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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092819/silver-nanoparticles-supported-over-mesoporous-alumina-as-an-efficient-nanocatalyst-for-n-alkylation-of-hetero-aromatic-amines-and-aromatic-amines-using-alcohols-as-alkylating-agent
#1
Priyanka Paul, Piyali Bhanja, Noor Salam, Usha Mandi, Asim Bhaumik, Seikh Mafiz Alam, Sk Manirul Islam
We have successfully embedded rhombohedral crystallites of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) over mesoporous alumina (Ag@Al2O3) material for the first time. The Ag@Al2O3 has been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), ultra high resolution transmission electron microscopy (UHR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra (UV-Vis), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The PXRD confirms the presence of the rhombohedral phase of Ag nanoparticles...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092689/three-dimensional-imaging-of-dislocation-dynamics-during-the-hydriding-phase-transformation
#2
A Ulvestad, M J Welland, W Cha, Y Liu, J W Kim, R Harder, E Maxey, J N Clark, M J Highland, H You, P Zapol, S O Hruszkewycz, G B Stephenson
Crystallographic imperfections significantly alter material properties and their response to external stimuli, including solute-induced phase transformations. Despite recent progress in imaging defects using electron and X-ray techniques, in situ three-dimensional imaging of defect dynamics remains challenging. Here, we use Bragg coherent diffractive imaging to image defects during the hydriding phase transformation of palladium nanocrystals. During constant-pressure experiments we observe that the phase transformation begins after dislocation nucleation close to the phase boundary in particles larger than 300 nm...
January 16, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092637/non-invasive-classification-of-breast-microcalcifications-using-x-ray-coherent-scatter-computed-tomography
#3
Bahaa Ghammraoui, Lucretiu M Popescu
We investigate the use of energy dispersive x-ray coherent scatter computed tomography (ED-CSCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic method to differentiate between type I and type II breast calcifications. This approach is sensitive to the differences of composition and internal crystal structure of different types of microcalcifications. The study is carried out by simulating a CSCT system with a scanning pencil beam, considering a polychromatic x-ray source and an energy-resolving photon counting detector. In a first step, the multidimensional angle and energy distributed CSCT data is reduced to the projection-space distributions of only a few components, corresponding to the expected target composition: adipose, glandular tissue, weddellite (calcium oxalate) for type I calcifications, and hydroxyapatite for type II calcifications...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092630/comparative-monte-carlo-study-on-the-performance-of-integration-and-list-mode-detector-configurations-for-carbon-ion-computed-tomography
#4
Sebastian Meyer, Chiara Gianoli, Lorena Magallanes, Benedikt Kopp, Thomas Tessonnier, Guillaume Landry, George Dedes, Bernd Voss, Katia Parodi
Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of a highly conformal tumor-dose distribution; however, this technique is extremely sensitive to inaccuracies in the treatment procedures. Ambiguities in the conversion of Hounsfield units of the treatment planning x-ray CT to relative stopping power (RSP) can cause uncertainties in the estimated ion range of up to several millimeters. Ion CT (iCT) represents a favorable solution allowing to directly assess the RSP. In this simulation study we investigate the performance of the integration-mode configuration for carbon iCT, in comparison with a single-particle approach under the same set-up...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091721/influence-of-tooth-dimension-on-the-initial-mobility-based-on-plaster-casts-and-x-ray-images-a-numerical-study
#5
Martin Hartmann, Cornelius Dirk, Susanne Reimann, Ludger Keilig, Anna Konermann, Andreas Jäger, Christoph Bourauel
AIMS: The goal was to determine the influence of different geometric parameters of the tooth on the initial tooth mobility and the position of the center of resistance employing numerical models based on scaled X-ray images and plaster casts. METHODS: The dimensions of tooth 21 were measured in 21 patients, using radiographs and dental casts. Length and mesiodistal width of the tooth were obtained from the X-ray image and the orovestibular diameter from the plaster cast...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091696/radiation-dose-reduction-in-parasinus-ct-by-spectral-shaping
#6
Matthias S May, Michael Brand, Michael M Lell, Martin Sedlmair, Thomas Allmendinger, Michael Uder, Wolfgang Wuest
INTRODUCTION: Spectral shaping aims to narrow the X-ray spectrum of clinical CT. The aim of this study was to determine the image quality and the extent of radiation dose reduction that can be achieved by tin prefiltration for parasinus CT. METHODS: All scans were performed with a third generation dual-source CT scanner. A study protocol was designed using 100 kV tube voltage with tin prefiltration (200 mAs) that provides image noise levels comparable to a low-dose reference protocol using 100 kV without spectral shaping (25 mAs)...
