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X-ray imaging

Ang Li, Xiang Li, Xujiang Yu, Wei Li, Ruyi Zhao, Xiao An, Daxiang Cui, Xiaoyuan Chen, Wanwan Li
In this work, we report a successful synthesis of copper bismuth sulfide nanorods (NRs) with broad and strong photoabsorption ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths, which can be used as a 1064 nm-laser-driven photothermal agent with the photothermal conversion efficiency of 40.7%, noticeably higher than most of the reported PTT agents working in NIR-II window. The as-prepared PEGylated Cu3BiS3 NRs were used as photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and CT imaging agents due to their strong NIR absorption and large X-ray attenuation coefficient of bismuth...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials
Kevin Kalisz, Ji Buethe, Sachin S Saboo, Suhny Abbara, Sandra Halliburton, Prabhakar Rajiah
Computed tomography is vulnerable to a wide variety of artifacts, including patient- and technique-specific artifacts, some of which are unique to imaging of the heart. Motion is the most common source of artifacts and can be caused by patient, cardiac, or respiratory motion. Cardiac motion artifacts can be reduced by decreasing the heart rate and variability and the duration of data acquisition; adjusting the placement of the data window within a cardiac cycle; performing single-heartbeat scanning; and using multisegment reconstruction, motion-correction algorithms, and electrocardiographic editing...
October 21, 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Daniela Rupp, Leonie Flückiger, Marcus Adolph, Tais Gorkhover, Maria Krikunova, Jan Philippe Müller, Maria Müller, Tim Oelze, Yevheniy Ovcharenko, Benjamin Röben, Mario Sauppe, Sebastian Schorb, David Wolter, Rolf Mitzner, Michael Wöstmann, Sebastian Roling, Marion Harmand, Rolf Treusch, Mathias Arbeiter, Thomas Fennel, Christoph Bostedt, Thomas Möller
We studied the nanoplasma formation and explosion dynamics of single large xenon clusters in ultrashort, intense x-ray free-electron laser pulses via ion spectroscopy. The simultaneous measurement of single-shot diffraction images enabled a single-cluster analysis that is free from any averaging over the cluster size and laser intensity distributions. The measured charge state-resolved ion energy spectra show narrow distributions with peak positions that scale linearly with final ion charge state. These two distinct signatures are attributed to highly efficient recombination that eventually leads to the dominant formation of neutral atoms in the cluster...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
J M Glownia, A Natan, J P Cryan, R Hartsock, M Kozina, M P Minitti, S Nelson, J Robinson, T Sato, T van Driel, G Welch, C Weninger, D Zhu, P H Bucksbaum
Time-resolved femtosecond x-ray diffraction patterns from laser-excited molecular iodine are used to create a movie of intramolecular motion with a temporal and spatial resolution of 30 fs and 0.3 Å. This high fidelity is due to interference between the nonstationary excitation and the stationary initial charge distribution. The initial state is used as the local oscillator for heterodyne amplification of the excited charge distribution to retrieve real-space movies of atomic motion on ångstrom and femtosecond scales...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Shuai Gao, Man Pan, Yong Zheng, Yichao Huang, Qingyun Zheng, Demeng Sun, Lining Lu, Xiaodan Tan, Xianglong Tan, Huan Lan, Jiaxing Wang, Tian Wang, Jiawei Wang, Lei Liu
Racemic or quasi-racemic crystallography recently emerges as a useful technology for solution of the crystal structures of biomacromolecules. It remains unclear to what extent the biomacromolecules of opposite handedness can differ from each other in racemic or quasi-racemic crystallography. Here we report a finding that monomeric d-ubiquitin (Ub) has propensity to cocrystallize with different dimers, trimers, and even a tetramer of l-Ub. In these cocrystals the unconnected monomeric d-Ubs can self-assemble to form pseudomirror images of different oligomers of l-Ub...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shashidhara Marathe, Xianbo Shi, Michael J Wojcik, Albert T Macrander, Lahsen Assoufid
A procedure for a technique to measure the transverse coherence of synchrotron radiation X-ray sources using a single phase grating interferometer is reported. The measurements were demonstrated at the 1-BM bending magnet beamline of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). By using a 2-D checkerboard π/2 phase-shift grating, transverse coherence lengths were obtained along the vertical and horizontal directions as well as along the 45° and 135° directions to the horizontal direction...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ke Yuan, Sang Soo Lee, Vincent De Andrade, Neil C Sturchio, Paul Fenter
