerene-into-conjugated-polymer
#10
Dong Wang, Ken Nakajima, Feng Liu, Shaowei Shi, Thomas P Russell
The large Young's modulus difference between chemically modified fullerene (PCBM) and a conjugated polymer was used to nanomechanically map the diffusion of PCBM into PTB7, a high efficiency low band gap conjugated polymer. The sharp tip in nanomechanical atomic force microscopy (AFM) ensures a high-resolution nanomechanical characterization of the diffusion front, with the intrinsic benefits of revealing the mechanical properties of the mixtures. Localized structure changes induced by diffusion were investigated by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction methods...
August 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812174/-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-diagnostics-in-axial-spondyloarthritis
#11
T Witte, X Baraliakos
BACKGROUND: Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is a frequent disorder, which is difficult to diagnose in the early phase. Currently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac joints and the spine is frequently applied in this phase, when conventional X rays still provide inconclusive results. OBJECTIVE: To explain the typical pathological results and the role of MRI in diagnosing axSpA. RESULTS: The use of MRI of the sacroiliac joints plays a central role in the assessment of the Spondyloarthritis International Association Society (ASAS) classification criteria of axSpA...
August 15, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812114/-thoracic-and-abdominal-imaging-in-immunocompromised-patients
#12
REVIEW
J R Kroeger, D Maintz, D-H Chang
The number of patients with immunosuppression is rising worldwide. The spectrum of diseases and pathogens in these patients differs widely from that of immunocompetent patients due to frequent opportunistic infections. Symptoms are sometimes unspecific, and imaging plays a key role in the management of these patients. The lungs are a frequent site of infection in immunosuppressed patients. Chest X‑ray is the starting point for radiological diagnostics, but shows only limited sensitivity and specificity for infections with atypical pathogens...
August 15, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811581/the-key-energy-scales-of-gd-based-metallofullerene-determined-by-resonant-inelastic-x-ray-scattering-spectroscopy
#13
Yu-Cheng Shao, L Andrew Wray, Shih-Wen Huang, Yi-Sheng Liu, Wang Song, Shangfeng Yang, Yi-De Chuang, Jinghua Guo, Way-Faung Pong
Endohedral metallofullerenes, formed by encaging Gd inside fullerenes like C80, can exhibit enhanced proton relaxitivities compared with other Gd-chelates, making them the promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the underlying key energy scales of Gd x Sc3-x N@C80 (x  =  1-3) remain unclear. Here, we carry out resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments on Gd x Sc3-x N@C80 at Gd N 4,5-edges to directly study the electronic structure and spin flip excitations of Gd 4f electrons...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811568/dynamic-x-ray-radiography-reveals-particle-size-and-shape-orientation-fields-during-granular-flow
#14
François Guillard, Benjy Marks, Itai Einav
When granular materials flow, the constituent particles segregate by size and align by shape. The impacts of these changes in fabric on the flow itself are not well understood, and thus novel non-invasive means are needed to observe the interior of the material. Here, we propose a new experimental technique using dynamic X-ray radiography to make such measurements possible. The technique is based on Fourier transformation to extract spatiotemporal fields of internal particle size and shape orientation distributions during flow, in addition to complementary measurements of velocity fields through image correlation...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809678/ultrasound-aided-vertebral-level-localization-for-lumbar-surgery
#15
Nora Baka, Sieger Leenstra, Theo van Walsum
Localization of the correct vertebral level for surgical entry during lumbar hernia surgery is not straightforward. In this paper we develop and evaluate a solution using free-hand 2D ultrasound (US) imaging in the operation room (OR). Our system exploits the difference in spinous process shapes of the vertebrae. The spinous processes are pre-operatively outlined and labeled in a lateral lumbar X-ray of the patient. Then, in the OR the spinous processes are imaged with 2D sagittal US, and are automatically segmented and registered with the X-ray shapes...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809633/the-potential-of-the-icuc%C3%A2-documentation-concept-to-improve-trauma-surgery
#16
P Regazzoni, A A Fernandez Dell'oca, S M Perren
Conventional documentation of surgical procedures using only pre- and postoperative X-ray images and possibly a few intra-operative pictures does not allow secondary analysis of the technical performance in detail. In particular, the quality of the handling of tissues and surgical tools cannot be judged «post hoc», i.e. after the end of the surgical procedure. The invasiveness of the surgical act cannot yet be quantified. Surrogate invasiveness indices have therefore been developed. Furthermore, conventional documentation does not allow evaluation of the proper use of the C-arm both technically and with regard to fluoroscopy time...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809034/microct-imaging-on-living-alligator-teeth-reveals-natural-tooth-cycling
#17
Randall B Widelitz, Alaa Abdelhamid, M Khalil Khan, Amr Elkarargy, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Ping Wu
To study tooth cycling in polyphyodont animals, we chose to work on alligators. Alligators have teeth in three phases of development at each tooth location. This assembly of three teeth is called a tooth family unit. As part of the study, in order to study tooth cycling in alligators, we wanted to know the configuration of the tooth family unit in every tooth position. From the surface of the mouth, this is difficult to assess. Therefore, we decided to use MicroCT which can image X-ray dense materials providing a three-dimensional view...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808737/development-of-neutron-imaging-quantitative-data-treatment-to-assess-conservation-products-in-cultural-heritage
#18
Marco Realini, Chiara Colombo, Claudia Conti, Francesco Grazzi, Enrico Perelli Cippo, Jan Hovind
Distribution, penetration depth and amount of new mineralogical phases formed after the interaction between an inorganic treatment and a matrix are key factors for the evaluation of the conservation treatment behaviour. Nowadays, the conventional analytical methodologies, such as vibrational spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, provide only qualitative and spot information. Here, we report, for the first time, the proof of concept of a methodology based on neutron imaging able to achieve quantitative data useful to assess the formation of calcium oxalate in a porous carbonatic stone treated with ammonium oxalate...
August 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808631/painless-swollen-calf-muscles-of-a-75-year-old-patient-caused-by-bilateral-venous-malformations
#19
Roderick S M Piekaar, Eline W Zwitser, Paul P A Hedeman Joosten, Joris A Jansen
A 75-year-old man presented with knee pain due to medial osteoarthritis of the knee in the orthopedic outpatient clinic. Conservative treatment was started with steroid infiltration. Besides his knee complaint reported a bilateral painless swollen calf muscle without traumatic cause, and also without any pain at night, fever or medical illness. On physical examination the soleus muscle had a swollen aspect in both calfs. The skin appeared normal without deformities and the arterial pulsations were intact. An X-ray did not show abnormalities in the tibia...
July 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808433/felix-an-algorithm-for-indexing-multiple-crystallites-in-x-ray-free-electron-laser-snapshot-diffraction-images
#20
Kenneth R Beyerlein, Thomas A White, Oleksandr Yefanov, Cornelius Gati, Ivan G Kazantsev, Nicolai Fog-Gade Nielsen, Peter M Larsen, Henry N Chapman, Søren Schmidt
A novel algorithm for indexing multiple crystals in snapshot X-ray diffraction images, especially suited for serial crystallography data, is presented. The algorithm, FELIX, utilizes a generalized parametrization of the Rodrigues-Frank space, in which all crystal systems can be represented without singularities. The new algorithm is shown to be capable of indexing more than ten crystals per image in simulations of cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic crystal diffraction patterns. It is also used to index an experimental serial crystallography dataset from lysozyme microcrystals...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Crystallography
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