January 16, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090446/quantitative-imaging-methods-in-osteoporosis
#7
REVIEW
Ling Oei, Fjorda Koromani, Fernando Rivadeneira, M Carola Zillikens, Edwin H G Oei
Osteoporosis is characterized by a decreased bone mass and quality resulting in an increased fracture risk. Quantitative imaging methods are critical in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment effects in osteoporosis. Prior radiographic vertebral fractures and bone mineral density (BMD) as a quantitative parameter derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are among the strongest known predictors of future osteoporotic fractures. Therefore, current clinical decision making relies heavily on accurate assessment of these imaging features...
December 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089510/a-novel-computer-based-method-for-measuring-the-acetabular-angle-on-hip-radiographs
#8
Seda Sahin, Emin Akata, Orcun Sahin, Cengiz Tuncay, Hüseyin Özkan
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to propose a new computer based method for measuring acetabular angles on hip radiographs and to assess its practicality, sensitivity and reliability for acetabular angle measurement. METHODS: A total of 314 acetabulum were assessed on 157 pelvic X-ray images. Acetabular angles were measured with both the conventional method (Method 1) and our proposed method (Method 2). All the Acetabular Index (AI) angle, Acetabular Angle (AA) and Acetabular Center (ACM) angle were measured with both methods...
January 12, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088837/disease-severity-classification-using-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-data-of-cartilage-in-femoroacetabular-impingement
#9
Lisa L Henn, John Hughes, Eleena Iisakka, Jutta Ellermann, Shabnam Mortazavi, Connor Ziegler, Mikko J Nissi, Patrick Morgan
Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is a condition in which subtle deformities of the femoral head and acetabulum (hip socket) result in pathological abutment during hip motion. FAI is a common cause of hip pain and can lead to acetabular cartilage damage and osteoarthritis. For some patients with FAI, surgical intervention is indicated, and it can improve quality of life and potentially delay the onset of osteoarthritis. For other patients, however, surgery is contraindicated because significant cartilage damage has already occurred...
January 15, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088458/non-thermal-atmospheric-pressure-plasma-functionalized-dental-implant-for-enhancement-of-bacterial-resistance-and-osseointegration
#10
Jung-Hwan Lee, Won-Seok Jeong, Seog-Jin Seo, Hae-Won Kim, Kyoung-Nam Kim, Eun-Ha Choi, Kwang-Mahn Kim
OBJECTIVE: Even though roughened titanium (Ti) and Ti alloys have been clinically used as dental implant, they encourage bacterial adhesion, leading to failure of the initial stability. Here, the non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (NTAPPJ) functionalized Ti and Ti alloy were investigated to promote cellular activities but inhibit the initial attachment of the adherent pioneer bacterium, Streptococcus sanguinis, without topographical changes. METHODS: After the produced radicals from NTAPPJ were characterized, bacterial adhesion to specimens was assessed by PrestoBlue assay and live-dead staining with or without the NTAPPJ functionalizing...
January 11, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088097/ionic-liquid-pretreatment-of-cassava-residues-for-the-cogeneration-of-fermentative-hydrogen-and-methane
#11
Jun Cheng, Jiabei Zhang, Richen Lin, Jianzhong Liu, Li Zhang, Kefa Cen
An ionic liquid of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was used to effectively pretreat cassava residues for the efficient enzymatical hydrolysis and cogeneration of fermentative hydrogen and methane. The reducing sugar yield of enzymolysed cassava residues with NMMO pretreatment improved from 36 to 42g/100g cassava residues. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the formation of deep grooves (∼4μm wide) and numerous pores in the cassava residues pretreated with NMMO. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the crystallinity coefficient of NMMO-pretreated cassava residues decreased from 40 to 34...
January 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086973/gaussian-diffusion-sinogram-inpainting-for-x-ray-ct-metal-artifact-reduction
#12
Chengtao Peng, Bensheng Qiu, Ming Li, Yihui Guan, Cheng Zhang, Zhongyi Wu, Jian Zheng
BACKGROUND: Metal objects implanted in the bodies of patients usually generate severe streaking artifacts in reconstructed images of X-ray computed tomography, which degrade the image quality and affect the diagnosis of disease. Therefore, it is essential to reduce these artifacts to meet the clinical demands. METHODS: In this work, we propose a Gaussian diffusion sinogram inpainting metal artifact reduction algorithm based on prior images to reduce these artifacts for fan-beam computed tomography reconstruction...
January 5, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080032/heteroprotein-complex-formation-of-bovine-lactoferrin-and-pea-protein-isolate-a-multiscale-structural-analysis
#13
Eda Adal, Amin Sadeghpour, Simon D A Connell, Michael Rappolt, Esra Ibanoglu, Anwesha Sarkar
Associative electrostatic interactions between two oppositely charged globular proteins, lactoferrin (LF) and pea protein isolate (PPI), the latter being a mixture of vicilin, legumin and convicilin, was studied with a specific PPI/ LF molar ratio at room temperature. Structural aspects of the electrostatic complexes probed at different length scales were investigated as a function of pH by means of different complementary techniques, namely with dynamic light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), turbidity measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM)...