The mobility of toxic elements, such as lead (Pb) can be attenuated by adsorption, incorporation, and precipitation on carbonate minerals in subsurface environments. Here, we report a study of the bulk transformation of single-crystal calcite (CaCO3) into polycrystalline cerussite (PbCO3) through reaction with acidic Pb-bearing solutions. This reaction began with the growth of a cerussite shell on top of calcite surfaces followed by the replacement of the remaining calcite core. The external shape of the original calcite was preserved by a balance between calcite dissolution and cerussite growth controlled by adjusting the Pb(2)(+) concentration and pH...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ivan Pelivanov, Łukasz Ambroziński, Anton Khomenko, Ermias G Koricho, Gary L Cloud, Mahmoodul Haq, Matthew O'Donnell
Damage induced in polymer composites by various impacts must be evaluated to predict a component's post-impact strength and residual lifetime, especially when impacts occur in structures related to human safety (in aircraft, for example). X-ray tomography is the conventional standard to study an internal structure with high resolution. However, it is of little use when the impacted area cannot be extracted from a structure. In addition, X-ray tomography is expensive and time-consuming. Recently, we have demonstrated that a kHz-rate laser-ultrasound (LU) scanner is very efficient both for locating large defects and evaluating the material structure...
June 2016: Photoacoustics
Justin M Gorham, William A Osborn, Jeremiah W Woodcock, Keana C K Scott, John M Heddleston, Angela R Hight Walker, Jeffrey W Gilman
To better assess risks associated with nano-enabled products including multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) within polymer matrices, it is important to understand how MWCNT are dispersed throughout the composite. The current study presents a method which employs imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to chemically detect spatially segregated MWCNT rich regions at an epoxy composites surface by exploiting differential charging. MWCNT do not charge due to high conductivity and have previously been shown to energetically separate from their insulating surroundings when characterized by XPS...
January 2016: Carbon
Deven A Karvelas, Sean D Rundell, Janna L Friedly, Alfred C Gellhorn, Laura S Gold, Bryan A Comstock, Patrick J Heagerty, Brian W Bresnahan, David R Nerenz, Jeffrey G Jarvik
BACKGROUND: The association between early physical therapy (PT) and subsequent healthcare utilization following a new visit for low back pain is not clear, particularly in the setting of acute low back pain. PURPOSE: To estimate the association between initiating early physical therapy following a new visit for an episode of low back pain and subsequent back-pain-specific health care utilization in older adults. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective cohort study...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
S L Huang, B Zhang, L S Chen, L Liang, X N Luo, Z M Lu, S Y Zhang
Objective: To report rare cases of congenital neck cutaneous sinus with an orifice near the sternoclavicular joint and to investigate their origins and managements. Methods: A total of ten patients with congenital neck cutaneous sinus having an orifice near the sternoclavicular joint treated in the Guangdong General Hospital from January 2010 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There four boys and six girls, aging from 11 months to 96 months with an average of 33.4 months, and they had a common feature showing a congenital cutaneous sinus with an orifice near sternoclavicular joint...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Sook-Yee Chong, Oliver Röhrle
A satisfactorily fitted socket interacts dynamically with the stump in order to support body weight, transmit load effectively, enhance dynamic stability, and enable the control and stabilization of the residual limb. The internal dynamics occurring within a socket is important in determining optimal fit. Many measurement and imaging techniques, such as X-rays, have been utilized to investigate the movement of the residual femur within the stump during gait. However, due to associated health risks and costs, none of the current techniques have been extended to clinical prosthetics...
2016: PloS One
Parthasarathi Dastidar, Koushik Sarkar
A mixed ligand approach was exploited to synthesize a new series of MnII based coordination polymers (CPs), namely, CP1 {[Mn(-dpa)(-4,4-bp)]MeOH}α, CP2 {[Mn3(-dpa)3(2,2-bp)2]}α, CP3 {[Mn3(-dpa)3(1,10-phen)2]2H2O}α, CP4 {[Mn(-dpa)(-4,4-bpe)1.5]H2O}α, CP5 {[Mn2(-dpa)2(-4,4-bpe)2]½DEF}α and CP6 {[Mn(-dpa)(-4,4-bpe)1.5]½DMA}α, [dpa = 3,5-dicarboxy phenyl azide, 2,2-bp = 2,2-bipyridine, 1,10-phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4-bpe = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, 4,4-bp = 4,4-bipyridine, DEF = N,N-diethylformamide, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide] to develop multifuntional CPs...
October 20, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Chad S Cox, Summer J Decker, Mark Rolfe, Todd R Hazelton, Carlos A Rojas
Lobar torsion is well documented after pneumonectomy, but is very rare after lung transplant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the twelfth reported case of lobar torsion after lung transplant. In our case, bronchoscopies and chest radiographs were inconclusive; however, CT scan clearly demonstrated findings consistent with right middle lobe torsion. We review the literature and discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment considerations for this condition. We also propose that if a clinical picture could be secondary to torsion and bronchoscopies and chest x ray are inconclusive that a CT scan should be obtained as soon as possible since early recognition increases the likelihood of being able to successfully detorse the lung and avoid lobectomy...
May 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
Satoshi Yanagita, Masato Imahana, Kazuaki Suwa, Hitomi Sugimura, Masayuki Nishiki
Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) standard digital image database contains many useful cases of chest X-ray images, and has been used in many state-of-the-art researches. However, the pixel values of all the images are simply digitized as relative density values by utilizing a scanned film digitizer. As a result, the pixel values are completely different from the standardized display system input value of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), called presentation value (P-value), which can maintain a visual consistency when observing images using different display luminance...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Sebastien F Barre, David Haberthür, Tiziana P Cremona, Marco Stampanoni, Johannes C Schittny
The pulmonary airways are subdivided into conducting and gas-exchanging airways. The small tree of gas-exchanging airways which is fed by the most distal conducting airway represents an acinus. Very little is known about the development of the number of acini. The goal of this study was to estimate their number throughout rat postnatal development. Right middle rat lung lobes were obtained at postnatal day 4-60, stained with heavy metals, paraffin embedded, and scanned by synchrotron radiation based X-ray tomographic microscopy or imaged using micro computed tomography after critical point drying...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
K K Bredahl, M Taudorf, L Lönn, K C Vogt, H Sillesen, J P Eiberg
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Surveillance after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is mandatory and computed tomography angiography (CTA) is considered the standard imaging modality, although patients are exposed to ionizing radiation and nephrotoxic contrast medium. The primary aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of duplex ultrasound (DUS) and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) using CTA as the gold standard. The secondary aim was to determine the clinical consequences of endoleaks missed by DUS and CEUS, or CTA...
October 16, 2016: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Catherine Mazzola, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Alexandra Beier, Susan Durham, Paul Klimo, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Dimitrios Nikas, Mandeep S Tamber, Rachana Tyagi, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines exist for the imaging of patients with positional plagiocephaly. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review and evidence-based guideline is to answer the question, Is imaging necessary for infants with positional plagiocephaly to make a diagnosis? METHODS: The National Library of Medicine Medline database and the Cochrane Library were queried with the use of MeSH headings and key words relevant to imaging as a means to diagnose plagiocephaly...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
G Kerckhofs, M Durand, R Vangoitsenhoven, C Marin, B Van der Schueren, G Carmeliet, F P Luyten, L Geris, K Vandamme
High resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (HR-microCT) was employed to characterize the structural alterations of the cortical and trabecular bone in a mouse model of obesity-driven type 2 diabetes (T2DM). C57Bl/6J mice were randomly assigned for 14 weeks to either a control diet-fed (CTRL) or a high fat diet (HFD)-fed group developing obesity, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The HFD group showed an increased trabecular thickness and a decreased trabecular number compared to CTRL animals. Midshaft tibia intracortical porosity was assessed at two spatial image resolutions...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zied Moatemri, Ghassen Soussi, Salsabil Dabboussi, Samira Mhamdi, Chiraz Aichaouia, Mohsen Khadraoui, Rezaik Cheikh
We report a case of thoracic sarcoidosis in a 72-year-old female, snuff taker, who presented with multinodular pulmonary lesions on chest x-ray. Clinical and biological findings were poor. Thoracic imaging showed soft tissue density nodules with irregular borders. The diagnosis of 'cannon ball' metastases was suspected. A thorough investigation strategy could not prove malignancy. A complete radiologic clearing was obtained spontaneously within three months. A rereading of pathology slides performed afterwards showed multinucleated giant cells on hemorrhagic background with a lymphocytic alveolitis...
October 7, 2016: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
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