January 12, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079854/time-course-of-serum-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-and-chemokines-levels-observed-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-a-case-report
#14
Yutaka Kozu, Yusuhiro Gon, Yuki Takano, Takao Noguchi, Shinichi Hayashi, Fumio Kumasawa, Kenji Mizumura, Shuichiro Maruoka, Shu Hashimoto
A 77-year-old man visited our hospital with chief complaints of difficulty in hearing, nasal discharge and fever. The patients was diagnosed with otitis media, and his fever continued at approximately 38°C despite the administration of clarithromycin. After that, dyspnea on exertion developed and chest X-ray examination indicated multiple infiltrative shadows. PR3-ANCA levels were high (238-fold of the normal levels), and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, laboratory results, and pathological findings...
December 23, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079701/ex-vivo-assessment-of-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-by-grating-based-phase-contrast-computed-tomography-correlation-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#15
Christopher Habbel, Holger Hetterich, Marian Willner, Julia Herzen, Kristin Steigerwald, Sigrid Auweter, Ulrich Schüller, Jörg Hausleiter, Steffen Massberg, Maximilian Reiser, Franz Pfeiffer, Tobias Saam, Fabian Bamberg
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gb-PCCT) to classify and quantify coronary vessel characteristics in comparison with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology in an ex vivo setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After excision from 5 heart specimens, 15 human coronary arteries underwent gb-PCCT examination using an experimental imaging setup consisting of a rotating molybdenum anode x-ray tube, a Talbot-Lau grating interferometer, and a single photon counting detector...
January 10, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079527/binary-moving-blocker-based-scatter-correction-in-cone-beam-computed-tomography-with-width-truncated-projections-proof-of-concept
#16
Ho Lee, Benjamin Fahimian, Lei Xing
This paper proposes a binary moving-blocker (BMB)-based technique for scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). In concept, a beam blocker consisting of lead strips, mounted in front of the x-ray tube, moves rapidly in and out of the beam during a single gantry rotation. The projections are acquired in alternating phases of blocked and unblocked cone beams, where the blocked phase results in a stripe pattern in the width direction. To derive the scatter map from the blocked projections, one-dimensional B-Spline interpolation/extrapolation is applied by using the detected information in the shaded regions...
January 12, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078384/echocardiographic-versus-angiographic-assessment-of-patent-arterial-duct-in-percutaneous-closure-towards-x-ray-free-duct-occlusion
#17
Inês Carmo Mendes, Hannah Heard, Kelly Peacock, Thomas Krasemann, Gareth J Morgan
Device selection and procedural guidance for percutaneous ductal closure strongly rely upon angiographic and echocardiographic imaging. Current literature recognises 2D echocardiography as an essential tool for diagnosis and assessment but does not define a consistent methodology to optimise ductal measurement. There is little research comparing echocardiography with gold standard angiography for ductal measurement. Proving 2D echocardiographic ductal measurement to be equivalent to angiography could pave the way for its use as the primary modality in image guidance for percutaneous closure of the ductus...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078364/-ligament-injuries-of-fingers-and-thumbs
#18
R Schmitt
Degenerative and traumatic ligament lesions of the carpometacarpal joints frequently occur at the thumb ray, whereas the carpometacarpal amphiarthrosis of other finger rays are rarely affected. The metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints of the thumb and fingers are stabilized by bilaterally running collateral ligaments and palmar plates. At the base of the metacarpophalangeal joints, several ligaments of the extensor hoods guide the extensor tendons and coordinate the fine motoric skills of phalangeal flexing and extending...
January 11, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075335/towards-standardization-of-x-ray-beam-filters-in-digital-mammography-and-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-monte-carlo-simulations-and-analytical-modelling
#19
Suman Shrestha, Srinivasan Vedantham, Andrew Karellas
In digital breast tomosynthesis and digital mammography, the x-ray beam filter material and thickness vary between systems. Replacing K-edge filters with Al was investigated with the intent to reduce exposure duration and to simplify system design. Tungsten target x-ray spectra were simulated with K-edge filters (50��m Rh; 50��m Ag) and Al filters of varying thickness. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to quantify the x-ray scatter from various filters alone, scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) with compressed breasts, and to determine the radiation dose to the breast...
January 11, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074793/assessment-of-limited-chest-x-ray-technique-in-postcardiac-surgery-management
#20
Mehrdad Salehi, Kianoush Saberi, Mehrzad Rahmanian, Ali Reza Bakhshandeh, Shahnaz Sharifi
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate the safety of elimination of chest radiography in the postcardiac surgery Intensive Care Unit (ICU). METHODS AND DESIGN: We compared patients in two different groups of routine CXR (RCXR) and limited CXR (LCXR) and their diagnostic and therapeutic outcome in a University hospital-based single center from 2014 to 2016. 3 CXR in the RCXR group and 1 CXR in the limited group was performed, in addition to on-demand criteria...
January 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
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